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Sample records for beach ridge system

  1. Beach Ridge and Lagoon Systems as Indicator of Sea-Level Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse

    This thesis investigates the possibilities of reconstructing Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) developments from coastal lagoon systems and beach ridges in a periglacial soft-sediment setting. The focus of this study lies on the sedimentological analysis, morphological description, and absolute...... relevance as sedimentary archives. We here investigate the potential of combining these genetically independent, though complementary sedimentary environments to reconstruct a composite RSL dataset covering the entire transgressive-regressive sea-level history of the area. The present geomorphology, surface...... to between 4.8 kyr BP and present. The elevations of downlapping reflec-tions in the prograded beach-ridge system are used as a continuous record of RSL develop-ment since the mid-Holocene. Our data indicates a relatively stable RSL at approximately 2.2 m above mean sea-level (MSL) between 4.8 – 3.5 kyr BP...

  2. Beach ridges and prograded beach deposits as palaeoenvironment records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toru

    2012-09-01

    resolution and continuity inherent to beach ridge and beach deposits. The plan-view geomorphic expression of beach ridges typically consists of ridge sets with multi-decadal intervals, whereas their internal sedimentary structures define shorter time scales. Records of beach sedimentation and erosion are likely to be reworked by episodic high-magnitude beach retreat, and the resultant record of the net progradation is likely to be sporadic and discontinuous. The height of sandy beach ridges is often variable due to differing degrees of aeolian sand accumulation, and they are thus not used as sea-level indicators unless purely wave-built. Gravel ridge height is a relatively reliable indicator of sea level, but can vary in response to storminess fluctuations. Subsurface sediment facies boundaries are preferred as sea-level indicators, and those proposed include: boundaries of aeolian/beach, foreshore/shoreface, and upper/lower shorefaces. Catastrophic events are expressed in both erosional and depositional records. Erosion surfaces, or scarp imprints, revealed in a cross section of beach deposits, indicate storm or tsunami events. However, erosional events are likely to rework previous records of sedimentation and even other erosional events, and thus the apparent history decoded from the resultant deposits tends to be biased. Several attempts for estimating the frequency and intensity of prehistoric cyclones rely on assumed relationships between the level of coarse sand beach ridges and cyclone inundation. The formative process of coarse sand ridges remains uncertain and needs to be clarified, as it constitutes the fundamental basis of these attempts. The growth rates of beach-ridge systems are expected to reflect fluctuations in river sediment discharge to the coast and in aeolian sand flux due to onshore winds, both of which are affected by climate change. Assessment of the growth rate is potentially improved by ground-penetrating radar survey of subsurface structure and by

  3. The beach ridges of India: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    An attempt has been made to assemble and synthesize research work conducted on beach ridges and associated geomorphic features around India. Information on location, morphology, origin, and age of beach ridges, has been gathered from the literature...

  4. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariél; Alberdi, Ernesto;

    2014-01-01

    research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time......,96 m (SD: 0,48m) between the SRTM and the GPS-RTK-based elevations was determined for mostof the beach ridge transect (79% of length). Larger errors (maximum average error: 2,78 m, SD: 1,88 m) can be explained by eolian deposition and dune migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM...... to the correction of the original dataset for a fixed value of 0 m along the coastlines of the world (SRTM Water Body Data). Our findings indicate that, at certain scales, a spatial integration of linear GPS data can be attempted using the SRTM dataset. However, the process must be aided by adequate surface...

  5. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariel; Alberdi, Ernesto; Pejrup, Morten

    2014-05-01

    Beach ridge plains are a common feature of prograding coastlines and they have in the past been widely used as geomorphological archives for the reconstruction of past coastal dynamics, event chronologies or late quaternary sea-level change. The most critical parameters for sea-level related research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time-consuming and essentially of limited spatial coverage. The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) dataset is a freely-available digital surface model covering landmasses between approximately 60° N and 56° S at a 90 m (3 arc seconds) resolution. The model elevations are indicated without decimals (integer) and are projected for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM data acquisition and our GPS measurement. This interpretation is supported by a multi-decadal sequence of Landsat false-color composites. Vegetation cover and rounding errors are further possible factors in explaining vertical deviation. The consistency of data quality was confirmed by a comparison study using a LiDAR (Light detection and ranging)-based digital elevation model (vertical accuracy: data in near-coastal environments is probably owed to the correction of the original dataset for a fixed value of 0 m along the coastlines of the world (SRTM Water Body Data). Our findings indicate that, at certain scales, a spatial integration of linear GPS data can be attempted using the SRTM dataset. However, the process must be aided by adequate surface information (e.g. Landsat images from close to

  6. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariél; Alberdi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    -consuming and essentially of limited spatial coverage. The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) dataset is a freely-available digital surface model covering landmasses between approximately 60 N and 56 S at a 90 m (3 arc seconds) resolution. The model elevations are indicated without decimals (integer) and are projected...... study using a LiDAR (Light detection and ranging)-based digital elevation model (vertical accuracy: elevations on an extensive beach ridge plain on the island of Anholt, Denmark. The relatively high accuracy of the SRTM data in near-coastal environments is probably owed...... for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: elevation model along a cross-ridge transect. An average vertical deviation of 0...

  7. Quartz OSL dating of late Holocene beach ridges from the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remillard, A.M.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has been applied to sandy beach ridge systems from the Magdalen Islands in the center of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Quebec, Canada) to provide the first chronological framework for these features. Nineteen beach ridges (22 samples) from four di...

  8. Beach ridges U-Th dating in Tongoy bay and tectonic implications for a peninsula-bay system, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillard, M.; Riotte, J.; Regard, V.; Violette, A.; Hérail, G.; Audin, L.; Riquelme, R.

    2012-12-01

    Along the Chilean coast, peninsulas associated with bays seem to behave as a complex system. They act as barrier to propagation of megathrust earthquakes along strike. To better understand how such a system works from ocean side to more inland, we investigated the area between the Tongoy bay and the Altos de Talinay in northern Chile (˜30°S). It represents a forearc peninsula-bay system in which a normal fault (Puerto Aldea fault) has been described as accommodating a relative vertical motion between the two parts, the peninsula being uplifted with respect to the bay. We dated shells from beach ridges by U-Th disequilibria in order to compare the bay area to the peninsula area for which 10Be dating of wave-cut platforms are available (Saillard et al., 2009). These indicate: (1) the Puerto Aldea fault activity probably ceased since at least ˜230 ka, implying the bay and peninsula parts are evolving together since then; (2) the uplift rate is variable and has decreased from ˜0.8 m/ka to ˜0.2 m/ka between ˜300 and 100 ka.

  9. New beach ridge type: severely limited fetch, very shallow water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, W.F.; Demirpolat, S.

    1988-09-01

    The southern end of Laguna Madre (Texas) north of the Rio Grande mouth is marked by very shallow water, wide tidal flats, lunettes, islands made of beach ridges, and lesser features. The number and variety of islands in the lagoon is remarkable. The lunettes (clay dunes) are made primarily of quartz sand and coarse silt. They are common 5-10 m high, irregular in shape, and steep sided. They were deposited from wind transport and did not migrate. Those that are islands in the lagoon predate present position of sea level. Islands made of beach ridges were built from the lagoon side. Photoanalysis, field work, and granulometry all show that this sand was not moved into these ridges by Gulf of Mexico waves. Trenches in 12 beach ridges showed horizontal bedding but neither low-angle nor steep cross-bedding (quite unlike swash-built beach ridges). The ridges were built by wind-tide lag effects, not from the swash. Therefore, these beach ridges are a new type, in addition to swash-built, eolian, and storm-surge ridges. Growth of the ridges appears to be completed.

  10. Ridge-Runnel and Swash Dynamics Field Experiment on a Steep Meso-Tidal Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlus, J.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; Puleo, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ridge-runnel (RR) systems are morphological features that may form in the intermittently wet and dry zone of the beach immediately after storm events. Their onshore migration provides a natural way of recovery for an eroded beach but the detailed swash interactions and complex feedback mechanisms between wave dynamics, sediment transport and profile evolution are not well understood and challenging to measure in-situ. During a storm, elevated water levels and large waves can significantly erode the beach profile in a matter of hours through offshore-directed sediment transport. The beach recovery process, on the other hand, occurs over a much longer time period during less intense wave conditions. In the beginning of this 3-week field campaign at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, a Nor'easter, eroded significant portions of this steep, meso-tidal beach and formed a pronounced RR system which then evolved during the less energetic conditions after the storm. An extensive cross-shore array of sensors was installed immediately after the storm measuring near-bed velocity profiles (5 Nortek Vectrino Profilers) and horizontal velocities (6 Sontec Electromagnetic Current Meters; 1 side-looking Nortek Vectrino) suspended sediment concentrations (10 Optical Backscatter Sensors OBS-3+), and pressure fluctuations (7 GE Druck pressure transducers) in the swash zone. Dense topography surveys of the RR system were conducted twice a day during low tide conditions with a Leica RTK GPS rover system. In addition, sediment grab samples along the entire RR cross-section were collected daily. An offshore ADCP with surface wave tracking capability (Nortek 2MHz AWAC AST) measured directional wave spectra and current profiles at a water depth of approximately 6m. The RR system showed rapid onshore migration over the two tide cycles immediately after the storm, followed by a period of vertical ridge accretion of up to 3 ft at certain locations. A first look at the collected data and analysis

  11. Abandoned Beach Ridges in the Mejillones Peninsula, Northern Chile: Implications for Paleoseismology of Great Subduction Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, I. A.; Gonzalez, G.; Antinao, J. L.; McDonald, E.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Shrivastava, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula, in northern Chile, shows a well-preserved set of beach ridges parallel to the present coast. These beach ridges can be observed up to 20 km inland and at 200 m above sea level. Previous dating performed in fossils extracted from the oldest beach ridges yielded ages of 400 ka (Victor et al., 2011). However, numerical ages for younger beach ridges have not been determined, therefore a complete time record is not available. InSar data show that the Mejillones Peninsula was uplifted several centimeters during the last two subduction earthquakes (Antofagasta Mw 8.1, 1995 earthquake and the Mw 7.7, 2007 Tocopilla earthquake) occurred in the area (Loveless et al., 2010). A permanent GPS station deployed by CALTECH (http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~jeff/andes/) in this peninsula has measured a coseismic uplift during the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake. This data suggest that the beach ridges were abandoned as a consequence of coseismic uplift during great subduction earthquakes and therefore they represent the long-term record of past earthquakes. In order to prove this hypothesis we excavated five trenches across the beach ridges. Our idea is to look for stratigraphic evidence of the abandonment mechanism and to collect samples for dating the beach ridges using the method of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The ages will be used to estimate long-term uplift rate and temporal variation of this rate. By confronting short-term uplift rate provided by GPS data with long-term rate we hope to know what it is the amount of the coseismic slip that remain in the geological record.

  12. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, James, E-mail: j.goff@unsw.edu.au [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Knight, Jasper, E-mail: jasper.knight@wits.ac.za [School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sugawara, Daisuke, E-mail: sugawara@irides.tohoku.ac.jp [Hazard and Risk Evaluation Research Division, International Research, Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Aoba 468-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Terry, James P., E-mail: james.terry@zu.ac.ae [College of Sustainability Sciences and Humanities, Zayed University, PO Box 19282, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-02-15

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the M{sub w} 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20–100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~ 1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~ 3 m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. - Highlights: • The Tōhoku-oki earthquake led to seismogenic landslides inland. • Seismogenic sediments are reworked through river systems to the coast. • River dams are capturing these sediments, reducing sediment supply to the coast. • Reduced coastal sediment supply is increasing tsunami risk. • Engineering of river systems is making coastal

  13. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Schultz, A.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Predominantly clastic, off-lapping, transgressive, near-shore marine sediment packages that are morphologically expressed as subparallel NE-trending barriers, beach ridges, and associated back-barrier areas, characterize the near-surface stratigraphic section between the Savannah and the Ogeechee Rivers in Effingham County, southeastern Georgia. Each barrier/back-barrier (shoreline) complex is lower than and cut into a higher/older complex. Each barrier or shoreline complex overlies Miocene strata. No direct age data are available for these deposits. Previous researchers have disagreed on their age and provenance. Using luminescence and meteoric beryllium-10 (10Be) inventory analyses, we estimated a minimum age for the largest, westernmost, morphologically identifiable, and topographically-highest, barrier/beach-ridge (the Wicomico shoreline barrier) and constrained the age of a suite of younger barrier/beach-ridges that lie adjacent and seaward of the Wicomico shoreline barrier. At the study site, the near-shore marine/estuarine deposits underlying the Wicomico shoreline barrier are overlain by eolian sand and an intervening zone-of-mixing. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data indicate ages of ≤43 ka for the eolian sand and 116 ka for the zone-of-mixing. Meteoric 10Be and pedostratigraphic data indicate minimum residence times of 33.4 ka for the eolian sand, 80.6 ka for the zone-of-mixing, and 247 ka for the paleosol. The combined OSL and 10Be age data indicate that, at this locality, the barrier/beach ridge has a minimum age of about 360 ka. This age for the Wicomico shoreline-barrier deposit is the first for any Pleistocene near-shore marine/estuarine deposit in southeast Georgia that is conclusively older than 80 ka. The 360-ka minimum age is in agreement with other geochronologic data for near-coastline deposits in Georgia and South Carolina. The geomorphic position of this barrier/beach-ridge is similar to deposits in South Carolina considered to be

  14. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H. W.; Pavich, M. J.; Schultz, A. P.; Mahan, S. A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Predominantly clastic, off-lapping, transgressive, near-shore marine sediment packages that are morphologically expressed as subparallel NE-trending barriers, beach ridges, and associated back-barrier areas, characterize the near-surface stratigraphic section between the Savannah and the Ogeechee Rivers in Effingham County, southeastern Georgia. Each barrier/back-barrier (shoreline) complex is lower than and cut into a higher/older complex. Each barrier or shoreline complex overlies Miocene strata. No direct age data are available for these deposits. Previous researchers have disagreed on their age and provenance. Using luminescence and meteoric beryllium-10 (10Be) inventory analyses, we estimated a minimum age for the largest, westernmost, morphologically identifiable, and topographically-highest, barrier/beach-ridge (the Wicomico shoreline barrier) and constrained the age of a suite of younger barrier/beach-ridges that lie adjacent and seaward of the Wicomico shoreline barrier. At the study site, the near-shore marine/estuarine deposits underlying the Wicomico shoreline barrier are overlain by eolian sand and an intervening zone-of-mixing. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data indicate ages of ≤43 ka for the eolian sand and 116 ka for the zone-of-mixing. Meteoric 10Be and pedostratigraphic data indicate minimum residence times of 33.4 ka for the eolian sand, 80.6 ka for the zone-of-mixing, and 247 ka for the paleosol. The combined OSL and 10Be age data indicate that, at this locality, the barrier/beach ridge has a minimum age of about 360 ka. This age for the Wicomico shoreline-barrier deposit is the first for any Pleistocene near-shore marine/estuarine deposit in southeast Georgia that is conclusively older than 80 ka. The 360-ka minimum age is in agreement with other geochronologic data for near-coastline deposits in Georgia and South Carolina. The geomorphic position of this barrier/beach-ridge is similar to deposits in South Carolina considered to be

  15. Ridge 2000 Data Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Haxby, W. F.; Ryan, W. B.; Chayes, D. N.; Lehnert, K. A.; Shank, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    Hosted at Lamont by the marine geoscience Data Management group, mgDMS, the NSF-funded Ridge 2000 electronic database, http://www.marine-geo.org/ridge2000/, is a key component of the Ridge 2000 multi-disciplinary program. The database covers each of the three Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Sites: Endeavour Segment, Lau Basin, and 8-11N Segment. It promotes the sharing of information to the broader community, facilitates integration of the suite of information collected at each study site, and enables comparisons between sites. The Ridge 2000 data system provides easy web access to a relational database that is built around a catalogue of cruise metadata. Any web browser can be used to perform a versatile text-based search which returns basic cruise and submersible dive information, sample and data inventories, navigation, and other relevant metadata such as shipboard personnel and links to NSF program awards. In addition, non-proprietary data files, images, and derived products which are hosted locally or in national repositories, as well as science and technical reports, can be freely downloaded. On the Ridge 2000 database page, our Data Link allows users to search the database using a broad range of parameters including data type, cruise ID, chief scientist, geographical location. The first Ridge 2000 field programs sailed in 2004 and, in addition to numerous data sets collected prior to the Ridge 2000 program, the database currently contains information on fifteen Ridge 2000-funded cruises and almost sixty Alvin dives. Track lines can be viewed using a recently- implemented Web Map Service button labelled Map View. The Ridge 2000 database is fully integrated with databases hosted by the mgDMS group for MARGINS and the Antarctic multibeam and seismic reflection data initiatives. Links are provided to partner databases including PetDB, SIOExplorer, and the ODP Janus system. Improved inter-operability with existing and new partner repositories continues to be

  16. Mid to late Holocene sea-level reconstruction of Southeast Vietnam using beachrock and beach-ridge deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattegger, K.; Tjallingii, R.; Saito, Y.; Michelli, M.; Thanh, N.T.; Wetzel, A.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractBeachrocks, beach ridge, washover and backshore deposits along the tectonically stable south-eastern Vietnamese coast document Holocene sea level changes. In combination with data from the final marine flooding phase of the incised Mekong River valley, the sea-level history of South Vietnam

  17. Sandy berm and beach-ridge formation in relation to extreme sea-levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    The formation of berms and their transformation into beach ridges in a micro-tidal environment is coupled to wave run-up and overtopping during extreme sea levels. A straight-forward comparison between extreme sea levels due to storm-surges and active berm levels is impossible in the semi......-enclosed bays along the Baltic Sea. Quite often, the maximum water levels do not coincide with the maximum intensity of the wave driven processes because of seiches in the Baltic. In this paper, we look into the joined distribution of extreme water levels and high-energetic wave conditions at Feddet, a sandy...... of extreme sea level events is identified using thirty-three well described extreme events throughout a period of 15 years. Analysis of the meteorological conditions during these events revealed that berm formation only occurred during 20% of all extreme events when onshore winds, high-energy wave action...

  18. Late Quaternary development of the Croatan Beach Ridge Complex, Bogue Sound, Bogue Banks, NC, USA and implications for coastal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Kelly B.; Mallinson, David J.; Culver, Stephen J.

    2016-06-01

    Foraminiferal, sedimentological, geophysical, and geochronologic data were utilized to elucidate the late Quaternary geologic development of the Croatan Beach Ridge Complex (CBRC), Bogue Sound, and Bogue Banks, North Carolina, USA. The CBRC is a relict beach ridge feature located on the mainland. It is separated from the modern barrier island, Bogue Banks, by Bogue Sound. Seventeen cores along shore-normal and shore-parallel transects provided material for sedimentologic and foraminiferal analysis and resulted in the recognition of seven depositional facies representing a variety of coastal depositional environments. Chronologic and depositional facies data suggest the CBRC was initiated during MIS 5a and rapid southward progradation produced a cape structure. Eolian reactivation of the upper sand of the CBRC occurred during the last glacial maximum (∼18 ka). The age of flood tide delta deposits in Bogue Sound suggests that the Holocene barrier island, Bogue Banks, had formed by ∼6 ka. Shoreface ravinement resulted in a shoreface landward of the present shoreline by ∼3.5 ka. Seaward and westward spit progradation of Bogue Banks began ∼1.7 ka and continued to ∼1.3 ka. Normal marine salinity conditions were present in Bogue Sound ∼1.1 ka, suggesting removal of at least the narrowest parts of the barrier island, coeval with a previously documented segmentation of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands. Previous work has linked this segmentation to climate warming and increased tropical storm activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This study illustrates the complex response of this coastal system to Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level and climate change over two major sea-level cycles. In particular, the regional geomorphology during MIS5a and the Holocene sea-level highstand differ significantly and this, in large part, was controlled by the antecedent geologic framework, resulted in the contrasting more localized coastal geomorphic response.

  19. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  20. Sea-level proxies extracted from GPR reflection data collected across recently formed berm, beach ridge and swale deposits on the island of Anholt, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; Clemmensen, L. B.

    2009-04-01

    GPR reflection data have been collected across the most recent part of a berm, beach ridge and swale system formed during the last 130 years on the northern coast of the island of Anholt, the Kattegat, Denmark. The reflected arrivals have a peak frequency of about 250 MHz and they image the subsurface with a vertical resolution of 0.1-0.2 m to a maximum depth of 5 m below the surface. The berm and beach ridges with maximum heights of about 1.8 m and 1.5 m, respectively, appear as mounded features in the GPR sections. The berm ridge also contains low-angle, seaward dipping reflections. Similar sea-ward dipping reflections are also observed below swales, and current swale surfaces appear to constitute erosion surfaces. Reflections downlapping on a package of reflections, which is interpreted to be representative of upper shoreface deposits, are suggested to constitute good proxies of sea level. Tamura et al. (2008) suggested that similar downlapping reflections may represent a depth level of about 1 m below the mean sea level based on investigations of the Kujukuri strand plain in eastern Japan. We have made 17 depth readings of such downlaps along our 159-m-long profile. The average depth of these downlap points is 0.003 m below present mean sea level (pmsl). Individual readings fall in the range of -0.5 m to +0.5 above pmsl, consistent with the majority of current, annual sea-level variations as recorded by the Danish Maritime Safety Administration at a position about 50 km southwest of Anholt. The mean sea level has changed insignificantly in the study area during ridge formation, and we assume that these proxies may form a strong basis for constructing palaeo-sea level curves for fossil (ages of up to about 7500 years), raised beach-ridge systems along the shores of the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. Reference T. Tamura, F. Murakami, F. Nanayama, K. Watanabe, Y. Saito, 2008. Ground-penetrating radar profiles of Holocene raised-beach deposits in the Kujukuri strand

  1. Coastal lagoons and beach ridges as complementary sedimentary archives for the reconstruction of Holocene relative sea-level changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    , Denmark. The reconstruction of the initial mid-Holocene sea-level rise is based on the sedimentary infill from topography-confined coastal lagoons (Sander et al., Boreas, 2015b). Sea-level index points over the mid- to late Holocene period of sea-level stability and fall are retrieved from the internal......Coastal lagoons and beach ridges are genetically independent, though non-continuous, sedimentary archives. We here combine the results from two recently published studies in order to produce an 8000-year-long record of Holocene relative sea-level changes on the island of Samsø, southern Kattegat...... proximate occurrence of coastal lagoons and beach ridges allows us to produce seamless time series of relative sea-level changes from field sites in SW Scandinavia and in similar coastal environments....

  2. AMS-dated mollusks in beach ridges and berms document Holocene sea-level and coastal changes in northeastern Kuwait Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink-Smith, Linda M.

    2015-09-01

    In northeastern Kuwait, ancient beach ridges and associated berms are separated from the present shoreline by a 4-6 km-wide sabkha. A diverse mollusk fauna in the beach ridges attests to a former open marine environment. A total of 21 AMS dates were obtained in this study. Thirteen mollusk samples from beach ridges yielded AMS dates ranging from ~ 6990 cal yr BP in the southeast to ~ 3370 cal yr BP in the northwest, suggesting a southeast to northwest age progression during the Holocene transgression. In contrast, four samples from berms throughout the study area yielded AMS dates of 5195-3350 cal yr BP showing no age progression; these berms consist largely of Conomurex persicus gastropods that aggregated by storms during a highstand at ~ 5000-3500 cal yr BP. The berms are presently at ~ + 6 m above sea level, 2-3 m above the beach ridges. Human settlements were common on the ridge crests before and after the highstand. Regression to present-day sea level commenced after the highstand, which is when the sabkha began forming. A landward, marine-built terrace, which yielded AMS dates > 43,500 14C yr BP, probably formed during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e and hence is not genetically related to the beach ridges.

  3. Recent coastal evolution in a carbonate sandy environments and relation to beach ridge formation: the case of Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.

    2014-05-01

    In a changing climate context coastal areas will be affected by more frequent extreme events. Understanding the relationship between extreme events and coastal geomorphic response is critical to future adaptation plans. Beach ridge landforms commonly identified as hurricane deposits along tropical coasts in Australia and in the Caribbean Sea. However their formative processes in such environments are still not well understood. In particular, the role of different extreme wave events (storm waves, tsunami waves and extreme swell), in generating beach ridges is critical to their use as palaeotempestology archives. Anegada Island is a carbonate platform situated in the British Virgin Island between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Pleistocene in age, Anegada is surrounded by the Horseshoe fringing coral reef. Two Holocene sandy beach ridge plains are present on the western part of the island. The north beach ridge plain is Atlantic facing and has at least 30 ridges; the south beach ridge plain is Caribbean Sea facing and contains 10 ridges. Historical aerial photos enabled the shoreline evolution from 1953 to 2012 to be studied. Three different coastal domains are associate with the beach ridge plains: strong east-west longshore transport affects the north coastline, the south-west coastline from West End to Pomato Point represents an export corridor for these sediments and finally, along the southern coastline, from Pomato Point to Settling Point the area presents a depositional zone with little to no change in the last 70 years. The link between the extreme wave events that have affected Anegada Island in the last 70 years and beach ridge creation is discussed. Hurricane Donna crossed over Anegada Island in 1960: its geomorphological signature is tracked in the shoreline change analysis and its implication in beach ridge formation is discussed. Anegada Island has also been impacted by tsunami waves (Atwater et al., 2012) and a comparative discussion of the

  4. Ground-penetrating radar study of beach-ridge deposits in Huangqihai Lake, North China: the imprint of washover processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin SHAN; Xinghe YU; Peter D.CLIFT; Chengpeng TAN; Shunli LI; Zhixing WANG; Dongxu SU

    2016-01-01

    Determining the origin of beach ridges in lacustrine basins can often be problematic.The sedimentary processes responsible for formation of beach ridges on the north shore of Huangqihai Lake were investigated by using ground penetrating radar (GPR).A 400 MHz GPR antenna was used to achieve a high vertical resolution of 0.04-0.08 m.The radar stratigraphy was then determined using principles of seismic stratigraphy.The radar facies (RF) were determined by analyzing internal configuration and continuity of reflections,as well as reflection termination patterns.The identified RF fall into three groups (inclined,horizontal and irregular).The inclined group consists of RF that display inclined reflections.The horizontal group consists of RF that exhibit predominantly horizontal reflections.In the irregular group,the reflections are typically weak.RF with reflections with gently landward dips in the shore-normal profile are interpreted as washover sheet deposits.RF with steeply landward-dipping and imbricated reflections are interpreted as washover lobes.Washover sheets develop when overwash fails to enter a significant body of water and sedimentation takes place entirely on the relatively flattened topography.Washover lobe development occurs when overwash enters a region in which topography dips steeply landward,and sedimentation takes place on the surface of washover sheets or previous washover lobes.The beach-ridge deposits are interpreted as being formed entirely from vertically and laterally stacked washover sheets and washover lobes.They were formed by wave-dominated processes and secondary overwash processes supplemented by longshore currents.

  5. Mid to late Holocene sea-level reconstruction of Southeast Vietnam using beachrock and beach-ridge deposits

    OpenAIRE

    K. Stattegger; Tjallingii, R.; Saito, Y; Michelli, M.; Thanh, N.T.; Wetzel, A.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractBeachrocks, beach ridge, washover and backshore deposits along the tectonically stable south-eastern Vietnamese coast document Holocene sea level changes. In combination with data from the final marine flooding phase of the incised Mekong River valley, the sea-level history of South Vietnam could be reconstructed for the last 8000 years. Connecting saltmarsh, mangrove and beachrock deposits the record covers the last phase of deglacial sea-level rise from - 5 to + 1.4 m between 8.1 to...

  6. Mid to late Holocene sea-level reconstruction of Southeast Vietnam using beachrock and beach-ridge deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattegger, Karl; Tjallingii, Rik; Saito, Yoshiki; Michelli, Maximiliano; Trung Thanh, Nguyen; Wetzel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Beachrocks, beach ridge, washover and backshore deposits along the tectonically stable south-eastern Vietnamese coast document Holocene sea level changes. In combination with data from the final marine flooding phase of the incised Mekong River valley, the sea-level history of South Vietnam could be reconstructed for the last 8000 years. Connecting saltmarsh, mangrove and beachrock deposits the record covers the last phase of deglacial sea-level rise from - 5 to + 1.4 m between 8.1 to 6.4 ka. The rates of sea-level rise decreased sharply after the rapid early Holocene rise and stabilized at a rate of 4.5 mm/year between 8.0 and 6.9 ka. Southeast Vietnam beachrocks reveal that the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand slightly above + 1.4 m was reached between 6.7 and 5.0 ka, with a peak value close to + 1.5 m around 6.0 ka. This highstand is further limited by a backshore and beachridge deposit that marks the maximum springtide sea-level just below the base of the overlying beach ridge. After 5.0 ka sea level dropped below + 1.4 m and fell almost linearly at a rate of 0.24 mm/year until 0.63 ka and + 0.2 m as evidenced by the youngest beachrocks.

  7. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has...... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  8. Oak Ridge TNS Program: system description manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Becraft, W.R.; Brown, T.G.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sardella, C.; Shannon, T.E.; Steiner, D.; Wells, W.M.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-05-01

    This document provides a systems description of the Reference Design for The Next Step (TNS) evolved at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during FY 1978. The description is presented on the basis of 24 individual device and facility systems. Additional information on these systems, the Reference Design, and the FY 1978 Oak Ridge TNS activities can be found in the associated technical memoranda, ORNL/TM-6720 and ORNL/TM-6722--ORNL/TM-6733.

  9. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time.

  10. Insight into the late Holocene sea-level changes in the NW Atlantic from a paraglacial beach-ridge plain south of Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy, Julie; Robin, Nicolas; Hein, Christopher J.; Certain, Raphaël; FitzGerald, Duncan M.

    2015-11-01

    Constructional sedimentary features can provide insight into past changes in relative sea-level (RSL) in regions where traditional bio-stratigraphic markers are absent. The paraglacial beach-ridge plain at Miquelon-Langlade, located 50 km south of Newfoundland, is an example of a well-preserved regressive barrier. Initiation of this plain correlates with a decrease in the rate of RSL rise (from + 4.4 mm/yr to ~ 1.3 mm/yr) at around 3000 years ago. It developed under conditions of normal regression during a period of slow RSL rise (RTK-GPS) and chronologic (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) data provide a detailed understanding of the constructional history of the plain. The well-defined contact between coarse-grained, wave-built facies and overlying aeolian deposits is used to demonstrate the dominant influences of RSL change in the development of the barrier system and produce a RSL curve over the period of its formation. A net increase of 2.4 m in the surface elevation of wave-built facies is observed across the plain, corresponding to the increase in mean sea-level during its formation. Coupled with OSL dates, trends in elevation of the wave-built facies across the plain are used to reconstruct the relative sea-level history during this period. Acknowledging the uncertainties inherent in the method applied in this study, three distinct periods of sea-level rise can be distinguished: (1) an increase from 2.4 to 1 m below modern MSL between 2400 and 1500 years (average rate of + 1.3 mm/yr); (2) relatively stable or slowly rising RSL (<+ 0.2 mm/yr) from 1400 to 700 years; and (3) a rise of ca. 0.7 m during the past 700 years (+ 1.1 mm/yr). This study not only produces the first RSL reconstruction for the Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon archipelago but also provides: (i) additional details of RSL changes in a region exhibiting great spatial variations in RSL histories (Newfoundland); (ii) field confirmation that wave-built/aeolian stratigraphic contacts in beach

  11. Mid-oceanic ridge system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    comprising arc-parallel seamount chains, N–S trending fault systems and a relatively smooth eastern part. The recent phase has experienced westward propagation of the spreading centre. Distinctly different rupture patterns of December 2004 and March... tectonic elements modulate the occurrence of large earthquakes and their rupture pattern. The active strikeslip motion along the WAF, presence of backarc spreading coupled with increased obliquity of subduction in the Andaman Sector reduce...

  12. Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

  13. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  14. Impacts of storm chronology on the morphological changes of the Formby beach and dune system, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dissanayake

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of storm chronology within a storm cluster on beach/dune erosion are investigated by applying the state-of-the-art numerical model XBeach to the Sefton coast, northwest England. Six temporal storm clusters of different storm chronologies were formulated using three storms observed during the 2013/14 winter. The storm power values of these three events nearly halve from the first to second event and from the second to third event. Cross-shore profile evolution was simulated in response to the tide, surge and wave forcing during these storms. The model was first calibrated against the available post-storm survey profiles. Cumulative impacts of beach/dune erosion during each storm cluster were simulated by using the post-storm profile of an event as the pre-storm profile for each subsequent event. For the largest event the water levels caused noticeable retreat of the dune toe due to the high water elevation. For the other events the greatest evolution occurs over the bar formations (erosion and within the corresponding troughs (deposition of the upper beach profile. The sequence of events impacting the size of this ridge-runnel feature is important as it consequently changes the resilience of the system to the most extreme event that causes dune retreat. The highest erosion during each single storm event was always observed when that storm initialised the storm cluster. The most severe storm always resulted in the most erosion during each cluster, no matter when it occurred within the chronology, although the erosion volume due to this storm was reduced when it was not the primary event. The greatest cumulative cluster erosion occurred with increasing storm severity; however, the variability in cumulative cluster impact over a beach/dune cross-section due to storm chronology is minimal. Initial storm impact can act to enhance or reduce the system resilience to subsequent impact, but overall the cumulative impact is controlled by the

  15. A system for beach video-monitoring: Beachkeeper plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Massimo; Schiaffino, Chiara F.; Isla, Federico I.; Ferrari, Marco

    2012-12-01

    A suitable knowledge of coastal systems, of their morphodynamic characteristics and their response to storm events and man-made structures is essential for littoral conservation and management. Nowadays webcams represent a useful device to obtain information from beaches. Video-monitoring techniques are generally site specific and softwares working with any image acquisition system are rare. Therefore, this work aims at submitting theory and applications of an experimental video monitoring software: Beachkeeper plus, a freeware non-profit software, can be employed and redistributed without modifications. A license file is provided inside software package and in the user guide. Beachkeeper plus is based on Matlab® and it can be used for the analysis of images and photos coming from any kind of acquisition system (webcams, digital cameras or images downloaded from internet), without any a-priori information or laboratory study of the acquisition system itself. Therefore, it could become a useful tool for beach planning. Through a simple guided interface, images can be analyzed by performing georeferentiation, rectification, averaging and variance. This software was initially operated in Pietra Ligure (Italy), using images from a tourist webcam, and in Mar del Plata (Argentina) using images from a digital camera. In both cases the reliability in different geomorphologic and morphodynamic conditions was confirmed by the good quality of obtained images after georeferentiation, rectification and averaging.

  16. Beach protection by a system of permeable groins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczar-Karakiewicz, B.; Romanczyk, W.; Roy, N.

    2002-12-01

    A new type of permeable groin (called System of Groins Maltec-Savard - SGMS) has been installed at three eroded sites located in the coastal area on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada. In this area, the narrow sandy beaches with sandy or sand-silty cliff of variable height (10-15~m) are exposed to obliquely incident waves arriving from both west (summer) and east (autumn), and to tidal currents (maximum tidal rate is 4.3~m). The periods of summer waves equal 3-5~s, with wave heights of about 0.4-0.7~m. In the autumn, major storm waves reach periods of up to 7-10~s, with wave heights of 1.0-1.2~m. The new groins are sediment traps formed by a central double and permeable groin with several smaller lateral, groins installed on one or both sides of the central groin (Boczar-Karakiewicz et al., 2001). The permeable central and lateral groins are structured by inserting double ranges of wooden piles (diameter of about 10 cm). The space between the ranges of piles (some 0.8~m wide) is filled with tree branches (e.g., the top parts of pine trees, a waste product of the local forest industry). A permeable grid covering the top of the groins forms a cage that holds the branches in place. The lateral groins, are identical but much shorter than the central groin. The whole system dissipates the incident energy of wave- and tidally-generated currents and causes accretion of sand transported by these currents. The GSMS also allows the by-pass of some sediment to adjacent zones without groins. Observations and results of measurements from three experiments field show that: (1) a sandy beach in front of a coastal cliff secures its stability and attenuates the erosion caused by waves and tidal currents; (2) permeability and flexibility of the SGMS causes the accretion of sediment in the protected area without erosion in the neighboring zones; (3) the SGMS does not generate wave reflection and any secondary current; (4) the materials of the groins are easily

  17. Metallogenesis along the Indian Ocean Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Ray, Dwijesh

    nor the source of the methane/ manganese plume could however be estab lished. Jean - Baptiste et al . 4 reported the presence of a hydro - thermal 3 He plume north of the RTJ at 19?29 minuteS, 65?54.4 minuteE along the CIR during cruise... Ocean. Can . Mineral ., 1998, 26 , 721 ? 736. 3. Pl?ger, W. L. et al ., Discovery of hyd rothermal fields at the Ce n tral Indian Ridge. Mar . Min ., 1990, 9 , 73 ? 86. 4. Jean - Baptiste, P., Mantisi, F., Pauwells, H., Grimaud, D...

  18. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  19. ORIS: the Oak Ridge Imaging System operation's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, P. R.; Dillon, R. S.

    1977-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) programs are briefly described. This volume is intended as an operators manual, but it includes program abstracts and instructions for assembling the modules and adding new ones. The instructions are specifically for the RK8E version, but they apply with minor changes to versions for other OS/8 devices. The system provides for access, storage, processing, and display of nuclear medicine images and for any other type of data displayable in image form. The system is not limited to square image arrays or to any specific size of data arrays below 16K elements. The complete code package for ORIS is available as MED-8/ORIS from the Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center (BCTIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. Studying the Indian Ocean Ridge System: Agenda for the new century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.; Drolia, R.K.

    Studies on the Indian Ocean Ridge System, though sporadic, was aimed to map the complete IORS petrologically and tectonically. Three areas are placed for immediate investigation; one in the slow spreading Carlsberg Ridge area, the second, along...

  1. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  2. Manmade vulnerability of the Cancun Beach system: the case of hurricane Wilma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Rodolfo Silva; Baldwin, Edgar Mendoza [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Martinez, Gabriel Ruiz; Marino-Tapia, Ismael [Laboratorio de Procesos Costeros, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Merida (Mexico); Vanegas, Gregorio Posada [Instituto EPOMEX, Universidad Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico); Mancera, Edgar Escalante [Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Unidad Academica Puerto Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    Climate change and resultant coastal erosion and flooding have been the focus of many recent analyses. Often these studies overlook the effects of manmade modifications to the coastline which have reduced its resilience to storm events. In this investigation, we integrate previous reports, historical photo analysis, field work, and the application of numerical models to better understand the effects of Wilma, the most destructive hurricane to affect Cancun, Mexico. Huge waves (of significant height, >12 m), long mean wave periods (>12 s), devastating winds (>250 km/h), and powerful currents (>2 m/s) removed >7 million cubic meters of sand from the Cancun beach system, leaving 68% of the sub-aerial beach as bedrock, and the rest considerably eroded. Numerical simulations show that the modifications to the barrier island imposed by tourist infrastructure have considerably increased the rigidity of the system, increasing the potential erosion of the beach under extreme conditions. If there were no structural barriers, a series of breaches could occur along the beach, allowing exchange of water and alleviating storm surge on other sections of the beach. If the effects caused by anthropogenic changes to Cancun are ignored, the analysis is inaccurate and misleading. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    laboratory, sediment was characterized concerning the grain size distribution and the marked grains (MG) which were identified and counted with the use of a black light. After statistical analysis, several maps were developed in a Geographical Information System in order to quantify and interpret the direction and velocity of the movement of the sand induced by the observed waves and currents. The results of this work showed that: (i) when the existing shore platforms between adjacent embayed beaches are exposed, their surface is topographically higher than the beach face and strongly dissected by channels (e.g., joints) and karstic cavities, and thus the transference of sand between the adjacent beaches is almost nil, (ii) when a topographic continuity was observed between the beach face and the surface of the shore platforms, the transference of sand between adjacent cells is effective. The two reported situations depend on the beach morphosedimentary processes driven by the angle between the waves and the shoreline. This work is a contribution to the PTDC/GEO-GEO/3981/2012 funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. The authors would like to thank the collaborators of the November campaign: A. Rosa; A. Portugal; A. Silva; C. Correia, J. Cunha e L. Castilho.

  4. Longshore transport gradients and erosion processes along the Ilha Comprida (Brazil) beach system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galiforni Silva, F.; Gomes de Oliveira Sousa, P.H.; Siegle, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the longshore transport gradients and wave power distribution along the Ilha Comprida beach system and relate it to the distribution of the current erosion process along this barrier island. The study is based on quantitative analysis of the potential longshore dri

  5. A quantitative ~1ky lake level record of Lake Prespa (SW Balkans) derived from beach ridge sediments: implications for hydro-climatic changes from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    We present the first quantitative lake stage record of Prespa that covers the past millennium, based on the singular isthmus beach ridge complex, allowing numerical reconstruction of precipitation-driven inflow changes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Mediterranean precipitation change, based on lake-proxy reconstructions, shows a distinct W-E pattern over the past millennium. Generally, the West experienced drier conditions during the MCA and wetter conditions during the LIA; the East experienced opposite conditions. This pattern is linked to the multi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Winter Index: positive phases are associated with drier (wetter) and negative phases with wetter (drier) conditions in the W (E) Mediterranean. The SW Balkans is located at the juncture of proposed boundary between these contrasting climate and hydrological domains. It is not clear which, if any, of these patterns reflects past precipitation changes in the region, given the lack of detailed palaeo-hydrological data. The beach ridge complex that underlies the entire isthmus separating Lakes Mikri- and Megali Prespa offers a unique opportunity to address this question. High, oblique, sediment-supply allows the formation and preservation of beach ridges that register the annual water level fluctuations of Lake Megali Prespa which are driven by wet season precipitation and contain a strong NAO-signal. Modern beach-ridge sediment facies were calibrated against observed lake levels, thus allowing the reliable determination of past lake levels from the geological record. Lake surface area variation was found to be a more reliable indicator of hydro-climate change than water level fluctuations as the latter are strongly influenced by lake bathymetry. Accordingly, surface areas were calculated for different water levels to enable the conversion of lake level stage-indicators to quantitative inflow estimates. The isthmus profile reveals a "high

  6. Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Joel S; Prabakhar Clement, T; John, Gerald F; Yin, Fang

    2015-01-15

    The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beaches from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe was extensive along Alabama's beaches. While considerable amount of cleanup has occurred along these beaches, as of August 2014, DWH oil spill residues continue to be found as surface residual balls (SRBs), and also occasionally as submerged oil mats (SOMs). Four years of field observations informing the fate and transport of DWH SRBs in Alabama's beach system are presented here, along with a conceptual framework for describing their physical evolution processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach system, although their relationship to SOMs is not fully known. Based on our field observations we conclude that small DWH SRBs are likely to persist for several years along the Alabama shoreline.

  7. Modelling Landscape Morphodynamics by Terrestrial Photogrammetry: AN Application to Beach and Fluvial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, E.; Balaguer-Beser, A.; Taborda, R.; Pardo-Pascual, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Beach and fluvial systems are highly dynamic environments, being constantly modified by the action of different natural and anthropic phenomena. To understand their behaviour and to support a sustainable management of these fragile environments, it is very important to have access to cost-effective tools. These methods should be supported on cutting-edge technologies that allow monitoring the dynamics of the natural systems with high periodicity and repeatability at different temporal and spatial scales instead the tedious and expensive field-work that has been carried out up to date. The work herein presented analyses the potential of terrestrial photogrammetry to describe beach morphology. Data processing and generation of high resolution 3D point clouds and derived DEMs is supported by the commercial Agisoft PhotoScan. Model validation is done by comparison of the differences in the elevation among the photogrammetric point cloud and the GPS data along different beach profiles. Results obtained denote the potential that the photogrammetry 3D modelling has to monitor morphological changes and natural events getting differences between 6 and 25 cm. Furthermore, the usefulness of these techniques to control the layout of a fluvial system is tested by the performance of some modeling essays in a hydraulic pilot channel.

  8. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  9. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (IL); Hunley, A.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation contains some areas contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater at that depth is saline and has previously been considered stagnant. On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of flow of the saline groundwater and its potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial temperature variations, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. In addition, chemical analyses of brine in adjacent areas in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were compared with the deep water underlying the reservation to help assess the origin of the brine. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and freshwater-bearing units. The confined water (along with dissolved solutes) moves along open fractures (or man-made shortcuts) at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow probably are small.

  10. Manganese oxidation by bacterial isolates from the Indian Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Krishnan, K.P.; Khedekar, V.D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The abundance and activity of culturable manganese-oxidizing bacteria were assessed from near-bottom water samples of the tectonically active Carlsberg Ridge. Retrievable counts as colony forming units (CFU) on dilute nutrient agar medium (dilNA = 2...

  11. Modelling the hydrodynamic and morphosedimentary response of an beach-headland system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, João; Oliveira, Sónia; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Future behaviour of beaches within a headland-beach system is of fundamental interest on coastal evolution since they act as a buffer between the waves' attack and the cliffs backing them. The beaches at the cliffs' foot anchored between headlands are space-limited environments to morphosedimentary processes. Additionally, headlands and shore platforms are natural barriers to the alongshore drift. Several attempts to develop numerical expressions to characterize the stability of headland-beach systems have been made based mainly on linear parameters. However, in the sandy areas occur volumetric variations of greater magnitude that changes in the shoreline position in a tidal cycle. This work aims to quantify the balance between the incoming and the lost sediment in two embayed beaches in order to improve knowledge of the sedimentary dynamics of such environments and therefore the evolution of coastal landscapes. The study area is the Algarve coastal karstic landscapes, which raises challenging questions on morphosedimentary processes because it has dozens of stacks and cavities both in the surf zone and in the nearshore that interfere with the littoral current patterns. The field campaigns were performed during spring tide conditions in February and March, 2011. The nearshore wave climate and the current's velocity and direction were measured using respectively a non-vented Level TROLL 700 Pressure Transducer (PT) and an autonomously deployable electro-magnetic current meter (EMCM) Infinity-EM with a data logger. The offshore wave data used was acquired through the Portuguese Hydrographic Institute (IH) at the Faro buoy, located 50 km southeast from the study area. The topographic surveys were performed for a total area of about 1500 m2 using two Global Navigation Satellite System receptors (GPS Trimble R6 and GPS Trimble 5800) in real-time kinematic mode (RTK) with differential global positioning system (DGPS) providing centimetric accuracy. The altimetric values

  12. Morphological changes, beach inundation and overwash caused by an extreme storm on a low-lying embayed beach bounded by a dune system (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ruth; Guillén, Jorge; Ruiz, Antonio; Jiménez, José A.; Sagristà, Enric

    2016-12-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a low-lying, micro-tidal sandy beach in the western Mediterranean, Pals beach, was characterized using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Data were collected in prior to and six months after the impact of an extreme storm with a return period of approx. 50 years, with the aim of characterizing the beach's response to the storm. The use of repeated high-resolution topographic data to quantify beach geomorphic changes has allowed assessment of the accuracy of different proxies for estimating beach volume changes. Results revealed that changes in the shoreline position cannot accurately reproduce beach volume changes on low-lying beaches where overwash processes are significant. Observations also suggested that volume estimations from beach profiles do not accurately represent subaerial volume changes at large profile distances on beaches with significant alongshore geomorphological variability. Accordingly, the segmentation of the beach into regularly spaced bins is proposed to assess alongshore variations in the beach volume with the accuracy of the topographic data. The morphological evolution of Pals beach during the study period showed a net shoreline retreat (- 4 m) and a significant sediment gain on the subaerial beach (+ 7.5 m3/m). The net gain of sediment is mostly due to the impact of the extreme storm, driving significant overwash processes that transport sediment landwards, increasing volume on the backshore and dunes. The increase of volume on the foreshore and the presence of cuspate morphologies along the shoreline also evidence post-storm beach recovery. Observed morphological changes exhibit a high variability along the beach related to variations in beach morphology. Changes in the morphology and migration of megacusps result in a high variability in the shoreline position and foreshore volume changes. On the other hand, larger morphological changes on the backshore and larger inundation distances

  13. Analysis of the Risk and Vulnerability of the Cancun Beach System-Wilma Hurricane Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R.; Ruiz, G.; Escalante, E.

    2007-05-01

    In the last decade, many researchers have been focused on the growth in risk associated with global warming and its implications; such as rising sea levels, increasing cyclone frequency and intensity, among others. However, in some cases, for an adequate understanding of the processes, it is also important to incorporate short time analysis of anthropogenic modifications that induce increased vulnerability, for example the effects of Hurricane Wilma (2005) at Cancun, Mexico. Cancun is located on the Mexican Caribbean Sea (latitude 21º05' N, longitude 86º46' W) and is the most important tourist destination in Mexico. For this research several studies have been carried out integrating previous reports, historical photo analysis, field work and the application of several numerical models (wave, currents, storm surge, sediment transport, etc.) for the characterization of the system for normal and extreme conditions. The measurements of wave conditions during the passing of Hurricane Wilma in front of Cancun show maximum wave heights of around 18 m, mean wave periods of 16 s, surface and bottom currents of 2 m/s. Incredibly, more than 7 million cubic meters of sand were moved from the Cancun beach system to other coast cells thus leaving the resort with no beach. The data presented concerning modifications on the barrier island demonstrates that these extreme meteorological events were responsible for the littoral changes, due to the loss of system flexibility in the biological dynamics and physical equilibrium of the systems, with social, environmental and economic implications. The main conclusion of this work is that local anthropogenic modifications have induced more vulnerability and risk to Cancun beach than those associated with global warming.

  14. A methodological approach to assess beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. Cases studies from Valdelagrana spit (Spain) and Campomarino beach (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Gracia, Javier F.; Anfuso, Giorgio; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    Dunes provide many important services to coastal areas, such as coastal erosion mitigation, coastal flooding protection and biological diversity. Their dynamic equilibrium and geomorphological evolution are the result of the interaction between marine and aeolian processes. Moreover, coastal dunes are characterized by a high ecological value, being a narrow strip between marine and terrestrial ecosystems and are habitats considered of community interest by the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC. In the meantime, the significant increase of human pressure on coastal environments during the last decades has caused a strong alteration and an increase of the fragility and fragmentation of these habitats. This paper presents a methodological approach for the assessment of the beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. The aim is to identify, at the local scale, the degree of susceptibility of coastal stretches in order to evaluate the degree of exposure of human settlements and natural environments located behind the dune system and to support actuations to appropriately improve dune management and conservation. A coastal susceptibility matrix and a corresponding Coastal Susceptibility Index (CSI) are proposed. Following the assumption that a good index should be based on a minimum amount of essential information (Cooper and McLaughlin, 1998), possibly already available or easy to be obtained (Villa and McLeod, 2002), the proposed index consisted into eight variables concerning existing beach and dune conditions, covering geomorphological, physical and anthropogenic aspects. Each variable was inserted into a GIS system and overlapped with the others through a logical overlay operation. The resulting layer was reclassified according to the formula proposed by Rangel and Anfuso (2015) allowing to calculate the CSI, which ranged from 1 (null/very low susceptibility) to 5 (very high susceptibility). In a further step, the predominant processes occurred in the last decades were

  15. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A--New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B--Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment; and Category D--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. Three tank systems originally designated as Category B have been redesignated as Category C and one tank system originally designated as Category B has been redesignated as Category D. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from the design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA.

  16. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R C; Moffitt, N E; Gore, B F; Vo, T V; Vehec, T A [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant.

  17. A temporal and ecological analysis of the Huntington Beach Wetlands through an unmanned aerial system remote sensing perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Talha

    Wetland monitoring and preservation efforts have the potential to be enhanced with advanced remote sensing acquisition and digital image analysis approaches. Progress in the development and utilization of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as remote sensing platforms has offered significant spatial and temporal advantages over traditional aerial and orbital remote sensing platforms. Photogrammetric approaches to generate high spatial resolution orthophotos of UAV acquired imagery along with the UAV's low-cost and temporally flexible characteristics are explored. A comparative analysis of different spectral based land cover maps derived from imagery captured using UAV, satellite, and airplane platforms provide an assessment of the Huntington Beach Wetlands. This research presents a UAS remote sensing methodology encompassing data collection, image processing, and analysis in constructing spectral based land cover maps to augment the efforts of the Huntington Beach Wetlands Conservancy by assessing ecological and temporal changes at the Huntington Beach Wetlands.

  18. MODELING OF FLOW THROUGH A VERTICAL PERFORATED PIPE IN THE BEACH, AND THE MORPHODYNAMIC INTERPRETATION: THE PRESSURE EQUALIZATION MODULE SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    the marketing. Although it for a coastal engineer seems obvious that such a device can’t drain the beach (nearly no driving forces ), SIC has succeeded in installing the system in more than 75 locations around the world (according to the company). In Denmark a full scale experiment at the exposed west coast has...... been performed through 2005-08, and a similar Dutch test is going on right now at Egmond, Holland. In this paper, we model the flow in the beach taking into account the presence of (high-permeable) tubes and demonstrate that the drainage effect is negligible. Further, the morphodynamic behavior...

  19. Ready for Prime Time: Implementing a Formal Afterschool Quality Improvement System by Prime Time Palm Beach County, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey; Mayers, Leifa; Guterman, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This is the fourth report of a process evaluation of Palm Beach County Prime Time, Inc., an intermediary organization dedicated to improving the quality of afterschool programs, by Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. It covers the 2007-2008 program year, which was the inaugural year of Prime Time's formal Quality Improvement System (QIS)…

  20. Longshore transport gradients and erosion processes along the Ilha Comprida (Brazil) beach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipe Galiforni; de Oliveira Sousa, Paulo Henrique Gomes; Siegle, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the longshore transport gradients and wave power distribution along the Ilha Comprida beach system and relate it to the distribution of the current erosion process along this barrier island. The study is based on quantitative analysis of the potential longshore drift and the wave power distribution, as well as on the morpho-sedimentary seasonal variations in the beach system. Therefore, the 30-year wave reanalysis database from the global wave generation model WAVEWATCH III (NOAA/NCEP) has been extracted and analyzed for the region, as well as field surveys with topographic measurements and sediment samples. The numerical model MIKE 21 SW has been applied to propagate waves onshore and recognize the longshore transport tendencies and the nearshore wave power distribution. Results show an overall transport trend to the NE, being larger in the southern sector than in the northern sector of the island. Varying transport magnitudes prove to generate gradients in longshore drift. Two positive gradients in the longshore drift, resulting in local sediment losses, are observed. One is found in the central-southern area and another in the northern part of the island. Both areas coincide with erosive spots, as observed through field surveys. The central-southern positive gradient becomes larger and migrates to the south during the most energetic months, while the northern gradient presents only variations in magnitude, being relatively stable in position throughout the year. Nearshore wave power results show two main areas with higher values that coincide with the positive longshore transport gradients. Sediment data presents low temporal variability, although spatial variations have been found reflecting the local hydrodynamic conditions, while the volumetric data shows largest values in the central-northern sector, being smaller in the central-southern and northern regions. Moreover, the central portions are more stable than the extreme

  1. Reconstruction of an interrupted primary beach plain succession using a Geographical Information System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, A. van der; Grootjans, A.P.; de Jong, J.; Rozema, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on a primary succession on a beach plain on the Dutch Wadden island of Schiermonnikoog. Vegetation succession started in 1959 when a sand dike was constructed to prevent structural erosion of the area by storm floods. Since then the sandy beach behind the dike has been protected f

  2. Integral management systems of beaches; Sistemas de Gestion Integral de Playas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monar, F.

    2002-07-01

    The Qualitat Calvia Plan includes an assembly of 25 projects. One of them is the Integral Management Project of Buildings, Infrastructures and Public Spaces (GEEP) in which is integrated the Integral Management Plan of Beaches that tries to offer a better service to our visitors and residents in the unique public spaces of our beaches. (Author)

  3. Morphological records of storm floods exemplified by the impact of the 1872 Baltic storm on a sandy spit system in south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Bendixen, Mette; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Beach-ridge systems are important geo-archives providing evidence for past wave climate including catastrophic storm flood events. This study investigates the morphological impacts of the 1872 Baltic storm flood on a beach-ridge system (sandy spit) in south-eastern Denmark and evaluates...... the dune ridge at several sites and wash-over fans were generated until a level where the mean water level had dropped too much. Phase 4: the non-vegetated wash-over fans functioned as pathways for aeolian sand transport and relatively high dunes were formed in particular along the margins of the fan where...... aeolian sand was trapped by existing vegetation. The studied beach-ridge system records about 4500 years of accumulation; the storm flood sediments described are unique suggesting that the 1872 Baltic storm flood event was an extreme event. Thus studies of beach-ridge systems form a new source...

  4. Analysis of a beach as a time-invariant linear input/output system of marine litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2013-12-15

    The exponential decay of the amount of new litter on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan revealed by 20-month mark-recapture experiments demonstrates a linear response of the beach to the input of target items. Here we show the amplitude and phase characteristics of the beach as a time-invariant linear input/output system and discuss the hydrodynamic and geomorphological factors that would determine the characteristics with the aid of a diffusion equation. The characteristics are fully determined by the residence time of the items (τ(r)=209 days) and can be described as functions of the ratio of τ(r) to the period of input variability. The decay is reproduced well by the analytical solution of the equation with a constant diffusion coefficient (D), whose order was estimated by τ(r) and the backshore width. Generally, D would depend on hydrodynamical statistics and beach geomorphology as well as the dimensions and density of the items.

  5. Magma plumbing system and seismicity of an active mid-ocean ridge volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Schlindwein, Vera; Koulakov, Ivan; Plötz, Aline; Scholz, John-Robert

    2017-02-01

    At mid-ocean ridges volcanism generally decreases with spreading rate but surprisingly massive volcanic centres occur at the slowest spreading ridges. These volcanoes can host unexpectedly strong earthquakes and vigorous, explosive submarine eruptions. Our understanding of the geodynamic processes forming these volcanic centres is still incomplete due to a lack of geophysical data and the difficulty to capture their rare phases of magmatic activity. We present a local earthquake tomographic image of the magma plumbing system beneath the Segment 8 volcano at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The tomography shows a confined domain of partial melt under the volcano. We infer that from there melt is horizontally transported to a neighbouring ridge segment at 35 km distance where microearthquake swarms and intrusion tremor occur that suggest ongoing magmatic activity. Teleseismic earthquakes around the Segment 8 volcano, prior to our study, indicate that the current magmatic spreading episode may already have lasted over a decade and hence its temporal extent greatly exceeds the frequent short-lived spreading episodes at faster opening mid-ocean ridges.

  6. Magma plumbing system and seismicity of an active mid-ocean ridge volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Schlindwein, Vera; Koulakov, Ivan; Plötz, Aline; Scholz, John-Robert

    2017-02-20

    At mid-ocean ridges volcanism generally decreases with spreading rate but surprisingly massive volcanic centres occur at the slowest spreading ridges. These volcanoes can host unexpectedly strong earthquakes and vigorous, explosive submarine eruptions. Our understanding of the geodynamic processes forming these volcanic centres is still incomplete due to a lack of geophysical data and the difficulty to capture their rare phases of magmatic activity. We present a local earthquake tomographic image of the magma plumbing system beneath the Segment 8 volcano at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The tomography shows a confined domain of partial melt under the volcano. We infer that from there melt is horizontally transported to a neighbouring ridge segment at 35 km distance where microearthquake swarms and intrusion tremor occur that suggest ongoing magmatic activity. Teleseismic earthquakes around the Segment 8 volcano, prior to our study, indicate that the current magmatic spreading episode may already have lasted over a decade and hence its temporal extent greatly exceeds the frequent short-lived spreading episodes at faster opening mid-ocean ridges.

  7. Groundwater Parameters and Flow Systems Near Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) averages 132 cm/yr. About 76 cm/yr of water is consumed by evapotranspiration. The natural streamflow, which averages 56 cm/yr of water, consists of overland flow (about 21 cm/yr) from water bodies, wetlands, and impervious areas of groundwater discharge (about 35 cm/yr of water). Groundwater occurs in a stormflow zone that extends from the land surface to a depth of 0.3-2 m and in shallow and deeper aquifers that extend from the water table to the base of fresh water. in the stormflow zone, most water flows through macropores and mesopores, which have a volumetric porosity of about 0.002. In the vadose zone and below the water table, water flows through fractures that have a volumetric porosity in the range 1 x 10{sup -5} to 0.02. Water inflow occurs by precipitation and infiltration. infiltration that exceeds the soil water deficit forms a perched water table in the stormflow zone at the level where infiltration rate exceeds vertical hydraulic conductivity. Some water percolates down to the water table but the majority flows downslope to the streams. Recharge of the shallow aquifer is only about 3.2 cm/yr of water or 5.7% of streamflow. Most of the water that recharges the shallow aquifer is discharged by evapotranspiration above the water table. The remainder is discharged at springs and streams where the water table is within the stormflow zone. Digital models that permit unsaturated conditions and transient flows may be more appropriate than steady-state models of saturated flow for the ORNL area.

  8. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for Fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section IX and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review of approval. The issue of ES/ER-17&D1 Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. This document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA as presented in ES/ER-17&D I and summarizes the progress that has been made to date. This document supersedes all updates of ES/ER- 17&D 1. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System and the objectives of the FFA. Chapters 2 through 5 contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress.

  9. Sedimentary facies of the central part of radial tidal sand ridge system of the eastern China coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong YIN; Xinqin ZOU; Dakui ZHU; Jiaxiang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    A unique radial tidal sand ridge system (RTSRS) has developed under a complex tidal current field on the eastern China coast between the Yangtze River delta to the south and the abandoned Yellow River (Huanghe) delta to the north. The present study examines the sedimentary evolution of a ridge-channel pair in the central RTSRS. Three cores, with two on the ridges and one in the channel, were drilled to reveal the late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits of the system. Five sedimentary facies were distinguished, i.e. ridge-shallow subtidal facies, ridge-deep subtidal facies, near-surface channel bottom facies, middle tidal flat facies and low tidal flat facies. The ridge-shallow subtidal facies consists of sandy strata with ripple cross bed-dings, horizontal lamina, and massive beddings. Bioturbation seldom occurs. The ridge-deep subtidal facies is primarily characterized by sandy and muddy interlayers with common flaser and lenticular bedding structures. Bioturbation appears abundantly. Massive and graded sediment sequences of storm origin are pre-sent as characterized by rich shell fragments. The near-surface channel bottom facies consists of loose, soft, clayey silt deposits with deformed sedimentary layers. This facies occurs in the deeper part of the active chan-nels. The middle tidal flat and lower tidal flat facies composed of silt-clay couplets prevailed primarily in the tidal flats. Incomplete sedimentary successions show that coastal plain deposits dominate in the study area during 12-13 ka B.P. The sandy ridge and channel facies became dominant during 4 6 ka B.P. when the sea level receded temporarily. Tidal ridge and channel in the study area became active during the last four decades. Sediment reworking due to typhoon and sandy ridge migration plays a key role in shaping the present radial ridge system.

  10. Ground-penetrating radar and differential global positioning system data collected from Long Beach Island, New Jersey, April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Bishop, James M.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-08-04

    Scientists from the United States Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, and students from the University of Hawaii at Manoa collected sediment cores, sediment surface grab samples, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data from within the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge–Holgate Unit located on the southern end of Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in April 2015 (FAN 2015-611-FA). The study’s objective was to identify washover deposits in the stratigraphic record to aid in understanding barrier island evolution. This report is an archive of GPR and DGPS data collected from Long Beach Island in 2015. Data products, including raw GPR and processed DGPS data, elevation corrected GPR profiles, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  11. Friction ridge skin - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This contribution describes the development and the forensic use of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFISs). AFISs were initially developed in order to overcome the limitations of the paper-based fingerprint collections, by digitizing the ten-print cards in computerized databases and to

  12. Fluid-mechanical Representation of Plate Boundaries - Trench-Ridge System -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, M.; Fukao, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic tomography models have been used extensively to simulate mantle convection driven by density heterogeneity. Such simulation to date has been unsuccessful to reconcile itself with the most obvious convection-related phenomenon of plate motions. Here we present a theoretical framework for tomography-based convection modeling to include the plates as an integral part of the mantle convection. We model the lithosphere as a highly viscous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid layer and plate boundaries as faults across which tangential velocities are discontinuous. Fluid-mechanical expressions of such faults have their exact analogies in the seismic source representation theory and can be derived by referring to it. We test this idea against the simplest two-dimensional case with only trench and ridge as plate boundaries, and with only subducting slab as mass anomaly. We model ridge (trench) as the horizontal (vertical) tensile fault that comprises of a conjugate pair of 45-degree dip normal (reverse) faults extending over the entire thickness of the surface layer. The system comprises of three elementary convections, slab mass-driven convection, trench fault-driven convection and ridge fault-driven convection. Flow due to the slab excess mass imposes vertical tensile stress on trench, which is released by flow driven by trench faulting. This faulting converts efficiently the vertical tensile stress to the horizontal tensile stress, which can transmit to extreme distances through the surface viscous layer. This horizontal tensile stress is relieved by flow driven by ridge faulting. The three elementary convections are thus coupled through the stress minimum conditions at ridge and trench. The resultant coupled flow is very plate-like in the surface viscous layer. In this system the horizontal surface velocity depends little on the relative distance between the ridge and trench and depends mostly on the excess weight of the subducting slab. The horizontal speed can be

  13. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery.

  14. An integrated multispectral video and environmental monitoring system for the study of coastal processes and the support of beach management operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghionis, George; Trygonis, Vassilis; Karydis, Antonis; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Alexandrakis, George; Drakopoulos, Panos; Amdreadis, Olympos; Psarros, Fotis; Velegrakis, Antonis; Poulos, Serafim

    2016-04-01

    Effective beach management requires environmental assessments that are based on sound science, are cost-effective and are available to beach users and managers in an accessible, timely and transparent manner. The most common problems are: 1) The available field data are scarce and of sub-optimal spatio-temporal resolution and coverage, 2) our understanding of local beach processes needs to be improved in order to accurately model/forecast beach dynamics under a changing climate, and 3) the information provided by coastal scientists/engineers in the form of data, models and scientific interpretation is often too complicated to be of direct use by coastal managers/decision makers. A multispectral video system has been developed, consisting of one or more video cameras operating in the visible part of the spectrum, a passive near-infrared (NIR) camera, an active NIR camera system, a thermal infrared camera and a spherical video camera, coupled with innovative image processing algorithms and a telemetric system for the monitoring of coastal environmental parameters. The complete system has the capability to record, process and communicate (in quasi-real time) high frequency information on shoreline position, wave breaking zones, wave run-up, erosion hot spots along the shoreline, nearshore wave height, turbidity, underwater visibility, wind speed and direction, air and sea temperature, solar radiation, UV radiation, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall. An innovative, remotely-controlled interactive visual monitoring system, based on the spherical video camera (with 360°field of view), combines the video streams from all cameras and can be used by beach managers to monitor (in real time) beach user numbers, flow activities and safety at beaches of high touristic value. The high resolution near infrared cameras permit 24-hour monitoring of beach processes, while the thermal camera provides information on beach sediment temperature and moisture, can

  15. Temporal development of vegetation and geomorphology in a man-made beach-dune system by natural processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    and life form dynamics, characteristic for primary succession on sandy coasts. A gradual change in species composition of the permanent plots, which appeared by a DCA analysis, could by using TWINSPAN be structured into four groups or plant communities, which reflect succession as well as zonation. Two...... with F. rubra and the invasive alien Rosa rugosa. It was concluded, that the main trends in the geomorphological and vegetational development of the man-made beach-dune system is similar to the development in natural dunes. In the future, further accretion and seaward dune formation may be expected...

  16. Storm Impact on a French coastal dune system: morphodynamic modeling using X-beach

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Héloïse; Idier, Déborah; Pedreros, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Recent major meteorological events like Katrina (2005) or Xynthia (2010) were at the origin of erosion periods, overwash phenomena and also breaching processes in the coastal shore. Suchstorm events have caused flood damage with disastrous consequences. The associated hydrodynamic and morphological phenomena which modify the beach and coastal dunes morphology during storm events are still not widely enough known to be able to evaluate the level of protection offered by this natural defense sy...

  17. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  18. Fluid Migration Patterns in Gas Hydrate System of Four-Way-Closure Ridge Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsieh; Berndt, Christian; Lin, Saulwood

    2016-04-01

    Four-Way-Closure (4WC) Ridge shows great potential as a hydrate prospect from collected multitude of marine geophysical datasets offshore southwestern Taiwan. The aim of my study is to better understand the fluid migration patterns and the possible source locations of the methane at this site. It is a cold seep site with an elongated NW-SE trending anticlinal ridge, which is formed by fault-related folds in the frontal segment of the lower slope domain of the Taiwan accretionary prism along its convergent boundary. So I detail recognized the regional feature structures of the 4WC Ridge, including the thrust faulting and a seismic chimney beneath the seepage sites. I plan to study the temperature perturbation at the 4WC Ridge to better understand gas hydrate system there. To quantify the amount of temperature perturbation near the fault zone, we need to correct the temperature field data for other geological processes. One important correction we want to make concerns the topographic effects on the shallow crust temperature field. So we used 3D finite element method to quantify how much temperature perturbation can be attributed to the local bathymetry at the 4WC Ridge. This model will give us a temperature field based on pure thermal conduction. Then, we can compare the model temperature field with the temperature field derived from thousands of BSRs from the seismic cube, and interpret any resulting temperature discrepancy. As our previous study, we known several geological processes can cause such a discrepancy, including advective fluid migration. If the fault zone fluid migration hypothesis is correct and gas hydrate system reacts to the deep warm fluids from below it, we expect that the BSR will become shallower near the fluid pathways, and the BSR-based temperature field might be a few degrees Celsius higher than in the 3D thermal conductive temperature field. Otherwise, the two temperature fields should be similar. This study is important for hydrate

  19. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  20. Systemic non-malignant osteoporosis and reduction of edentulous alveolar ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poštić Srđan D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Systemic osteoporosis damages skeletal bones to different degrees. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity and correlation of the osteoporotic changes in the bone density of the skeleton and body mass index (BMI with a reduction in edentulous mandibles, and to assess possibility of reparation of layers of mandibles with increase of mineral content in jaws of patients affected by osteoporosis. Material and Methods. In this study, 99 edentulous patients with decreased bone density comprised the experimental group, and 48 edentulous patients with normal bone densities formed the control. The age of the examined patients was 69.02 ± 7,9, range 53-74 of females and 69.11 ± 7.1, range 59-76 years. Radiographs of the hands and panoramic radiographs were done for all the patients. The values of BMI, metacarpal index, density of lumbar spine (L2-L4, in the phalanx and in segments of the mandibles as well as the edentulous alveolar ridges heights were measured, assessed and calculated. Results. The lowest value of the total skeletal density was established in the osteoporotic patients on the basis of the average T-score of- 2.5 in men, and - 2.6 in women. Minimum values of the edentulous ridges heights (right/left, in mm were measured in both osteoporotic females (21.84/22.39 and males 24.90/24.96 patients. By comparison of the densities of the metacarpal bones, proximal phalanx, segments of the edentulous mandibles and based on the numerical values of the edentulous ridges heights, x2 = 3.81 was found in men and x2 = 4.03 was found in women with normal bone densities; x2 = 5.92 was found in men and x2 = 6.25 was found in women with osteopenia; x2 = 2.63 was found in men and x2 = 3.85 was found in women with osteoporosis, on the level of probability of 0.05. After application of calcium and calcitonin in solutions, moderate increment of density (p < 0.05; p < 0.01 was verified, compensating up to 4% of total loss of mass

  1. Assessing Long-Term Spatial and Temporal Change of the Dune-Beach System: Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, E.; Hapke, C. J.; Hehre, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Morphologic changes over 10, 30, and 40 year intervals are quantified and used to better understand patterns of change and geologic controls on the subaerial system at Fire Island, New York. Elevation data from modern lidar and RTK GPS surveys are compared with photogrammetrically-derived 3D topography from historical aerial photos to assess long-term change. More temporally dense digital elevation models are used to assess shorter-term variability in selected areas. The analysis provides the first of its kind island-long assessment of long-term beach/dune morphologic change at Fire Island. Fire Island is a 50-km long barrier island which lies along the south shore of Long Island. A host of management regimes and interests are present at Fire Island, including privately owned communities and public lands. To better anticipate future change, coastal managers and residents alike require a better understanding of island evolution over the last half-century, especially oceanfront morphology changes in modified and unmodified areas. In this study, three high-resolution topographic models of the dune and beach system were used to assess morphologic change from 1969 through 2009. Historical datasets were generated using digital photogrammetric processing techniques, while more recent datasets were derived from a combination of lidar and real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS surfaces. Results show that distinct differences in alongshore behavior can be attributed to antecedent geology/geomorphology and anthropogenic modifications. The western third of the island, a prograding spit, shows continued and persistent accretion along its dunes and beaches. Beaches and dunes fronting communities in the western reach of the island show net dune crestline (3 m) and substantial shoreline (25 m) accretion, which are positively correlated with dune crest height and may be linked to numerous beach nourishment projects that have occurred in this area since the 1960s. The eastern half of the

  2. Hydrostratigraphic Framework and Selection and Correlation of Geophysical Log Markers in the Surficial Aquifer System, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The surficial aquifer system is the major source of freshwater for public water supply in Palm Beach County, Florida, yet many previous studies of the hydrogeology of this aquifer system have focused only on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal area (Land and others, 1973; Swayze and others, 1980; Swayze and Miller, 1984; Shine and others, 1989). Population growth in the county has resulted in the westward expansion of urbanized areas into agricultural areas and has created new demands on the water resources of the county. Additionally, interest in surface-water resources of central and western areas of the county has increased. In these areas, plans for additional surface-water storage reservoirs are being made under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan originally proposed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District (1999), and stormwater treatment areas have been constructed by the South Florida Water Management District. Surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Everglades are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology (Harvey and others, 2002). Most of the previous hydrogeologic and ground-water flow simulation studies of the surficial aquifer system have not utilized a hydrostratigraphic framework, in which stratigraphic or sequence stratigraphic units, such as those proposed in Cunningham and others (2001), are delineated in this stratigraphically complex aquifer system. A thick zone of secondary permeability mapped by Swayze and Miller (1984) was not subdivided and was identified as only being within the Anastasia Formation of Pleistocene age. Miller (1987) published 11 geologic sections of the surficial aquifer system, but did not delineate any named stratigraphic units in these sections. This limited interpretation has resulted, in part, from the complex facies changes within rocks and sediments of the surficial aquifer

  3. Analysis, Design and Implementation of Human Fingerprint Patterns System “Towards Age & Gender Determination, Ridge Thickness To Valley Thickness Ratio (RTVTR & Ridge Count On Gender Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E O Omidiora

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze humans fingerprint texture in order to determine their Age & Gender, and correlation of RTVTR and Ridge Count on gender detection. The study is to analyze the effectiveness of physical biometrics (thumbprint in order to determine age and gender in humans. An application system was designed to capture the finger prints of sampled population through a fingerprint scanner device interfaced to the computer system via Universal Serial Bus (USB, and stored in Microsoft SQL Server database, while back-propagation neural network will be used to train the stored fingerprint. The specific Objectives of this research are to: Use fingerprint sensor to collect different individual fingerprint, alongside their age and gender, Formulate a model and develop a fingerprint based identification system to determine age and gender of individuals and evaluate the developed system.

  4. Data management plan for the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System, Version 1. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-04

    The Data Management Plan (DMP) describes the data management objectives, system components, data base structure and contents, system maintenance, data processing, and user interface for the prototype phase of the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). The major goals of OREIS data management are to compile data of known quality, to maintain the integrity of the data base, and to provide data to users. The DMP defines the requirements, describes the responsibilities, and references the procedures for meeting the data management objectives. Emphasis is on management of measurement data and the associated metadata used to support its proper interpretation and legal defensibility. The DMP covers transmittal, processing, storage, and data access activities associated with OREIS. The OREIS data dictionary is provided as an appendix.

  5. Cellular automata to understand the behaviour of beach-dune systems: Application to El Fangar Spit active dune system (Ebro delta, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio-Parra, Fernando; Rodríguez-Santalla, Inmaculada

    2016-08-01

    Coastal dunes are sedimentary environments characterized by their high dynamism. Their evolution is determined by sedimentary exchanges between the beach-dune subsystems and the dune dynamics itself. Knowledge about these exchanges is important to prioritize management and conservation strategies of these environments. The aim of this work is the inclusion of the aeolian transport rates obtained using a calibrated cellular automaton to estimate the beach-dune sediment exchange rates in a real active dune field at El Fangar Spit (Ebro Delta, Spain). The dune dynamics model is able to estimate average aeolian sediment fluxes. These are used in combination with the observed net sediment budget to obtain a quantitative characterization of the sediment exchange interactions. The methods produce a substantial improvement in the understanding of coastal sedimentary systems that could have major implications in areas where the management and conservation of dune fields are of concern.

  6. ACCELERATOR SYSTEMS MODIFICATIONS FOR A SECOND TARGET STATION AT THE OAK RIDGE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Plum, Michael A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A second target station is planned for the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source. The ion source will be upgraded to increase the peak current from 38 to 49 mA, additional superconducting RF cavities will be added to the linac to increase the H beam energy from 938 to 1300 MeV, and the accumulator ring will receive modifications to the injection and extraction systems to accommodate the higher beam energy. After pulse compression in the storage ring one sixth of the beam pulses (10 out of 60 Hz) will be diverted to the second target by kicker and septum magnets added to the existing Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line. No further modifications will be made to the RTBT so that when the kicker and septum magnets are turned off the original beam transport lattice will be unaffected. In this paper we will discuss these and other planned modifications and upgrades to the accelerator facility.

  7. Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hein, James R.; McGann, Mary; Mizell, Kira; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Takesue, Renee K.; Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply to the outer coast. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, Bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., Foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region.

  8. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  9. Spreading behaviour of the Pacific-Farallon ridge system since 83 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Christopher J.; Rowley, David B.

    2014-06-01

    We present improved rotations, complete with uncertainties, for the Pacific-Farallon Ridge (PFR) between geomagnetic chrons 34y (83 Ma) and 10y (28.28 Ma). Despite substantial shortening since ˜55 Ma, this ridge system and its remnants (e.g. the East Pacific Rise) have produced as much as 45 per cent of all oceanic lithosphere created since the Late Cretaceous, but reconstructions face the twin challenges of extensive subduction of Farallon crust-which precludes reconstruction by fitting conjugate magnetic anomaly and fracture zone (FZ) traces-and asymmetric spreading behaviour for at least the past 51 Myr. We have calculated best-fit `half'-angle stage rotations between nine geomagnetic chron boundaries (34y, 33y, 29o, 24.3o, 20o, 18.2o, 17.1y, 13y and 10y) using combined anomaly and FZ data from both the northern and southern Pacific Plate. For rotations younger than chron 24.3o, estimates for spreading asymmetry, derived using anomaly picks from yet-to-be subducted Farallon/Nazca crust in the south Pacific, allow full stage rotations to be calculated. Between 50 and 83 Ma, where no direct constraints on spreading asymmetry are possible, a `best-fit' full stage rotation was calculated based on the net Nazca:Pacific spreading asymmetry (Pacific spreading fraction fPAC = 0.44) over the past 50 Myr, with conservative lower and upper bounds, based on variability in the degree of spreading asymmetry over periods of fPACs of 0.5 and 0.36, respectively. Synthetic flowlines generated from our new stage rotation produce a better match to Pacific FZ trends than previously published rotations. With the exception of the chron 18o-20o rotation, the six stage poles for rotations between chrons 33y and 13y (74-33 Ma) all cluster tightly at 60-75°E, 60-68°N, consistent with the relatively constant trend of the major Pacific FZs. This stability spans at least one episode of Farallon Plate fragmentation caused by subduction of PFR segments beneath the Americas, at 55-48 Ma

  10. Area A (northeastern portion) Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic, Pulley Ridge: Geographic Coordinate System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  11. Tectonic evolution of the Resolution Ridge System, New Zealand: insights gained through UNCLOS surveying for natural prolongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.; Barker, D.

    2005-12-01

    For coastal States, demonstration of submerged natural prolongation of the land mass is a key element in delimiting the extent of the continental margin under the terms of UNCLOS article 76. Straddling an active plate boundary and with continental margins encompassing most major tectonic settings, the New Zealand (NZ) continent presents numerous, varied examples of natural prolongation of the land mass. The mostly submerged NZ continent covers over 5,000,000 km2. The continent grew by the accretion of basement terranes and the Hikurangi Plateau, a large igneous province, along the eastern margin of Gondwana during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Fragmentation of Gondwana initially involved thinning and extension of the continental rocks of New Zealand, and ultimately resulted in the separation of the New Zealand continent from Australia and Antarctica. Renewed tectonic activity in the Cenozoic resulted in the formation of the Resolution Ridge System (RRS) southwest of NZ and several volcanic arcs north of NZ. These volcanic arcs extend onto NZ and are a submerged natural prolongation of the land mass. Geological and geophysical surveys undertaken for the NZ Continental Shelf Project established that most of the RRS was not a prolongation of the NZ land mass, and advanced understanding of NZ's tectonic evolution. The RRS is a series of bathymetric highs extending southwest of Fiordland, NZ, from Resolution Ridge itself, adjacent to the northern limit of the Puysegur Trench, to the southeast termination of the fossil spreading centre in the Tasman Sea (TS; 158°40'E, 48°10'S). A 40° bend at 162°E, 46°30'S divides the ridge system into a northeastern segment, comprising large, en echelon, northeast-southwest-trending basement ridges and basins, and a southwest segment composed of longer, more continuous ridges trending northeast-southwest. The ridge system was formed by rapid reorientation of seafloor spreading directions (through c. 90°) in the TS at ~50 Ma. The

  12. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  13. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Håkon; Økland, Ingeborg; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pederesen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H

    2015-07-01

    Methods developed in geochemical modelling combined with recent advances in molecular microbial ecology provide new opportunities to explore how microbial communities are shaped by their chemical surroundings. Here, we present a framework for analyses of how chemical energy availability shape chemotrophic microbial communities in hydrothermal systems through an investigation of two geochemically different basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Soria Moria Vent field (SMVF) and the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). Chemical energy landscapes were evaluated through modelling of the Gibbs energy from selected redox reactions under different mixing ratios between seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Our models indicate that the sediment-influenced LCVF has a much higher potential for both anaerobic and aerobic methane oxidation, as well as aerobic ammonium and hydrogen oxidation, than the SMVF. The modelled energy landscapes were used to develop microbial community composition models, which were compared with community compositions in environmental samples inside or on the exterior of hydrothermal chimneys, as assessed by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. We show that modelled microbial communities based solely on thermodynamic considerations can have a high predictive power and provide a framework for analyses of the link between energy availability and microbial community composition.

  14. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  15. 1983 international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    An international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems was conducted during September 12-16, 1983, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate criticality accidents. This study marked the twentieth in a series of annual accident dosimetry intercomparisons conducted at ORNL. Participants from ten organizations attended this intercomparison and measured neutron and gamma doses at area monitoring stations and on phantoms for three different shield conditions. Results of this study indicate that foil activation techniques are the most popular and accurate method of determining accident-level neutron doses at area monitoring stations. For personnel monitoring, foil activation, blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent (TL) methods are all capable of providing accurate dose estimates in a variety of radiation fields. All participants in this study used TLD's to determine gamma doses with very good results on the average. Chemical dosemeters were also shown to be capable of yielding accurate estimates of total neutron plus gamma doses in a variety of radiation fields. While 83% of all neutron measurements satisfied regulatory standards relative to reference values, only 39% of all gamma results satisfied corresponding guidelines for gamma measurements. These results indicate that continued improvement in accident dosimetry evaluation and measurement techniques is needed.

  16. Hydrogeologic and Hydraulic Characterization of the Surficial Aquifer System, and Origin of High Salinity Groundwater, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, Florida, have focused mostly on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal areas. These studies have not placed the hydrogeology in a framework in which stratigraphic units in this complex aquifer system are defined and correlated between wells. Interest in the surficial aquifer system has increased because of population growth, westward expansion of urbanized areas, and increased utilization of surface-water resources in the central and western areas of the county. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District, initiated an investigation to delineate the hydrogeologic framework of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, based on a lithostratigraphic framework, and to evaluate hydraulic properties and characteristics of units and permeable zones within this framework. A lithostratigraphic framework was delineated by correlating markers between all wells with data available based primarily on borehole natural gamma-ray geophysical log signatures and secondarily, lithologic characteristics. These correlation markers approximately correspond to important lithostratigraphic unit boundaries. Using the markers as guides to their boundaries, the surficial aquifer system was divided into three main permeable zones or subaquifers, which are designated, from shallowest to deepest, zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone 1 is above the Tamiami Formation in the Anastasia and Fort Thompson Formations. Zone 2 primarily is in the upper part or Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation, and zone 3 is in the Ochopee Limestone Member of the Tamiami Formation or its correlative equivalent. Differences in the lithologic character exist between these three zones, and these differences commonly include differences in the nature of the pore space. Zone 1 attains its greatest thickness (50 feet or more

  17. Summary of annual cycle energy system workshop I held October 29--30, 1975, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H.C.; Moyers, J.C.; Hise, E.C.; Nephew, E.A. (eds.)

    1976-07-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) concept provides space heating, air conditioning, and water heating by means of a heat pump and an energy storage tank. Heat is removed in winter from the water in the tank and is added during the following summer. A workshop was held on October 29-30, 1975 in Oak Ridge, Tenn. to disseminate information on ACES. This report gives summaries of the presentations, which covered technical, economic, and institutional aspects of the concept.

  18. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  19. Cobalt immobilization by manganese oxidizing bacteria from the Indian ridge system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, R.; Sujith, P.P.; Fernandes, S.O.; Verma, P.; Khedekar, V.D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Co immobilization by two manganese oxidizing isolates from Carlsberg Ridge waters (CR35 and CR48) was compared with that of Mn at same molar concentrations. At a lower concentration of 10 mu M, CR35 and CR48 immobilized 22 and 23 fM Co cell-1...

  20. Erosion Negril Beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Ham, D.; Henrotte, J.; Kraaijeveld, R.; Milosevic, M.; Smit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing erosion of the Negril Beach has become worse the past decade. In most places along the coast line, the beach will be gone in approximately 10 years. This will result in a major decrease of incomes that are made by the local tourist sector. To prevent the erosion this study has been perfo

  1. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  2. Mobilization of manganese by basalt associated Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from the Indian Ridge System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujith, P P; Mourya, B S; Krishnamurthi, S; Meena, R M; Loka Bharathi, P A

    2014-01-01

    The Indian Ridge System basalt bearing Mn-oxide coatings had todorokite as the major and birnesite as the minor mineral. We posit that microorganisms associated with these basalts participate in the oxidation of Mn and contribute to mineral deposition. We also hypothesized that, the Mn-oxidizing microbes may respond reversibly to pulses of fresh organic carbon introduced into the water column by mobilizing the Mn in Mn-oxides. To test these two hypotheses, we enumerated the number of Mn-oxidizers and -reducers and carried out studies on the mobilization of Mn by microbial communities associated with basalt. In medium containing 100 μM Mn(2+), 10(3) colony forming units (CFU) were recovered with undetectable number of reducers on Mn-oxide amended medium, suggesting that the community was more oxidative. Experiments were then conducted with basalt fragments at 4±2 °C in the presence 'G(+)' and absence 'G(-)' of glucose (0.1%). Controls included set-ups, some of which were poisoned with 15 mM azide and the others of which were heat-killed. The mobilization of Mn in the presence of glucose was 1.76 μg g(-1) d(-1) and in the absence, it was 0.17 μg g(-1) d(-1) after 150 d. Mn mobilization with and without added glucose was 13 and 4 times greater than the corresponding azide treated controls. However, rates in 'G(+)' were 16 times and 'G(-)' 24 times more than the respective heat killed controls. The corresponding total counts in the presence of added glucose increased from 1.63×10(6) to 6.71×10(7) cells g(-1) and from 1.41×10(7) to 3.52×10(7) cells g(-1) in its absence. Thus, the addition of glucose as a proxy for organic carbon changed the community's response from Mn(II)-oxidizing to Mn(IV)-reducing activity. The results confirm the participation of Mn oxidizing bacteria in the mobilization of Mn. Identification of culturable bacteria by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed taxonomic affiliations to Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium and

  3. Investigation of a wideband folded double-ridged waveguide slow-wave system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jun; Wei Yan-Yu; Gong Yu-Bin; Wang Wen-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The folded double-ridged waveguide structure is presented and its properties used for wide-band traveling-wave tube are investigated. Expressions of dispersion characteristics, normalized phase velocity and interaction impedance of this structure are derived and numerically calculated. The calculated results using our theory agree well with those obtained by using the 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS. Influences of the ridge-loaded area and broad-wall dimensions on the high frequency characteristics of the novel slow-wave structure are discussed. It is shown that the folded double-ridged waveguide structure has a much wider relative passband than the folded waveguide slow-wave structure and a relative passband of 67% could be obtained, indicating that this structure can operate in broad-band frequency ranges of beam-wave interaction. The small signal gain property is investigated for ensuring the improvement of bandwidth. Meanwhile, with comparable dispersion characteristics, the transverse section dimension of this novel structure is much smaller than that of conventional one, which indicates an available way to reduce the weight of traveling-wave tube.

  4. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-134-Bandon-Rogue-GoldBeach)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherer, Brett M. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-03-24

    Vegetation Management for the Bandon-Rogue-Gold Beach transmission line corridor. This corridor includes the Bandon-Rogue #1 115 kilovolt transmission line from Bandon Substation to Rogue Substation and the Rogue-Gold Beach #1 and #2 115 kilovolt transmission lines, starting at Rogue Substation and ending at Gold Beach Substation.

  5. Magma system along fast-spreading centers controlled by ridge segmentation: Evidence from the northern Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Sumio; Adachi, Yoshiko

    2013-04-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are segmented at various scales with a hierarchy, from the biggest 1st- order to the smallest 4th-order segments. These segment structures control magmatic processes beneath the mid-ocean ridges such as mantle upwelling, partial melting of the upper mantle, and magma delivery system to form the oceanic crust (Macdonald, 1998). However, systematic studies on the segment control for magmatic processes are rare at modern mid-ocean ridges due to the difficulty of obtaining in-situ samples from different crustal-lithospheric depths. Sampling at ocean floors is generally exclusively limited only to the surface (i.e. the seafloor). Furthermore, the samples obtained from the surface of the ocean floor may likely represent the products of off-axis magmatism (Kusano et al., 2012). Therefore, studies of ocean ridge segmentation in ophiolites provide important constraints for the magmatic processes beneath seafloor spreading centers, because the precise 3-D architecture of the upper mantle and the crust (all the way to the uppermost extrusive layer) and their lateral variations could be observed and investigated in ophiolites. We have studied the northern Oman ophiolite where a complete succession from the upper mantle peridotites to the uppermost extrusive rocks is well exposed. Miyashita et al. (2003), Adachi and Miyashita (2003) and Umino et al. (2003) proposed a segment structure in the northern Oman ophiolite; the Wadi Fizh area is regarded as a northward propagating tip of a mid-ocean ridge based on geological evidence (Adachi and Miyashita. 2003). On the other hand, the Wadi Thuqbah area, about 25 km south of Wadi Fizh, is regarded as a segment center based on the thickest Moho transition zone, well developed EW-trending lineations in the MTZ and layered gabbro, and the comparatively primitive compositions of the layered gabbros. Furthermore, the southern margin of the Hilti block (Salahi block), about 40 km south of Wadi Thuqbah, is inferred to be the

  6. Assessment of offshore New Jersey sources of Beach replenishment sand by diversified application of geologic and geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, J.S.; Hall, D.W.; Uptegrove, J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ashley, G.M.; Esker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Beach replenishment serves the dual purpose of maintaining a source of tourism and recreation while protecting life and property. For New Jersey, sources for beach sand supply are increasingly found offshore. To meet present and future needs, geologic and geophysical techniques can be used to improve the identification, volume estimation, and determination of suitability, thereby making the mining and managing of this resource more effective. Current research has improved both data collection and interpretation of seismic surveys and vibracore analysis for projects investigating sand ridges offshore of New Jersey. The New Jersey Geological Survey in cooperation with Rutgers University is evaluating the capabilities of digital seismic data (in addition to analog data) to analyze sand ridges. The printing density of analog systems limits the dynamic range to about 24 dB. Digital acquisition systems with dynamic ranges above 100 dB can permit enhanced seismic profiles by trace static correction, deconvolution, automatic gain scaling, horizontal stacking and digital filtering. Problems common to analog data, such as wave-motion effects of surface sources, water-bottom reverberation, and bubble-pulse-width can be addressed by processing. More than 160 line miles of digital high-resolution continuous profiling seismic data have been collected at sand ridges off Avalon, Beach Haven, and Barnegat Inlet. Digital multichannel data collection has recently been employed to map sand resources within the Port of New York/New Jersey expanded dredge-spoil site located 3 mi offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Multichannel data processing can reduce multiples, improve signal-to-noise calculations, enable source deconvolution, and generate sediment acoustic velocities and acoustic impedance analysis. Synthetic seismograms based on empirical relationships among grain size distribution, density, and velocity from vibracores are used to calculate proxy values for density and velocity

  7. Beach Ball Coronagraph Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Beach Ball” Coronagraph will be the first steps to simplify and revolutionize the next generation solar coronagraph design.  The solar corona...

  8. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  9. The Ridge 2000 Program: Promoting Earth Systems Science Literacy Through Science Education Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, E.; Goehring, E.; Larsen, J.; Kusek, K.

    2007-12-01

    Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, Ridge 2000 (R2K) is a mid-ocean ridge and hydrothermal vent research program with a history of successful education and public outreach (EPO) programs and products. This presentation will share general science and education partnership strategies and best practices employed by the R2K program, with a particular emphasis on the innovative R2K project From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE). As a new project of the international NSF and NASA sponsored GLOBE earth science education program, FLEXE involves middle and high school students in structured, guided analyses and comparisons of real environmental data. The science and education partnership model employed by FLEXE relies on experienced education coordinators within the R2K and international InterRidge and ChEss science research programs, who directly solicit and facilitate the involvement of an interdisciplinary community of scientists in the project based on their needs and interests. Concurrently, the model also relies on the GLOBE program to facilitate awareness and access to a large, established network of international educators who are interested in the process of science and interacting with the scientific community. The predominantly web-based interfaces that serve to effectively link together the FLEXE science and education communities have been developed by the Center for Science and the Schools at Penn State University, and are based on researched educational pedagogy, tools and techniques. The FLEXE partnership model will be discussed in the context of both broad and specific considerations of audience needs, scientist and educator recruitment, and the costs and benefits for those involved in the project.

  10. Ridge and Furrow Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per Grau

    2016-01-01

    Ridge and furrow is a specific way of ploughing which makes fields of systematic ridges and furrows like a rubbing washboard. They are part of an overall openfield system, but the focus in this paper is on the functionality of the fields. There are many indications that agro-technological reasons...... systems and the establishment of basic structures like villages (with churches) and townships and states (in northern Europe). The fields can be considered as a resilient structure lasting for 800 years, along with the same basic physical structures in society.......Ridge and furrow is a specific way of ploughing which makes fields of systematic ridges and furrows like a rubbing washboard. They are part of an overall openfield system, but the focus in this paper is on the functionality of the fields. There are many indications that agro-technological reasons...... form the background for the fields. The fields were used in northern Europe ca. 1000–1800 in low-technological agricultural societies, although introducing them was probably an innovation that led to higher yields. At least, it can be argued that, chronologically, there is a coincidence of field...

  11. ORIS: the Oak Ridge Imaging System program listings. [Nuclear medicine imaging with rectilinear scanner and gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, P. R.; Dougherty, J. M.

    1978-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) is a general purpose access, storage, processing and display system for nuclear medicine imaging with rectilinear scanner and gamma camera. This volume contains listings of the PDP-8/E version of ORIS Version 2. The system is designed to run under the Digital Equipment Corporation's OS/8 monitor in 16K or more words of core. System and image file mass storage is on RK8E disk; longer-time image file storage is provided on DECtape. Another version of this program exists for use with the RF08 disk, and a more limited version is for DECtape only. This latter version is intended for non-medical imaging.

  12. Mantle flow geometry from ridge to trench beneath the Gorda-Juan de Fuca plate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Short, Robert; Allen, Richard M.; Bastow, Ian D.; Totten, Eoghan; Richards, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic plates are underlain by a low-viscosity mantle layer, the asthenosphere. Asthenospheric flow may be induced by the overriding plate or by deeper mantle convection. Shear strain due to this flow can be inferred using the directional dependence of seismic wave speeds--seismic anisotropy. However, isolation of asthenospheric signals is challenging; most seismometers are located on continents, whose complex structure influences the seismic waves en route to the surface. The Cascadia Initiative, an offshore seismometer deployment in the US Pacific Northwest, offers the opportunity to analyse seismic data recorded on simpler oceanic lithosphere. Here we use measurements of seismic anisotropy across the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates to reconstruct patterns of asthenospheric mantle shear flow from the Juan de Fuca mid-ocean ridge to the Cascadia subduction zone trench. We find that the direction of fastest seismic wave motion rotates with increasing distance from the mid-ocean ridge to become aligned with the direction of motion of the Juan de Fuca Plate, implying that this plate influences mantle flow. In contrast, asthenospheric mantle flow beneath the Gorda Plate does not align with Gorda Plate motion and instead aligns with the neighbouring Pacific Plate motion. These results show that asthenospheric flow beneath the small, slow-moving Gorda Plate is controlled largely by advection due to the much larger, faster-moving Pacific Plate.

  13. Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

  14. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System Upgrade for Building 3544 (Process Waste Treatment Plant) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3544 Process Waste Treatment Plant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) relating to environmental protection requirements for tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new double contained LLW line replacing an existing buried line that does not provide double containment. This new above ground, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of treated process waste fluid to an outside truck loading station. The new double contained discharge line is provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. An existing LLW transfer pump, concentrated waste tank, piping and accessories are being utilized, with the addition of a secondary containment system comprised of a dike, a chemically resistant internal coating on the diked area surfaces and operator surveillance on a daily basis for the diked area leak detection. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  15. Mapping modern CO2 fluxes and mantle carbon content all along the mid-ocean ridge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavrit, Deborah; Humler, Eric; Grasset, Olivier; Morizet, Yann; Laporte, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Quality criteria have been used to select ~ 400 vesicularity measurements on zero-age mid-ocean ridge glasses from ~ 600 data available in the literature published over the past ~ 30 years. At face value, observations show that for a given depth of sampling, enriched basalts from slow spreading ridge segments are more vesicular than those from depleted and intermediate or fast spreading ridges. A shallower depth of eruption enhances these effects because lower hydrostatic pressure favours bubble expansion. In order to get an insight into these complex and intermingled processes, we used empirical and semi-quantitative approaches based on a limited number of inputs (segment depth, spreading rate and K2O/TiO2 ratios). Both models give equivalent results and predict vesicularities within ± 50%. From these calculations, we compute the equivalent CO2 concentration at the depth of eruption all along the oceanic ridge system. The total calculated CO2 fluxes are low ranging from 6.5±1.8 to 8.7±2.8 ×1011 mol/yr between the models and the CO2 mantle content displays large variabilities from 66-19+27 to 78-40+82 ppm, with values higher near hot spots. In order to test these results, the mantle 3He fluxes have been evaluated using the calculated CO2 fluxes and a CO2/3He ratio of 2.2 × 109. These fluxes range from 295±82 to 395±127 mol/yr and are close to the values reported by Jean-Baptiste (1992) (267-534 mol/yr) and the most recent estimate (Bianchi et al., 2010, ~527±102 mol/yr) using box-model of the three main ocean basins constrained by measurements of 3He and radiocarbon data. As these independent methods give similar helium fluxes at regional and global scales, it provides strong support to a low and heterogeneous mantle carbon concentration and distribution.

  16. Data management plan for the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System, Version 1.1. Enviornmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-04

    The Data Management Plan (DMP) describes the data management objectives, system components, data base structure and contents, system maintenance, data processing, and user interface for the prototype phase of the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). The major goals of OREIS data management are to compile data of known quality, to maintain the integrity of the data base, and to provide data to users. The DMP defines the requirements, describes the responsibilities, and references the procedures for meeting the data management objectives. Emphasis is on management of measurement data and the associated metadata used to support its proper interpretation and legal defensibility. The DMP covers transmittal, processing, storage, and data access activities associated with OREIS. The OREIS data dictionary is provided as an appendix.

  17. Geology of the Early Archean Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal System in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, K.; Maruyama, S.

    2007-12-01

    An Archean hydrothermal system in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton is associated with extensive fluid circulation driven by numerous extensional fracture systems and the underlying heat source. The fracture system is now occupied by abundant fine-grained quartz aggregate, hence we call this as silica dikes. Some of the fracture system extends deeper structural levels as listric normal faults down to 1000 m depth in the MORB crust. Barite-bearing fine-grained quartz predominant mineralogy indicates the extensive development of fracturing and quenching in a short time. Accompanying the fluid circulation, the extensive metasomatism proceeded to form the four different chemical courses, (1) silicification, (2) carbonation, (3) potassium-enrichment, and (4) Fe- enrichment. Silicification occurs along the silica dikes, carbonated greenstones are distributed relatively shallower level. Potassium-enriched (mica-rich) greenstones occur at the top of the greenstone sequence, and Fe-enriched (chlorite-rich) greenstones are distributed at lower part of the basaltic greenstones. The down going fluid precipitated carbonate-rich layer at shallow levels, whereas depleted in SiO2. Then, the fluid went down to more deeper level, and was dissolved SiO2 at high temperature (~350°C) and chlorite-rich greenstone was formed by water-rock interaction. The upwelling fluid precipitated dominantly SiO2 and formed silica dikes. Silica dikes cement the fractures formed by extensional faulting at earliest stage of development of oceanic crust. Therefore, the hydrothermal system must have related to normal fault system simultaneously with MORB volcanism. Particularly the greenish breccia with cherty matrix (oregano chert) was formed at positions by upwelling near ridge axis. After the horizontal removal of MORB crust from the ridge-axis with time, the propagating fracture into deeper levels, transports hydrothermal fluids into 500-1000 m depth range where metasomatic element exchange between

  18. New ridge parameters for ridge regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Dorugade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hoerl and Kennard (1970a introduced the ridge regression estimator as an alternative to the ordinary least squares (OLS estimator in the presence of multicollinearity. In ridge regression, ridge parameter plays an important role in parameter estimation. In this article, a new method for estimating ridge parameters in both situations of ordinary ridge regression (ORR and generalized ridge regression (GRR is proposed. The simulation study evaluates the performance of the proposed estimator based on the mean squared error (MSE criterion and indicates that under certain conditions the proposed estimators perform well compared to OLS and other well-known estimators reviewed in this article.

  19. Single-stage implantation in the atrophic alveolar ridge of the mandible with the Norian skeletal repair system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzle, Frank; Bauer, Florian; Kesting, Marco R; Mücke, Thomas; Deppe, Herbert; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Swaid, Sami

    2011-10-01

    Dental implants have played a part in rehabilitation of the jaws for more than 40 years, but in some cases they alone are inadequate because of extreme alveolar resorption. Correction may necessitate a two-stage procedure with additional interventions. We have made a preliminary study of the use of the Norian skeletal repair system (SRS), a carbonated calcium phosphate bone cement used to augment the alveolar ridge as a single-stage procedure, with the placement of implants. Ten edentulous patients with insufficient vertical bone in the interforaminal area were treated. After a horizontal osteotomy and crestal mobilisation of the alveolar ridge, implants were placed through the crestal part and fixed in the basal part of the mandible. Norian SRS was used to fill the gap created. The prostheses were inserted 3 months later. Forty implants were inserted. The follow up period was 60 months, and no fractures or dislocations developed. One of the implants was lost and there was one wound dehiscence, but no surgical intervention or revision was necessary. Radiographs showed good consolidation of the bony structure in all cases. We have described a reliable, single-stage procedure for augmentation and implantation in a highly atrophic alveolar crest. A 98% survival is comparable with those of other techniques. Further clinical trials are necessary to replicate these promising results.

  20. Geographic information system documentation of watershed data for Direct/Delayed Response Project. Southern Blue Ridge Province data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) was designed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to predict the long-term response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic deposition. The purpose of the DDRP is to investigate and distinguish the time scales over which surface-water systems might change chemically under varying levels of acidic deposition. The DDRP is examining a subset of watersheds sampled as part of the National Surface Water Survey. In the Southern Blue Ridge Province Region of the United States, 35 watersheds are under study. The DDRP required detailed watershed information on those characteristics thought important relative to the effects of acid deposition. The information was then mapped, then entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS). The document discuss protocols, guidelines, and standards used to complete GIS entry of the mapping data, and quality-control procedures were used to ensure accuracy and consistency.

  1. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...

  2. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments.

  3. The Alarcón Rise: detail mapping and preliminary results on the geometry, distribution and kinematics of faults and fissures on a ridge-transform system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelz, R. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Santa Rosa-del Rio, M.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.; Guardado-France, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Alarcón Rise, the northernmost segment of the East Pacific Rise before it enters the Gulf of California, is the oldest and perhaps most active spreading ridge-transform system along the oblique-divergent Pacific-North America plate boundary in the southern Gulf of California. Magnetic anomalies along the main ridge axis, which stretches for nearly 50 km long in a NE-SW (034o) direction, suggest that spreading with new oceanic crust was fully established ca. 2.5 Ma, and that its modern configuration as the main plate boundary initiated ca. 2 Ma (Umhoefer, P.J. et al., 2007 Basin Research). High resolution (1m lateral/0.2m vertical) bathymetry data and direct observations of the entire ridge segment, collected and performed by MBARI's autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and ROV dives, respectively, during the 2012 Expedition to the Gulf of California, have revealed the presence of an intense array of fault-scarps and fissures displacing numerous neovolcanic landforms such as huge lava domes and smaller cones, pillow mounds and large sheet flows along the entire ridge. The relative age of the surface ruptures is wide-ranging. At some places the fractures appear to be relatively recent, as evident by the apparent young age of the fractured flows, based on having few sessile organisms and/or relatively thin sediment cover. In contrast, fractures and fault-scarps elsewhere are observed to have been partially or totally overrun by lava flows, suggesting their preexistence and relatively older age. The ridge parallel faults and fissures change orientation dramatically as they approach and wrap around the bordering Pescadero and Tamayo fracture zones, which limit the northern and southern flanks of the rise, respectively, giving the ridge a sigmoidal geometry with a Z-shaped symmetry. Moreover, the presence of an en echelon volcanic fissure system near the southern end of the ridge, measuring several kilometers long and oriented somewhat obliquely (~15o clockwise) to

  4. Origin of magnetic highs at ultramafic hosted hydrothermal systems: Insights from the Yokoniwa site of Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masakazu; Okino, Kyoko; Sato, Taichi; Sato, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution vector magnetic measurements were performed on an inactive ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal vent field, called Yokoniwa Hydrothermal Field (YHF), using a deep-sea manned submersible Shinkai6500 and an autonomous underwater vehicle r2D4. The YHF has developed at a non-transform offset massif of the Central Indian Ridge. Dead chimneys were widely observed around the YHF along with a very weak venting of low-temperature fluids so that hydrothermal activity of the YHF was almost finished. The distribution of crustal magnetization from the magnetic anomaly revealed that the YHF is associated with enhanced magnetization, as seen at the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow and Ashadze-1 hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The results of rock magnetic analysis on seafloor rock samples (including basalt, dolerite, gabbro, serpentinized peridotite, and hydrothermal sulfide) showed that only highly serpentinized peridotite carries high magnetic susceptibility and that the natural remanent magnetization intensity can explain the high magnetization of Yokoniwa. These observations reflect abundant and strongly magnetized magnetite grains within the highly serpentinized peridotite. Comparisons with the Rainbow and Ashadze-1 suggest that in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems, strongly magnetized magnetite and pyrrhotite form during the progression of hydrothermal alteration of peridotite. After the completion of serpentinization and production of hydrogen, pyrrhotites convert into pyrite or nonmagnetic iron sulfides, which considerably reduces their levels of magnetization. Our results revealed origins of the magnetic high and the development of subsurface chemical processes in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems. Furthermore, the results highlight the use of near-seafloor magnetic field measurements as a powerful tool for detecting and characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  5. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  6. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  7. Fine-scale heat flow, shallow heat sources, and decoupled circulation systems at two sea-floor hydrothermal sites, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.S.; Fisher, A.T. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Langseth, M.; Jin, W.; Iturrino, G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Davis, E. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, British Columbia (Canada). Pacific Geoscience Centre

    1998-12-01

    Fine-scale heat-flow patterns at two areas of active venting in Middle Valley, a sedimented rift on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, provide thermal evidence of shallow hydrothermal reservoirs beneath the vent fields. The extreme variability of heat flow is explained by conductive heating immediately adjacent to vents and shallow circulation within sediments above the reservoir. This secondary circulation is hydrologically separated from the deeper system feeding the vents by a shallow conductive lid within the sediments. A similar separation of shallow and deep circulation may also occur at sediment-free ridge-crest hydrothermal environments.

  8. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  9. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  10. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  11. Geosciences Student Recruitment Strategies at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB): Earth System Science/Community-Research Based Education Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambos, E. L.; Behl, R.; Whitney, D.; Rodrigue, C.; Wechsler, S.; Holk, G.; Lee, C.; Francis, R. D.; Larson, D.

    2005-12-01

    Collaborations among geoscience-oriented departments at California State University, Long Beach (Geological Sciences, as well as portions of the Geography and Anthropology departments and a new, fast-growing Environmental Sciences and Policy (ES&P) program) are characterized by attention to three important elements: (1) community-based partnerships and research, (2) outreach and continuity within educational pipeline transitions from high school, to community college, to university, and, (3) sharing of resources and expertise. Three specific collaborations, (1) creation of the ES&P, (2) the NSF-funded Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Program (GDEP), and, (3) the Institute for Interdisciplinary Research on Materials, Environment, and Societies (IIRMES), are powerful illustrations of how these collaborations can work to foster geoscience student recruitment and academic development, particularly at urban, highly diverse institutions with limited resources. Through a combination of student surveys, focus groups, and institutional research supported by the GDEP program, we know (e.g., Whitney et al., 2005) that non-Caucasian students often express less affinity for the geosciences as a focus of study than Caucasians. Early exposure to positive field and laboratory experiences, better understanding of geoscience career possibilities, and better advising at high school and college levels are all excellent strategies for heightening student interest and recruitment in the geosciences, yet appear to be lacking for many of the students in the greater Long Beach, California area. GDEP, ES&P, and IIRMES all challenge these lacunae by emphasizing hands-on learning, research on relevant community-based problems, and one-on-one or small group research, advising and mentoring. Our current challenge is to help our high-school and community-college colleagues adopt their own model of these active-learning strategies, thereby priming the pump and patching the pipe(line) for student

  12. Incorporating Ridges with Minutiae for Improved Fingerprint verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.M.Indra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Next to DNA, fingerprint is the unique feature which identifies the individual. Distortions and skin deformations makes the fingerprint unreliable and it is difficult to match using minutiae alone. But when ridge features are incorporated with minutiae features (minutiae type, orientation and position more topological information can be obtained. And also ridges are invariant to transformations such as rotation and translation[1]. Ridge based coordinate system is used to extract the ridge features such as ridge length, ridge count, ridge type and curvature direction in the skeletonized image. Breadth First Search is used to traverse the graph formed using the minutiae as the node and the ridge vector formed using the ridge features as the edge. The proposed ridge feature gives additional information for fingerprint matching with little increment in template size and can be used along with the existing minutiae features to increase the accuracy and robustness of fingerprint recognition systems.

  13. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater.

  14. Technology Evaluation for the Big Spring Water Treatment System at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becthel Jacobs Company LLC

    2002-11-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) is an active manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that is located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. Building 9201-2 was one of the first process buildings constructed at the Y-12 Complex. Construction involved relocating and straightening of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) channel, adding large quantities of fill material to level areas along the creek, and pumping of concrete into sinkholes and solution cavities present within the limestone bedrock. Flow from a large natural spring designated as ''Big Spring'' on the original 1943 Stone & Webster Building 9201-2 Field Sketch FS6003 was captured and directed to UEFPC through a drainpipe designated Outfall 51. The building was used from 1953 to 1955 for pilot plant operations for an industrial process that involved the use of large quantities of elemental mercury. Past operations at the Y-12 Complex led to the release of mercury to the environment. Significant environmental media at the site were contaminated by accidental releases of mercury from the building process facilities piping and sumps associated with Y-12 Complex mercury handling facilities. Releases to the soil surrounding the buildings have resulted in significant levels of mercury in these areas of contamination, which is ultimately transported to UEFPC, its streambed, and off-site. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) is the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations prime contractor responsible for conducting environmental restoration activities at the Y-12 Complex. In order to mitigate the mercury being released to UEFPC, the Big Spring Water Treatment System will be designed and constructed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. This facility will treat the combined flow from Big Spring feeding Outfall 51 and the inflow now being processed at the East End Mercury Treatment System (EEMTS). Both discharge to

  15. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run

  16. Response to storm conditions of two different beaches at the Mediterranean coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mrini, Aldelmounim; Anfuso, Giorgio; Nachite, Driss; Taaouati, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades the increased demand for the recreational use of beaches has resulted in the uptake of studies on the morphodynamic processes which are acting on beaches. This knowledge is fundamental for appropriate coastal erosion management, suitable tourist use of littoral and for the design and shape of human construction. The Mediterranean sectors of Moroccan littoral investigated in this study, Ksar Rimal and Cabo Negro beaches, are respectively located north and south of Cabo Negro promontory and, over recent years, have been subject to increasing tourist activity. This has consisted mainly of the construction of two tourist ports (Marina Smir and Kabila), residential developments, hotels and a motorway which runs parallel to the coast, affecting the dune ridges and two lagoons which are of great ecological interest. In detail, the dunes located in the backshore at Ksar Rimal beach, are nowadays occupied by summer houses threaten by coastal retreat. A wide, partially urbanized, backshore is observed at Cabo Negro beach. With the intention of characterize the morphodynamic and seasonal behavior and the response of the studied beaches to storm impact, a beach monitoring program was carried out in the period 2006-2008, with special attention to the February-March 2008 stormy period. On analyzing the information obtained, it was possible to characterize the morphology and sedimentology of the studied beaches, and to calculate beach volumetric variations. Ksar Rimal is an open, exposed beach characterized by an intermediate slope (tan β = 0.10) with medium-coarse sands. The beach showed a reflective beach state characterized by plunging breakers. Small morphological seasonal changes were observed, most important morphological and volumetric variations (about 20 m3/m) taking place after winter storms which usually gave rise to a more dissipative beach profile (tan β = 0.05) characterized by spilling breakers. Beach recovery was quite rapid, usually lasting 2

  17. Partial Melt Systems in Plate-Driven Corner Flow: Evaluating the Formation of Porosity Bands as a Mechanism for Magma Focusing at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, D.; Butler, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The imposition of an external shear on a system of partial melt will result in compaction of the solid matrix and concentration of the interstitial liquid melt leading to the formation of regions of contrasting high and low porosity. In experiments, direct and torsional shear geometries have demonstrated that these regions of varying porosity form in bands orientated at low angles relative to the shear plane. A variety of numerical models have been employed to recreate these experimental results. Simple shear, pure shear and torsional shear geometries have been used in both linear and nonlinear numerical settings to model the formation of the porosity bands. In this contribution the numerical models utilize a shear geometry derived from the velocity field of the plate-driven corner flow of a mid-ocean ridge. Motivation for using the velocity field of a mid-ocean ridge comes from evidence that suggests the existence of lateral melt channeling from either side of the ridge axis. Imposing the shear from a mid-ocean ridge corner flow allows for the evaluation of the resulting porosity bands in terms of suitability for channeling melt laterally toward the ridge axis. This is done using both slow and fast spreading ridge geometries. The degree of similarity between previous numerical and experimental results has been found to be greatly influenced by the imposed viscosity law of the solid matrix phase. In order to keep this in mind, the numerical models in this contribution use three different matrix viscosity laws: strain-rate independent, strain-rate dependent and anisotropic. Of these rheologies, strain-rate independence results in the poorest orientation for channeling melt directly to the ridge axis. The strain-rate dependent and anisotropic viscosities present more favorable direct-channeling orientations for the fastest growing porosity bands, but in both cases the background flow will rotate bands to less ideal orientations over time. However, these less

  18. Effect of sillimanite beach sand composition on mullitization and properties of Al2O3–SiO2 system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Tripathi; B Mukherjee; S K Das; A Ghosh; G Banerjee

    2003-02-01

    Mullite was developed by reaction sintering of sillimanite beach sand and calcined alumina. Two varieties of sillimanite beach sand viz. S and Z having different compositions were selected. Synthesis and properties of mullite were very much dependent on the sillimanite beach sand composition. Presence of higher amount of impurities in the Z-variety of sillimanite sand favours the densification by liquid phase formation. Presence of zircon in Z-variety increases the hardness and fracture toughness. Alumina addition improves the mechanical/thermomechanical properties of the samples. Mullite retains the usual orthorhombic habit of sillimanite. Rounded to sub rounded zirconia dispersed within the mullite matrix of the sample ZA is noticed.

  19. Mesoscale Morphological Change, Beach Rotation and Storm Climate Influences along a Macrotidal Embayed Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shore profiles and environmental forcing were used to analyse morphological change of a headland bay beach: Tenby, West Wales (51.66 N; −4.71 W over a mesoscale timeframe (1996–2013. Beach profile variations were attuned with longer term shoreline change identified by previous research showing southern erosion and northern accretion within the subaerial zone and were statistically significant in both sectors although centrally there was little or no significance. Conversely a statistically significant volume loss was shown at all profile locations within the intertidal zone. There were negative phase relationships between volume changes at the beach extremities, indicative of beach rotation and results were statistically significant (p < 0.01 within both subaerial (R2 = 0.59 and intertidal (R2 = 0.70 zones. This was confirmed qualitatively by time-series analysis and further cross correlation analysis showed trend reversal time-lagged associations between sediment exchanges at either end of the beach. Wave height and storm events displayed summer/winter trends which explained longer term one directional rotation at this location. In line with previous regional research, environmental forcing suggests that imposed changes are influenced by variations in southwesterly wind regimes. Winter storms are generated by Atlantic southwesterly winds and cause a south toward north sediment exchange, while southeasterly conditions that cause a trend reversal are generally limited to the summer period when waves are less energetic. Natural and man-made embayed beaches are a common coastal feature and many experience shoreline changes, jeopardising protective and recreational beach functions. In order to facilitate effective and sustainable coastal zone management strategies, an understanding of the morphological variability of these systems is needed. Therefore, this macrotidal research dealing with rotational processes across the entire intertidal

  20. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  1. Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometry of the Cocos Ridge hydrothermal system, IODP Expedition 344 (CRISP 2), Site U1414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, J.; Kurz, W.; Krenn, K.; Micheuz, P.

    2015-12-01

    We present new data from microthermometric analyses of fluid inclusions entrapped in hydrothermal veins within lithified sediments and Cocos Ridge (CCR) basalt from IODP Expedition 344 site U1414 (Costa Rica) and concern on a primary task of Expedition 344, i.e. to evaluate fluid/rock interaction, the hydrologic system, and the geochemical processes (indicated by composition and volume of fluids) active within the incoming Cocos Plate. Mineralization of the veins and crosscutting relationships gives constraints for the different generation of veins. Calcium carbonate, commonly aragonite in the upper part and calcite in the lower part of the igneous basement, is usually present in veins as a late phase following the quartz precipitation and the clay minerals formation. The sequence of vein generations in the lithified sediments close to the contact within the CCR basalt is characterized by smaller veins filled by quartz, followed by massive intersecting calcite veins. A high fluid pressure can be concluded, due to wall rock fragments embedded within the filling and fractured mineral grains in the ground mass, which are close to the veins. This requires that the magmatic basement and the lithified sediments were covered by sequences of low permeability sediments forming a barrier that enabled build up elevated fluid pressure. The investigation of fluid inclusions in the lowest units of borehole 344-U1414, give clues about the source of the fluids and about the vein evolution within the incoming Cocos Plate close to Middle American Trench. The microthermometric analyses of the primary, almost aqueous, inclusions indicate a temperature range during entrapment between 200 and 420°C. The data indicate that seawater within the Cocos Ridge aquifer communicated with high-temperature fluids and/or were modified by heat advection. We consider the Galapagos hotspot and/ or the Cocos-Nazca spreading center as heat source. Fluids originated from mobilized sediment pore water

  2. The Loyalty—New Hebrides Arc collision: Effects on the Loyalty Ridge and basin system, Southwest Pacific (first results of the ZoNéCo programme)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafoy, Yves; Missegue, Francois; Cluzel, Dominique; Le Suave, Raymond

    1996-06-01

    The ZoNéCo 1 and 2 cruises of Ifremer's Research Vessel L'Atalante, collected new swath bathymetry and geophysical data over the southern and northern segments of the basins and ridges forming the Loyalty system. Between the two surveyed areas, previous studies found evidence for the resistance of the Loyalty Ridge to subduction beneath the New Hebrides trench near 22°S 169°E. On the subducted plate, except for seismicity related to the downbending of the Australian plate, recorded shallow seismicity is sparse within the Loyalty system (Ridge and Basin) where reliable focal mechanism solutions are almost absent. Swath bathymetry, seismic reflection and magnetic data acquired during the ZoNéCo 1 and 2 cruises revealed a transverse asymmetric morphology in the Loyalty system, and an along-strike horst and graben structure on the discontinuous Loyalty Ridge. South of 23°50'S and at 20°S, the two WSW-ENE-trending fault systems, respectively, sinistral and dextral, that crosscut the southern and northern segments of the Loyalty system, are interpreted as due to the early effects of collision with the New Hebrides Arc. A NNW-SSE trend, evident along the whole Loyalty system and on the island of New Caledonia, is interpreted as an inherited structural trend that may have been reactivated through flexure of the Australian lithospheric plate at the subduction zone. Overall then, the morphology, structure and evolution of the southern and northern segments of the Loyalty system probably result from the combined effects of the Australian plate lithospheric bulge, the active Loyalty-New Hebrides collision and the overthrust of the New Caledonian ophiolite.

  3. Generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression, knowledge-leveraged inductive transfer learning for neural networks, fuzzy systems and kernel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong

    2014-12-01

    Inductive transfer learning has attracted increasing attention for the training of effective model in the target domain by leveraging the information in the source domain. However, most transfer learning methods are developed for a specific model, such as the commonly used support vector machine, which makes the methods applicable only to the adopted models. In this regard, the generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression (GHRR) method is introduced in order to train various types of classical intelligence models, including neural networks, fuzzy logical systems and kernel methods. Furthermore, the knowledge-leverage based transfer learning mechanism is integrated with GHRR to realize the inductive transfer learning method called transfer GHRR (TGHRR). Since the information from the induced knowledge is much clearer and more concise than that from the data in the source domain, it is more convenient to control and balance the similarity and difference of data distributions between the source and target domains. The proposed GHRR and TGHRR algorithms have been evaluated experimentally by performing regression and classification on synthetic and real world datasets. The results demonstrate that the performance of TGHRR is competitive with or even superior to existing state-of-the-art inductive transfer learning algorithms.

  4. Poroelastic response of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems to ocean tidal loading: Implications for shallow permeability structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Sohn, Robert A.

    2016-02-01

    We use the time delay between tidal loading and exit-fluid temperature response for hydrothermal vents to model the poroelastic behavior and shallow upflow zone (SUZ) effective permeability structure of three mid-ocean ridge (MOR) sites with different spreading rates. Hydrothermal vents at Lucky Strike field exhibit relatively small phase lags corresponding to high SUZ effective permeabilities of ≥ ~10-10 m2, with variations that we interpret as resulting from differences in the extrusive layer thickness. By contrast, vents at East Pacific Rise site exhibit relatively large phase lags corresponding to low SUZ effective permeabilities of ≤ ~10-13 m2. Vents at Main Endeavour field exhibit both high and low phase lags, suggestive of a transitional behavior. Our results demonstrate that tidal forcing perturbs hydrothermal flow across the global MOR system, even in places where the tidal amplitude is very low, and that the flow response can be used to constrain variations in SUZ permeability structure beneath individual vent fields.

  5. Hydrogeology and Migration of Septic-Tank Effluent in the Surficial Aquifer System in the Northern Midlands Area, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wesley L.

    1992-01-01

    The northern Midlands area in Palm Beach County is an area of expected residential growth, but its flat topography, poor drainage, and near-surface marl layers retard rainfall infiltration and cause frequent flooding. Public water supplies and sewer services are not planned for the area, thus, residents must rely on domestic wells and septic tanks. The water table in the northern Midlands area is seldom more than 5 feet below land surface, and regional ground-water flows are east, southwest, and south from the north-central part of the area where ground-water levels are highest. Ground-water quality in the western part of the area and in the Loxahatchee Slough is greatly influenced by residual seawater emplaced during the Pleistocene Epoch. Chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the surficial aquifer system in these areas often exceed secondary drinking-water standards. Residual seawater has been more effectively flushed from the more permeable sediments elsewhere in the eastern and southwestern parts of the study area. Test at three septic-tank sites showed traces of effluent in ground water (38-92 feet from the septic tank outlets) and that near-surface marl layers greatly impede the downward migration of the effluent in the surficial aquifer system throughout the northern midlands.

  6. 论湖相滩与坝的成因差异%Discussion on Genesis Difference of Lake Beach and Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠民; 王群; 王春阳; 付尧

    2016-01-01

    A beach and bar is one of the common shore shallow lake sedimentary system.Since 1990 s,the beach and bar has drown an increasing attention because of being good reservoir of hydrocarbon. Based on a great amount of domestic and broad references and modern sedimentary study,this article gives definition and classification to loch beach and loch bar according to the hydrodynamics and deposition pattern.Beach is the banded (or sheeted)sedimentary body because of the migration of clastic sediments of perpendicular to the shore which is roughly parallel to shore.Beach is connected to the shore plain,where a beach ridge or beach trough interphase is distributed.A underwater beach ridge is customarily referred to an offshore bar.Bar is the sedimentary body formed by littoral current;and one end of which is connected to the shore,while the other end freely extends.There should be a bay or lagoon between shore and bar.Beach and bar are different in hydrodynamic condition.They cannot be symbiosis in the plane.It is impossible that bar is one special type of beach.%滩坝是滨浅湖地区常见的一种沉积体系类型,自20世纪90年代起,滩坝作为良好的油气储集体受到人们重视。本文在国内外大量文献资料查阅以及现代沉积考察的基础上,追溯滩坝定义来源,并从水动力搬运和沉积方式上对湖相滩与坝的差异进行重新讨论,将滩与坝划分为两种能够完全区分的沉积体。滩是自浪基面至最大湖泛面范围内,碎屑物质在波浪作用下垂直于湖岸搬运和沉积的、与岸大致平行的席状(或条带状)沉积体,向陆地方向直接与湖岸平原相连。滩可以呈大面积席状展布,也可以呈滩脊、滩槽状相间分布,沿岸沙坝本质是形成于水下的滩脊。坝是在沿岸流作用下,碎屑物质平行湖岸搬运并沉积于岸线向陆弯折处、一端与岸相连、另一端向湖区自由伸展的沉积体,坝与湖岸平原常

  7. Field Evaluation of MERCEM Mercury Emission Analyzer System at the Oak Ridge TSCA Incinerator East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    The authors reached the following conclusions: (1) The two-month evaluation of the MERCEM total mercury monitor from Perkin Elmer provided a useful venue in determining the feasibility of using a CEM to measure total mercury in a saturated flue gas. (2) The MERCEM exhibited potential at a mixed waste incinerator to meet requirements proposed in PS12 under conditions of operation with liquid feeds only at stack mercury concentrations in the range of proposed MACT standards. (3) Performance of the MERCEM under conditions of incinerating solid and liquid wastes simultaneously was less reliable than while feeding liquid feeds only for the operating conditions and configuration of the host facility. (4) The permeation tube calibration method used in this test relied on the CEM internal volumetric and time constants to relate back to a concentration, whereas a compressed gas cylinder concentration is totally independent of the analyzer mass flowmeter and flowrates. (5) Mercury concentration in the compressed gas cylinders was fairly stable over a 5-month period. (6) The reliability of available reference materials was not fully demonstrated without further evaluation of their incorporation into routine operating procedures performed by facility personnel. (7) The degree of mercury control occurring in the TSCA Incinerator off-gas cleaning system could not be quantified from the data collected in this study. (8) It was possible to conduct the demonstration at a facility incinerating radioactively contaminated wastes and to release the equipment for later unrestricted use elsewhere. (9) Experience gained by this testing answered additional site-specific and general questions regarding the operation and maintenance of CEMs and their use in compliance monitoring of total mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

  8. Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Performance and the Enhanced Control Algorithm on Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Flexible Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A research project “Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems Performance and the Enhanced Control Algorithm on Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Flexible Research Platform” was performed to (1) install and validate the performance of Samsung VRF systems compared with the baseline rooftop unit (RTU) variable-air-volume (VAV) system and (2) evaluate the enhanced control algorithm for the VRF system on the two-story flexible research platform (FRP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Based on the VRF system designed by Samsung and ORNL, the system was installed from February 18 through April 15, 2014. The final commissioning and system optimization were completed on June 2, 2014, and the initial test for system operation was started the following day, June 3, 2014. In addition, the enhanced control algorithm was implemented and updated on June 18. After a series of additional commissioning actions, the energy performance data from the RTU and the VRF system were monitored from July 7, 2014, through February 28, 2015. Data monitoring and analysis were performed for the cooling season and heating season separately, and the calibrated simulation model was developed and used to estimate the energy performance of the RTU and VRF systems. This final report includes discussion of the design and installation of the VRF system, the data monitoring and analysis plan, the cooling season and heating season data analysis, and the building energy modeling study

  9. Complex ridge-transform evolution and mantle exhumation at the St. Paul fracture zone system, Equatorial Alantic. Preliminary results from the COLMEIA cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Santos, R.; Birot, D.; Brachet, C.; Brehme, I.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Campos, T.; Colosio, A.; de Moraes, E.; Donval, J.; Fontes, F.; Gaspar, F.; Guyader, V.; Hemond, C.; Konn, C.; Marcondes, M.; Motoki, A.; berengere, M.; Moura, D.; Pessanha, I.; Scalabrin, C.; Vale, E.

    2013-12-01

    The COLMEIA cruise, held in the Equatorial Atlantic, in the area of the St. Paul transform system, is part of a joint effort between France and Brazil for the study of the Mid-Atlantic ridge near the St. Peter & St. Paul's Rocks. The scientific objective of the cruise was to study in detail the temporal evolution of the complex transform plate boundary, and the origin of the St. Peter-St. Paul mylonitic massif. This area of the Mid-Atlantic ridge was considered to be a mantle 'cold spot', thus a magma-starved region with large occurrences of mantle-derived units outcropping at the seafloor. During the cruise we acquired multibeam echosounder bathymetry, backscattering, water column acoustic data, gravity, magnetics and seismics. 31 dredges successfully returned a wide variety of rocks, including basalts, gabbros and peridotites. The 15 CTD stations with nephelometric profiles casted in the transform region returned a single hydrothermal plume signal, probably sourced in the MAR segment south of the St. Paul system, while no hydrothermal activity was directly detected inside the transform system. 5 autonomous hydrophones were moored in the SOFAR channel around the study area in order to monitor the seismic activity and whale presence; they will be recovered mid-2014. Both bathymetry data and recovered rocks show that the image of a regional amagmatic MAR cannot be applied to the whole of the St. Paul system. The ridge segments are short and narrow, with deep axial valleys. Axial depths are below 4000 m on average, and reach 5400 m in some nodal basins. There is no evidence for a clearly defined neo-volcanic ridge on the axial valley floors, but a few volcanoes were observed in the axial valley of the central segment. The pattern of off-axis abyssal hills is highly variable from one segment to another. The northern segment displays a long sequence of magmatic abyssal hills. The central segment shows both hummocky ridges probably of magmatic origin, alternated to

  10. Investigation of Icelandic rift zones reveals systematic changes in hydrothermal outflow in concert with seismic and magmatic events: Implications for investigation of Mid-Ocean Ridge hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curewitz, D.; Karson, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Co-registration of several generations of geological data was carried out for hydrothermal fields along active rift zones of the Iceland plate boundary zone. Significant short- and long-term changes in vent locations, flow rates and styles, and fluid characteristics over short periods take place in concert with recorded earthquakes, dike intrusions, and fissure eruptions. Higher resolution, more detailed analysis of the Icelandic hydrothermal sites will inform investigation of similar data from mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems along the RIDGE 2000 focus sites. Initial results from the Hengill and Krafla geothermal areas covering a time-span of nearly 40 years at ~10 year intervals reveal limited changes in the surface expression of fault populations, with the exception of local fault and fracture systems. The location and population density of individual vents and groups of vents underwent significant changes over the same time period, with either vents shifting location, or new vents opening and old vents closing. Registration of changes in vent fluid temperatures, vent field ground temperatures, fluid flow rates, and vent eruptive styles reveal changes in hydrothermal flow systematics in concert with the observed changes in vent location and vent population density. Significant local seismic and volcanological events (earthquakes, earthquake swarms, dike intrusions, eruptions, inflation/deflation) that are potential triggers for the observed changes take place in intervening years between production of successive maps. Changes in modeled stress intensities and local fracture/fault density and geometry associated with these tectono-magmatic events correspond well to inferred locations of increased or decreased shallow permeability thought to control hydrothermal outflow behavior. Recent seismic events are strongly linked to well-mapped changes in fracture/fault population and hydrothermal flow behavior in the Hveragerdi region, near Hengill, and provide higher

  11. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  12. BEACH VOLUME CHANGE USING UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY SONGJUNG BEACH, KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  13. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  14. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  15. Climate-change impacts on sandy-beach biota: crossing a line in the sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A; Defeo, Omar

    2014-08-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are iconic assets that provide irreplaceable ecosystem services to society. Despite their great socioeconomic importance, beaches as ecosystems are severely under-represented in the literature on climate-change ecology. Here, we redress this imbalance by examining whether beach biota have been observed to respond to recent climate change in ways that are consistent with expectations under climate change. We base our assessments on evidence coming from case studies on beach invertebrates in South America and on sea turtles globally. Surprisingly, we find that observational evidence for climate-change responses in beach biota is more convincing for invertebrates than for highly charismatic turtles. This asymmetry is paradoxical given the better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which turtles are likely to respond to changes in climate. Regardless of this disparity, knowledge of the unique attributes of beach systems can complement our detection of climate-change impacts on sandy-shore invertebrates to add rigor to studies of climate-change ecology for sandy beaches. To this end, we combine theory from beach ecology and climate-change ecology to put forward a suite of predictive hypotheses regarding climate impacts on beaches and to suggest ways that these can be tested. Addressing these hypotheses could significantly advance both beach and climate-change ecology, thereby progressing understanding of how future climate change will impact coastal ecosystems more generally.

  16. Solar energy system economic evaluation: final report for SEMCO-Loxahatchee, Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Loxahatchee, Florida Operational Test Site (OTS) is developed for Loxahatchee and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-Chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system costs over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. The results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  17. Horry County Beach Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Horry County has coordinated with DHEC OCRM to fully inventory, analyze, and documenteach of the ten required elements for an approvable local comprehensive beach...

  18. 1933 Long Beach, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...

  19. Fluid inclusion petrology and microthermometry of the Cocos Ridge hydrothermal system, IODP Expedition 344 (CRISP 2), Site U1414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Jennifer; Kurz, Walter; Krenn, Kurt; Micheuz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we present new data from microthermometry of fluid inclusions entrapped in hydrothermal veins along the Cocos Ridge from the IODP Expedition 344 Site U1414. The results of our study concern a primary task of IODP Expedition 344 to evaluate fluid/rock interaction linked with the tectonic evolution of the incoming Cocos Plate from the Early Miocene up to recent times. Aqueous, low saline fluids are concentrated within veins from both the Cocos Ridge basalt and the overlying lithified sediments of Unit III. Mineralization and crosscutting relationships give constraints for different vein generations. Isochores from primary, reequilibrated, and secondary fluid inclusions crossed with litho/hydrostatic pressures indicate an anticlockwise PT evolution during vein precipitation and modification by isobaric heating and subsequent cooling at pressures between ˜210 and 350 bar. Internal over and underpressures in the inclusions enabled decrepitation and reequilibration of early inclusions but also modification of vein generations in the Cocos Ridge basalt and in the lithified sediments. We propose that lithification of the sediments was accompanied with a first stage of vein development (VU1 and VC1) that resulted from Galapagos hotspot activity in the Middle Miocene. Heat advection, either related to the Cocos-Nazca spreading center or to hotspot activity closer to the Middle America Trench, led to subsequent vein modification (VC2, VU2/3) related to isobaric heating. The latest mineralization (VC3, VU3) within aragonite and calcite veins and some vesicles of the Cocos Ridge basalt occurred during crustal cooling up to recent times. Fluid inclusion analyses and published isotope data show evidence for communication with deeper sourced, high-temperature hydrothermal fluids within the Cocos Plate. The fluid source of the hydrothermal veins reflects aqueous low saline pore water mixed with invaded seawater.

  20. Modes of embayed beach dynamics: analysis reveals emergent timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. T.; Murray, A.; Limber, P. W.; Ells, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    'rotational' mode. The newly identified breathing mode captures the sand movement from the middle of the beach towards the edges (thickening the beach along the headlands), and the rotational mode describes the movement of sand towards one headland or another, both in response to stochastic fluctuations about the mean wave climate. The two main modes operate independently and on different timescales. In a weakly low-angle dominated wave climate, the breathing mode tends to be the first mode (capturing the most variance), but with greater low-angle dominance (greater morphological diffusivity), the rotational mode tends to be first. The aspect ratio of the bay also affects the order of the modes, because wave shadowing affects sediment transport behind the headlands. Previous work has attributed beach rotation to changes in various climate indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (Thomas et al., 2011); however, PCA analysis of the RCEM results suggests that embayed beaches can have characteristic timescales of sand movement that result from internal system dynamics, emerging even within a statistically constant wave climate. These results suggest that morphologic changes in embayed beaches can occur independently of readily identifiable shifts in forcing.

  1. Climate change and Elevational Dependence at a Mid-Latitude Mountain System, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.; Kittel, T.; Hartman, M.; Ackerman, T.; Losleben, M.

    2007-12-01

    Mid-latitude mountain systems are critically sensitive to recent and projected climate change under an elevated greenhouse gas world. It is often taken that climatic change at high elevation sites will reflect those at lower sites - regional warming is assumed to be consistently played out in mountains, or even amplified by the snow-albedo feedback. The anticipated outcome is that the alpine will eventually be "pushed off the top of mountains." There are several reasons why this might not be the case, or at least considerably delayed - one is whether high elevation climates reasonably reflect regional lowland trends or if they are decoupled from them as a result of mountain climatic processes. We evaluated standard climatological variables (minimum & maximum temperature, precipitation) and derived variables [diurnal temperature range, growing season length (using both 0° & -3°C thresholds), and growing degree days (0°C base)] from subalpine (C1, 3048m) and high alpine (D1, 3749m) sites from 1953 to 2006 at Niwot Ridge in Colorado, the longest high- elevation climate record in the US. Over the last 54 years, mean maximum temperature (Tmax) increased through much of the year in the subalpine (trend in annual Tmax=+0.4°C/decade), but in the alpine decreased in early winter (-0.4 to -0.6°C/decade). These patterns resulted in altered seasonal cycles for the two sites, but in different ways: a positive offset in the subalpine (C1) and amplification in the alpine. Precipitation increased at the alpine site from October through April (trend in annual ppt=+100mm/decade), but not during any season in the subalpine. At both sites, summer onset is later and termination earlier, so that the "growing season" has shortened - this reflects long-term tendencies in minimum temperatures. An apparent contradiction is that growing degree-days have gone up at the subalpine site; this due to the positive trend in maximum temperatures. The alpine showed no corresponding trend. An

  2. From Sand to Rock: a teaching activity to introduce beach dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    The Italian coastline is about 7,500 km long; approximately 53% of the coastlines are low or deltaic coastlines, while 3,240 km were mainly composed of sand or gravel beaches. Most of the Italian coastal environment suffers from intense and growing urbanization, tourism and industry pressure, which could partly explain that 42% of Italian beaches experience erosion. Terracina is situated Lazio (Central Italy), a region strongly impacted by coastal erosion, and for this reason we organized a teaching activity, carried out with fourth year high school classes, in order to help students to understand sand beach dynamics, acquisition of geology issues and land conservation and preservation skills. We decided to focus our activity on the mineralogical composition of beach sand in order to relate beach formations with the geological evolution of the territory. Sand beach minerals were used as tracers in order to support students to understand dynamics that influence beach formations. In addition to mineral characteristic recognition, this activity allows us to introduce the beach balance concept and the phenomena that regulate sediment balance, in order to allow students to consider beaches as a resource which needs to be preserved. Sand mineralogical composition data is treated in a worksheet to elaborate simple statistical analysis in order to recognize the mineral composition of Terracina beach sand's rock sources. This exercise allows students to find relationships between regional geology and beach sand's composition. Finally, statistical evidence could be compared with geological maps of the area in order to find the probable provenance of sand's rock source and rocks recognition thanks to related morphologies. Our main purpose was to help students to understand that beaches are dynamic systems subject to anthropogenic pressure and for this reason they needed to be preserved. Proposed teaching activities involve topics related to students' living territory and to

  3. Beach Profiles Characteristics Along Giao Thuy and Hai Hau Coasts,Vietnam: A Field Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN Viet Thanh; ZHENG Jin-hai; ZHANG Chi

    2012-01-01

    Giao Thuy and Hai Hau coasts are located in Nam Dinh province,Vietnam,with a total coastline of 54.42 km in length.The sea-dike system has been seriously damaged and there have been many dike breaches which caused floods and losses.This situation is considered of a general representative for coastal area in the northern part of Vietnam.A variety of studies have shown that the gradient in the longshore sediment transport rate and the offshore fine sediment lost are the main mechanisms causing the beach erosion.This study presents a field investigation of the beach profiles at Giao Thuy and Hai Hau beaches.Three types of empirical functions for the equilibrium beach profile are applied and compared with the observations.Results show that all observed beach profiles can be described by a single function.However,one specific equilibrium profile equation is not sufficient to assess all beach profiles.In Section 1 of Giao Thuy and Section 3 of Hai Thinh beaches,beach profiles are consistent with the logarithmic function,while the exponential function fits well in Section 2.This difference is explained with respect to coastal morphology,sediment characteristics and hydrodynamic conditions which vary in site.An analysis of the validity of the beach profile functions is recommended for the numerical modeling and engineering designs in this area.

  4. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  5. Assessing sandy beach macrofaunal patterns along large-scale environmental gradients: A Fuzzy Naïve Bayes approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzeda, Fabio; Zangrilli, Maria Paola; Defeo, Omar

    2016-06-01

    A Fuzzy Naïve Bayes (FNB) classifier was developed to assess large-scale variations in abundance, species richness and diversity of the macrofauna inhabiting fifteen Uruguayan sandy beaches affected by the effects of beach morphodynamics and the estuarine gradient generated by Rio de la Plata. Information from six beaches was used to estimate FNB parameters, while abiotic data of the remaining nine beaches were used to forecast abundance, species richness and diversity. FNB simulations reproduced the general increasing trend of target variables from inner estuarine reflective beaches to marine dissipative ones. The FNB model also identified a threshold value of salinity range beyond which diversity markedly increased towards marine beaches. Salinity range is suggested as an ecological master factor governing distributional patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. However, the model: 1) underestimated abundance and species richness at the innermost estuarine beach, with the lowest salinity, and 2) overestimated species richness in marine beaches with a reflective morphodynamic state, which is strongly linked to low abundance, species richness and diversity. Therefore, future modeling efforts should be refined by giving a dissimilar weigh to the gradients defined by estuarine (estuarine beaches) and morphodynamic (marine beaches) variables, which could improve predictions of target variables. Our modeling approach could be applied to a wide spectrum of issues, ranging from basic ecology to social-ecological systems. This approach seems relevant, given the current challenge to develop predictive methodologies to assess the simultaneous and nonlinear effects of anthropogenic and natural impacts in coastal ecosystems.

  6. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August...

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  8. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in...

  9. Improving Oasis Beach: Creating a sustainable and attractive beach around hotel Oasis in Varadero Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, E.F.; Poelhekke, L.; Schlepers, M.H.; De Boer, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the North of Cuba, the Oasis beach area is situated. The beach suffers from structural erosion and earlier measures to deal with this have not succeeded. In this project, a solution is offered to reach two goals: foremost, a beach improvement to the Oasis beach sector and second, a halt to the s

  10. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October 8, 2011 and...

  11. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October...

  12. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October...

  13. Amchitka beach surveys, 1978-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of 16 beaches on Amchitka Island began 28 October 1978 as part of Alaska Beached Bird Survey. The purpose of the surveys is to provide baseline data on...

  14. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  15. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  16. Testing and assessment of large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P.P.; Jones, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/N

  17. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  18. Supratidal beach deposits in Giralia Bay (Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia) - a record for past tropical cyclones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Gelhausen, Henrik; Brill, Dominik; Callow, Nik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Leopold, Matthias; Opitz, Stephan; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Past coastal flooding events related to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis may be inferred from geomorphic and sedimentary archives, i.e. in the form of particular landforms (beach ridges, washover fans), deposits (washover sediments in lagoons) or erosional features. In Giralia Bay, southern Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia), sandy ridge sequences in supratidal elevations form the landward margin of extensive mudflats. The formation of these ridges, as in other mudflats of NW Australia, is assumed to be mainly driven by TCs, although their relation to depositional processes and inundation levels during spring tide conditions, exceptional precipitation and discharge events, and storm surges needs to be clarified. Based on a simple process monitoring setup using a time-lapse camera and pressure gauges, geomorphological mapping by means of unmanned aerial vehicle survey and structure-from-motion techniques, as well as sedimentological and geochronological investigations, this study aims at (i) establishing the chronostratigraphy and reconstructing the formation of the supratidal beach deposits; (ii) identifying the most important driving processes involved in their formation; and (iii) understanding their significance for recording past TC activity. Sediment trenches cross the youngest, most seaward part of the ridge sequence. At the base of the sedimentary succession, sandy units are interbedded with mud layers, reflecting depositional conditions similar to the present distal mudflat. In the upper part of the ridges, mud intercalations recede, and sand layers of varying grain size distribution and mineralogical content dominate. Younger sediment layers clearly attach to older ones documenting the stepwise accretion of the ridges onto the mudflat. Muddy intercalations in the upper part of the succession are interpreted to represent deposition in locally restricted swales. Monitoring covered the time period between August 2013 and 2015 and capture an exceptional

  19. Ridge jump process in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Eastward ridge jumps bring the volcanic zones of Iceland back to the centre of the hotspot in response to the absolute westward drift of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Mantellic pulses triggers these ridge jumps. One of them is occurring in Southern Iceland, whereas the exact conditions of the last ridge jump in Northern Iceland remain controversial. The diachronous evolution of these two parts of Iceland may be related to the asymmetric plume-ridge interaction when comparing Northern and Southern I...

  20. Measuring Beach Profiles along a Low-Wave Energy Microtidal Coast, West-Central Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring storm-induced dramatic beach morphology changes and long-term beach evolution provides crucial data for coastal management. Beach-profile measurement using total station has been conducted along the coast of west-central Florida over the last decade. This paper reviews several case studies of beach morphology changes based on total-station survey along this coast. The advantage of flexible and low-cost total-station surveys is discussed in comparison to LIDAR (light detection and ranging method. In an attempt to introduce total-station survey from a practical prospective, measurement of cross-shore beach profile in various scenarios are discussed, including: (1 establishing a beach profile line with known instrument and benchmark locations; (2 surveying multiple beach profiles with one instrument setup; (3 implementation of coordinate rotation to convert local system to real-earth system. Total-station survey is a highly effective and accurate method in documenting beach profile changes along low-energy coasts.

  1. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  2. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Sup [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer.

  3. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  4. Fingermark ridge drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A; Feixat, Carme Barrot; Hogrebe, Gregory G; Badia, Manel Gené

    2016-01-01

    Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges. Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and polystyrene), and degrees of exposure to natural light (darkness, shade, and direct light) indoors. Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks. This discovery will help explain the detection of certain dissimilarities at the minutiae/ridge level; determine more accurate "hits"; identify potentially erroneous corresponding points; and rethink identification protocols, especially the criteria of "no single minutiae discrepancy" for a positive identification.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koncinski, W.S. [ed.; Hawsey, R.A. [comp.

    1994-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The three major elements of this program are conductor development, applications development, and the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1994 Annual Program Review held July 19--20, 2994. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to industrial competitiveness projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  6. Watershed Assessment with Beach Microbial Source Tracking and Outcomes of Resulting Gull Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kelly D; Gruber, Steve; Vondrak, Mary; Crumpacker, Andrea

    2016-09-20

    Total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation at a southern California beach involved ultraviolet treatment of watershed drainage that provided >97% reduction in fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. However, this pollutant control measure did not provide sufficient improvement of beach water quality, prompting further assessment. Investigation included microbial source tracking (MST) for human, gull, and canine fecal sources, monitoring of enterococci and fecal coliform, and measurement of chemical and physical water quality parameters for samples collected from watershed, groundwater, and beach sites, including a beach scour pond and tidal creek. FIB variability remained poorly modeled in regression analysis. However, MST revealed correlations between FIB and gull source tracking markers, leading to recommendations to manage gulls as a pollutant source. Beach conditions were followed for three years after implementation of a best management practice (BMP) to abate gulls using a falconry program for the beach and an upland landfill. The gull abatement BMP was associated with improved beach water quality, and this appears to be the first report of falconry in the context of TMDL implementation. Overall, MST data enabled management action despite an inability to fully model FIB dynamics in the coupled watershed-beach system.

  7. Environmental Restoration Program project management plan for the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office Major System Acquisition OR-1. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    In the early 1940s, the Manhattan Project was conducted in a regulatory and operational environment less sophisticated than today. Less was known of the measures needed to protect human health and safety and the environment from the dangers posed by radioactive and hazardous wastes, and experience in dealing with these hazardous materials has grown slowly. Certain hazards were recognized and dealt with from the beginning. However, the techniques used, though standard practices at the time, are now known to have been inadequate. Consequently, the DOE has committed to an aggressive program for cleaning up the environment and has initiated an Environmental Restoration Program involving all its field offices. The objective of this program is to ensure that inactive and surplus DOE facilities and sites meet current standards to protect human health and the environment. The objective of these activities is to ensure that risks posed to human health and safety and the environment by inactive sites and surplus facilities contaminated with radioactive, hazardous, and/or mixed wastes are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed safe levels. This Project Management Plan for Major System Acquisition OR-1 Project documents, communicates, and contributes to the evolution of, the management organizations, systems, and tools necessary to carry out effectively the long-range complex cleanup of the DOE sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation, and at the Paducah, Kentucky, and Piketon, Ohio, uranium enrichment plants managed by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office; the cleanup of off-site contamination resulting from past releases; and the Decontamination and Decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities at these installations.

  8. Assessing the clarity of friction ridge impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicklin, R Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2013-03-10

    The ability of friction ridge examiners to correctly discern and make use of the ridges and associated features in finger or palm impressions is limited by clarity. The clarity of an impression relates to the examiner's confidence that the presence, absence, and attributes of features can be correctly discerned. Despite the importance of clarity in the examination process, there have not previously been standard methods for assessing clarity in friction ridge impressions. We introduce a process for annotation, analysis, and interchange of friction ridge clarity information that can be applied to latent or exemplar impressions. This paper: (1) describes a method for evaluating the clarity of friction ridge impressions by using color-coded annotations that can be used by examiners or automated systems; (2) discusses algorithms for overall clarity metrics based on manual or automated clarity annotation; and (3) defines a method of quantifying the correspondence of clarity when comparing a pair of friction ridge images, based on clarity annotation and resulting metrics. Different uses of this approach include examiner interchange of data, quality assurance, metrics, and as an aid in automated fingerprint matching.

  9. Modern changes of tidal troughs among the radial sand ridges in northern Jiangsu coastal zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Haijun; DU Tingqin; GAO Ang

    2009-01-01

    Using satellite images taken on different dates, GIS analysis of aerial photos, bathymetric maps and other field survey data, tidal troughs and major sand ridges in the northern Jiangsu coastal area were contrasted. The results show that there have been three types of movement or migration of tidal trough in this area: (1) Periodic and restricted, this type of trough usually developed along the beaches with immobile gully head as a result of the artificial dams and the swing range increased from gully head to the low reaches, so they have been obviously impacted by human activity and have longer swing periods; (2) Periodic and actively, this kind of trough, which swung with a fast rate and moved periodically on sand ridges, were mainly controlled by the swings of the host tidal troughs and hydrodynamic forces upon tidal sand ridge and influenced slightly by human constructions; (3) Steadily and slowly, they are the main tidal troughs with large scale and a steady orientation in this area and have slow lateral movement. The differences in migration mode of tidal trough shift result in different rates of migration and impact upon tidal sand ridges. Lateral accumulation on current tidal trough and deposition on abandoned tidal troughs are the two types of sedimentation of the tidal sand ridges formation. The whole radial sand ridge was generally prone to division and retreat although sand ridges fluctuated by the analysis of changes in talwegs of tidal troughs and shorelines of sand ridges.

  10. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation -- Assessing the potential for active groundwater flow and origin of the brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-08-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) contains contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater in the deep system is saline and has been considered to be stagnant in previous studies. This study was designed to address the following questions: is groundwater in the deep system stagnant; is contaminant migration controlled by diffusion only or is advection a viable mechanism; where are the potential outlet points? On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of saline groundwater flow and potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial and temporal temperature variations at depth, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. The observations suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active, freshwater-bearing units. Influx of recent water does occur. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow are likely to be small. The origin of the saline groundwater was assessed by using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model that best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated.

  11. Magnetic Anomalies over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, W C; Heirtzler, J R

    1966-12-01

    Four magnetic profiles across the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge reveal magnetic anomalies that show trends parallel with the ridge axis and symmetry about the ridge axis. The distribution of bodies that could cause these anomalies supports the Vine and Matthews hypothesis for the generation of patterns of magnetic anomalies associated with the midocean ridge system. The geometry of the bodies accords with the known reversals of the geomagnetic field during the last 3.4 million years, indicating a spreading rate of the ocean floor of 4.5 centimeters per year. If one assume that the spreading rate within 500 kilometers of the ridge axis has been constant, reversals of the geomagnetic field during the last 10.0 million years can be determined. This new, detailed history of field reversals accords with observed anomalies over Reykjanes Ridge in the North Atlantic if a spreading rate of 1 centimeter per year is assumed there.

  12. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  13. Case study Piçarras Beach: Erosion and nourishment of a headland bay beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, S.; Hoekstra, R.; De Zeeuw, R.; Zoon, A.

    2008-01-01

    Master project report. Piçarras is one of the touristic beaches of Santa Catarina state in Brazil. Piçarras beach is a headland bay beach. In the bay irregular features like an island, rocky outcrops and shoals are present influencing wave propagation. In the south Piçarras is bounded by Piçarras ri

  14. Combining Ridge with No-Tillage in Lowland Rice-Based Cropping System:Long-Term Effect on Soil and Rice Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-Jun; and XIE De-Ti

    2009-01-01

    A tillage method of combining ridge with no-tillage (RNT) was employed in lowland rice-based cropping system to study the long-term effects of RNT on soil profile pattern,soil water stable aggregate distribution,nutrients stratification and yields of rice and post-rice crops.After flooded paddy field (FPF) was practiced with RNT for a long time,soil profile changed from G to A-P-G,and horizon G was shifted to a deeper position in the profile.Also the proportion of macroaggregate (> 2 mm) increased,whereas the proportion of silt and clay (< 0.053 mm) decreased under RNT,indicating a better soil structure that will prevent erosion.RNT helped to control leaching and significantly improved total N,P,K and organic matter in soil.The highest crop yields were found under RNT system every year,and total crop yields were higher under conventional paddy-upland rotation tillage (CR) than under FPF,except in 2003 and 2006 when serious drought occurred.RNT was proven to be a better tillage method for lowland rice-based cropping system.

  15. Imaging hydrothermal systems associated with oceanic ridge: ambient noise and travel-time tomographies in the Reykjanes high-temperature area, SW-Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Ágústsson, Kristjan; Verdel, Arie; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Specht, Sebastian; Stefánsson, Stefán; Tryggvason, Hörður; Erbas, Kemal; Deon, Fiorenza; Erlendsson, Ögmundur; Guðnason, Egill; Hersir, Gylfi; Ryberg, Trond; Halldórsdóttir, Sæunn; Weemstra, Cornelius; Bruhn, David; Flovenz, Ólafur; Friðleifsson, Ómar

    2015-04-01

    Analogue outcrops of hydrothermal fossil systems and simulating pressure/temperature conditions in the laboratory are classical methods for assessing supercritical conditions in magmatic environments. Scientific drilling is used when Earth surface sampled rocks cannot sufficiently explain past geological processes and when geophysical imaging does not sufficiently explain observed phenomena. However, our understanding of structural and dynamic characteristics of geothermal systems can be improved through application of advanced and/or innovative exploration technologies. Unlike resistivity imaging, active and passive seismic techniques have rarely been used in volcanic geothermal areas, because processing techniques were not adapted to geothermal conditions. Recent advances in volcano-seismology have introduced new processing techniques for assessing subsurface structures and controls on fluid flow in geothermal systems. We present here preliminary analyses of seismic records around a geothermal reservoir located both on-land and offshore along the Reykjanes Ridge, SW-Iceland. We deployed 214 on-land stations and 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers since April 2014. We analyse more than 6 months of part of those records. We present first results of both travel-time tomography and ambient noise tomography and we discuss briefly implications for geothermal exploration in volcanic contexts.

  16. Palm Beach County FL 2007 Seagrass GIS Maps and Trends Analysis (NODC Accession 0061752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of Palm Beach County seagrasses, mangrove habitat, oyster reef, and spartina. The mapped area is the Lake Worth Lagoon...

  17. High-grade contact metamorphism in the Reykjanes geothermal system: Implications for fluid-rock interactions at mid-oceanic ridge spreading centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Naomi; Schiffman, Peter; Zierenberg, Robert A.

    2011-08-01

    Granoblastic hornfels identified in cuttings from the Reykjanes seawater-dominated hydrothermal system contains secondary pyroxene, anorthite, and hornblendic amphibole in locally equilibrated assemblages. Granoblastic assemblages containing secondary orthopyroxene, olivine, and, locally, cordierite and spinel occur within groups of cuttings that show dominantly greenschist facies hydrothermal alteration. Granoblastic plagioclase ranges continuously in composition from An54 to An96, in contrast with relict igneous plagioclase that ranges from An42 to An80. Typical hydrothermal clinopyroxene compositions range from Wo49En3Fs48 to Wo53En30Fo17; clinopyroxene from the granoblastic grains is less calcic with an average composition of Wo48En27Fs25. The hornfels is interpreted to form during contact metamorphism in response to dike emplacement, resulting in local recrystallization of previously hydrothermally altered basalts. Temperatures of granoblastic recrystallization estimated from the 2-pyroxene geothermometer range from 927°C to 967°C. Redox estimates based on the 2-oxide oxybarometer range from log fO2 of -13.4 to -15.9. Granoblastic hornfels comprised of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and calcic plagioclase have been described in a number of ancient hydrothermal systems from the conductive boundary layer between the hydrothermal system and the underlying magma source, most notably in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1256D, Ocean Drilling Program Hole 504B, and in the Troodos and Oman ophiolites. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of high-grade contact metamorphism from an active geothermal system and the first description of equilibrated amphibole-absent pyroxene hornfels facies contact metamorphism in any mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system. This contribution describes how these assemblages develop through metamorphic reactions and allows us to predict that higher-temperature assemblages may also be present in MOR systems.

  18. Tools for beach health data management, data processing, and predictive model implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet describes utilities created for management of recreational waters to provide efficient data management, data aggregation, and predictive modeling as well as a prototype geographic information system (GIS)-based tool for data visualization and summary. All of these utilities were developed to assist beach managers in making decisions to protect public health. The Environmental Data Discovery and Transformation (EnDDaT) Web service identifies, compiles, and sorts environmental data from a variety of sources that help to define climatic, hydrologic, and hydrodynamic characteristics including multiple data sources within the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Great Lakes Beach Health Database (GLBH-DB) and Web application was designed to provide a flexible input, export, and storage platform for beach water quality and sanitary survey monitoring data to compliment beach monitoring programs within the Great Lakes. A real-time predictive modeling strategy was implemented by combining the capabilities of EnDDaT and the GLBH-DB for timely, automated prediction of beach water quality. The GIS-based tool was developed to map beaches based on their physical and biological characteristics, which was shared with multiple partners to provide concepts and information for future Web-accessible beach data outlets.

  19. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  20. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2649 (Transported Waste Receiving Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This document covers the design aspects of the new tank system and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for storing or treating hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during fabrication, installation, and testing of the new tank system in order to prove compliance of the final installation with governing requirements. The assessment is responsive to the Environmental Restoration Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  1. Basis for Selection of a Residual Waste Retrieval System for Gunite and Associated Tank W-9 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E

    2000-10-23

    Waste retrieval and transfer operations at the Gunite{trademark} and Associated Tanks (GAATs) Remediation Project have been successfully accomplished using the Tank Waste Retrieval System. This system is composed of the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm, Houdini Vehicle, Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System, Hose Management Arm, and Sludge Conditioning System. GAAT W-9 has been used as a waste-consolidation and batch-transfer tank during the retrieval of sludges and supernatants from the seven Gunite tanks in the North and South tank farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Tank W-9 was used as a staging tank for the transfers to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). A total of 18 waste transfers from W-9 occurred between May 25, 1999, and March 30, 2000. Most of these transfers were accomplished using the PulsAir Mixer to mobilize and mix the slurry and a submersible retrieval-transfer pump to transfer the slurry through the Sludge Conditioning System and the {approx}1-mile long, 2-in.-diam waste-transfer line to the MVSTs. The transfers from W-9 have consisted of low-solids-content slurries with solids contents ranging from {approx}2.8 to 6.8 mg/L. Of the initial {approx}88,000 gal of wet sludge estimated in the GAATs, a total of {approx}60,451 gal have been transferred to the MVSTs via tank W-9 as of March 30, 2000. Once the waste-consolidation operations and transfers from W-9 to the MVSTs are completed, the remaining material in W-9 will be mobilized and transferred to the active waste system, Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tank W-23. Tank W-23 will serve as a batch tank for the final waste transfers from tank W-9 to the MVSTs. This report provides a summary of the requirements and recommendations for the final waste retrieval system for tank W-9, a compilation of the sample analysis data for the sludge in W-9, and brief descriptions of the various waste-retrieval system concepts that were considered for this task. The recommended residual waste retrieval

  2. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  3. Beach Nourishment and Artificial Surf Reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.H.; De Menezes, J.T.; Sperb, R.S.; Siegle, E.; Fontura, R.; Van de Graaff, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van der Schrieck, G.L.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Balneário Camboriú is a very touristy city in southern Brazil, situated in the five kilometer wide Camboriú Bay. Its main tourist attraction is the beach, which is 5800 m long and rather narrow with a dry width of 10 to 20 m. The city is facing several problems regarding the beach that have a negati

  4. Comparison of buried sand ridges and regressive sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Jin, Xianglong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Shang, Jihong; Li, Shoujun; Cao, Zhenyi; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    Based on multi-beam echo soundings and high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles, linear sand ridges in U14 and U2 on the East China Sea (ECS) shelf are identified and compared in detail. Linear sand ridges in U14 are buried sand ridges, which are 90 m below the seafloor. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the transgressive systems tract (TST) formed 320-200 ka ago and that their top interface is the maximal flooding surface (MFS). Linear sand ridges in U2 are regressive sand ridges. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the TST of the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that their top interface is the MFS of the LGM. Four sub-stage sand ridges of U2 are discerned from the high-resolution single-channel seismic profile and four strikes of regressive sand ridges are distinguished from the submarine topographic map based on the multi-beam echo soundings. These multi-stage and multi-strike linear sand ridges are the response of, and evidence for, the evolution of submarine topography with respect to sea-level fluctuations since the LGM. Although the difference in the age of formation between U14 and U2 is 200 ka and their sequences are 90 m apart, the general strikes of the sand ridges are similar. This indicates that the basic configuration of tidal waves on the ECS shelf has been stable for the last 200 ka. A basic evolutionary model of the strata of the ECS shelf is proposed, in which sea-level change is the controlling factor. During the sea-level change of about 100 ka, five to six strata are developed and the sand ridges develop in the TST. A similar story of the evolution of paleo-topography on the ECS shelf has been repeated during the last 300 ka.

  5. [Allozyme variation of seed embryos and mating system in relict populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Lisnichuk, A N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Mudrik, E A

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme variation at ten polymorphic loci and mating system was studied in three small isolated relict populations (4.4 to 22 ha) and in three artificial stands of Pinus sylvestris from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e. It was established that the mean heterozygosity of 130 to 140 year-old trees from natural populations (H(O) = 0.288; H(E) = 0.277) was substantially lower, compared to 30 to 40 year-old trees from artificial stands (H(O) = 0.358; H(E) = 0.330). The observed heterozygosity of seed embryos (H(O) = 0.169 and 0.180) was substantially lower than of the mature trees from populations and artificial stands, respectively. In the embryo samples, irrespectively of the forest stand origin, substantial hetedrozygote deficiency was observed (at six to eight loci), compared to the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The proportion of cross pollination in the populations and artificial stands was low, t(m) = 0.588 to 0.721; and t(m) = 0.455 to 0.837, respectively.

  6. Mathematical modeling of diffuse flow in seafloor hydrothermal systems: The potential extent of the subsurface biosphere at mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, R. P.; Houghton, J. L.; Farough, A.; Craft, K. L.; Larson, B. I.; Meile, C. D.

    2015-09-01

    We describe a variety of one- and two-dimensional mathematical modeling approaches to characterizing diffuse flow circulation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. The goal is to estimate the potential extent of the sub-seafloor microbial biosphere based on subsurface contours of the 120 °C isotherm as determined from the various models. The models suggest that the sub-seafloor depth for microbial life may range from less than 1 m in some places to the thickness of crustal layer 2A of ∼ 500 m in others. This depth depends primarily on how diffuse flow is driven. The 120 °C isotherm tends to be much deeper if diffuse flow is induced as boundary layer flow near high-temperature plumes, than if it results from conductive cooling or mixing near the seafloor. Because the heat flow alone may not allow identification of the flow regime in the subsurface, we highlight the use of chemical tracers as an additional constraint that sheds light into the flow and reaction patterns associated with vents. We use thermodynamic modeling, which connects the temperature of the diffuse fluid to its chemical composition. As the temperature-composition relationships differ for mixing versus conductive heating and cooling, the fluid geochemistry can shed light on subsurface transport. Using methane as an example, the geochemical models indicate subsurface microbial methane production and consumption in different regions of the vent field near EPR 9 °50‧ N.

  7. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    A need exists for frequent and prompt updating of shoreline positions, rates of shoreline movement, and volumetric nearshore changes. To effectively monitor and predict these beach changes, accurate measurements of beach morphology incorporating both shore-parallel and shore-normal transects are required. Although it is possible to monitor beach dynamics using land-based surveying methods, it is generally not practical to collect data of sufficient density and resolution to satisfy a three-dimensional beach-change model of long segments of the coast. The challenge to coastal scientists is to devise new beach monitoring methods that address these needs and are rapid, reliable, relatively inexpensive, and maintain or improve measurement accuracy.

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  9. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  10. Divergent Ridge Features on the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, M. E.; Sautter, L.; Steele, M.

    2014-12-01

    Multibeam data collected using a Kongsberg EM122 sonar system on the NOAA ship R/V Marcus G. Langseth led by chief scientist Douglas Toomey (University of Oregon) in 2009 and with a Simrad EM302 sonar system on two NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer cruises led by chief scientists James Gardner (University of New Hampshire) and Catalina Martinez (University of Rhode Island) in 2009 show the morphology of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridges, as well as the Blanco and Mendocino Fracture Zones. These ridges and fracture zones comprise the divergent plate boundary of the eastern edge of the Pacific Plate and the western edges of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Plates. Both plates are being subducted beneath the western edge of the North American Plate. CARIS HIPS 8.1 software was used to process the multibeam data and create bathymetric images. The ridge axes, located off the coast of Washington and Oregon (USA) adjacent to the Cascadia Basin, indicate obvious signs of spreading, due to the series of faults and rocky ridges aligned parallel to the plate boundaries. Fault and ridge orientations are used to compare the direction of seafloor spreading, and indicate that both the Juan de Fuca Plate and Gorda Plate are spreading in a southeastern direction. Younger ridges from the Gorda Ridge system mapped in the study run parallel to the boundary, however older ridges do not show the same orientation, indicating a change in spreading direction. The presence of hydrothermal vents along the Juan de Fuca Ridge is also evidence of the active boundary, as the vent chimneys are composed of minerals and metals precipitated from the hot water heated by magma from beneath the spreading seafloor. In this study, the data are used to compare and contrast earthquake seismicity and ridge morphologies at a depth range of approximately 762 to 2134 meters. The diverging Pacific, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda Plates along with the San Andreas Fault have potential to increase seismic and volcanic activity around

  11. Development of a passive-flow treatment system for {sup 90}Sr-contaminated seep water at Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Seep C is a free-flowing stream of groundwater (typical flow of 0.2 to 2 L/min) that emerges in a narrow valley below the old low-level waste disposal trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 5 (SWSA 5), which is part of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5). The seep water contains high concentrations of Sr-90 (10,000 to 20,000 Bq/L) and contributes about 25% of all the Sr-90 leaving Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Seep C was identified as a primary source of off-site contaminant transport and was designated for an early removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). A passive-flow treatment system was chosen as the most cost-effective method for treating the seep water. The goal of the removal action is to have a system operational by November 1, 1994, that reduces the Sr-90 concentration in the water collected and treated by at least 90%. In order to provide design and operating data for the full-scale system, a pilot-scale system, consisting of a 5-gal bucket with an inlet connection in the lid and a screened outlet on the bottom filled with 16 L of chabazite zeolite, was used to treat the seep water. The test was started on March 17, 1994, and concluded on June 15, 1994. The system treated 63,470 L (3967 bed volumes) of water and 22.7 mCi of Sr-90 from the seep water. The system removed over 99.5% of the Sr-90 from the first 43,000 L of water treated, after which the removal efficiency slowly decreased as the zeolite became loaded until it reached 84% for the final sample. The passive system performed at least as well as comparable pumped zeolite systems in terms of removal efficiency and zeolite utilization. The test was terminated just before the construction crew mobilized at Seep C to build the full-scale system.

  12. Evidence of salt accumulation in beach intertidal zone due to evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    In coastal environments, evaporation is an important driver of subsurface salinity gradients in marsh systems. However, it has not been addressed in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches. Here, we used field data on an estuarine beach foreshore with numerical simulations to show that evaporation causes upper intertidal zone pore-water salinity to be double that of seawater. We found the increase in pore-water salinity mainly depends on air temperature and relative humidity, and tide and wave a...

  13. Feedback between ridge and swale bathymetry and barrier island storm response and transgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris

    2012-11-01

    The shoreface of Santa Rosa Island in northwest Florida is characterized by a ridge and swale bathymetry that forces an alongshore variation in beach and dune morphology. The alongshore variation in dune morphology in turn controls the modern island response to and recovery from tropical storms and hurricanes, and is therefore, an important control on island transgression with relative sea-level rise. Field sampling and remote sensing are used in the present study to describe the geologic framework of Santa Rosa Island, and to elucidate on the origins of the shore-attached ridge and swale bathymetry. Vibracores and seismic and GPR surveys were completed along 42 cross-shore transects and 3 shore-parallel transects to examine the structure of the 21 ridge and swale structures found along Santa Rosa Island. The shore-parallel seismic surveys reveal strong near-horizontal reflectors through the ridges at depths consistent with thick back-barrier muds extracted from vibracores taken across and along the ridges. Near-horizontal reflectors are identified in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys between the ridges and cuspate spits along the back-barrier shoreline, but are not present in the narrow sections of the island landward of the swales. Continuation of the seismic surveys in the back-barrier also reveals near-horizontal reflectors at the cuspate spits that are characterized by seagrass beds, salt marsh and maritime forest. Consistent with the GPR survey, there is an absence of horizontal reflectors between cuspate spits where the washover deposits extend to the back-barrier shoreline. It is argued that the ridge and swale bathymetry is a transgressive surface and the remnants of cuspate spits that are present along the back-barrier shoreline. In this respect, the cuspate spits had to first develop along the back-barrier shoreline and eventually evolve into the mud-cored ridges as the island transgressed with relative sea-level rise. Once the ridge and swale

  14. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.1 Transects with Long-Term Rate Calculations for the Greater Boston region from the southern side of Cape Ann, Massachusetts to Sandy Neck Beach in Sandwich, Massachusetts (GreaterBoston_LT.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  15. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.1 Transects with Short-Term Rate Calculations for the Greater Boston region from the southern side of Cape Ann, Massachusetts to Sandy Neck Beach in Sandwich, Massachusetts (GreaterBoston_ST.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  16. OahuW_LT- Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.2 transects with long-term weighted linear regression rate calculations for the Oahu west region from Yokohama to Tracks Beach, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  17. OahuW_ST- Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.2 transects with short-term weighted linear regression rate calculations for the Oahu west region from Yokohama to Tracks Beach, Hawaii.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  18. OahuS_LT - Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.2 transects with long-term weighted linear regression rate calculations for the Oahu south region from Barbers Point to Sandy Beach, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  19. Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.1 Transects with Long-Term Rate Calculations for the New England North region from Popham Beach, Maine to the northern side of Cape Ann, Massachusetts (NewEnglandN_LT.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  20. OahuS_ST- Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.2 transects with short-term weighted linear regression rate calculations for the Oahu south region from Barbers Point to Sandy Beach, Hawaii.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the...

  1. Crustal structure and kinematics of the TAMMAR propagating rift system on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from seismic refraction and satellite altimetry gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Richard L.; Tilmann, Frederik; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2016-08-01

    The TAMMAR segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge forms a classic propagating system centred about two degrees south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The segment is propagating to the south at a rate of 14 mm yr-1, 15 per cent faster than the half-spreading rate. Here, we use seismic refraction data across the propagating rift, sheared zone and failed rift to investigate the crustal structure of the system. Inversion of the seismic data agrees remarkably well with crustal thicknesses determined from gravity modelling. We show that the crust is thickened beneath the highly magmatic propagating rift, reaching a maximum thickness of almost 8 km along the seismic line and an inferred (from gravity) thickness of about 9 km at its centre. In contrast, the crust in the sheared zone is mostly 4.5-6.5 km thick, averaging over 1 km thinner than normal oceanic crust, and reaching a minimum thickness of only 3.5 km in its NW corner. Along the seismic line, it reaches a minimum thickness of under 5 km. The PmP reflection beneath the sheared zone and failed rift is very weak or absent, suggesting serpentinisation beneath the Moho, and thus effective transport of water through the sheared zone crust. We ascribe this increased porosity in the sheared zone to extensive fracturing and faulting during deformation. We show that a bookshelf-faulting kinematic model predicts significantly more crustal thinning than is observed, suggesting that an additional mechanism of deformation is required. We therefore propose that deformation is partitioned between bookshelf faulting and simple shear, with no more than 60 per cent taken up by bookshelf faulting.

  2. 辐射沙脊群时空信息集成系统设计%Design of Spatio-temporal Information Integration System for Sand Ridge Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫浩; 葛小平; 丁贤荣; 李森

    2015-01-01

    针对江苏沿海滩涂围垦开发的难点,在海洋时空数据模型的基础上探讨了辐射沙脊群时空信息集成的方法,初步尝试了准同步思想在时空数据管理中的应用。系统在.NET 开发平台下,结合 ArcGIS 二次开发、数据库编程,设计开发了 C /S 和 B/S 混合结构的辐射沙脊群时空信息集成系统。水文站管理、漂流浮标示踪、遥感影像检索3大关键模块与数据源、数据整编、数据库管理、模型库和业务表达5层互成经纬结构,实现数据交互查询和管理。系统主要功能包括数据整编、模型计算、数据分析、时空数据接收、成果展示和分享,为辐射沙脊群区域围垦开发及水文监测提供数据支撑和技术支持。%In view of the difficulties of exclamation and exploitation in the coastal area of Jiangsu Province,we dis-cussed the method of spatio-temporal information integration for radial sand ridges based on marine spatio-temporal data model,and preliminarily applied quasi-synchronization to the spatial and temporal data management.A system involving ArcGIS secondary development and database programming is designed and developed as C /S and B /S structure on the development platform of MicroSoft.Net.The system consists of hydrological station management, drifting buoy tracer,retrieval of remote sensing information as key modules,and data source,data reorganization, database management,model base and business expression as layers,which together make up a fabric structure of interactive data query and management.The main function of this system includes data reorganization,model calcu-lation,data analysis,spatio-temporal data receiving,result displaying and sharing.It provides data support and technical support for the reclamation exploitation and hydrological monitoring in radial sand ridge field.

  3. World Record Earned Value Management System Certification for Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA - 13181

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Ray; Hirschy, Anita [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR), East Tennessee Technology Park D and D and Environmental Remediation Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On projects that require Earned Value Management (EVMS) Certification, it is critical to quickly prepare for and then successfully obtain certification. This is especially true for government contracts. Projects that do poorly during the review are subject to financial penalties to their company and they lose creditability with their customer creating problems with the project at the outset. At East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), we began preparing for Department of Energy (DOE) certification early during proposal development. Once the contract was awarded, while still in transition phase from the previous contractor to our new company, we immediately began reviewing the project controls systems that were in place on the project and determined if any replacements needed to be made immediately. The ETTP contract required the scheduling software to be upgraded to Primavera P6 and we determined that no other software changes would be done prior to certification. Next, preparation of the Project Controls System Description (PCSD) and associated procedures began using corporate standards as related to the project controls systems. During the transition phase, development was started on the Performance Measurement Baseline which is the resource loaded schedule used to measure our performance on the project and which is critical to good Earned Value Management of the project. Early on, and throughout the baseline review, there was positive feedback from the Department of Energy that the quality of the new baseline was good. Having this superior baseline also contributed to our success in EVMS certification. The combined companies of URS and CH2M Hill had recent experience with certifications at other Department of Energy sites and we were able to capitalize on that knowledge and experience. Generic PCSD and procedures consistent with our co-operations approach to Earned Value Management were available to us and were easily tailorable to the specifics of our contract

  4. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of...

  5. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

  6. Long-term effects of beach nourishment on intertidal invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Tyler Brock

    2015-01-01

    Although beach nourishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, no consensus exists regarding how long nourishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of sandy beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a nourishment project at eight beaches across San Diego County. Each beach was split into nourished and control sections. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately fol...

  7. Observation on foreshore morphodynamics of microtidal sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.

    of two microtidal sandy beaches, Kundapura and Padukare, along the Karna- taka shoreline on the west coast of India during three annual cycles from March 2008 to March 2011. The net observation at both sites exhibits slow rate of sediment accretion... sustainable coastal zone management studies. Beach profiles provide signifi- cant insights for understanding short and long-term spatio- temporal beach morphodynamics1,2. Also, beach profile is an essential tool in predicting beach morphodynamics...

  8. Prognosis: The Plan of Integrated Tourism Area of Kapuk Naga Beach, Tangerang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper  tries to analyze of prognosis of the Integrated Tourism Area Planning of Kapuknnaga Beach (KWTPK Tangerang Regency West Java. The two method applied to compose the prognosis are extrapolation and indication. The extrapolation is based on the local area infomation data of contemporary knowledge in the past and presence, while the indication method utilizes the whole interrelation activities programmed with the possible consequences. Land function transformation effects of KWTPK will cause environmental destroy as annual flsh flood, salt water intrusion and polution of urban’s industry sewage. As further effect there is a raising of turbidity and nitrition degree of sedimentation which make coral-ridge degradation toward annihilation. The coral-ridge annihilation will cause the sea waves power collide with the seashore area directly which threatens KWTPK.

  9. Remedial Investigation Report on the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Program; Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid pipeline (ANAP). This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately}4800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. During the mid-1980s, sections of the pipeline were removed during various construction projects. A total of 19 locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The 19 samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant`s laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. Uranium activities in the soil samples ranged from 0.53 to 13.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U, from 0.075 to 0.75 pCi/g for {sup 235}U, and from 0.71 to 5.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U. Maximum total values for lead, chromium, and nickel were 75.1 mg/kg, 56.3 mg/kg, and 53.0 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nitrate/nitrite value detected was 32.0 mg-N/kg. One sample obtained adjacent to a sewer line contained various organic compounds, at least some of which were tentatively identified as fragrance chemicals commonly associated with soaps and cleaning solutions. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the ANAP contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health.

  10. Development and Deployment of a Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filtration System for Treatment of Liquid Low-Level Waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.

    2000-05-12

    A full-scale modular solid/liquid separation (SLS) system was designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully deployed for treatment of liquid low-level waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The SLS module, utilizing cross-flow filtration, was operated as part of an integrated tank waste pretreatment system (otherwise known as the Wastewater Triad) to remove suspended solids and prevent fouling of ion-exchange materials and heat exchange surfaces. The information gained from this testing was used to complete design specifications for the full-scale modular SLS system in May 1997. The contract for detailed design and fabrication of the system was awarded to NUMET in July 1997, and the design was completed in January 1998. Fabrication began in March 1998, and the completed system was delivered to ORNL on December 29, 1998. Installation of the system at the MVST facility was completed in May 1999. After completing an operational readiness assessment, approval was given to commence hot operations on June 7, 1999. Operations involving two of the eight MVSTs were performed safely and with very little unscheduled downtime. Filtration of supernatant from tank W-31 was completed on June 24, 1999 and W-26 processing was completed on August 20, 1999. The total volume processed during these two campaigns was about 45,000 gal. The suspended solids content of the liquid processed from tank W-31 was lower than expected, resulting in higher-than-expected filtrate production for nearly the entire operation. The liquid processed from tank W-26 was higher in suspended solids content, and filtrate production was lower, but comparable to the rates expected based on the results of previous pilot-scale, single-element filtration tests. The quality of the filtrate consistently met the requirements for feed to the downstream ion-exchange and evaporation processes. From an equipment and controls standpoint, the modular system (pumps

  11. Polygonal Ridge Networks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Laura; Dickson, James; Grosfils, Eric; Head, James W.

    2016-10-01

    Polygonal ridge networks, also known as boxwork or reticulate ridges, are found in numerous locations and geological contexts across Mars. While networks formed from mineralized fractures hint at hot, possibly life-sustaining circulating ground waters, networks formed by impact-driven clasting diking, magmatic dikes, gas escape, or lava flows do not have the same astrobiological implications. Distinguishing the morphologies and geological context of the ridge networks sheds light on their potential as astrobiological and mineral resource sites of interest. The most widespread type of ridge morphology is characteristic of the Nili Fossae and Nilosyrtis region and consists of thin, criss-crossing ridges with a variety of heights, widths, and intersection angles. They are found in ancient Noachian terrains at a variety of altitudes and geographic locations and may be a mixture of clastic dikes, brecciated dikes, and mineral veins. They occur in the same general areas as valley networks and ancient lake basins, but they are not more numerous where these features are concentrated, and can appear in places where they morphologies are absent. Similarly, some of the ridge networks are associated with hydrated mineral detections, but some occur in locations without detections. Smaller, light-toned ridges of variable widths have been found in Gale Crater and other rover sites and are interpreted to be smaller version of the Nili-like ridges, in this case formed by the mineralization of fractures. This type of ridge is likely to be found in many other places on Mars as more high-resolution data becomes available. Hellas Basin is host to a third type of ridge morphology consisting of large, thick, light-toned ridges forming regular polygons at several superimposed scales. While still enigmatic, these are most likely to be the result of sediment-filled fractures. The Eastern Medusae Fossae Formation contains large swaths of a fourth, previously undocumented, ridge network type

  12. Faults--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  14. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Habitat--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  16. Contours--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  17. Drones as tools for monitoring beach topography changes in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Pedroncini, Andrea; Stark, Colin P.; Casella, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate topographic changes along a stretch of coastline in the Municipality of Borghetto Santo Spirito (Region of Liguria, Italy, north-western Mediterranean) by means of a remotely piloted aircraft system coupled with structure from motion and multi-view stereo techniques. This sector was surveyed three times over 5 months in the fall-winter of 2013-2014 (1 November 2013, 4 December 2013, 17 March 2014) to obtain digital elevation models and orthophotos of the beach. Changes in beach topography associated with storm action and human activities were assessed in terms of gain/loss of sediments and shifting of the wet-dry boundary defining the shoreline. Between the first and second surveys, the study area was hit by two storms (10-11 November 2013 and 21-22 November 2013) with waves approaching from the E-NNE, causing a shoreline retreat which, in some sectors, reached 7 m. Between the second and third surveys, by contrast, four storms (25-27 December 2013, 5-6 January 2014, 17-18 January 2014 and 6-10 February 2014) with waves propagating from the SE produced a general advancement of the shoreline (up to ~5 m) by deposition of sediments along some parts of the beach. The data also reflect changes in beach topography due to human activity during the 2013 fall season, when private beach managers quarried ~178 m3 of sediments on the emerged beach near the shoreline to accumulate them landwards. The results show that drones can be used for regular beach monitoring activities, and that they can provide new insights into the processes related to natural and/or human-related topographic beach changes.

  18. Plastics and microplastics on recreational beaches in Punta del Este (Uruguay): Unseen critical residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, J P; Teixeira de Mello, F; Carrizo, D; Weinstein, F; Olivera, Y; Cedrés, F; Pereira, M; Fossati, M

    2016-11-01

    Beaches are social-ecological systems that provide several services improving human well-being. However, as one of the major coastal interfaces they are subject to plastic pollution, one of the most significant global environmental threats at present. For the first time for Uruguayan beaches, this study assessed and quantified the accumulation of plastic and microplastic debris on sandy beaches of the major touristic destination Punta del Este during the austral spring of 2013. Aiming to provide valuable information for decision-making, we performed a detailed analysis of plastic debris, their eventual transport pathways to the coast (from land and sea), and the associated persistent pollutants. The results indicated that the smallest size fractions (plastic debris, and their levels did not differ from baseline values reported for similar locations. The abundance of plastic debris was significantly and positively correlated with both the presence of possible land-based sources (e.g. storm-water drains, beach bars, beach access, car parking, and roads), and dissipative beach conditions. The analysis of coastal currents suggested some potential deposition areas along Punta del Este, and particularly for resin pellets, although modeling was not conclusive. From a local management point of view, the development and use of indices that allow predicting trends in the accumulation of plastic debris would be critically useful. The time dimension (e.g. seasonal) should also be considered for this threat, being crucial for locations such as Uruguay, where the use of beaches increases significantly during the summer. This first diagnosis aims to generate scientific baseline, necessary for improved management of plastic litter on beaches and their watersheds.

  19. Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Process Parameters on Pathogen Transport and Fate in a Recreational Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Fu, X.

    2010-12-01

    The US has very long shorelines (95,471 miles) contributing remarkable yearly revenue to the country by providing numerous recreational beaches. The beaches of both inland lakes and marine regions must be closed when the level of waterborne pathogens indicated by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including total coliform (TC), fecal coli form (FC, or Escherichia coli, E. coli) and Enterococcus exceed microbial water quality standards. Beach closures are of mounting concern to beach managers and the public due to the increasing risk to human health from waterborne pathogens. Monitoring FIB with laboratory analysis usually takes at least 18 hours during which beach goers may have been unintentionally exposed to the contaminated water. Therefore a water quality model to quickly and precisely forecast FIB has been a very effective tool for beach management to help beach managers in making decisions if beaches are safe enough to open to the public. The fate and transport of pathogens in the surf-zone of a beach area is a complex process involving various factors of hydrodynamics, hydrology, chemistry, microbiology. These factors including dispersion coefficient, wind velocity, particle settling velocity, fraction of bacteria attached, solar insolation, discharges to the beach, geometry of the beach, etc, are the essential components for a mechanistic model to describe the inactivation of FIB. To better understand the importance of these factors and their roles in impacting inactivation, transport and removal of FIB is extremely important to enhance the effectiveness and preciseness of a predictive model. The aim of this paper is to report the sensitivity analysis results of these factors in the surf zone of a creational beach using a verified water quality model system. The relative importance of these parameters is being ranked. For instance, the current sensitivity analysis shows that sunlight insolation has greater impact on pathogen inactivation than water temperature

  20. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-08-15

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  1. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji

    2016-05-01

    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth’s environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments.

  2. Mid-ocean ridges, InRidge and the future

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Drolia, R.K.; Ray, Dwijesh

    In this article, we chronicle the events that lead to the creation of a global scientific network for midoceanic ridge research, identify areas where Indian researchers could participate and built a case to support and gain momentum within...

  3. 基于物联网中间件技术的滩涂人员定位系统%Personnel Position System of Beach Based on Middleware of IOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬梅; 王元珠; 张明华

    2012-01-01

    为减少怪潮对滩涂作业人员的安全影响,提出一种基于物联网中间件技术的人员定位系统,包括人员信息采集的卫星与基站控制单元、GPS人员坐标信息获取单元和各种RFID感应识别单元.通过改进的Savant中间件模块,将滩涂怪潮中射频识别读取的数据传输到上位计算机中,服务器中心对获取的数据进行分析,以便管理人员通过实时监控数据迅速了解作业人员位置,及时采取救援措施.%To be aimed at the safety of personnel on the strange tide of natural disaster, a personnel position system based on middleware of Internet of Things(IOT) is designed in this paper. The system includes the control unit of satellite and base to collect personnel information, obtain coordinate information by Global Position System(GPS) and all kinds of sensor identification unit of Radio Frequency Identification(RFID). Transmission of the date from read radio frequency identification on the tide beach to the computer. They are analyzed by the center server. As a consequence of the above, the managers can understand the operations staff position quickly through the monitoring data and take timely relief measures.

  4. Continuing evolution of the Pacific-Juan de Fuca-North America slab window system-A trench-ridge-transform example from the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P.A.; Wilson, D.S.; Stanley, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Many subduction margins that rim the Pacific Ocean contain complex records of Cenozoic slab-window volcanism combined with tectonic disruption of the continental margin. The series of slab windows that opened beneath California and Mexico starting about 28.5 Ma resulted from the death of a series of spreading ridge segments and led to piecewise destruction of a subduction regime. The timing and areal extent of the resultant slab-window volcanism provide constraints on models that depict the subsequent fragmentation and dispersal of the overlying continental margin. The initial Pioneer slab window thermally weakened the overlying western Transverse Ranges and California Borderlands region starting about 28.5 Ma. A second thermal pulse occurred in the same region starting about 19 Ma during growth of the Monterey slab window. This additional heating, combined with the capture of a partially subducted Monterey plate fragment by the Cocos plate, initiated the pulling apart and rotation of the adjacent continental margin. Similarly, the capture of Guadalupe and Magdalena plate fragments by the Pacific plate and initiation of the Guadalupe-Magdalena slab window about 12.5 Ma are coeval with Baja California pulling away from the Mexico continental margin, with the break along the Comondú arc, in crust already thermally weakened by about 10 My of volcanism. In coastal California, distributed crustal extension and subsidence accompanied the new transform plate boundary, and continued until the slab windows cooled and plate motion coalesced along a through-going system of strike-slip faults. The transform boundary continues to evolve, and forward modeling predicts an instability with the current configuration as a result of convergence between the Sierra Nevada and Peninsular Ranges batholiths, starting about 2 My in the future. The instability may be resolved by a shift in the locus of transform motion from the San Andreas fault to the eastern California shear zone, or by

  5. Rip channel development on nonbarred beaches: The importance of a lag in suspended-sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. Brad

    2004-04-01

    On approximately planar beaches, rip channel development is often preceded by a period in which jet-like rip currents develop in apparently random locations, and dissipate after minutes to tens of minutes. The subsequent development of sharp-edged, trough-like channels extending across the surf zone suggests that rip currents on planar beaches cause local erosion. Conversely, channels are known to cause localized offshore-directed flow, and once channels have formed on approximately planar beaches, rip currents no longer occur in apparently random locations, but are restricted to the locations of the channels. Apparently, the excavation of channels by rip currents on planar beaches triggers a positive feedback between the morphological development and the flow. However, theoretical analysis indicates that, when depth increases with distance from shore, and sediment transport is treated as a function only of local flow conditions, channel development in the vicinity of a rip current may not occur. In numerical simulations (using a "cellular" model of nonbathymetrically driven rip currents) in which sediment flux on a planar beach is driven by approximately realistic rip current velocity patterns, deposition occurs under parts of the rip currents (especially in the seaward half of the surf zone), and these "rip ridges" cause a negative feedback. In these simulations, as in most models treating surf zone sediment transport, sediment flux is assumed to be strictly a function of local hydrodynamic conditions. However, Observations of sediment-laden rip-current plumes extending well beyond the surf zone suggest that suspended sediment transport is not always in equilibrium with local conditions. Other simulations employ a treatment of suspended-sediment transport that allows for a lag in the adjustment of fluxes to the changes in local hydrodynamic conditions that the sediment is advected through. With this nonlocal sediment-transport, the flux of sediment out of the

  6. Haeundae beach in Korea: Seasonal-to-decadal wave statistics and impulsive beach responses to typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Do, Jong-Dae; Kim, Sun Sin; Park, Won-Kyung; Jun, Kicheon

    2016-12-01

    Haeundae Beach represents Korean pocket beaches that are currently erosional and dominated by summertime typhoons. The decadal wave characteristics 9 km offshore of Haeundae Beach were analyzed using the WAM model that was validated through the 2007 wave observations. The wave statistics modelled for 1979-2007 indicates that the seasonal mean significant wave height (H s) is highest (0.6-0.7 m) in summer due to typhoons, in contrast to the lowest (around 0.5 m) autumn analog. The wave direction is also pronouncedly seasonal with the principal bearings of SSW and NE in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The WAM results additionally show that the H s has gradually increased over the region of Haeundae Beach since 1993. Beach profiling during June-November 2014 shows the opposite processes of the typhoon and fair-weather on beach sands. During a typhoon, foreshore sands were eroded and then accumulated as sand bars on the surf zone. In the subsequent fair-weather, the sand bars moved back to the beach resulting in the surf-zone erosion and foreshore accretion. A total of 5 cycles of these beach-wide sand movements yielded a net retreat (up to 20 m) of the shoreline associated with large foreshore erosion. However, the surf zone only slightly accumulated as a result of the sand cycles. This was attributed to the sand escape offshore from the westernmost tip of the beach. The present study may provide an important clue to understanding the erosional processes in Haeundae Beach.

  7. Initiation of Ridges and Transform Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyst, M.; Thompson, G. A.; Parsons, T.

    2004-12-01

    No clear consensus has emerged to explain initiation of the strikingly regular pattern of ocean ridges and transform faults. The question is important on the continents also, because a less regular pattern of step-overs on faults such as the San Andreas influences the sources of earthquakes. We explore the question by finite element modeling and a study of observational data on ridges and transforms. We focus on the simplest case, where ridges and transforms seem to self-organize at new plate boundaries as soon as new oceanic (magmatic) crust forms. The South Atlantic supplies a clear example. Continental South America and Africa separated along an irregular break, whose general shape is still preserved in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In detail, however, the sea floor magnetic anomalies and satellite gravity show that traces of the ridges and transforms extend to the base of the continental slope, i.e. they formed quickly in the new oceanic crust. The Gulf of California provides another clear example and is notable because of its northward transition into the continental San Andreas fault system. In continental crust, dike segments connected by transform faults provide the clearest analogues of oceanic ridges and transforms. Remarkably, the ridge-transform pattern has been simulated by pulling the crust on molten wax [Oldenburg and Brune, JGR, 80, 1975] and also observed in the crust of a molten lava lake [Duffield, JGR, 77, 1972]. In neither of these models, however, do the spatial and temporal scales permit investigation of the dikes whose repeated emplacement and inflation builds layer 3 of the ocean crust. It is well established that, under a buoyant head of magma, dikes tend to fracture and intrude the crust in planes perpendicular to the least horizontal stress, and they relieve the stress difference as they inflate [e.g. Parsons and Thompson, Science, 253, 1991]. Dikes are commonly used as stress-direction indicators analogous to artificial hydraulic fractures

  8. Growth of a tectonic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.W.; Messerich, J.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Johnson, A.M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake of M 7.6 created an impressive record of surface rupture and ground deformation. Fractures extend over a length of more than 80 km including zones of right-lateral shift, steps in the fault zones, fault intersections and vertical changes. Among the vertical changes was the growth of a tectonic ridge described here. In this paper the authors describe the Emerson fault zone and the Tortoise Hill ridge including the relations between the fault zone and the ridge. They present data on the horizontal deformation at several scales associated with activity within the ridge and belt of shear zones and show the differential vertical uplifts. And, they conclude with a discussion of potential models for the observed deformation.

  9. Repeat ridge jumps associated with plume-ridge interaction, melt transport, and ridge migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Eric; Ito, Garrett; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Repeated shifts, or jumps, of mid-ocean ridge segments toward nearby hot spots can produce large, long-term changes to the geometry and location of the tectonic plate boundaries. Ridge jumps associated with hot spot-ridge interaction are likely caused by several processes including shear on the base of the plate due to expanding plume material as well as reheating of lithosphere as magma passes through it to feed off-axis volcanism. To study how these processes influence ridge jumps, we use numerical models to simulate 2-D (in cross section) viscous flow of the mantle, viscoplastic deformation of the lithosphere, and melt migration upward from the asthenospheric melting zone, laterally along the base of the lithosphere, and vertically through the lithosphere. The locations and rates that magma penetrates and heats the lithosphere are controlled by the time-varying accumulation of melt beneath the plate and the depth-averaged lithospheric porosity. We examine the effect of four key parameters: magmatic heating rate of the lithosphere, plate spreading rate, age of the seafloor overlying the plume, and the plume-ridge migration rate. Results indicate that the minimum value of the magmatic heating rate needed to initiate a ridge jump increases with plate age and spreading rate. The time required to complete a ridge jump decreases with larger values of magmatic heating rate, younger plate age, and faster spreading rate. For cases with migrating ridges, models predict a range of behaviors including repeating ridge jumps, much like those exhibited on Earth. Repeating ridge jumps occur at moderate magmatic heating rates and are the result of changes in the hot spot magma flux in response to magma migration along the base of an evolving lithosphere. The tendency of slow spreading to promote ridge jumps could help explain the observed clustering of hot spots near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Model results also suggest that magmatic heating may significantly thin the lithosphere

  10. Characteristics of Hydrothermal Mineralization in Ultraslow Spreading Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Yang, Q.; Ji, F.; Dick, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity is a major component of the processes that shape the composition and structure of the ocean crust, providing a major pathway for the exchange of heat and elements between the Earth's crust and oceans, and a locus for intense biological activity on the seafloor and underlying crust. In other hand, the structure and composition of hydrothermal systems are the result of complex interactions between heat sources, fluids, wall rocks, tectonic controls and even biological processes. Ultraslow spreading ridges, including the Southwest Indian Ridge, the Gakkel Ridge, are most remarkable end member in plate-boundary structures (Dick et al., 2003), featured with extensive tectonic amagmatic spreading and frequent exposure of peridotite and gabbro. With intensive surveys in last decades, it is suggested that ultraslow ridges are several times more effective than faster-spreading ridges in sustaining hydrothermal activities. This increased efficiency could attributed to deep mining of heat and even exothermic serpentinisation (Baker et al., 2004). Distinct from in faster spreading ridges, one characteristics of hydrothermal mineralization on seafloor in ultraslow spreading ridges, including the active Dragon Flag hydrothermal field at 49.6 degree of the Southwest Indian Ridge, is abundant and pervasive distribution of lower temperature precipitated minerals ( such as Fe-silica or silica, Mn (Fe) oxides, sepiolite, pyrite, marcasite etc. ) in hydrothermal fields. Structures formed by lower temperature activities in active and dead hydrothermal fields are also obviously. High temperature precipitated minerals such as chalcopyrite etc. are rare or very limited in hydrothermal chimneys. Distribution of diverse low temperature hydrothermal activities is consistence with the deep heating mechanisms and hydrothermal circulations in the complex background of ultraslow spreading tectonics. Meanwhile, deeper and larger mineralization at certain locations along the

  11. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  12. Beach Management & Analysis of the Visitors’ Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Paksoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.

  13. Beach Management & Analysis of Visitors’ Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Paksoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.

  14. The influence of fluvial dynamics and North Atlantic swells on the beach habitat of leatherback turtles at Grande Riviere Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsan, Junior; Jehu, Adam; Asmath, Hamish; Singh, Asha; Wilson, Matthew

    2016-09-15

    Grande Riviere beach, located on the north coast of Trinidad, West Indies, is internationally recognised as a critical habitat/nesting ground for the endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Episodic extreme flooding of the Grande Riviere River led to the shifting of the river mouth and resulted in backshore beach erosion, with the most recent recorded event occurring in 2012. Following this event, the construction of a sand dam to arrest further erosion which threatened coastal infrastructure, precipitated a host of new problems ranging from beach instability to public health threats. In January 2013, high energy swell waves naturally in-filled the erosion channel, and the beach recovery continued over the successive months, thereby rendering the intervention in the previous year questionable. This paper presents a geomorphological analysis of beach dynamics for Grande Riviere, within the context of this erosion event. Data on beach profiles, sediment and coastal processes were collected using standard geomorphological techniques. Beach topographic analysis and water quality tests on impounded water in the erosion channel were conducted. Results indicate that the event created an erosion channel of 4843.42 m(3) over a contiguous area of 2794.25 m(2). While swell waves were able to naturally infill the channel, they also eroded 17,762 m(3) of sand overall across the beach. Water quality tests revealed that the impounded water was classified as a pollutant, and created challenges for remediation. Hydrologic and coastal geomorphologic interplay is responsible for the existence and sustainability of this coastal system. It is also evident that the beach system is able to recover naturally following extreme events. Our results demonstrate that effective and integrated management of such critical habitats remains dependent upon continuous monitoring data which should be used to inform policy and decision making.

  15. RIP current zones along beaches in Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.

    . Parts of stations 5 and 6 in Harmal Beach, 16 at Vagator Beach, 51-54 at Miramar Beach, 75 and 76 at Valsao Beach, 84 at Majorda Beach, and 116 at Palolem Beach are observed to have the risk of permanent rip current zones; and they are unsafe places...

  16. Marketing for Oak Ridge technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, G.A.

    1989-06-15

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., which manages major research and production facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the Department of Energy, has implemented a systematic approach to marketing for technology transfer. Unique mechanisms have been created to address the need for market research and analysis, strategy formulation, and the execution of plans designed to engender the broadest commercial use of government-funded technologies. Establishment of formal ties with the University of Tennessee Graduate School of Business has resulted in an expanded role for marketing in support of the Oak Ridge program. The creation of graduate research positions has enabled MBA students to contribute to, and learn from, a program which is at the forefront of an important national initiative.

  17. Visualization and Statistical Analysis on the Submarine Topography of the Radial Tidal Sandy Ridge System in the South Yellow Sea%南黄海辐射沙洲海底地形可视化与定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王百顺; 范代读; 顾君晖; 许建雄

    2012-01-01

    南黄海辐射沙洲海底地形复杂多变,精细的数字地形模型、不同地形单元的立体可视模型及其定量统计值是进行海洋科学研究、海洋功能区与海域开发利用的基础.利用在辐射沙洲北翼进行的单波束测深获取的水深资料,根据残差分析,选择研究区现有水深数据最佳插值法——克里金法,生成海底地形的数字高程模型.运用水深分层设色法立体可视地表征了辐射沙洲的四种地形单元:浅滩、沙脊、潮流槽和宽谷.根据地形倾角可以定量地分析脊、槽等地形单元的坡形变化,整个沙洲以水平-微倾斜地形(倾角<5°)为主,占总面积的60%,分布在宽谷、沙脊顶部和潮流槽中部等.地形剖面曲率分层设色可以更细致地刻画脊、槽相间地形单元的微地貌,并可定量分析不同地形单元的面积及所占比例.地形平面曲率和切线曲率可以指示不同地形单元的海洋动力特征,即:负值区水深较小、流场较强;正值区水深较大、流场较弱.%The radial tidal sandy ridge system (RTSRS) in the south Yellow Sea has very complex submarine topography. It is fundmental and vital for the scientific research, coastal planning and exploitation to have subtle digital terrain model, 3-dimention visual model and statistics of the different topographic units. The bathymetric survey data were recently collected in the north RTSRS with the single-beam echo sounding technique. Kriging interpolation method is considered as the best choice to generate the digital terrain model for the current bathymetric data according to the residual analysis on the measured and interpolated value. The RTSRS can be visually subdivided into four topographic sub-units, including shoal, ridge, channel and broad valley through using the water-depth color bar. The microtopography of ridges and channels can be visually displayed by the profile curvature, like the sub-scale channels on the ridges

  18. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches PRAWN Attribute Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  19. Evaluation of Subterranean Subsidence at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of subsurface subsidence at Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach (NWSSB) areas which include Seal Beach National...

  20. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  1. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  2. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Summers Engel

    Full Text Available Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales. Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales. These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment

  3. 鄂尔多斯盆地南部延7+8油层组滨浅湖滩坝体系沉积特征%Sedimentary characteristics of the shore-shallow lacustrine beach bar system of Yan 7+8 oil reservoirs in southern Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建民

    2013-01-01

    Retrograding sedimentary sequence and shore-shallow lacustrine beach bar system are developed in the Meso-zoic Jurassic Yan ’ an Formation in southern Ordos Basin ,and the latter has close paragenetic relationship with the mean-dering river delta around the lake basin of the Yan ’ an stage .Retrogradation and the destruction of the meandering delta provide clastic input for the development of the low-shallow lake beach bar system .During the depostion of Yan 7+8, An’ sai and Zhidan areas in the north of Shaaxi province were in shore-shallow lacustrine environment .Beach bar deposits were widely developed as the major part of sedimentation ,and can be divided into four microfacies types including beach sand,sand bar,sand sheet and mudstone .Generally,the beach bar sand bodies occur at the side of the river mouth and the flat open shore-shallow lake environment ,and are parallel with the lake shoreline .They are dominated by medium and fine sandstone,and have massive bedding ,wavy bedding,inclined wavy bedding and lenticular bedding ,etc.Beach sand is usually in sheet-like shape and is relatively thin.Bar sand,which is the most representative deposit of the beach bar system ,usually has banded shoreline-parallel distribution ,large thickness ,and lenticular shape on section ,reverse grading at the bottom and transgressive sequences in the middle and upper parts .A series of beach bar sandbodies superimposed with each other in different phases ,forming large-scale shoreline-parallel clustered reservoirs with high net-to-gross ratio . The mudstones of shore-shallow lake facies between the beach bars act as lateral barriers or overlying seals of the beach bar sandbodies .The sedimentary characteristics of the shore-shallow lacustrine beach bar system have significant influ-ences on reservoir development and oil/gas accumulation of the Yan ’ an Formation.%鄂南中生界侏罗系延安组发育退积型沉积层序及滨浅湖滩坝沉积体系;滨浅湖滩坝

  4. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    OpenAIRE

    Rademacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JC011942 In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the cha...

  5. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  6. Beachwatch : The effect of daily morphodynamics on seasonal beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Not only the storm intensity, but also the capacity of the beach to recover during fair weather conditions, influences the erosion trends of beaches. Susanne Quartel concludes this in her thesis in which the daily changes of the intertidal beach of Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands, are described.

  7. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  8. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  9. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium valu

  10. Carpenter Ridge Tuff, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Olivier; Deering, Chad D.; Lipman, Peter W.; Plummer, Charles

    2014-06-01

    The ~1,000 km3 Carpenter Ridge Tuff (CRT), erupted at 27.55 Ma during the mid-tertiary ignimbrite flare-up in the western USA, is among the largest known strongly zoned ash-flow tuffs. It consists primarily of densely welded crystal-poor rhyolite with a pronounced, highly evolved chemical signature (high Rb/Sr, low Ba, Zr, Eu), but thickly ponded intracaldera CRT is capped by a more crystal-rich, less silicic facies. In the outflow ignimbrite, this upper zone is defined mainly by densely welded crystal-rich juvenile clasts of trachydacite composition, with higher Fe-Ti oxide temperatures, and is characterized by extremely high Ba (to 7,500 ppm), Zr, Sr, and positive Eu anomalies. Rare mafic clasts (51-53 wt% SiO2) with Ba contents to 4,000-5,000 ppm and positive Eu anomalies are also present. Much of the major and trace-element variations in the CRT juvenile clasts can be reproduced via in situ differentiation by interstitial melt extraction from a crystal-rich, upper-crustal mush zone, with the trachydacite, crystal-rich clasts representing the remobilized crystal cumulate left behind by the melt extraction process. Late recharge events, represented by the rare mafic clasts and high-Al amphiboles in some samples, mixed in with parts of the crystal cumulate and generated additional scatter in the whole-rock data. Recharge was important in thermally remobilizing the silicic crystal cumulate by partially melting the near-solidus phases, as supported by: (1) ubiquitous wormy/sieve textures and reverse zoning patterns in feldspars and biotites, (2) absence of quartz in this very silicic unit stored at depths of >4-5 km, and (3) heterogeneous melt compositions in the trachydacite fiamme and mafic clasts, particularly in Ba, indicating local enrichment of this element due mostly to sanidine and biotite melting. The injection of hot, juvenile magma into the upper-crustal cumulate also imparted the observed thermal gradient to the deposits and the mixing overprint that

  11. A Natural History of Dune and Beach Ridge Vegetation Along the Southeastern United States Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The underlying question of the proposed research is this: Given different geomorphological histories of coastal landforms eolian versus marine origins, can a biotic...

  12. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  13. Age and morphodynamics of a sandy beach fronted by a macrotidal mud flat along the west coast of Korea: a lateral headland bypass model for beach-dune formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Choi, Jeong-Heon

    2016-11-01

    The Dasari beach-dune system fronted by an intertidal mud flat is a typical example of numerous small beaches found both in embayments and along the open macrotidal west coast of Korea. The beach is frequently exposed to energetic wave action at high tide in winter. Although this coastal dune-sandy beach-intertidal mud flat system has previously been described, its origin and morphodynamic behavior has to date not been firmly established. To clarify these issues, elevation profiles and surficial sediment samples were collected seasonally along five monitoring transects across the tidal flat. In addition, box-cores as well as vibro- and drill-cores were acquired along the middle transect. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C- AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating methods were applied to determine the age of the tidal flat, the beach and the dune deposits. The results show that Dasari beach is topographically composed of two distinct morphological and sedimentological sectors, comprising a high-tide sandy beach that merges seaward into an extensive low-tide tidal flat composed of mud. The transition between the two sectors is marked by a sharp break in slope and change in internal sedimentary structures. At the boundary, the subtle shoreward fining trend in mean grain size on the intertidal flat switches to a pronounced shoreward coarsening trend. Near the transition, mixing between the beach sand and the mud is observed. Another striking feature is a seasonal rotation of the beach system centered on the middle sector, with the northern sector eroding in winter and accreting in summer, and the southern sector accreting in winter and eroding in summer. The spatial grain-size pattern reveals that the beach is fed from the neighboring beach in the north by lateral headland bypassing, rather than onshore transport across the tidal flat, the intermittent lateral supply of sand explaining the seasonal rotation of the beach. Stratigraphically, the beach

  14. The new coastal modelling system SMC-Brazil and its application to the erosional problem in the Massaguaçu Beach (Sao Paulo, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Ernesto Mauricio; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Omar Quetzalcoatl; Cánovas Losada, Verónica; Kakeh Burgada, Nabil; Medina Santamaría, Raúl; Espejo Hermosa, Antonio; Méndez Incera, Fernando Javier; Abascal Santillana, Ana Julia; Castanedo Barcena, Maria Sonia; Martínez Garrido, Cynthia Almenara; Antonio H. F. Klein; Gomes, Paula; Dalinghauss, Charline; Gonzales, Moysés; Rogacheski, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A new version of coastal modeling system (SMC) called SMC-Brasil has been developed by the Environmental Hydraulics Institute “IH-Cantabria” from University of Cantabria, University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) and the Oceanographic Institute of the Sao Paulo University (USP), with the support of the International Spanish Cooperation Agency (AECID), the Brazilian Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) and Ministério do Planejamiento, Orçametno e Gestao/ Secretaria de Patrimonio da União (MP-SPU)...

  15. Coastal erosion project, Diani beach, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballot, J.; Hoyng, C.; Kateman, I.; Smits, M.; De Winter, R.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. Since the seventies, the establishment of hotels and other facilities has increased the pressure on the Kenyan coast. During the last decade, hotel managers and residents in Diani Beach have been experiencing problems with erosion. The only measures taken to address the proble

  16. Alongshore variability of nourished and natural beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schipper, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Alongshore variability in topography (i.e. height differences in bed level along the coast) can exist on both natural and nourished beaches. An important question prior to implementation of a nourishment project is how alongshore variability is going to evolve and, related to this variability, the e

  17. Cross-Shore Exchange on Natural Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    public health cost estimates of contaminated coastal waters: A case study of gastroenteritis at Southern California beaches. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40...Jones, J. Svejkovsky, G. V. Leipzig, and A. Brown, 2001: Generation of enterococci bacteria in a coastal saltwater marsh and its impact on surf zone

  18. Análisis del sistema defensivo en primera línea en voley playa femenino. [Analysis of the defense system of the net in women’s beach volleyball].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma María Gea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de bloqueo se considera una acción discriminatoria de la victoria en el juego. Por ello, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar las acciones defensivas de primera línea en voley playa femenino. Las principales variables criterio analizadas fueron el sistema de juego defensivo, el nivel de juego exhibido por las parejas participantes y su clasificación. La muestra objeto de estudio estuvo compuesta por 38 jugadoras, divididas en función de su nivel de juego, en 13 parejas con nivel de juego nacional, y 6 con nivel internacional (disputan torneos internacionales representando a España. Fueron analizados 15 partidos, registrándose 1.444 secuencias defensivas completas en primera línea defensiva. Se realizó un estudio de confiabilidad, para determinar el grado de concordancia inter e intraobservadores, llegando a alcanzar una concordancia entre los observadores >.80, lo que avala la calidad de los datos. Los resultados del análisis correlacional mostraron una diferencia en el sistema defensivo utilizado tras el cruce de variables criterio estudiadas, mostrando el test de Chi-cuadrado de Pearson una significación en el cruce (χ² de Pearson AbstractThe defense of the net is considered a discriminatory action of the victory in the game. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the defense of the net actions in women’s beach volleyball. The main variables analyzed were the defensive game system, the game level exhibited by participating couples and their classification in the game. The sample was consisted of 38 players, divided according to their level of play, in 13 couples with national level, and 6 international level (players who compete in internationals tournaments representing Spain. 15 games were analyzed, recording 1.444 complete sequences in defense of the net. A study of confiability was carried out, to determine the degree of agreement inter and intraobservers, reaching to achieve agreement

  19. On the feature of seafloor hydrothermal systems' evolutionary and its mineralization in Mid-Ocean Ridge%大洋中脊海底热液系统的演化特征及其成矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为勇; 郑连福; 陶春辉; 李怀明; 窦炳琚

    2011-01-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity in Mid-Ocean Ridge has become one of hotspots in geosciences because of its valuable scientific researching significance. Hydrothermal systems at seafloor spreading centers are characterized by a complex interplay among magmatic, tectonic and biogeochemical processes linked by fluid circulation and heat transfer in the oceanic crust. It could be divided into three phases on the evolution of magma-controlled hydrothermal system, an initial phase, a living phase and a dying phase. The three phases simply reflects the evolution mechanism of hydrothermal system. On the basis of previous data collecting and studies, the authors consider that there are three corresponding hydrothermal activity phases at fast spreading centers, and they evolved with shorter phases, no more than ten years or decades. Although magmatic budget is not so robust at slow spreading centers, the characteristics of each phases are not obvious, and hydrothermal system with universal heat and special structure could continue more than ten thousand years or evolve with tens of thousand years episodically. So the authors affirm that hydrothermal processes are controlled by heat supply and tectonic conditions, such as Rainbow and TAG hydrothermal field in Mid Atlantic Ridge, or even Middle Valley hydrothermal field in Juan de Fuca Ridge, they all have experienced a long-term evolution caused by their sufficient heat supply and favorable superior tectonic conditions. Uncovered ultramafic rock and deeper extension brittle failure are common existent at ultra-slow spreading centers. It has been detected higher incidence of hydrothermal venting than calculated by Magmatic Budget Hypothesis in recent decades, such as Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean and Southwest Indian Ridge, certain segments areas with extra irregular heat supply and more favorable superior tectonic conditions may cause huge hydrotherrnal sulfide deposit by long-term cumulating. China have made great

  20. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  1. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  2. Prototypic automated continuous recreational water quality monitoring of nine Chicago beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn Shively,; Nevers, Meredith; Cathy Breitenbach,; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Kasia Przybyla-Kelly,; Ashley M. Spoljaric,; Richard L. Whitman,

    2015-01-01

    Predictive empirical modeling is used in many locations worldwide as a rapid, alternative recreational water quality management tool to eliminate delayed notifications associated with traditional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) culturing (referred to as the persistence model, PM) and to prevent errors in releasing swimming advisories. The goal of this study was to develop a fully automated water quality management system for multiple beaches using predictive empirical models (EM) and state-of-the-art technology. Many recent EMs rely on samples or data collected manually, which adds to analysis time and increases the burden to the beach manager. In this study, data from water quality buoys and weather stations were transmitted through cellular telemetry to a web hosting service. An executable program simultaneously retrieved and aggregated data for regression equations and calculated EM results each morning at 9:30 AM; results were transferred through RSS feed to a website, mapped to each beach, and received by the lifeguards to be posted at the beach. Models were initially developed for five beaches, but by the third year, 21 beaches were managed using refined and validated modeling systems. The adjusted R2 of the regressions relating Escherichia coli to hydrometeorological variables for the EMs were greater than those for the PMs, and ranged from 0.220 to 0.390 (2011) and 0.103 to 0.381 (2012). Validation results in 2013 revealed reduced predictive capabilities; however, three of the originally modeled beaches showed improvement in 2013 compared to 2012. The EMs generally showed higher accuracy and specificity than those of the PMs, and sensitivity was low for both approaches. In 2012 EM accuracy was 70–97%; specificity, 71–100%; and sensitivity, 0–64% and in 2013 accuracy was 68–97%; specificity, 73–100%; and sensitivity 0–36%. Factors that may have affected model capabilities include instrument malfunction, non-point source inputs, and sparse

  3. Field Use of NMIS at Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, L.G.; Conger, M.; Hughes, S.S.; Mattingly, J.K.; McEvers, J.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Perez, R.B.; Turner, C.R.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.

    1999-08-26

    The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS), developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), has been successfully used at Y-12 for nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). It is particularly useful in the high gamma-ray background of storage arrays and for shielded HEU. With three systems in use at Y-12, NMIS has enhanced the NMC&A capability for verification and for confirmation of materials in storage and for HEU receipts by providing capability not available or practical by other NDA methods for safeguards. It has recently cost-effectively quantified the HEU mass and enrichment of hundreds of HEU metal items to within a total spread of {+-} 5% (3 sigma) with and mean deviations for all HEU verified of + 0.2% for mass and {minus}0.2% for enrichment. Three cart portable systems are easily moved around with minimal impact on facility operations since no permanent dedicated floor space is required. The positive impact of NMIS at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is improved and more cost effective NMC&A as well as the resolution of NMC&A findings. Its operation at the Y-12 Plant is essential for compliance with the NMC&A requirements of the US Department of Energy. NMIS portability has allowed one system to be moved temporarily to the former K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant for characterization of a large deposit of hydrated uranyl fluoride. The impact of this NMIS application was enhanced and verified nuclear criticality safety that led to the safe removal of a large deposit originally estimated by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron counting to contain 1300 kg of 3.3 wt% {sup 235}U material. NMIS has also been operational at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pantex.

  4. Anhydrite Solubility and Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Vapor-Liquid Field of the NaCl-H2O System: Implications for Hydrothermal Vent Fluids at Mid-ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, P.; Syverson, D. D.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were performed at 410, 420 and 450°C between 180-450 bar to investigate anhydrite (CaSO4) solubility and Ca isotope fractionation in the liquid-vapor stability field of the NaCl-H2O system. Experiments were conducted in flexible gold reaction cells and a fixed volume Ti reactor to reach all pressures between the critical curve and three-phase boundary. During isothermal decompression at 410°C, anhydrite solubility in the liquid phase increases (1 to 9 mmol/kg Ca), whereas the solubility decreases in the vapor phase (130 to systems with implications for mass transfer reactions at/near the magma-hydrothermal boundary at mid-ocean ridges.

  5. Ridge Regression for Interactive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory study of the value of ridge regression for interactive models is reported. Assuming that the linear terms in a simple interactive model are centered to eliminate non-essential multicollinearity, a variety of common models, representing both ordinal and disordinal interactions, are shown to have "orientations" that are favorable to…

  6. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 with the mission of standing up a supercomputer 100 times...

  7. Human impact, geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators for mapping and monitoring of a Mediterranean urban-beach with Posidonia oceanica (Gulf of Cagliari-Sardinia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Buosi, Carla; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the human conditioned evolution (medium term) and the short term dynamics (mainly sediment transport) in southern Sardinia beach (between Giorgino and Cala d'Orri, about 11km), composed of fine to coarse quartz sand, backed by dune ridges and lagoons. The study was founded by NEPTUNE Project, Tender6 (L n. 7/2007). Geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators as: urbanization and coastal defence expansion, dune and beach changes, biotic indices (benthic foraminifera and Posidonia meadow) have been used. Medium-term evolution, over a period of 60 years, was carried out by ortho-images (1954-2015) for reconstructing coastline changes at this temporal scale. The main modifications were the building of the canal harbor, the consequent loss of 2.5km of beach, and the construction of several coastal defense structures, which caused asymmetric accumulations (lee zones) and erosion areas. Short-term variations have been periodically monitored (2014-2015) during 5 different field surveys (DGPS and Echo-sounder data) obtaining topo-bathymetric digital models. Sedimentary and hydrodynamic characteristics have been studied. Wave propagation, coastal currents and sediment transport, have been simulated through numerical models within Delft3D software. The results obtained allowed to visualize the response of the beach to wave stress, forced from SW, S, SE (Cagliari buoy and weather data). The comparison between data collected, thematic maps and models allowed to identify the main controlling factors and distribution mechanisms of the sedimentary paths on the shoreface. Those human modifications (e.g. building of the canal harbour and jetties, lagoon mouths stabilization, the consequent modified hydrodynamics and bottom trawling) have direct influence on the Posidonia oceanica and on its upper limit. In 2002, the Italian Environment Office reported a wide area (between -4m and -20m) of degraded Posidonia and dead matte in front of the study beach

  8. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  9. 75 FR 15721 - Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, City of Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, City of Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Fish... environmental assessment (EA) for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for a 30-day public review and comment... by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 (Improvement......

  10. Emergent behavior in a coupled economic and coastline model for beach nourishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Lazarus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed coastal areas often exhibit a strong systemic coupling between shoreline dynamics and economic dynamics. "Beach nourishment", a common erosion-control practice, involves mechanically depositing sediment from outside the local littoral system onto an actively eroding shoreline to alter shoreline morphology. Natural sediment-transport processes quickly rework the newly engineered beach, causing further changes to the shoreline that in turn affect subsequent beach-nourishment decisions. To the limited extent that this landscape/economic coupling has been considered, evidence suggests that towns tend to employ spatially myopic economic strategies under which individual towns make isolated decisions that do not account for their neighbors. What happens when an optimization strategy that explicitly ignores spatial interactions is incorporated into a physical model that is spatially dynamic? The long-term attractor that develops for the coupled system (the state and behavior to which the system evolves over time is unclear. We link an economic model, in which town-manager agents choose economically optimal beach-nourishment intervals according to past observations of their immediate shoreline, to a simplified coastal-dynamics model that includes alongshore sediment transport and background erosion (e.g. from sea-level rise. Simulations suggest that feedbacks between these human and natural coastal processes can generate emergent behaviors. When alongshore sediment transport and spatially myopic nourishment decisions are coupled, increases in the rate of sea-level rise can destabilize economically optimal nourishment practices into a regime characterized by the emergence of chaotic shoreline evolution.

  11. Palm Beach County's Prime Time Initiative: Improving the Quality of After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    This report covers the third year of Chapin Hall's process evaluation of the Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida, a system-building effort to strengthen the quality of after-school programs in the county. During the past two decades, the after-school field has expanded enormously, partly in response to increasing concern about…

  12. Optimal index related to the shoreline dynamics during a storm: the case of Jesolo beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Renata; Paci, Agnese; Carniel, Sandro; Bonaldo, Davide

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents an application of shoreline monitoring aimed at understanding the response of a beach to single storms and at identifying its typical behaviour, in order to be able to predict shoreline changes and to properly plan the defence of the shore zone. On the study area, in Jesolo beach (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy), a video monitoring station and an acoustic wave and current profiler were installed in spring 2013, recording, respectively, images and hydrodynamic data. The site lacks previous detailed hydrodynamic and morphodynamic data. Variations in the shoreline were quantified in combination with available near-shore wave conditions, making it possible to analyse the relationship between the shoreline displacement and the wave features. Results denote characteristic patterns of beach response to storm events, and highlight the importance of improving beach protection in this zone, notwithstanding the many interventions experimented in the last decades. A total of 31 independent storm events were selected during the period October 2013-October 2014, and for each of them synthetic indexes based on storm duration, energy and maximum wave height were developed and estimated. It was found that the net shoreline displacements during a storm are well correlated with the total wave energy associated to the considered storm by an empirical power law equation. A sub-selection of storms in the presence of an artificial dune protecting the beach (in the winter season) was examined in detail, allowing to conclude that the adoption of this coastal defence strategy in the study area can reduce shoreline retreat during a storm. This type of intervention can sometimes contribute to prolonging overall stability not only in the replenished zone but also in downdrift areas. The implemented methodology, which confirms to be economically attractive if compared to more traditional monitoring systems, proves to be a valuable system to monitor beach erosive processes and

  13. Best index related to the shoreline dynamics during a storm: the case of Jesolo beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Archetti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of shoreline monitoring aimed to understand the response of a beach to single storms and to identify its typical behaviour, in order to be able to predict shoreline changes and to properly plan the defence of the shore zone. On the study area, in Jesolo beach (Nothern Adriatic sea, Italy, a video monitoring station and an acoustic wave and current profiler were installed in spring 2013, recording respectively images and hydrodynamic data. The site lacks of previous detailed hydrodynamic and morphodynamics data. Variations in the shoreline were quantified in combination with available nearshore wave conditions, making it possible to analyse a relationship between the shoreline displacement and the wave features. Results denote characteristic patterns of beach response to storm events, and highlight the importance of improving beach protection in this zone, notwithstanding the many interventions experimented in the last decades. A total of 31 independent storm events were selected during the period October 2013–October 2014, and for each of them synthetic indexes based on storm duration, energy and maximum wave height were developed and estimated. It was found that the mean shoreline displacements during a storm are well correlated with the total wave energy during the considered storm by an empirical power law equation. A sub-selection of storms on beach protected by artificial dunes (in winter season was examined in detail; we can conclude that the extensive adoption of artificial dunes in the study area was useful in the past also to reduce shoreline retreat during the storm. This type of interventions can sometimes contribute to prolonged overall stability not only in the replenished zone but also in down drift areas. The implemented methodology, which confirms to be economically attractive if compared to more traditional monitoring systems, proves to be a valuable system to monitor beach erosive processes

  14. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  15. Using UAS Hyperspatial RGB Imagery for Identifying Beach Zones along the South Texas Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline information is fundamental for understanding coastal dynamics and for implementing environmental policy. The analysis of shoreline variability usually uses a group of shoreline indicators visibly discernible in coastal imagery, such as the seaward vegetation line, wet beach/dry beach line, and instantaneous water line. These indicators partition a beach into four zones: vegetated land, dry sand or debris, wet sand, and water. Unmanned aircraft system (UAS remote sensing that can acquire imagery with sub-decimeter pixel size provides opportunities to map these four beach zones. This paper attempts to delineate four beach zones based on UAS hyperspatial RGB (Red, Green, and Blue imagery, namely imagery of sub-decimeter pixel size, and feature textures. Besides the RGB images, this paper also uses USGS (the United States Geological Survey Munsell HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value and CIELUV (the CIE 1976 (L*, u*, v* color space images transformed from an RGB image. The four beach zones are identified based on the Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM and Local Binary Pattern (LBP textures. Experiments were conducted with South Padre Island photos acquired by a Nikon D80 camera mounted on the US-16 UAS during March 2014. The results show that USGS Munsell hue can separate land and water reliably. GLCM and LBP textures can slightly improve classification accuracies by both unsupervised and supervised classification techniques. The experiments also indicate that we could reach acceptable results on different photos while using training data from another photo for site-specific UAS remote sensing. The findings imply that parallel processing of classification is feasible.

  16. Complex, dynamic combination of physical, chemical and nutritional variables controls spatio-temporal variation of sandy beach community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy

  17. Integrated solid waste management of Palm Beach County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the Palm Beach County, Florida integrated municipal solid waste management system (IMSWMS), the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWMS.

  18. InRidge program: Preliminary results from the first cruise

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Iyer, S.D.; Rao, M.M.M.; Banerjee, R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Ghose, I.

    The first cruise under India's own Ridge research initiative, InRidge collected new data on bathymetry, free-air gravity and magnetic anomalies across the ridge axis between the Vema and Zhivago transform faults in the Central Indian Ridge...

  19. Geophysical investigations over a segment of the Central Indian Ridge, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Subrahmanyam, C.

    , and about their detailed morphotec- tonic characters, comes from the high-resolution studies carried out over the fast spreading East Paci c Rise and the intermediate spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge systems (Macdonald et al. 1984, 1991; Lin et al. 1990; Sempere... the 55 km length of the ridge segment. The ridge axis trends about N43¡W, and the rift valley is character- ized by steep walls having reliefs of 600 and 1000 m on the western and eastern sides, respectively. The depth along the ridge axis varies from...

  20. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  1. Formation and stability of ridge-ridge-ridge triple junctions in rheologically realistic lithosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, Taras; Burov, Evgueni

    2015-04-01

    -branch junction formation and evolution by using high-resolution 3D numerical mechanical experiments that take into account realistic thermo-rheological structure and rheology of the lithosphere. We find that two major types of quadruple and triple junctions are formed under bi-directional or multidirectional far-field stress field: (i) plate rifting junctions are formed by the initial plate fragmentation and can be subsequently re-arranged into (ii) oceanic spreading junctions controlled by the new oceanic crust accretion. In particular, we document initial formation and destabilization of quadruple R-R-R-R junctions as initial plate rifting structures under bi-directional extension. In most cases, quadruple plate rifting junctions rapidly (typically within 1-2 Myr) evolve towards formation of two diverging triple oceanic spreading junctions connected by a linear spreading center lengthening with time. This configuration remains stable over long time scales. However, under certain conditions, quadruple junctions may also remain relatively stable. Asymmetric stretching results in various configurations, for example formation of "T-junctions" with trans-extensional components and combination of fast and slow spreading ridges. Combined with plume impingement, this scenario evolves in realistic patterns closely resembling observed plate dynamics. In particular, opening of the Red Sea and of the Afar rift system find a logical explanation within a single model. Numerical experiments also suggest that several existing oceanic spreading junctions form as the result of plate motions rearrangements after which only one of two plates spreading along the ridge become subjected to bi-directional spreading.

  2. Enabling Integration and Synthesis through the Ridge 2000 Data Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W. B.; Ferrini, V.; Carbotte, S. M.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R. A.; Bonczkowski, J.; Chan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Achieving an integrated, holistic understanding of global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) processes through the Ridge 2000 Program relies heavily on the sharing of data across disciplinary boundaries. Although most Ridge 2000 research has been focused on three Integrated Study Sites (ISSs), data from throughout the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system will also be important in the integration and synthesis phase of the program. The Ridge 2000 Data Portal (www.marine-geo.org/portals/ridge2000) is a resource established to facilitate the sharing, discovery, and integration of Ridge 2000-relevant data by providing data documentation and access. The Data Portal includes an inventory of field programs and activities, raw and derived data files, and access to publications and remote data sets in specialized data systems (e.g. PetDB, www.petdb.org; GenBank, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; NGDC, www.ngdc.noaa.gov). Access to the R2K database is provided through several pathways, including a web-based search interface (www.marine-geo.org/tools/search) that now includes basic and advanced search functionality. New versions of our data exploration and visualization tool GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org) includes a newly designed menu system with cascading and tear-off menus, a new Layer Manager that lists selected layers and enables re-ordering and rendering with variable transparency, a Go To option that allows direct zooming to areas of interest, and an Add Image Overlay option for importing georeferenced images. New data sets are continually added to both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean (www.virtualocean.org), a 3D virtual globe with GeoMapApp functionality. Several Ridge 2000 data sets are also bundled for viewing in Google Earth (www.marine-geo.org/tools/kmls.php). This poster will highlight new functionality and data sets relevant to Ridge 2000 Integration and Synthesis, and will provide comparisons of several data sets that exist for each ISS.

  3. Length Scales of Magmatic Segments at Intermediate and Fast Spreading Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulahanis, B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Klein, E. M.; Smith, D. K.; Cannat, M.

    2014-12-01

    A synthesis of observations from fast and magmatically-robust intermediate spreading ridges suggest that fine-scale tectonic segments, previously classified as 3rd order, correspond with principle magmatic segments along these ridges, each with their own magmatic plumbing system in the crust and shallow mantle. In this study, we use multi-beam sonar data available for fast and intermediate spreading ridges to determine the length distribution of these segments for comparison with the primary segmentation of the ridge axis found at slower spreading ridges. A study of intermediate, slow and ultraslow-spreading ridges using global satellite-derived bathymetry indicates a dominant segment length of 53 km [Briais and Rabinowicz, J. Geophys. Res. 2002]. However, satellite-derived bathymetry cannot be used to identify fine-scale tectonic segmentation of fast and magmatically-robust intermediate spreading ridges due to the subdued low-relief expression of ridge-axis discontinuities along these spreading rates. This study focuses on the well-mapped regions of the East Pacific Rise between 13.35°S and 18°N, and the Galapagos Spreading Center between 85° and 95.38° W. We reexamine tectonic segmentation of the ridge axis previously identified in the literature and modify the locations of ridge-axis discontinuities defining segment ends in regions where modern multi-beam bathymetric data coverage has improved relative to that available in early studies. Discontinuities of first, second, and third order are used to define tectonic segment lengths. Initial results show a mean segment length of 42 km (standard deviation of 27 km) and a median of 33 km, with 85 segments studied, similar to the segment length distributions observed at slower spreading ridges. To further evaluate the hypothesis of principle magmatic segments, we also examine the relationship between fine-scale tectonic segmentation and properties of the crustal magmatic system imaged in prior seismic studies of

  4. Improving prosthetic prognosis by connective tissue ridge augmentation of alveolar ridge

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The contour of edentulous ridge should be carefully evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge height and width allows placement of a natural looking pontic which facilitates maintenance of plaque-free environment. The localized alveolar ridge defect refers to the volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the ad...

  5. Surf zone fauna of Ecuadorian sandy beaches: Spatial and temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Fockedey, N.; de Grunauer, M. del P. Cornejo R.; Dominguez-Granda, L.

    2017-02-01

    Sandy beaches and their surf zones are the most common open shoreline habitat; however, surf zone fauna in the tropics is one of the least studied communities in the world. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Ecuadorian surf zone hyperbenthos (invertebrates and vertebrates 1-5 mm in length) and epibenthos (fish and macrocrustaceans > 5 mm in length) vary among beaches and seasons. Therefore, the fauna was described and related to environmental variables. In addition, indicator taxa were identified. The hyperbenthos was divided into holo- and mero-hyperbenthos depending on whether taxa were present during their entire life or only early life stages, respectively. Samples were collected at eight different beaches during the wet, dry and intermediate or transitional season during the low spring tide, from 1999 to 2000, using a hyperbenthic sledge and epibenthic trawl. A total of 447 hyperbenthic and 30 epibenthic taxa were collected, most of which were crustaceans and fish, respectively (52 and 60% of taxa). The mysid, Metamysidopsis sp., was the most abundant member of the hyperbenthos (average ± SD: 14,425 ± 40,039 ind. 100 m- 2, present in 92% of samples collected), and the swimming blue crab, Areneus mexicanus, was the most encountered species among the epibenthos (1 ± 1 ind. 100 m- 2, 97% of samples collected). All faunal groups varied among beaches, while the holo-hyperbenthos and less strongly the epibenthos varied among seasons. Variability in the three faunas among beaches, distance from the continental slope and the Guayas estuarine system, and beach water physical characteristics were all strongly correlated suggesting adjacent habitats can influence surf zone biological communities and water physical characteristics. Seasonal effects were related to changes in water physical characteristics among seasons potentially reflecting changes in oceanic currents. These results suggest that, similarly to other beaches around the world, Ecuadorian

  6. Zonation of macrofauna across sandy beaches and surf zones along the Dutch coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Janssen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On nine beaches and two transects in the surf zone along the Dutch coast the presence of benthic macrofauna was studied in relation to basic abiotic characteristics. According to Short's classification system, Dutch beaches are mesotidal and dissipative (Ω = 8.6, and the RTR is low (1.52-1.27, which means that they are not tide-dominated. BSI ranged from 1.4 to 1.1 for the northern and western Dutch coasts respectively and had an overall value of 1.2. The rates of exposure of the beaches varied between 8 and 12, and are therefore regarded as sheltered to moderately exposed. The Dutch beaches display a geographical trend in beach types. Those of the Wadden Sea islands in the northern part of the Netherlands are dissipative, flat, fine-grained, and host high densities of many species of benthic macrofauna. The beaches along the western Dutch coast are less dissipative, steeper, with a higher mean grain size; the species diversity and abundance there are lower. Species diversity and abundance on the beaches increase from the high- to the low-water line. The maximum number of species was found between 0 and -1 m relative to the mean tidal level. The abundance peaks just above the mean tidal level, while the biomass reaches a maximum at the mean tidal level.     Species diversity and abundance are low in the surf zone, but increase towards deeper water. Species numbers are high and the abundance is very high in the trough between the two bars.     The relation between the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic species on the one hand, and the sediment composition, water column depth, and position between the bars on the other show a clear pattern of zonation for the beach, surf zone and near-shore: (1 a supralittoral zone with insects and air-breathing crustaceans, (2 a midshore zone, with intertidal species, (3 a lower shore zone, whose species extend into the shallow surf zone, and (4 a zone of sublittoral fauna in the trough between the

  7. A coral-rubble ridge as evidence for hurricane overwash, Anegada (British Virgin Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiske, M.; Halley, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    A coral-rubble ridge fringes part of the north shore of Anegada, a low-lying island in the northern Caribbean. Both historical reports and the geological record underline its vulnerability to tsunami and hurricanes. In this study we document the sedimentary characteristics of a coral-rubble ridge, which extends discontinuously along 1.5-1.8 km of chiefly north-facing shores at Soldier Wash. The ridge is less distinctive and appears only in patches along the west-facing shoreline at Windless Bight, where the wave regime is calmer. It is located ca. 8 m from the fair-weather shore, has a maximum width of 15 m and a maximum thickness of 0.8 m. The lower seaward-facing slope of the ridge is relatively flat, probably due to successive reworking, whereas the upper seaward slope is steep and partly displays avalanching faces. The landward flank is gently sloping and terminates abruptly. The ridge is mainly composed of well-rounded, encrusted and bored coral rubble (average diameter of 16 cm) that has been reworked in the shallow marine environment prior to transport. Only a few pieces of angular beach rock and karstified Pleistocene limestone are incorporated. The components build a clast-supported framework. No sand is present in the interstices. Imbrication of flat clasts indicates a deposition during landward bed load transport. The ridge morphology, composition and related hydrodynamic conditions during its emplacement are typical for coral-rubble ridges deposited by hurricane-induced storm surges. In comparison, nearby evidence for tsunami inundation is very different because the tsunami-transported coral boulders on Anegada are much bigger (2 m) than the biggest components in the ridge, they are deposited much farther inland (up to 1.5 km), and the corals seem to have been freshly broken out of the reef by the tsunami. The age of the ridge is difficult to estimate. The dark grey surface of the ridge is caused by bioweathering by endolithic organisms that takes tens

  8. Sex Determination from Fingerprint Ridge Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sudesh Gungadin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with an aim to establish a relationship between sex and fingerprint ridge density. The fingerprints were taken from 500 subjects (250 males and 250 females in the age group of 18-60 years. After taking fingerprints, the ridges were counted in the upper portion of the radial border of each print for all ten fingers and mean value was calculated. The results have shown that a finger print ridge of 14 ridges/25 mm2 is more likely of female origin. It has been successful to support the hypothesis that women tend to have a statistically significant greater ridge density than men.

  9. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the characteristics of the tidal flow field around protruding beach nourishments under varying nourishment geometry and tidal conditions, based on extensive field observations and numerical flow simulations. Observations of the flow field around the Sand Motor, obtained with a ship-mounted current profiler and a set of fixed current profilers, show that a tidal eddy develops along the northern edge of the mega-nourishment every flood period. The eddy is generated around peak tidal flow and gradually gains size and strength, growing much larger than the cross-shore dimension of the coastline perturbation. Based on a 3 week measurement period, it is shown that the intensity of the eddy modulates with the spring-neap tidal cycle. Depth-averaged tidal currents around coastline perturbations are simulated and compared to the field observations. The occurrence and behavior of tidal eddies is derived for a large set of simulations with varying nourishment size and shape. Results show that several different types of behavior exist, characterized by different combinations of the nourishment aspect ratio, the size of the nourishment relative to the tidal excursion length, and the influence of bed friction.

  10. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    CERN Document Server

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Beuf, Guillaume; Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  12. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Altinoluk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  14. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinoluk, Tolga [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Armesto, Néstor, E-mail: nestor.armesto@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Beuf, Guillaume [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-12-17

    We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  15. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 16 Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation ANTONIO MASCARENHAS and BABAN INGOLE ABSTRACT Miramar beach is a faunal storehouse as 50 macrobenthic species are recorded. About 80% meiobenthic communities... and perspectives. eds. by: Jayappa, K.S.; Narayana, A.C.I.K. ; 212-225p. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation 213 private parties (Anonymous, 2001). This idea met with rigid resistance from various stakeholders. As a result, Goa state...

  16. The Mozambique Ridge: a document of massive multistage magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Maximilian D.; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Jacques, Guillaume; Werner, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The Mozambique Ridge, a prominent basement high in the southwestern Indian Ocean, consists of four major geomorphological segments associated with numerous phases of volcanic activity in the Lower Cretaceous. The nature and origin of the Mozambique Ridge have been intensely debated with one hypothesis suggesting a Large Igneous Province origin. High-resolution seismic reflection data reveal a large number of extrusion centres with a random distribution throughout the southern Mozambique Ridge and the nearby Transkei Rise. Intrabasement reflections emerge from the extrusion centres and are interpreted to represent massive lava flow sequences. Such lava flow sequences are characteristic of eruptions leading to the formation of continental and oceanic flood basalt provinces, hence supporting a Large Igneous Province origin of the Mozambique Ridge. We observe evidence for widespread post-sedimentary magmatic activity that we correlate with a southward propagation of the East African Rift System. Based on our volumetric analysis of the southern Mozambique Ridge we infer a rapid sequential emplacement between ˜131 and ˜125 Ma, which is similar to the short formation periods of other Large Igneous Provinces like the Agulhas Plateau.

  17. A method for finding the ridge between saddle points applied to rare event rate estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maronsson, Jon Bergmann; Jónsson, Hannes; Vegge, Tejs

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for finding the ridge between first order saddle points on a multidimensional surface. For atomic scale systems, such saddle points on the energy surface correspond to atomic rearrangement mechanisms. Information about the ridge can be used to test the validity of the harmon...

  18. Carbonate cements in contemporaneous beachrocks, Jaguaribe beach, Itamaracá island, northeastern Brazil: petrographic, geochemical and isotopic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Núbia C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holocene beachrocks of the Jaguaribe beach, State of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, consist of horizontal, cemented layers approximately 40 cm thick. The cement shows three textural varieties: (a calciferous, surrounding siliciclastic grains, (b micritic, with an acicular fringe; and (c cryptocrystalline calcite in pores. Early cementation took place at the water table below beach ridges, where geochemical, hydrodynamic and, perhaps, also microbiological conditions favored rapid precipitation of aragonite and/or high-Mg calcite. delta13C values range from -1.8 to +1.5? for dissolved carbonate in interstitial water and from +0.2 to +2.1? for bioclastic components. delta18O values range from -2.8 to +0.5? for seawater, freshwater and interstitial water. delta13C values and diagenetic features suggest that cementation occurred in meteoric-vadose and/or marine-phreatic water by loss of CO2 during evaporation of the interstitial water. Locally, superimposed low-Mg calcite cements point to subsequent freshwater influence. Total-rock cement composition of vertically stacked beachrock beds at the Jaguaribe beach shows that the highest beachrock bed is older than the one (of same petrographic composition situated at the current groundwater level. This implies a downward progression of cementation, which probably followed the sea-level fall after a local high stand.

  19. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  20. Demonstration of the iodine and NO/sub x/ removal systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated equipment test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E.; Jubin, R.T.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the findings from three sets of experiments on iodine and NO/sub x/ removal performance using dual downdraft condensers in the dissolver off-gas line. The initial experiments were conducted in the laboratory using glassware in proof-of-principle tests. Two additional sets of condenser experiments were conducted using equipment prototyical for a 0.5-t/d plant in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report also describes the NO/sub x/ removal performance of a packed scrubber in the IET during the dissolution of depleted uranium oxides. The overall iodine pass-through efficiency of the condensers in the IET was high as desired. Removal efficiencies ranged from only 0.35 to 6.29%, indicating that the bulk of the iodine in the off-gas will be transferred on through the condensers to the iodox process for final disposal rather than recycled to the dissolver. The optimum operating temperature for the first condenser was in the range of 50 to 70/sup 0/C, with the temperature of the second condenser held near 20/sup 0/C. The NO/sub x/ removal performance of the combined dual condensers and packed scrubber resulted in effluent off-gas stream NO/sub x/ compositions of approx.0.4 to 1.0%, which are acceptable levels for the iodox process. The NO/sub x/ removal efficiency of the condensers ranged from approx.5 to 58%, but was generally around 20%. The removal efficiency of the packed tower scrubber was observed to be in the range of 40 to 60%. The NO/sub x/ removal performance of the condensers tended to complement the performance of the scrubber in that the condenser removal afficiency was high when the scrubber efficiency was low and vice versa.

  1. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  2. Geo-Morphological Analyses of the Gakkel Ridge and the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorschel, B.; Schlindwein, V. S. N.; Eagles, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean and the Southwest Indian Ridge in the Southwest Indian Ocean between Africa and Antarctica are ultraslow-spreading (intersticial melt migration) by which material rises to fill the space vacated by plate divergence. These ridges are characterised by non-orthogonal spreading. Transform faults, typical of faster spreading mid ocean ridges, are far less common at ultraslow spreading mid ocean ridges. Thus in return, detailed geo-statistical analyses of the geo-morphology of ultraslow-spreading mid ocean ridges can provide valuable information towards a better understanding of these slowest of spreading ridges. We have generated high resolution bathymetric grids for the Gakkel and Southwest Indian ridges based on high resolution multibeam echosounder data from various expeditions with RV Polarstern. On the basis of these grids, geo-statistical analyses allow for an assessment of the geo-morphological elements of the ridges on various scales. The results of these analyses show that, approximately 200 km long medium-scale sections of the ridges can be characterised by the lengths and orientations of the short-scale (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometres) ridges and troughs. The geomorphologies of short-scale ridges and troughs situated at the junctions between medium scale sections often exhibit a mixture of the geomorphological elements seen in the neighbouring sections. These geo-morphological patterns provide insights into the overall spreading-geometry along the Gakkel Ridge and the Southwest Indian Ridge.

  3. Removing the remaining ridges in fingerprint segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU En; ZHANG Jian-ming; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min; HU Chun-feng

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprint segmentation is an important step in fingerprint recognition and is usually aimed to identify non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions and exclude them as background so as to reduce the time expenditure of image processing and avoid detecting false features. In high and in low quality ridge regions, often are some remaining ridges which are the afterimages of the previously scanned finger and are expected to be excluded from the foreground. However, existing segmentation methods generally do not take the case into consideration, and often, the remaining ridge regions are falsely classified as foreground by segmentation algorithm with spurious features produced erroneously including unrecoverable regions as foreground. This paper proposes two steps for fingerprint segmentation aimed at removing the remaining ridge region from the foreground. The non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions are removed as background in the first step, and then the foreground produced by the first step is further analyzed for possible remove of the remaining ridge region. The proposed method proved effective in avoiding detecting false ridges and in improving minutiae detection.

  4. Analyze of waves dynamic over an intertidal mudflat of a sandy-gravely estuarine beach - Field survey and preliminary modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Olivier; Sedrati, Mouncef; Goubert, Evelyne

    2014-05-01

    As well as marine submersion or erosive phenomena, clay-silted sediment in-filling on estuarial and bay beaches are a main issue in these human-attractive areas. Coupled sandy/gravely and clay/silty intertidal areas can be observed in these particular coastal areas, depending of rivers characteristic (discharge of particle, water flow), ocean dynamics (wave exposure, current) and sediments sources. All around the world, sandy/gravely beaches are exposed to punctual or continuous input clay sediments. Vilaine estuary, Bay of Arcachon and Bay of Seine in France, Plymouth Bay in UK and also Wadden Sea in Deutschland are few examples of muddy/sandy coupled or mixed system. The beach of Bétahon (Ambon town, Brittany - France) is located on the external Vilaine estuary and is an example of this issue. This meso-macrotidal intermediate (low tide terrace) beach presents heterogeneous sediments. The upper intertidal zone is composed by sand and gravel and characterized by a steep slope. A very gentle slope characterized the lower part of the beach and is constituted by silt and clay. Clay/sand limit is characterized by a decimetric erosion cliff of mudflat along the beach. In order to understand bed variations and sediment transport of this complex heterogeneous beach, a well understanding of wave dynamic across the beach is necessary. This study focus on wave dynamics over the beach, using field observations and MIKE 21 3D wave numerical model. This paper is a preliminary approach of an upcoming global understanding of this estuarial beach behavior. Swell from deep-sea to near-shore area is modeled over a 100 km² area and real wind, deep sea wave characteristic, river water flow and tidal level are defined as open boundary conditions for the regional model. This last one is based on multiple bathymetric surveys over the last 50 years. Local model, triangular mesh gridded to 5 meters, covering Bétahon beach , is based on topographic and photographic survey of the mudflat

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    The foundation heat exchanger, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new concept for a cost-effective horizontal ground heat exchanger that can be connected to water-to-water or water-to-air heat pump systems for space conditioning as well as domestic water heating.

  6. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.D. Chavan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach pea seeds contained very low grain weight, density, hydration capacity,  hydration index, swelling capacity and swelling index than the green pea and field pea. Beach pea had higher amount of crude protein, ash, crude fibre and polyphenols, but lower in starch content than the green pea and field pea. Without any treatment to beach pea seeds the water uptake capacity was very low. Mechanical treatment to beach pea seeds increasedthe water uptake percentage. The recovery of hull was 3 to 6 times higher in beach pea than that of green pea and field pea. The crude protein  content in beach pea hull was 2-5% higher than others. The beach pea hull, dhal and whole seeds were good source of macro- and micro- minerals than that of the other two peas. The electron microscopic  structure of beach pea hull crude fibre showed a very close and compact structure than green pea and field pea hull crude fibre structure. Lowering the hardness of beach pea seeds with mechanical or chemical treatments will give more scope for their utilization in the human nutrition.

  7. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  8. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  9. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements....

  10. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  11. Dinosaurs nesting on a red beach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P. Martin; Peitz, Christian; Gallemi, Jaume; Cousin, Rémi

    1998-07-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Basturs locality (Tremp Basin, northern Spain) preserves numerous dinosaur eggs ( Megaloolithus cf. M. mammilare Vianey-Liaud, 1994). The locality was recently studied by Sanz et al. (1995) as well as by us. However, we have to disagree with several conclusions by Sanz et al. and suggest alternative interpretations incorporating data from other localities (Coll de Nargó). The dinosaurs at Basturs did not nest at the beach, nor is there evidence for colonial nesting and territorial behaviour. However, the locality superbly documents nesting site fidelity with an estimated occupation time of over 10 000 years.

  12. Mauritius: A journey from beach to laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.

    stream_size 8323 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Geol_Surv_India_Newslett_Mar_Wing_18-19_79.pdf.txt stream_source_info Geol_Surv_India_Newslett_Mar_Wing_18-19_79.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text... and fun-filled sunny golden beach-centered tourism. However, despite having an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) thousand times its landmass, the ocean based economic activities contributing to the Gross National Product of Mauritius have been...

  13. Stability of the beaches in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    Beach profiles were carried out in Dec.2003, 2004 and Jan,.2005. Annual profiles of Dec. 2003 and 2004 show a normal trend of beach dynamics. At Poompuhar 63 M sup(3) M sup(1) of sediments are found to be deposited. However, a total change...

  14. 1981 beached animal and plastic litter surveys report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 119.63 km of beach were walked in 41 surveys (Appendix 1.). Birds and mammals were found on 16 of these surveys. There were 0.03 birds/km beach walked,...

  15. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  16. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  17. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  18. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  19. Waihi Beach to the future: An objective review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, J.; Van Dijk, R.; Van der Lans, J.; Loeffen, R.; Wagner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Waihi Beach is a village consisting out of 2300 inhabitants, located in the Bay of Plenty on the North Island of New Zealand. It can be seen as a 9 km long tombolo beach. Dunes used to protect most of the land, but have decreased in size through natural erosive processes and through urban developmen

  20. A study on the reconstruction of Los Acantilados Beach, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, A.; Burger, B.; Hartog, W.M.; De Rijke, Q.C.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Mar del Plata is situated some 400 km South of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina. The city has two main incomes, namely industry and tourism. In summer, beaches of this Atlantic Ocean faced destination are packed with typical Argentine beach tents, which can be rented, and people fr

  1. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    Under CS1R-CMRI Network Programme of Coastal Placer Mining beach sand samples have been collected along the Poompuhar-Nagoor beaches of Central Tamil Nadu, India. Representative samples of 2003, 2005 and 2006 have been analysed for grain size...

  2. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  3. Observations of shoreline-sandbar coupling on an embayed beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Bryan, K.R.; Coco, G.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a seven-year dataset (1999–2005) of shoreline and sandbar variations derived from video observations at the embayed Tairua Beach, New Zealand, to explore sandbar–shoreline coupling and to determine how this coupling is related to alongshore-averaged sandbar–shoreline separation and beach

  4. Wave Reflection on a Two-Slope Steep Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    surveys taken during cross-shore transport study experiment. .....................................12  Figure 7.  Sea kayak with echo sounder and...Suhayda, 1974) Natural beaches are composed of complicated slopes and encounter a wide spectrum of wave frequencies, amplitudes, and directions. Suhayda...1974) conducted a field experiment investigating standing waves on a natural beach. He expanded on the theoretical results of Lamb (1932

  5. Linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ziyin; JIN Xianglong; LI Jiabiao; ZHENG Yulong; WANG Xiaobo

    2005-01-01

    Based on the latest full-coverage high-resolu- tion multi-beam sounding data, the distribution of the linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) is studied with quantitative statistical analysis. The study area can be divided into the northeastern part and the southwestern part. Sand ridges in the northeastern area, trending 116°N, show obvious linear character and shrink to the inner shelf. Sand ridges in the southwestern area, trending 120°N-146°N, tend to have net form. Sand ridges gradually become sand sheets in the center part of study area. Sand ridges are distributed landward to the isobath of 60m, distributed seaward to the water depth of 120 m in the northeast and 150 m in the southwest. Immature sand ridges are observed at water depth of 130-180 m in the southwestern depressions. The acoustic reflection properties of the internal high-angle inclined beddings of the sand ridges are analyzed based on the typical seismic profiles close to the research area. Lithological analysis and dating of 4 boreholes and 12 cores indicate that the widely distributed transgressive sand layer with high content of shell debris which was formed in the early-middle Holocene is the main composition of the linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the ECS. The dominating factor in formation, developing and burying of the sand ridges is the variation of water depth caused by sea- level change and the rate of sediment supply. In 12400 aBP the cotidal lines of the M2 tidal component were closely perpendicular to the strike-directions of the sand ridges in the study area, and the tidal wave system during 12000-8000 aBP might play a key role in the formation of the linear sand ridges which are widely distributed on the outer shelf of the ECS.

  6. Ventura County, California. Survey Report for Beach Erosion Control. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    documxent hasbe IPTV foxpubicxelease CrInd soae ita on ic~f is unhfl1ited. CA-. US. Army Corps of Engineers Los Angeles Dis t ic -8 9- 23... system for Ventura Harbor to be applied to small-craft harbors where shoaling is a constantly recurring problem and a hazard to small craft. During...that shore protective structures and improved beaches may be installed without adequate public access, public transportation systems , or parking

  7. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rolf B; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Lilley, Marvin D; Barriga, Fernando J A S; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Jorgensen, Steffen L

    2010-11-23

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific.

  8. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  9. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program.3 The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%. The new 15,000-square foot (ft2) LBGO office building has two stories and houses private offices, open-plan cubicle offices, and a conference room and call center on the second floor. The building’s modular nature allowed LBGO to realize the cost benefits of fasttracked construction while saving substantial energy and reducing operational costs. The project was funded by the utility’s ratepayer revenue, which imposed a tight budget limit. The design process was a collaborative effort involving LBGO and its design-build team, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and subcontractors Stantec (formerly Burt Hill) and LHB Inc. The team proposed efficiency measures based on computer modeling of the building in full compliance with ASHRAE 90.1-2007; in the modeled building, the lighting and cooling systems were the largest energy users, so increasing the efficiency of these systems was a top priority. Promising measures were modeled to estimate their energy performance, and each measure was evaluated for its feasibility within the budget.

  10. Human threats to sandy beaches: A meta-analysis of ghost crabs illustrates global anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Connolly, Rod M.; Peterson, Charles H.; Gilby, Ben L.; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D.; Walker, Simon J.; Leon, Javier X.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Weston, Michael A.; Turra, Alexander; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Holt, Rebecca A.; Schoeman, David S.

    2016-02-01

    Beach and coastal dune systems are increasingly subjected to a broad range of anthropogenic pressures that on many shorelines require significant conservation and mitigation interventions. But these interventions require reliable data on the severity and frequency of adverse ecological impacts. Such evidence is often obtained by measuring the response of 'indicator species'. Ghost crabs are the largest invertebrates inhabiting tropical and subtropical sandy shores and are frequently used to assess human impacts on ocean beaches. Here we present the first global meta-analysis of these impacts, and analyse the design properties and metrics of studies using ghost-crabs in their assessment. This was complemented by a gap analysis to identify thematic areas of anthropogenic pressures on sandy beach ecosystems that are under-represented in the published literature. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a broad geographic reach, encompassing studies on shores of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, as well as the South China Sea. It also reveals what are, arguably, two major limitations: i) the near-universal use of proxies (i.e. burrow counts to estimate abundance) at the cost of directly measuring biological traits and bio-markers in the organism itself; and ii) descriptive or correlative study designs that rarely extend beyond a simple 'compare and contrast approach', and hence fail to identify the mechanistic cause(s) of observed contrasts. Evidence for a historically narrow range of assessed pressures (i.e., chiefly urbanisation, vehicles, beach nourishment, and recreation) is juxtaposed with rich opportunities for the broader integration of ghost crabs as a model taxon in studies of disturbance and impact assessments on ocean beaches. Tangible advances will most likely occur where ghost crabs provide foci for experiments that test specific hypotheses associated with effects of chemical, light and acoustic pollution, as well as the consequences of climate change (e

  11. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This document will be reissued at a future date and will then include the assessment of the installation of the replacement tank system. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements.

  12. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean Beach, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major

  13. High resolution bathymetric and sonar images of a ridge southeast of Terceira Island (Azores plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, N.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J.; Silva, I.; Goslin, J.; Ligi, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Terceira rift is a oblique ultra-slow spreading system where a transtensive regime results from differential movement between Eurasian and African plates. So far no classical ridge segmentation pattern has here been observed. The predominant morphological features are fault controlled rhombic shaped basins and volcanism related morphologies like circular seamounts and volcanic ridges. We present SIMRAD EM300 (bathymetry + backscatter) images acquired over one of these ridges located SE of Terceira Island, during the SIRENA cruise (PI J. Goslin), which complements previous TOBI mosaics performed over the same area during the AZZORRE99 cruise (PI M. Ligi). The ridge presents a NW-SE orientation, it is seismically active (a seismic crisis was documented in 1997) and corresponds to the southern branch of a V shape bathymetric feature enclosing the Terceira Island and which tip is located west of the Island near the 1998 Serreta ridge eruption site. NE of the ridge, the core of the V, corresponds to the North Hirondelle basin. All this area corresponds mainly to Brunhes magnetic epoch. The new bathymetry maps reveal a partition between tectonic processes, centred in the ridge, and volcanism present at the bottom of the North Hirondelle basin. The ridge high backscatter surface is cut by a set of sub-parallel anastomosed normal faults striking between N130º and N150º. Some faults present horse-tail terminations. Fault splays sometimes link to neighbour faults defining extensional duplexes and fault wedge basins and highs of rhombic shape. The faulting geometry suggests that a left-lateral strike slip component should be present. The top of the ridge consists on an arched demi-.horst, and it is probably a volcanic structure remnant (caldera system?), existing prior to onset of the tectonic stage in the ridge. Both ridge flanks display gullies and mass wasting fans at the base of the slope. The ridge vicinities are almost exclusively composed of a grayish homogeneous

  14. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  15. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  16. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S....

  17. Reactive spreading: Adsorption, ridging and compound formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, E.; Cannon, R.M.; Tomsia, A.P.

    2000-09-11

    Reactive spreading, in which a chemically active element is added to promote wetting of noble metals on nonmetallic materials, is evaluated. Theories for the energetics and kinetics of the necessary steps involved in spreading are outlined and compared to the steps in compound formation that typically accompany reactive wetting. These include: fluid flow, active metal adsorption, including nonequilibrium effects, and triple line ridging. All of these can be faster than compound nucleation under certain conditions. Analysis and assessment of recently reported experiments on metal/ceramic systems lead to a focus on those conditions under which spreading proceeds ahead of the actual formation of a new phase at the interface. This scenario may be more typical than believed, and perhaps the most effective situation leading to enhanced spreading. A rationale for the pervasive variability and hysteresis observed during high temperature wetting also emerges.

  18. Effect of aseismic ridge subduction on slab geometry and overriding plate deformation: Insights from analogue modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinod, Joseph; Guillaume, Benjamin; Espurt, Nicolas; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca; Regard, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    We present analogue models simulating the subduction of a buoyant ridge oriented perpendicularly or obliquely with respect to the trench, beneath an advancing overriding plate. The convergence velocity is imposed by lateral boundary conditions in this experimental set. We analyze the three-dimensional geometry of the slab, the deformation and topography of the overriding plate. Experiments suggest that ridge subduction diminishes the dip of the slab, eventually leading to the appearance of a horizontal slab segment in case boundary conditions impose a rapid convergence. This result contrasts with that obtained in free subduction experiments, in which ridge subduction diminishes the convergence velocity which, in turn, increases the dip of the slab beneath the ridge. The slab dip decrease is accompanied by the indentation of the overriding plate by the ridge, resulting in arc curvature. Experiments suggest that indentation is larger for small convergence velocity and large slab dip. Ridge subduction also uplifts the overriding plate. Uplift first occurs close to the trench (~ fore-arc area) and is accompanied by the flexural subsidence of the overriding plate behind the uplifted area (~ back-arc subsidence). The uplifted area migrates within the overriding plate interiors following the appearance of a horizontal slab segment. These results are compared with natural examples of ridge subduction in the circum-Pacific area. They explain why ridge subduction may have contrasted effects on the overriding plate dynamics depending on the global conditions that constrain the converging system.

  19. Statistical characteristics of the double ridges of subtropical high in the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Ruifen; LI Jianping; HE Jinhai

    2005-01-01

    The generality and some climatological characteristics of the double ridge systems of subtropical high (SH) are investigated statistically by using the daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1958 to 1998. The results show that the SH double-ridge event is a common phenomenon in the Northern Hemisphere, with the distinct seasonal and regional features, that is, the majority of SH double-ridge geneses concentrate over the eastern North India Ocean- western North Pacific as well as the central North Pacific in the period from mid-July to mid-September. Especially over the western North Pacific subtropics, the SH double-ridge events are extremely active. It is found that the life cycle of most double-ridge events of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) is shorter but some still last longer. The WPSH double-ridge events occur most frequently from July to September, while there is a paucity of occurrences during November-March. Also, it is shown that the WPSH double-ridge events have a strong interannual variation with a certain periodicity which possesses a remarkably abrupt change in the mid-1970s. Additionally, the relationship between the WPSH double ridges and the meridional movement of WPSH is discussed.

  20. Beach monitoring project Sand Key Phase II Beach nourishment program (North Redington Beach and Redington Shores) Post-Nourishment Report Part II Offshore Profiles and Wave Data

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the third post-nourishment survey (January 1989) results for the Sand Key Phase II beach nourishment project carried out in June, 1988. The monitoring program to this beach nourishment project is a joint effort between the University of South Florida and University of Florida. The field surveys include a total of 26 profiles, encompassing approximately 3 miles of shoreline extending from DNR R-96 to R-1ll. The total calculated volume loss of sand in the n...

  1. Headland sediment bypassing and beach rotation in a rocky coast: an example at the western Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mónica; Taborda, Rui; Lira, Cristina; Bizarro, Aurora; Oliveira, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    Headland sediment bypassing plays a major role in definition of coastal sedimentary budget and consequently in coastal management. This process is particularity important at headland-bay beaches on rocky coasts. However, headland-bay beach research is usually focused on the beach rotation since these beaches are generally regarded as closed systems. The sediment bypassing mechanisms have been extensively studied in the context of artificial structures (e.g. groins and jetties) but studies of natural headland sediment bypassing are scarce and usually applied to decadal time scales. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of headland sediment bypassing processes in non-artificial environments, taking as a case study a natural coastal stretch at the Portuguese west coast. The study is supported on the analysis of planform beach changes using Landsat satellite images (with an acquisition frequency of 16 days) complemented with field surveys with DGPS-RTK and ground-based photographic monitoring. The study area can be described as a cliffed rocky coast that accommodates a series of headland-bay beaches with different geometries: some are encased in the dependence of fluvial streams, while others correspond to a narrow and elongated thin sand strip that covers a rocky shore platform. This coast is generally characterized by a weak, but active, sediment supply and high levels of wave energy due to the exposure to the swells generated in the North Atlantic. The long-term stability of the beaches in conjunction with active sediment supply along the study area (from streams and cliff erosion) and a sink at the downdrift end of this coastal stretch (an active dune system) support the existence of headland sediment bypassing. The analysis of planform beach changes show a coherent signal in time but with a range that depends on the orientation of the stretch where each beach is included. In general, beaches displays a clockwise rotation during summer related to the NW

  2. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  3. Effects of the Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, on shore processes and beach morphology: Chapter J in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kirk W.

    1968-01-01

    Some 10,000 miles of shoreline in south-central Alaska was affected by the subsidence or uplift associated with the great Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964. The changes in shoreline processes and beach morphology that were suddenly initiated by the earthquake were similar to those ordinarily caused by gradual changes in sea level operating over hundreds of years, while other more readily visible changes were similar to some of the effects of great but short-lived storms. Phenomena became available for observation within a few hours which would otherwise not have been available for many years. In the subsided areas—including the shorelines of the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and Cook Inlet—beaches tended to flatten in gradient and to recede shoreward. Minor beach features were altered or destroyed on submergence but began to reappear and to stabilize in their normal shapes within a few months after the earthquake. Frontal beach ridges migrated shoreward and grew higher and wider than they were before. Along narrow beaches backed by bluffs, the relatively higher sea level led to vigorous erosion of the bluff toes. Stream mouths were drowned and some were altered by seismic sea waves, but they adjusted within a few months to the new conditions. In the uplifted areas, generally around Prince William Sound, virtually all beaches were stranded out of reach of the sea. New beaches are gradually developing to fit new sea levels, but the processes are slow, in part because the material on the lower parts of the old beaches is predominantly fine grained. Streams were lengthened in the emergent areas, and down cutting and bank erosion have increased. Except at Homer and a few small villages, where groins, bulkheads, and cobble-filled baskets were installed, there has been little attempt to protect the postearthquake shorelines. The few structures that were built have been only partially successful because there was too little time to study the habits of the new shore

  4. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2010-07-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.

  5. Quantifying the effects of European beach grass on aeolian sand transport over the last century: Bodega Marine Reserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmat, R.; Werner, S.; Smith, M. E.; Riedel, T.; Best, R.; Olyarnik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to coastal dune systems of western North America induced significant changes to the transport and storage of sediment, and consequently the nesting habitat of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). At the Bodega Marine Reserve and Sonoma Coast State Park, Ammophila was introduced within the ~0.5 km2 dune area in the 1920's to limit the flux of sand through Bodega Harbor and agricultural land. To assess the potential impact of restoration efforts (Ammophila removal) on aeolian sediment flux, we measured sediment flux as a function of wind speeds and ground cover, and used these measurements to parameterize a spatial model for historical sand deposition Fine- to coarse-grained lithic to sub-lithic sand is delivered to the Bodega dune system from Salmon Creek beach, the down-shore terminus of a littoral system fed by the 3846 km2 Russian River catchment, several small (Littoral sediment traverses the 1.8 km wide dune system from NW to SE via aeolian transport. Ammophila colonization occurred initially adjacent to the shoreface, inducing deposition of a ~10 meter-high foredune and has subsequently encroached the ~0.5 km2 region between the foredune and Bodega Harbor. Comparison of historical topographic maps via raster subtraction indicates rapid construction of both the foredune and a ~15 meter-high transverse dune (Gaffney ridge) at the edge of the planted region. An average accumulation rate of ~4,000 m3/yr is indicated within the study swath by the preserved sediment volumes. Within the modern dune system, unvegetated areas exhibit 2-3 meter wavelength, ~1/2 meter amplitude mega-ripples, and the uppermost 2-10 cm consists of coarse-sand to granule-sized armor layer. In contrast, grain-sizes in vegetated areas are largely vertically homogenous. Open areas are typically 2-8 meters lower than adjacent vegetated areas, and show evidence for net lowering of the land surface (i.e., exposed

  6. Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The

  7. Pulley Ridge Swath Bathymetry Grid - filtered

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  8. Pulley Ridge Swath Bathymetry Grid - filtered

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in...

  9. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have...

  10. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and...

  11. Hot subduction: Magmatism along the Hunter Ridge, SW Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, A.J.; Verbeeten, A.; Danyushevsky, L.V.; Sigurdsson, I.A. [SRC for Ore Deposit Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Maillet, P. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Geology; Maillet, P. [ORSTOM Centre de Brest, France, (France); Monzier, M. [ORSTOM Centre, Ecuador, (Ecuador)

    1997-12-31

    The Hunter `fracture zone` is generally regarded as a transform plate boundary linking the oppositely dipping Tongan and Vanuatu subduction systems. Dredging along the Hunter Ridge and sampling of its northernmost extent, exposed as the island of Kadavu in Fiji, has yielded a diversity of magmatic suites, including arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites, high-Mg lavas with some affinities to boninites and some affinities to adakites, and true adakitic lavas associated with remarkable low-Fe, high-Na basalts with 8-16 ppm Nb (herein high-Nb basalts). Lavas which show clear evidence of slab melt involvement in their petrogenesis occur at either end of the Hunter Ridge, whereas the arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites appear to be restricted to the south central part of the ridge. Mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data for each of these suites are summarized, and a tectono-magmatic model for their genesis and distribution is suggested. Trace element features and radiogenic isotope data for the Hunter Ridge lavas indicate compositions analogue to Pacific MORB-like mantle. Extended abstract. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  13. The Glasma and the Hard Ridge

    CERN Document Server

    Moschelli, George

    2009-01-01

    Correlation measurements indicate that excess two particle correlations extend over causally disconnected rapidity ranges. Although, this enhancement is broad in relative rapidity $\\eta=\\eta_1 - \\eta_2$, it is focused in a narrow region in relative azimuthal angle $\\phi=\\phi_1 - \\phi_2$. The resulting structure looks like a ridge centered at $\\eta = \\phi=0$. Similar ridge structures are observed in correlations of particles associated with a jet trigger (the hard ridge) and in correlations without a trigger (the soft ridge). The long range rapidity behavior requires that the correlation originates in the earliest stage of the collision, and probes properties of the production mechanism. Glasma initial conditions as predicted by the theory of Color Glass Condensate and provide a and early stage correlation that naturally extends far in rapidity. We have previously shown that the soft ridge is a consequence of particles forming from an initial Glasma phase that experience a later stage transverse flow. We exten...

  14. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  15. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  16. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  17. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals.

  18. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyros Foteinis; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Costas Synolakis

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plan...

  19. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory T. Kleinheinz; McDermott, Colleen M.; Sarah Hughes; Amanda Brown

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impa...

  20. Wave-dominated, mesotidal headland-bay beach morphody-namic classsfications of the Shuidong Bay in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jitao; DING Yuanting; CHENG Huangxin; CAI Lailiang; CHEN Zishen

    2016-01-01

    Beach morphodynamic classifications have achieved extensive acceptance in foreign coastal geomorphological studies. Three beaches located in different zones of a headland-bay coast are classified according to a dimensionless fall parameter, a relative tide range parameter and a dimensionless embayment scaling parameter. Synchronous data, including wave, tide, sediment and beach morphology, are respectively collected from the tangential beach, the transitional beach and the shadow beach of the Shuidong Bay during each spring tide for 16 successive months. The research results indicate that (1) the beach in the tangential zone falls between two major categories which are low tide terrace beaches with rips and barred beaches; the beach in the transitional zone exhibits two main types which are low tide bar/rip beaches and barred dissipative beaches; and the beach in the shadow zone mainly mirrors dissipative states with presence or absence of bars; and (2) the sequential changes and differences of beach states in different coastal zones reflect spatial and temporal variabilities of the headland-bay coast, totally meeting the actual measured beach morphology changes, showing that studies on wave-dominated, meso-macrotidal beaches need to consider the influences of the tides. Meanwhile, the research mainly provides a framework about beach state studies, due to different beach states with different erosion patterns, which requires the need to strengthen the researches in this respect, in order to further enrich theoretical basis for a beach topography evolution, beach morphodynamic processes and beach erosion prevention in China.

  1. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  2. Aeolian sediment transport on a beach: Thresholds, intermittency, and high frequency variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Arnott, R. G. D.; Bauer, B. O.

    2009-04-01

    cloud generation, and suggests that conventional deterministic models are unable to model adequately sand transport on timescales of tens of seconds or less. The cumulative probability function of wind speed measured across the beach is Gaussian over the range of measured wind speed. In contrast, the distribution for saltation intensity is logarithmic when transport is highly intermittent, but evolves toward a linear form as the mean saltation intensity increases. This suggests that modelling of the transport system over short time periods may best be done using a stochastic approach, but further work is needed to provide some insight as to how the cumulative probability function evolves with increasing continuity and intensity of saltation.

  3. Southwest Washington littoral drift restoration—Beach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided

  4. The Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida: QIS Development Process Evaluation--Year 2 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey

    2006-01-01

    This report covers the second year of a 3-year process evaluation of the Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida, a system-building effort to strengthen the availability and quality of after-school programs in the county. During the past two decades, the after-school field has expanded enormously. This growth has occurred partly in…

  5. Enhancing Quality in Afterschool Programs: Fifth-Year Report on a Process Evaluation of Prime Time Palm Beach County, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen; Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey; Guterman, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prime Time Palm Beach County, Inc. is an organization dedicated to improving the availability and quality of afterschool programs in the county. During the 2007-2008 program year, Prime Time implemented a county-wide Quality Improvement System (QIS) that included program standards, an assessment process, and on-site technical assistance delivered…

  6. Ridging in autumn as an alternative to mouldboard ploughing in a humid-temperate region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Christian Martin Bugge; Rasmussen, Jesper; Søgaard, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the original ridge tillage system as practiced in the US Corn Belt, ridges are formed during the growing season. Several studies have documented that this can reduce leaching of nutrients and improve fertilizer efficiency. This study was conducted to determine whether ridges formed in autumn can...... and ploughing. Residue treatments were stubble, stubble + straw and stubble + liquid manure in order to create a gradient of C/N ratios. From the time of harvest until planting of a subsequent barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.), inorganic N was determined 11 times in 1998–1999 and 10 times in 1999–2000 in the 0...

  7. SRTM Anaglyph: Wheeler Ridge, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Wheeler Ridge and vicinity, California, is a site of major tectonic activity, both historically and over recent geologic time. The epicenter of the 7.5 magnitude Kern County earthquake occurred here on July 21,1952, and numerous geologic and topographic features indicate rapid geologic processes. The ridge itself (upper-right center) is a geologic fold that is growing out of the southern San Joaquin Valley. A prominent 'wind gap,' now used for passage of the California aquaduct (with the aid of a pumping station), is evidence that the ridge grew faster than tranversing streams could erode down. Nearby abrupt and/or landslid mountain fronts similarly indicate a vigorous tectonic setting here, just north of the San Andreas fault. The Interstate 5 freeway can be seen crossing agricultural fields on the right and entering the very rugged and steep Grapevine Canyon toward the bottom.This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  8. Transport and distribution of bottom sediments at Pirita Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomere, Tarmo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic factors affecting sediment supply for and transport processes at Pirita Beach, a sandy section of the south­eastern coast of Tallinn Bay, are analysed. Observations of bathymetry, sediment properties and sources, sediment transport processes and their changes arising from coastal engineering activities are reported. The mean grain size is about 0.12 mm, with the fine sand fraction (0.063–0.125 mm accounting for about 77% of the sediments. Coarse sand dominates only along the waterline. The content of coarser sediments is greater in the northern part of the beach. A number of coastal engineering structures have blocked natural sediment supplies. The beach suffers from sediment deficit now and has lost about 400 m3 of sand annually from the dry beach between 1997 and 2005.

  9. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more......The coastal landscape in Denmark is characterized by multiple areas of geologic, biologic and recreational interests both at a national and international level. In the later years several guidelines have been set up in the coastal protection area. Recognizing the value of the healthy natural...... environment, the aims for the future are to ensure the presence of naturally shaped beaches and at the same time to reduce the risk of erosion. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast and this method is preferred to solid constructions. Beach Nourishment...

  10. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyus-Melvin Mobilik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  11. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  12. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  13. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is included in...

  14. Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Seal Beach NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  15. Massachusetts raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting...

  16. Artificial Beach Lighting Survey of St. George Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. George Island SGI is a significant sea turtle nesting beach for loggerhead and occasionally leatherback sea turtles in the Florida panhandle Lewis et al 1996 ....

  17. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  18. Backscatter--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach map area, California. The raster data...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Seal Beach NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. Seafloor character--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (raster data file is included in...

  1. Lido Beach National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lido Beach Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  2. Evidence of salt accumulation in beach intertidal zone due to evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2016-08-01

    In coastal environments, evaporation is an important driver of subsurface salinity gradients in marsh systems. However, it has not been addressed in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches. Here, we used field data on an estuarine beach foreshore with numerical simulations to show that evaporation causes upper intertidal zone pore-water salinity to be double that of seawater. We found the increase in pore-water salinity mainly depends on air temperature and relative humidity, and tide and wave actions dilute a fraction of the high salinity plume, resulting in a complex process. This is in contrast to previous studies that consider seawater as the most saline source to a coastal aquifer system, thereby concluding that seawater infiltration always increases pore-water salinity by seawater-groundwater mixing dynamics. Our results demonstrate the combined effects of evaporation and tide and waves on subsurface salinity distribution on a beach face. We anticipate our quantitative investigation will shed light on the studies of salt-affected biological activities in the intertidal zone. It also impacts our understanding of the impact of global warming; in particular, the increase in temperature does not only shift the saltwater landward, but creates a different salinity distribution that would have implications on intertidal biological zonation.

  3. Evidence of salt accumulation in beach intertidal zone due to evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C; Jackson, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    In coastal environments, evaporation is an important driver of subsurface salinity gradients in marsh systems. However, it has not been addressed in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches. Here, we used field data on an estuarine beach foreshore with numerical simulations to show that evaporation causes upper intertidal zone pore-water salinity to be double that of seawater. We found the increase in pore-water salinity mainly depends on air temperature and relative humidity, and tide and wave actions dilute a fraction of the high salinity plume, resulting in a complex process. This is in contrast to previous studies that consider seawater as the most saline source to a coastal aquifer system, thereby concluding that seawater infiltration always increases pore-water salinity by seawater-groundwater mixing dynamics. Our results demonstrate the combined effects of evaporation and tide and waves on subsurface salinity distribution on a beach face. We anticipate our quantitative investigation will shed light on the studies of salt-affected biological activities in the intertidal zone. It also impacts our understanding of the impact of global warming; in particular, the increase in temperature does not only shift the saltwater landward, but creates a different salinity distribution that would have implications on intertidal biological zonation.

  4. South Scandinavian joints and Alpine/Atlantic-ridge tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Field observations and studies of the joints and dykes in an area shed light on its younger tectonic development; thus, joint orientations measured in Southern Sweden and in Norway have been statistically studied and compared regarding their tectonic significance with studies from Europe and the mid-Atlantic ridge. The present investigation indicates that the surface joint systems in Sweden agree with those in Europe; they are the result of the intracratonic stress field and the mechanical response associated with the Alpine orogeny. The stress systems in Southern Norway, on the other hand, are the result of the ongoing extensional or wrench-fault tectonism in the Atlantic crust associated with the stresses near the mid-Atlantic ridge, which act normally to the contiguous coastlines from Scandinavia to France, Portugal and North Africa.

  5. Longshore Currents of Random Waves on Different Plane Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 王淑平; 邱大洪; 王艳; 王风龙; 董国海

    2003-01-01

    Model tests and numerical calculation of longshore currents and wave heights produced by irregular waves on two beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 are studied. The cross-shore distributions of longshore current velocities and wave heights are given and the influences of wave heights, wave periods, and beach slopes on longshore currents are discussed. The discussion is also made on the influences of different eddy viscosity coefficients on the numerical results of longshore current velocities.

  6. Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units

    OpenAIRE

    Goverment of Uganda; Department for International Development (DFID) of the UK Government

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record In 1999, the Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units project was started in an effort to implement a new approach to the management of lake resources in Uganda. The main components of this plan involved decentralization, local community management, and improving the livelihood of the poor. In order to finance the management of these areas, the Beach Management Units (BMU's) are charging user fees to those individuals who obtain benefit from the...

  7. Longshore currents of regular waves on different beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 王淑平; 邱大洪; 王艳; 王风龙; 董国海

    2003-01-01

    The experiment and numerical computations of longshore currents produced by regularwaves on the two beaches with the slopes of 1:100 and 1: 40 are made. The cross-shore distributions oflongshore current velocities and wave heights are given and the influences of wave heights, wave periodsand beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. The discussion is also made for the influencesof different eddy viscosity coefficients on the numerical results of longshore current velocities.

  8. Surface Wave Processes on the Shelf and Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    surface wave information on the continental shelf and beach to estimate sea state, and to provide input for models of currents, sediment transport, radar...interactions in operational wave prediction models • determine the effects of wave nonlinearity and directional spreading on sea surface statistics...Surface Wave Processes On The Shelf And Beach Thomas H. C. Herbers Department of Oceanography, Code OC/He Naval Postgraduate School Monterey

  9. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  10. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  11. Improving prosthetic prognosis by connective tissue ridge augmentation of alveolar ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Niraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contour of edentulous ridge should be carefully evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge height and width allows placement of a natural looking pontic which facilitates maintenance of plaque-free environment. The localized alveolar ridge defect refers to the volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the addition of either soft or hard tissues. This article describes a procedure of surgical connective tissue augmentation of a localized deficient alveolar ridge in the maxilla, followed by fixed partial denture, enhancing the esthetics, function and health.

  12. Improving prosthetic prognosis by connective tissue ridge augmentation of alveolar ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Niraj; Singh, Balendra P; Rao, Jitendra; Rastogi, Pavitra

    2010-01-01

    The contour of edentulous ridge should be carefully evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge height and width allows placement of a natural looking pontic which facilitates maintenance of plaque-free environment. The localized alveolar ridge defect refers to the volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the addition of either soft or hard tissues. This article describes a procedure of surgical connective tissue augmentation of a localized deficient alveolar ridge in the maxilla, followed by fixed partial denture, enhancing the esthetics, function and health.

  13. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  14. Post-monsoon equilibrium beach profiles and longshore sediment transport rates at Candolim, Miramar and Keri beaches of Goa, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Jishad, M.; Gowthaman, R.; Rajasekaran, C.; Pednekar, P

    Equilibrium profile is one of the concepts in coastal geomorphology which is a result of the balance of destructive versus constructive forces. Two equilibrium beach profile models, viz . Bruun/Dean’s two thirds power model and modified Bodge...

  15. Large fault fabric of the Ninetyeast Ridge implies near-spreading ridge formation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sager, W.W.; Paul, C.F.; Krishna, K.S.; Pringle, M.S.; Eisin, A.E.; Frey, F.A.; Rao, D.G.; Levchenko, O.V.

    of evidence indicate that most of 138 the large-offset faults are original. First, many grabens are filled with sediments and the greatest 139 7 fill often correlates with basal volcaniclastic-rich layers in DSDP and ODP drill holes. These 140 sediments...). 268 Black arrows show directions of convergence. NER = Ninetyeast Ridge; IN = Indian component 269 plate; CA = Capricorn component plate; AU = Australian component plate; BR = Broken Ridge; 270 SEIR = Southeast Indian Ridge; CLR = Chagos...

  16. KINERJA JACKKNIFE RIDGE REGRESSION DALAM MENGATASI MULTIKOLINEARITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANY DEVITA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary least square is a parameter estimations for minimizing residual sum of squares. If the multicollinearity was found in the data, unbias estimator with minimum variance could not be reached. Multicollinearity is a linear correlation between independent variabels in model. Jackknife Ridge Regression(JRR as an extension of Generalized Ridge Regression (GRR for solving multicollinearity.  Generalized Ridge Regression is used to overcome the bias of estimators caused of presents multicollinearity by adding different bias parameter for each independent variabel in least square equation after transforming the data into an orthoghonal form. Beside that, JRR can  reduce the bias of the ridge estimator. The result showed that JRR model out performs GRR model.

  17. Strategic mobility modeling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.G.; Yow, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in strategic mobility planning and analysis for the Department of Defense (DOD) for approximately six years. This work is conducted under four interagency agreements between DOD and the Department of Energy (DOE): Air Force/MAC -- Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS), Army/MTMC -- Strategic Deployment System (STRADS) and Integrated Booking System (IBS), Navy/MSC -- Scheduling Algorithm for Improving Lift (SAIL), and USTRANSCOM -- Deployment Analysis Prototype (DAP) and Flow and Analysis System for TRANSCOM (FAST).

  18. Software architecture of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Allen; Klinglesmith, Dan; Seamons, John; Torres, Nicolas; Buscher, David; Young, John

    2010-07-01

    Merging software from 36 independent work packages into a coherent, unified software system with a lifespan of twenty years is the challenge faced by the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI). We solve this problem by using standardized interface software automatically generated from simple highlevel descriptions of these systems, relying only on Linux, GNU, and POSIX without complex software such as CORBA. This approach, based on gigabit Ethernet with a TCP/IP protocol, provides the flexibility to integrate and manage diverse, independent systems using a centralized supervisory system that provides a database manager, data collectors, fault handling, and an operator interface.

  19. Evaluation of the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process Using a Bench-Scale, 20-L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Results of Test 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-08-30

    The goal of the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program (SPP) is to evaluate the presently available technologies and select the most effective approach for treatment of high-level waste salt solutions currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. One of the three technologies currently being developed for this application is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) to precipitate and remove radioactive cesium from the waste and monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb and remove radioactive strontium and actinides. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-L-capacity continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system. Since March 1999, five operating campaigns of the 20-L CSTR have been conducted. The ultimate goal is to verify that this process, under certain extremes of operating conditions, can meet the minimum treatment criteria necessary for processing and disposing of the salt waste at the Savannah River Saltstone Facility. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and total alpha nuclides are <40 nCi/g, <40 nCi/g, and <18 nCi/g, respectively. However, to allow for changes in process conditions, the SPP is seeking a level of treatment that is about 50% of the WAC. The bounding separation goals for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are to obtain decontamination factors (DFs) of 40,000 (99.998% removal) and 26 (96.15% removal), respectively. (DF is mathematically defined as the concentration of contaminant in the waste feed divided by the concentration of contaminant in the effluent stream.)

  20. Use of beach galleries as an intake for future seawater desalination facilities in Florida and globally similar areas

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-06-17

    Desalination of seawater using the reverse osmosis process can be made less costly by the use of subsurface intake systems. Use of conventional open-ocean intakes requires the addition of a number of pretreatment processes to protect the primary RO process. Despite using the best designs possible for the pretreatment, seawater RO membranes tend to biofoul because of the naturally-occurring organic material and small bacteria present in seawater. These materials are not completely removed by the pretreatment system and they pass through the cartridge filters into the membranes, thereby causing frequent and expensive cleaning of the membranes. Quality of the raw water can be greatly improved by the use of subsurface intakes which can substantially reduce the overall treatment cost. There are a number of possible subsurface designs that can be used including conventional vertical wells, horizontal wells, collector wells, beach galleries, and seabed filters. The key selection criteria for the type of subsurface intake most suited and most cost-effective for a site are based on the required volume of raw water and the local geology. The active shorelines of Florida are very well-suited for the development of beach gallery intake systems. These systems are installed beneath the active beach between the high and low tide zones of the beach. Since they are constructed with a depth to the screens between 3 and 5 m, they cannot be observed at surface and persons using the beach would be unaware of their existence. These galleries are simple to construct and they tend not to clog because the active wave action within the intertidal zone provides mechanical energy that continuously cleans the filter face. They also have other advantages, including: the water quality is seawater unaffected by substances present in freshwater aquifers occurring landward of the shoreline, the salinity of the water is generally constant, and there are no impacts on water users located inland from

  1. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  2. Realization of Ridge Regression in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, S.; Kovacheva, S.; Prodanova, K.

    2008-10-01

    The least square estimator (LSE) of the coefficients in the classical linear regression models is unbiased. In the case of multicollinearity of the vectors of design matrix, LSE has very big variance, i.e., the estimator is unstable. A more stable estimator (but biased) can be constructed using ridge-estimator (RE). In this paper the basic methods of obtaining of Ridge-estimators and numerical procedures of its realization in MATLAB are considered. An application to Pharmacokinetics problem is considered.

  3. Magma Supply at the Arctic Gakkel Ridge: Constraints from Peridotites and Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C.; Dick, H. J.; Hellebrand, E.; Snow, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal thickness in global ridge systems is widely believed to be nearly uniform (~7 km) at slow- and fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges, but appears significantly thinner (ancient mantle depletion, lower mantle temperature, ridge obliquity, and melt retention/focusing. To better understand the magma supply at ultraslow-spreading ridges, we examined melting dynamics by linking peridotites and basalts dredged along the Gakkel Ridge. We analyzed rare earth elements in clinopyroxene from 84 residual peridotites, and estimated melting parameters for individual samples through nonlinear least squares analyses. The degrees of melting show a large variation but mainly center at around 7% assuming a somewhat arbitrary but widely used depleted MORB mantle starting composition. Thermobarometry on published primitive basaltic glasses from [2] indicates that the mantle potential temperature at the Gakkel Ridge is ~50°C cooler than that at the East Pacific Rise. The ridge-scale low-degree melting and lower mantle potential temperature place the final depth of melting at ~30 km and a melt thickness of 1.0 or 2.9 km for a triangular or trapezoidal melting regime, respectively. The final melting depth is consistent with excess conductive cooling and lithosphere thickening suggested by geodynamic models, while the estimated melt thickness is comparable to the seismic crust (1.4 - 2.9 km; [1]). The general agreement among geochemical analyses, seismic measurements, and geodynamic models supports that lower mantle potential temperature and thick lithosphere determine the ridge-scale low-degree melting and thin crust at the Gakkel Ridge, while melt retention/focusing and excess ancient mantle depletion are perhaps locally important at short length scales (e.g., < 50 - 100 km). [1] Jokat and Schmidt-Aursch (2007) Geophys. J. Int. (2007) 168, 983-998. [2] Gale et al. (2012) J. Petrology, 55, 1051-1082.

  4. Ridge-spotting: A new test for Pacific absolute plate motion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Relative plate motions provide high-resolution descriptions of motions of plates relative to other plates. Yet geodynamically, motions of plates relative to the mantle are required since such motions can be attributed to forces (e.g., slab pull and ridge push) acting upon the plates. Various reference frames have been proposed, such as the hot spot reference frame, to link plate motions to a mantle framework. Unfortunately, both accuracy and precision of absolute plate motion models lag behind those of relative plate motion models. Consequently, it is paramount to use relative plate motions in improving our understanding of absolute plate motions. A new technique called "ridge-spotting" combines absolute and relative plate motions and examines the viability of proposed absolute plate motion models. We test the method on six published Pacific absolute plate motions models, including fixed and moving hot spot models as well as a geodynamically derived model. Ridge-spotting reconstructs the Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Antarctica ridge systems over the last 80 Myr. All six absolute plate motion models predict large amounts of northward migration and monotonic clockwise rotation for the Pacific-Farallon ridge. A geodynamic implication of our ridge migration predictions is that the suggestion that the Pacific-Farallon ridge may have been pinned by a large mantle upwelling is not supported. Unexpected or erratic ridge behaviors may be tied to limitations in the models themselves or (for Indo-Atlantic models) discrepancies in the plate circuits used to project models into the Pacific realm. Ridge-spotting is promising and will be extended to include more plates and other ocean basins.

  5. Patch behaviour and predictability properties of modelled finite-amplitude sand ridges on the inner shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Vis-Star

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term evolution of shoreface-connected sand ridges is investigated with a nonlinear spectral model which governs the dynamics of waves, currents, sediment transport and the bed level on the inner shelf. Wave variables are calculated with a shoaling-refraction model instead of using a parameterisation. The spectral model describes the time evolution of amplitudes of known eigenmodes of the linearised system. Bottom pattern formation occurs if the transverse bottom slope of the inner shelf, β, exceeds a critical value βc. For fixed model parameters the sensitivity of the properties of modelled sand ridges to changes in the number (N−1 of resolved subharmonics (of the initially fastest growing mode is investigated. For any N the model shows the growth and subsequent saturation of the height of the sand ridges. The saturation time scale is several thousands of years, which suggests that observed sand ridges have not reached their saturated stage yet. The migration speed of the ridges and the average longshore spacing between successive crests in the saturated state differ from those in the initial state. Analysis of the potential energy balance of the ridges reveals that bed slope-induced sediment transport is crucial for the saturation process. In the transient stage the shoreface-connected ridges occur in patches. The overall characteristics of the bedforms (saturation time, final maximum height, average longshore spacing, migration speed hardly vary with N. However, individual time series of modal amplitudes and bottom patterns strongly depend on N, thereby implying that the detailed evolution of sand ridges can only be predicted over a limited time interval. Additional experiments show that the critical bed slope βc increases with larger offshore angles of wave incidence, larger offshore wave heights and longer wave periods, and that the corresponding maximum height of the ridges

  6. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Foteinis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF system. Heavy metal point sources included (i the effluents of small industries (tanneries, (ii wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40 mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed.

  7. Heavy metal distribution in opportunistic beach nourishment: a case study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G; Synolakis, Costas

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii) paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40 mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed.

  8. Monitoring beach evolution using low-altitude aerial photogrammetry and UAV drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Vacchi, Matteo; Mucerino, Luigi; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Beach monitoring is essential in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of soft coasts, and the rates of erosion. Traditional beach monitoring techniques involve topographic and bathymetric surveys of the beach, and/or aerial photos repeated in time and compared through geographical information systems. A major problem of this kind of approach is the high economic cost. This often leads to increase the time lag between successive monitoring campaigns to reduce survey costs, with the consequence of fragmenting the information available for coastal zone management. MIRAMar is a project funded by Regione Liguria through the PO CRO European Social Fund, and has two main objectives: i) to study and develop an innovative technique, relatively low-cost, to monitor the evolution of the shoreline using low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry; ii) to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion using also the data collected by the UAV instrument. To achieve these aims we use a drone with its hardware and software suit, traditional survey techniques (bathymetric surveys, topographic GPS surveys and GIS techniques) and we implement a numerical modeling chain (coupling hydrodynamic, wave and sand transport modules) in order to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion.

  9. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  10. Morphological change by overwash on a microtidal backshore: Bevano beach, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrati, M.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.; Fontana, E.; Masina, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Bevano beach is a small microtidal shore facing the Adriatic Sea located south of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. This beach corresponds to the old Bevano river spit which was abandoned after the relocation of the river mouth some 500 m to the south of the previous inlet position. The old river mouth was cut off from the Adriatic by massive sand dumping and the sediments on the newly created beach were fixed by aeolian fences and vegetation. This 600 m long featureless beach looks like a sand barrier: it is backed by the abandoned channel of the Bevano River and is one of the lowest dune system of the region (around 1 m height), causing the beach to still being vulnerable to coastal flooding, storm surges and overwash. This study presents the morphological changes of the "microtidal barrier" in response to one of the highest surges recorded in the last 100 years. Two topographic surveys of the Bevano beach were conducted before and a few hours after the exceptional high tide level recorded on 01 December 2008 (high tide level of 1.59 m above MSL and surge of 0.97 m, combined with an offshore significant wave height of 1.45 m). The lack of height and sand volume of the lower dune crest of the Bevano beach caused the entire barrier to be inundated during the high tide, resulting in important overwash processes. The inundation event was preceded by increasing water levels that were recorded in the old river channel which is the landward limit of the Bevano barrier. Seven separate washover fans were distinguished together with severe damages to fences and dune vegetation. The washover fans had different dimensions, the most important one being around 18 m wide, and generating a ~ 9 m landward migration of the back-barrier limit. The cross-shore profile response to the overwash event can be categorized into two types (1) barrier disintegration and (2) barrier rollover relative to the dune crest height. Furthermore, the study area was subjected

  11. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1992-05-01

    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management.

  12. Extraction of lidar-based dune-crest elevations for use in examining the vulnerability of beaches to inundation during hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, H.F.; Doran, K.S.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of coastal sand dunes plays an important role in determining how a beach will respond to a hurricane. Accurate measurements of dune height and position are essential for assessing the vulnerability of beaches to extreme coastal change during future landfalls. Lidar topographic surveys provide rapid, accurate, high-resolution datasets for identifying the location, position, and morphology of coastal sand dunes over large stretches of coast. An algorithm has been developed for identification of the crest of the most seaward sand dune that defines the landward limit of the beach system. Based on changes in beach slope along cross-shore transects of lidar data, dune elevation and location can automatically be extracted every few meters along the coastline. Dune elevations in conjunction with storm-induced water levels can be used to predict the type of coastal response (e.g., beach erosion, dune erosion, overwash, or inundation) that may be expected during hurricane landfall. The vulnerability of the beach system at Fire Island National Seashore in New York to the most extreme of these changes, inundation, is assessed by comparing lidar-derived dune elevations to modeled wave setup and storm surge height. The vulnerability of the beach system to inundation during landfall of a Category 3 hurricane is shown to be spatially variable because of longshore variations in dune height (mean elevation 5.44 m, standard deviation 1.32 m). Hurricane-induced mean water levels exceed dune elevations along 70 of the coastal park, making these locations more vulnerable to inundation during a Category 3 storm. ?? 2009 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  13. An Engineering Application Tool for Visual Assessment of the Equilibrium Beach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An engineering application tool for prediction of the static equilibrium bay (Beach Mod) is established to describe two bay shape formulas by use of the programming software "MATLAB" with a graphic user interface (GUI). The tool is user-friendly for engineering students for the design of beach shapes. This tool was tested through application on three types of beaches in Taiwan and Australia. By implementing the concept of Headland Control, the Beach Mod program allows users to draw a structure and create an artificial headland. The results indicate that Beach Mod can efficiently forecast beach changes as well as MEPBAY, a competing software package, while boasting a better user interface.

  14. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  15. Post-storm evolution a high-energy remote sandy beach backed by a high and wide coastal dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelle, Bruno; Bujan, Stéphane; Ferreira, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    During the winter 2013/2014, the high-energy meso-macrotidal remote beach of Truc Vert (SW France) was exposed to the most energetic wave conditions over at least the last 65 years with, for instance, the 2-month averaged significant wave height at the coast exceeding 3.6 m. Unprecedented beach and dune erosion was observed with the notable presence of a 700-m long localized megacusp embayment with the erosion scarp height exceeding 6 m in its centre where the dune retreat reached 30 m. Both the beach and the coastal dune eroded by about 90 m3/m within 3 months of severe storm activity, that is, a total beach-dune system sediment loss reaching 180m3/m. Beach and dune evolution after the winter 2013/2014 was inspected from March 2014 to November 2015 using bimonthly topographic surveys covering 1500+ m alongshore. 1.5 years after the winter 2014/2015, the beach-dune system did not fully recover to its pre-winter 2014/2015 level. The dune accreted by only a few m3/m while the beach accreted by an impressive amount of approximately 150m3/m, to reach a total volume that was only exceeded in 2012 within our full 10-year time series. Despite little volumetric changes, the dune showed significant morphological change through slumping and onshore wave- and wind-driven sediment transport. Seasonal natural revegetation was observed with large dune grass growth into the summer berm and within the erosion scarp with slumped clots of dune grass re-establishing their growth during the winter 2014/2015. In late 2015, the onset of morphological foredune development was observed. It is anticipated that, if Truc Vert is not exposed to a cluster of severe storms during the winter 2015/2016, the coastal dune will increase in volume within 2016 at a much higher rate than during 2015. Last but not least, starting in late 2015, the coastal dune of Truc Vert is now intensively monitored through regular 4-km long UAV photogrammetric surveys. Given that, nowadays, some scientists advocate

  16. 开发滨梅作为滩涂和荒地适种的多用途新经济植物%Develop Beach Plum as a New Multipurpose Crop for Coastal Beach and Waste land in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小敏; 张春红; 吴文龙; 李维林; 胡淑英

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of beach plum and research background. On bane of beach plum characteristics which of environmental stress resistance capacity, well-developed root system and vigorous growth, flowers with ornamental value, fruit with diet and health value, beach plum can be used as economic fruit tree i. e. , low maintenance landscape shrub, greening tree species for harsh environment, high-resistant rootstock etc. Thereby, the introduction, breeding and future development prospects of beach plum in China have been introduced%介绍滨梅的生物学特性及研究背景.基于滨梅的耐环境胁迫能力,根系发达,生长旺盛,花具有观赏价值,果实具有很好的食疗和保健价值,认为可将其作为低养护的景现灌木,恶劣环境绿化树种,高抗性砧木和经济果树栽培.藉此,阐述其在中国的引种和繁殖,并展望了其开发前景.

  17. Combining remote sensing with an inverse Bruun Rule for the analysis and management of almost equilibrium beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Männikus, Rain

    2016-04-01

    The management of beaches that suffer from sediment deficit and construction of nearshore infrastructure in locations with intense sediment transit require adequate predictions of the future of the relevant sedimentary systems. To a large extent, this task can be accomplished by using jointly the information about sediment texture and long-term changes in the dry beach volume and the location of the waterline. It is straightforward to evaluate relative changes in the dry beach volume from a succession of airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys. We use in addition terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technique to reduce ALS surveys performed with different devices and from different height to the same absolute height. This is accomplished using a TLS survey of a large horizontal surface of constant elevation within ALS snapshots. The most complicated, time-consuming and expensive task in beach management and planning of nearshore infrastructure is to get an adequate picture of the intensity and direction of underwater sediment transport processes. We demonstrate how a simple application of so-called inverse Bruun Rule makes it possible to evaluate the underwater volumetric changes for almost equilibrium beaches. The approach requires three data sets: wave statistics, sediment texture and changes in the average position of the waterline. The main properties of the wave climate, closure depths, magnitude and direction of wave-driven alongshore transport near the test areas are established using a triple nested high-resolution version of the wave model WAM that is forced for 34 years by high-quality marine winds. The relocation of the waterline is extracted from the ALS scanning of elevation isolines of 0.4-0.7 m on the subaerial beach. The technique has been applied to two basically different sections of Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea. Pirita Beach is gradually losing sand and requires beach refill while a moderate reclamation action is planned in the vicinity of gradually

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the public about the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the public and the environment. It describes the environmental surveillance and monitoring activities conducted at and around the DOE facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Preparation and publication of this report is in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1. The order specifies a publication deadline of June of the following year for each calendar year of data. The primary objective of this report is to summarize all information collected for the previous calendar year regarding effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and estimates of radiation and chemical dose to the surrounding population. When multiple years of information are available for a program, trends are also evaluated. The first seven sections of Volume 1 of this report address this objective. The last three sections of Volume 1 provide information on solid waste management, special environmental studies, and quality assurance programs.

  19. Work plan for the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP), commissioned by the US Department of Energy Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program, is to place four primary high-risk surplus facilities with 28 associated ancillary facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition as rapidly and economically as possible. The facilities will be deactivated and left in a condition suitable for an extended period of minimized surveillance and maintenance (S and M) prior to decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D). These four facilities include two reactor facilities containing spent fuel. One of these reactor facilities also contains 55 tons of sodium with approximately 34 tons containing activated sodium-22, 2.5 tons of lithium hydride, approximately 100 tons of potentially contaminated lead, and several other hazardous materials as well as bulk quantities of contaminated scrap metals. The other two facilities to be transferred include a facility with a bank of hot cells containing high levels of transferable contamination and also a facility containing significant quantities of uranyl nitrate and quantities of transferable contamination. This work plan documents the objectives, technical requirements, and detailed work plans--including preliminary schedules, milestones, and conceptual FY 1996 cost estimates--for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan has been developed by the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO).

  20. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.

  1. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-08-01

    This technology evaluation was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory on behalf of the Federal Energy Management Program. The objective was to quantify the benefits side stream filtration provides to a cooling tower system. The evaluation assessed the performance of an existing side stream filtration system at a cooling tower system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Spallation Neutron Source research facility. This location was selected because it offered the opportunity for a side-by-side comparison of a system featuring side stream filtration and an unfiltered system.

  2. Association of land use and its change with beach closure in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and its change have great influences on water quality. However, their impacts on microbial contamination of beach water have been rarely investigated and their relationship with beach closure is still unknown. Here, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 2013 for more than 500 beaches in the United States, and examined their associations with land use around beaches in 2006 and 2011, respectively, as well as the land use change between 2011 and 2006. The results show that the number of beach closures is negatively associated with the percentages of forest, barren land, grassland and wetland, while positively associated with the percentage of urban area. The results from multi-level models also indicate the negative association with forest area but positive association with urban area and agriculture. The examination of the change of land use and the number of beach closures between 2011 and 2006 indicates that the increase in the number of beach closures is positively associated with the increase in urban (β=1.612, p<0.05) and agricultural area including pasture (β=0.098, p<0.05), but negatively associated with the increase in forest area (β= -1.789, p<0.05). The study suggests that urbanization and agriculture development near beaches have adverse effects on beach microbial water quality, while afforestation may protect beach water quality and reduce the number of beach closures. To compare differences in beach closures across the US u

  3. Preliminary results from the first InRidge cruise to the central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Iyer, S.D.; Rao, M.M.M.; Banerjee, R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Shirodkar, P; Ghose, I.; Ganesan, P; Rao, A.K.; Suribabu, A.; Ganesh, C.; Naik, G.P

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Inter_Ridge_News_7_40.pdf.txt stream_source_info Inter_Ridge_News_7_40.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Gas hydrate distribution and hydrocarbon maturation north of the Knipovich Ridge, western Svalbard margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Ines; Burwicz, Ewa B.; Berndt, Christian; Klaeschen, Dirk; Feseker, Tomas; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Sarkar, Sudipta

    2016-03-01

    A bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) occurs west of Svalbard in water depths exceeding 600 m, indicating that gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments is more widespread in this region than anywhere else on the eastern North Atlantic margin. Regional BSR mapping shows the presence of hydrate and free gas in several areas, with the largest area located north of the Knipovich Ridge, a slow spreading ridge segment of the Mid Atlantic Ridge system. Here heat flow is high (up to 330 mW m-2), increasing toward the ridge axis. The coinciding maxima in across-margin BSR width and heat flow suggest that the Knipovich Ridge influenced methane generation in this area. This is supported by recent finds of thermogenic methane at cold seeps north of the ridge termination. To evaluate the source rock potential on the western Svalbard margin, we applied 1-D petroleum system modeling at three sites. The modeling shows that temperature and burial conditions near the ridge were sufficient to produce hydrocarbons. The bulk petroleum mass produced since the Eocene is at least 5 kt and could be as high as ~0.2 Mt. Most likely, source rocks are Miocene organic-rich sediments and a potential Eocene source rock that may exist in the area if early rifting created sufficiently deep depocenters. Thermogenic methane production could thus explain the more widespread presence of gas hydrates north of the Knipovich Ridge. The presence of microbial methane on the upper continental slope and shelf indicates that the origin of methane on the Svalbard margin varies spatially.

  5. Observations of coastal sediment dynamics of the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project, Imperial Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lam, Angela; Ferreiera, Joanne; Miller, Ian M.; Rippy, Meg; Svejkovsky, Jan; Mustain, Neomi

    2012-01-01

    Coastal restoration and management must address the presence, use, and transportation of fine sediment, yet little information exists on the patterns and/or processes of fine-sediment transport and deposition for these systems. To fill this information gap, a number of State of California, Federal, and private industry partners developed the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project ("Demonstration Project") with the purpose of monitoring the transport, fate, and impacts of fine sediment from beach-sediment nourishments in 2008 and 2009 near the Tijuana River estuary, Imperial Beach, California. The primary purpose of the Demonstration Project was to collect and provide information about the directions, rates, and processes of fine-sediment transport along and across a California beach and nearshore setting. To achieve these goals, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored water, beach, and seafloor properties during the 2008–2009 Demonstration Project. The project utilized sediment with ~40 percent fine sediment by mass so that the dispersal and transport of fine sediment would be easily recognizable. The purpose of this report is to present and disseminate the data collected during the physical monitoring of the Demonstration Project. These data are available online at the links noted in the "Additional Digital Information" section. Synthesis of these data and results will be provided in subsequent publications.

  6. Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bacopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-up trends. Archives of the electronic data, including GPS locations and other informational tags, and collected samples are presented, as are the physical and chemical analyses of the collected samples. The thrust of the physical and chemical analyses is to differentiate the collected samples into highly suspect oil tar balls versus false/non-oil tar ball samples. The numerical modeling involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of astronomic tides. Results from the numerical modeling include velocity residuals that show ebb-dominated residual currents exiting the inlet via an offshore, counter-rotating dual-eddy system. The tidally derived residual currents are used as one explanation for the observed transport trends. The study concludes that the port activity in the St. Johns River is not majorly contributing to the baseline conditions of oil tar ball wash-up on Florida’s First Coast beaches.

  7. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  8. Cold test plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tank contents removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project Cold Test Plan describes the activities to be conducted during the cold test of the OHF sluicing and pumping system at the Tank Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF). The TTCTF is located at the Robotics and Process Systems Complex at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The cold test will demonstrate performance of the pumping and sluicing system, fine-tune operating instructions, and train the personnel in the actual work to be performed. After completion of the cold test a Technical Memorandum will be prepared documenting completion of the cold test, and the equipment will be relocated to the OHF site.

  9. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  10. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  11. Land use and beach closure 2004-2013 in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the beach closure data and land use information around each beach in 2006 and 2011 in the United States. The original data are created by EPA...

  12. Prospect of Oil/Gas Exploration in Beach Area of Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gansheng; Dou Lirong; Yuan Lingling; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Located in beach zone along Bohai Bay, the beach area of Bohai Bay basin is restricted between coastline and water depth of 5 m, stretching from Bayuquan to Huludao, Liaoning Province and Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province to Weihekou, Shandong Province.

  13. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P; Antao, F.B.

    . Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...

  14. Eskers in Ireland, analogs for sinuous ridges on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, Xavier; Bourke, Mary

    2014-05-01

    resolution images also show the presence of large boulders. Large glacial lakes in the Irish Midlands during ice withdrawal aided the outstanding preservation of these features. This permitted the cataloguing of 'pristine' morphologies and morphometries. Esker-like ridges identified on Mars are often located in low relief and depressions and show similar topographic conditions to those in Ireland. The ExoMars rover scheduled to be launched on the surface of Mars by 2018 carries the first space-borne GPR system (Wisdom) with the objective of characterizing the top 3 m of the Martian subsurface. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys carried out on the Irish eskers and associated sediments depicted the landforms internal architecture and paleocurrent indicators. A throughout investigation of the Irish eskers as Mars analogs using remote sensing methods and GPR will contribute to the understanding of sinuous ridges on Mars.

  15. Soil development rates from an optically stimulated luminescence-dated beach ridge sequence in Northern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asger Habekost; Elberling, Bo; Pejrup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    of each pedon and soil stratum was measured by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and used to estimate soil development rates. Soils were divided into five groups from Typic Haplorthods and Entic Alorthods with a mean OSL age of 29659294 yr to Typic Quartzipsamments with a mean OSL age...

  16. Submerged beach ridge lineation and associated sedentary fauna in the innershelf of Gopalpur Coast, Orissa, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Premkumar, M.K.; Sree, A.; Bapuji, M.

    (Fi g ure 2b and 2 c ). However, shallow seismic records show that the reef features had cropped up from the sub - bottom layers, suggesting no indication of vertical mov e- ment. A large - scale seabed scouring must have taken place at the foot...

  17. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2.

  18. Treatment of contaminated wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; Arnold, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an energy research and radioisotope production facility, operates two centralized liquid waste treatment systems, one for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system and the other for process waste (PW). New regulatory and waste minimization requirements have led ORNL to consider zeolite ion exchangers for removing cesium and strontium from LLLW and PW streams for their economic advantages, selective molecular sieve properties, and ease of disposal. Natural and synthetic zeolites have been compared with inorganic and organic ion exchangers for these applications.

  19. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  20. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers.

  1. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção; Santos, Isaac Rodrigues dos; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  2. Morphodynamics of prograding beaches: A synthesis of seasonal- to century-scale observations of the Columbia River littoral cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Cohn, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Findings from nearly two decades of research focused on the Columbia River littoral cell (CRLC), a set of rapidly prograding coastal barriers and strand-plains in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, are synthesized to investigate the morphodynamics associated with prograding beaches. Due to a large sediment supply from the Columbia River, the CRLC is the only extensive stretch of shoreline on the U.S. west coast to have advanced significantly seaward during the late Holocene. Since the last Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) earthquake in 1700, with associated co-seismic subsidence and tsunami, much of the CRLC has prograded hundreds of meters. However, the rates of progradation, and the processes most responsible for sediment accumulation, vary depending on time scale and the morphological unit in question. Remarkably, the 20th and early 21st century shoreline change rates were more than double the late prehistoric rates that include recovery from the last major CSZ event, most likely due to an increase in sediment supply resulting from inlet jetty construction. In some locations detailed beach morphology monitoring reveals that at interannual- to decadal-scale the upper shoreface aggraded about 2 cm/yr, subtidal sandbars migrated offshore and decayed while intertidal bars migrated onshore and welded to the shoreline, the shoreline prograded about 4 m/yr, and 1 to 2 new foredune ridges were generated. A detailed meso-scale sediment budget analysis in one location within the littoral cell shows that approximately 100 m3/m/yr accumulated between − 12 m (seaward limit of data) and + 9 m (crest of landward-most foredune). Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore-directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions are each partially responsible for the significant rates of sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes of the CRLC during the observational period. Direct

  3. Ridge and Transverse Correlation at Separated Rapidities

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    A simple phenomenological relationship between the ridge distribution in $\\Delta\\eta$ and the single-particle distribution in $\\eta$ can be established from the PHOBOS data on both distributions. The implication points to the possibility that there is no long-range longitudinal correlation. An interpretation of the relationship is then developed, based on the recognition that longitudinal uncertainty of the initial configuration allows for non-Hubble-like expansion at early time. It is shown that the main features of the ridge structure can be explained in a model where transverse correlation stimulated by semihard partons is the principal mechanism.

  4. Bathymetry of Reykjanes Ridge: A methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Banul, Karolina, 1987-

    2014-01-01

    The sea floor is one of the Earths parts that still are mostly unexplored. Recent multibeam technology has now opened up new opportunities to increase our knowledge in this hitherto hidden part of the world. In this study part of the Reykjanes Ridge was analysed in order to create a high resolution and comprehensive topographic map of this northern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge. The general aims of the study were to i) develop seamless method from Caris, a raw analytical program for mu...

  5. [Microbiological quality of seaside sands: a beach in Latium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Lucia; Briancesco, Rossella; Cataldo, Claudia; Di Girolamo, Irene

    2002-01-01

    This study is focused on the microbiological quality of a sandy beach in the coastal area around Rome, Italy. The microbiological surveys were carried out on the sands collected both on the beach and on the waterline. A low-concentration of faecal bacteria (streptococci outnumbered Escherichia coli) and a constant rate of staphylococci were detected over the sampling period. Significant statistical correlations were calculated between yeasts and moulds, Escherichia coli and streptococci, streptococci and sulfite-reducing clostridium spores. This survey's data could be a baseline for future studies.

  6. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  7. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W...

  8. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict...

  9. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  10. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend and remove Class E airspace at Vero Beach, FL (75 FR 65581... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach...

  11. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  12. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... from Tahoe Keys Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA at position 39 13'55'' N, 120...

  13. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Miami Beach, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. The area to the eastward of a line bearing 12° (N. 12° E.) through a point X, which is 11/2 nautical miles due east of the intersection of the Miami Beach shore line... Miami Beach, Fla. 110.188 Section 110.188 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport...

  15. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... in the Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES... D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  16. Linkages between sediment composition, wave climate and beach profile variability at multiple timescales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karunarathna, H.; Horrillo-Caraballo, J.M.; Kuriyama, Y.; Mase, H.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.; Reeve, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses, compares and contrasts cross-shore morphodynamic behaviour of four diverse beaches that have very different regional settings, wave climates and sediment characteristics, with the aid of rarely available long term measurements of beach profiles and incident waves. The beaches inv

  17. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.

    2015-07-01

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  18. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  19. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local...

  20. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  1. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide..., February 20, 2013, dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach...

  2. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... south by a 10-mile radius of the Palm Beach International Airport, and on the west by the Florida... Florida Turnpike (highway 91) and Lantana Road to the intersection of a 5-mile radius of the Palm Beach... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach...

  3. Normalization Ridge Regression in Practice I: Comparisons Between Ordinary Least Squares, Ridge Regression and Normalization Ridge Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcock, J. W.

    The problem of model estimation when the data are collinear was examined. Though the ridge regression (RR) outperforms ordinary least squares (OLS) regression in the presence of acute multicollinearity, it is not a problem free technique for reducing the variance of the estimates. It is a stochastic procedure when it should be nonstochastic and it…

  4. Ridge regression estimator: combining unbiased and ordinary ridge regression methods of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Damodar Gore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical literature has several methods for coping with multicollinearity. This paper introduces a new shrinkage estimator, called modified unbiased ridge (MUR. This estimator is obtained from unbiased ridge regression (URR in the same way that ordinary ridge regression (ORR is obtained from ordinary least squares (OLS. Properties of MUR are derived. Results on its matrix mean squared error (MMSE are obtained. MUR is compared with ORR and URR in terms of MMSE. These results are illustrated with an example based on data generated by Hoerl and Kennard (1975.

  5. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  6. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  7. Ridges and hotspots: perspectives from global tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Shen; Tanimoto, Toshiro

    1991-01-01

    Resolution in global tomography has improved to a level of about 1000 km due to a rapid increase of digital data during the last decade. We have started to see various important tectonic features in some detail. We will attempt to summarize our current observations for ridges and hotspots.

  8. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  9. Wrinkle Ridges in Aeolis Dorsa, Mars: Preliminary Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, R. M.; Burr, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    Previous work has interpreted wrinkle ridges as compressional landforms caused by movement along blind thrust faults. Our preliminary mapping in the Aeolis Dorsa, Mars has identified widely distributed wrinkle ridges, suggesting episodic contraction.

  10. Prediction of eigenmodes cutoff frequencies of sectoral coaxial ridged waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A mathematical model of sectoral coaxial ridged waveguides has been developed using coupled-integralequations technique. Maximal ratios of cutoff frequencies of two lowest modes of sectoral coaxial ridged waveguides have been obtained.

  11. 垄作覆膜条件下冬小麦田的氨挥发研究%The dynamics of ammonia volatilization in winter wheat field with furrow planting system and ridge with plastic film mulching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官宇先; 师日鹏; 韩坤; 王林权

    2011-01-01

    为了解垄作覆膜下氨挥发特点,采用密闭法研究了垄作覆膜条件下冬小麦田间氨挥发的动态过程,并结合室内模拟比较了覆膜和氮肥深施对氨挥发的影响.大田实验结果表明,垄作覆膜处理可显著减少田间氨挥发.垄作覆膜180 kg N/hm2和240 kg N/hm2处理下的氨挥发量分别为:1.9±0.2 kg N/hm2和2.4±0.7 kg N/hm2,而平作180 kg N/hm2处理下的氨挥发总量为4.3±0.8 kg N/hm2.垄作覆膜比平作180 kg N/hm2氨挥发量减少了56.3%和43%.氨挥发造成的氮肥损失由1.6%降低到了0.2% ~0.4%.氨挥发主要出现在播种后的一个月内;返青后大大降低.越冬期前氨挥发累积量符合Elovich动力学方程,而返青期后的氨挥发累积动态过程趋近于直线.覆膜和垄下施肥均有降低氨挥发的作用,室内模拟结果表明垄下施肥对氨挥发的消减效应大于地表覆膜.%To study the effects of furrow planting system and ridge with plastic film mulching (FPRFM) on soil am monia volatilization in winter wheat field, the trial was conducted in October of 2009 ~ June of 2010. A laboratory simu lation experiment was also made to investigate the effects of plastic film mulching and deep application of N on ammonia volatilization. The ammonia was collected with airproof chambers made with PVC in filed. NH3 was absorbed by boric acid (concentration 2%) loaded in culture dish in the chambers, and then titrated with dilution H2SO4 in the lab. The volatilization amount in the plots with FPRFM under the N application rate 180 kg/hm2 (RM180) and 240 kg/hm2 (RM240) were 1.9 ± 0.2 kg N/hm2 and 2.4 ± 0.7 kg N/hm2 separately, and the amount of conventional practice with nitrogen application rate 180 kg/hm2(FP180) was 4.3 ± 0.8 kg N/hm . Compared to the conventional flat planting (FP) system, the FPRFM could reduce volatilization amount by 56.3% and 43% , and N loss rate dropped from 1.6% of conventional practice to 0.2%-0.4% of FPRFM. It was

  12. Assessment of surf zone environmental variables in a southwestern Atlantic sandy beach (Monte Hermoso, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, M Clara; Fernández Severini, Melisa D; Buzzi, Natalia S; Piccolo, M Cintia; Perillo, Gerardo M E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal dynamics (monthly/tidal) of water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a (chlo-a), suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved nutrients in the surf zone of Monte Hermoso sandy beach, Argentina. We also aimed to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Sampling was carried out approximately monthly (September 2009-November 2010), and all samples were collected in a fixed station during high and low tide. Water temperature showed a clear seasonal variability (July: 9 °C-December: 26.5 °C) and a thermal amplitude of 17.5 °C. Salinity ranged from 33 to 37, without a pronounced seasonality. SPM (10-223 mg L(-1)) and POC concentrations (399-6445 mg C m(-3)) were high in surf zone waters. Chlo-a (0.05-9.16 μg L(-1)) was low and did not evidence the occurrence of surf diatom accumulations. Dissolved nutrient concentration was quite fluctuating. None of the variables seemed to be affected by tidal stage. The results showed how fluctuating the physico-chemical and biological variables can be in this particular system. The observed variability can be related with local beach conditions but also with regional processes. The study area is highly influenced by a neighbor estuary and as a consequence, could be vulnerable to their seasonal and inter-annual dynamics. All of these characteristics must be considered for further studies and planning of the uses of natural resources and should be taken into account in any environmental monitoring program conducted in a similar beach system.

  13. Controls of Nazca ridge subduction on the Amazonian foreland basin geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espurt, N.; Baby, P.; Brusset, S.; Roddaz, M.; Hermoza, W.; Regard, V.; Martinod, J.; Bolaños, R.

    2006-12-01

    In the central Andes, the Nazca ridge subduction imprints can be tracked on the eastern side of the Andes. The western part of the Amazonian basin is currently an atypical foreland basin because the Amazonian foreland basin 3-D geometry does not follow the foreland basin system model of DeCelles and Giles [1]. The Amazonian foreland basin consists of two main subsiding basins separated by the NE-SW trending structural/morphologic Fitzcarrald Arch. Geomorphic and lithospheric data provide evidence that the large wavelength Fitzcarrald Arch uplift at 750 kilometers ahead of the trench results from the Nazca ridge flat subduction. The flexure of the South American lithosphere is overcompensated by the buoyancy of the Nazca ridge impeaching a four-component foreland basin system. The recent deformations of the Amazon basin are characterized by vertical motions as recorded by the radial modern drainage network and the deformation of Pliocene to recent fluvial deposits on both sides of the arch, according to the kinematics of the Nazca ridge subduction. In addition, analogue lithospheric experiments similarly show that the ridge buoyancy induces uplift above the flat-slab segment in the foreland basin separating two subsiding sub-basins resulting from the flexure of the continental lithosphere. [1] DeCelles, P.G., and Giles, K.A.(1996)Foreland basin systems: Basin Research, 8, 105-123.

  14. Oak Ridge Institutional Cluster Autotune Test Drive Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibonananda, Sanyal [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    The Oak Ridge Institutional Cluster (OIC) provides general purpose computational resources for the ORNL staff to run computation heavy jobs that are larger than desktop applications but do not quite require the scale and power of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). This report details the efforts made and conclusions derived in performing a short test drive of the cluster resources on Phase 5 of the OIC. EnergyPlus was used in the analysis as a candidate user program and the overall software environment was evaluated against anticipated challenges experienced with resources such as the shared memory-Nautilus (JICS) and Titan (OLCF). The OIC performed within reason and was found to be acceptable in the context of running EnergyPlus simulations. The number of cores per node and the availability of scratch space per node allow non-traditional desktop focused applications to leverage parallel ensemble execution. Although only individual runs of EnergyPlus were executed, the software environment on the OIC appeared suitable to run ensemble simulations with some modifications to the Autotune workflow. From a standpoint of general usability, the system supports common Linux libraries, compilers, standard job scheduling software (Torque/Moab), and the OpenMPI library (the only MPI library) for MPI communications. The file system is a Panasas file system which literature indicates to be an efficient file system.

  15. Bathymetry--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3319) of the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area, California. The...

  16. Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    the prevalent moderate-high wave regime, and moderate-strong littoral currents, the beach profiles of the NE monsoon had accretion over the profiles of the SW monsoon. Based upon the variations in the longshore sediment transport, wave energy flux, magnitude...

  17. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  18. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  19. Surfin’ California with Whitman and The Beach Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    of American literary Romanticism, whereas The Beach Boys became the sixties’ most well-known pop icon of surf music and surf culture. Nevertheless, their common interest in California as a particular topographic image of the American West invites comparison and further study. This paper aims to make...

  20. Coastal engineering: vol II. Harbor and beach problems

    OpenAIRE

    Massie, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Ship motions, channel depth, channel width, ship maneuvering models, maneuverability improvement, total channel optimization, coastal sand transport, radiation stress, wave set-up, radiation stress gradient, tidal forces, turbulent forces, bottom friction forces, longshore current computations, early coastal transport formula, sand transport mechanisms, model coastal transport formula, coastal dynamics with single line theory, sand transport along a beach profile, coastal changes with multipl...