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Sample records for bauxite

  1. Bauxite and alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The United States is reliant upon imports for nearly all of the bauxite that it consumes. Small amounts of bauxite and bauxitic clays are produced in Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia for nonmetallurgical uses. Metallurgical-grade bauxite (crude dry) imports in 2012 totaled 10.3 Mt (11.3 million st), 8 percent more than the quantity imported in 2011. Jamaica (46 percent), Guinea (27 percent) and Brazil (25 percent) were the leading suppliers to the United States in 2012. In 2012, 84 kt (92,600 st) of refractory-grade calcined bauxite was imported, an 8-percent decrease compared with imports in 2011. Although domestic steel production increased by about 3 percent in 2012, compared with production in 2011, increased use of magnesia for refractory products may account for the decrease in refractory-grade calcined bauxite imports. Guyana (55 percent) and China (45 percent) were the sources of U.S. refractory-grade calcined bauxite imports. Imports of nonrefractory-grade calcined bauxite in 2012 totaled 323 kt (356,000 st), 24 percent more than the quantity imported in 2011. This increase was attributed to increased use of bauxite in cement, as proppants for hydraulic fracturing by the petroleum industry and by steel makers. Guyana (32 percent), Australia (29 percent) and Greece (25 percent) were the leading sources.

  2. Bauxite and alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States is import-reliant for nearly all of the bauxite that it consumes. Small amounts of bauxite and bauxitic clays are produced in Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia for nonmetallurgical uses. Metallurgical-grade bauxite (crude dry) imports in 2011 totaled 9.54 Mt (10.5 million st), 18 percent more than the quantity imported in 2010. Jamaica (54 percent). Guinea (25 percent) and Brazil (18 percent) were the leading suppliers to the United States in 2011. In 2011,117 kt (129,000 st) of refractory-grade calcined bauxite was imported, a 69-percent decrease compared with imports in 2010. This decrease was partly attributed to an increase in net imports of refractory products such as bricks and crucibles, which were 39 percent higher than in the prior year. Imports of refractory-grade calcined bauxite from Brazil declined by 99 percent and by 75 percent from Greece. Restrictions on exports of raw materials from China also might have contributed a small amount to the decrease in imports. Imports from China declined by 45 percent. Guyana (42 percent), China (35 percent) and Greece (22 percent) were the leading sources of U.S. refractory-grade calcined bauxite imports. Imports of nonrefractory-grade calcined bauxite in 2011 totaled 236 kt (260,000 st), 23 percent less than the quantity imported in 2010. Guyana (51 percent), Australia (37 percent) and China (7 percent) were the leading sources

  3. Bauxite Mining Sustainably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Patrick R.; Bayliss, Chris; Ward, Sam

    In 1990, the International Aluminum Institute began a program to report on the bauxite mining and rehabilitation activities of the worldwide industry. A survey process was initiated and reports were published in 1992, 2000 and 2004. The most recent report includes extensive data on mines representing over 70% of the world's output of bauxite and includes a more detailed focus on the social and economic as well as the environmental performance of the industry.

  4. FOUR CENTURIES OF BAUXITE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard Marušić

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results of many years of archival and field investigations in the history of bauxite mining of the three authors are presented. It was established that in Istria in the valley of the river Mirna beneath the Castle of Sovinjak bauxite was exploited already 400 years ago, and that 1808 about this ore the first scientific account was published. Accordingly, the statements in the professional literature that the first bauxite mine opened 1873 in the French Provence and that the bauxite ore for the first time was scientifically described 1821 have to be revised. About this necessary revision here the essential proofs are produced.

  5. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  6. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  7. FOUR CENTURIES OF BAUXITE MINING

    OpenAIRE

    Rikard Marušić; Krešimir Sakač; Slavko Vujec

    1993-01-01

    In the paper the results of many years of archival and field investigations in the history of bauxite mining of the three authors are presented. It was established that in Istria in the valley of the river Mirna beneath the Castle of Sovinjak bauxite was exploited already 400 years ago, and that 1808 about this ore the first scientific account was published. Accordingly, the statements in the professional literature that the first bauxite mine opened 1873 in the French Provence and that the b...

  8. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  9. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Bauxite and bauxite residue, characterization and electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, M.L.P.; Conceicao, F.T.; Toledo, S.P.; Kiyohara, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Bayer process, bauxite is refined and alumina is produced. In this process, a highly alkaline residue, red mud is generated and its disposal represents an environmental problem. The aim of this paper is to present the characterization of Brazilian bauxite and Brazilian red mud by: X-ray diffraction, specific surface area, chemical composition analysis by ICP-MS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and discuss possible applications of this residue. The results identify as a constituent of both materials: Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and SiO 2 and the presence of Na 2 O in residue. The analysis by electron microscopy of Bauxite shows particles with hexagonal shape and red mud shows small particles size. (author)

  11. The geomicrobiology of bauxite deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiluo Hao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite deposits are studied because of their economic value and because they play an important role in the study of paleoclimate and paleogeography of continents. They provide a rare record of the weathering and evolution of continental surfaces. Geomicrobiological analysis makes it possible to verify that microorganisms have played a critical role during the formation of bauxite with the possibility already intimated in previous studies. Ambient temperature, abundance of water, organic carbon and bioavailable iron and other metal substrates provide a suitable environment for microbes to inhabit. Thiobacillus, Leptospirilum, Thermophilic bacteria and Heterotrophs have been shown to be able to oxidize ferrous iron and to reduce sulfate-generating sulfuric acid, which can accelerate the weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. Microorganisms referred to the genus Bacillus can mediate the release of alkaline metals. Although the dissimilatory iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in bauxites have not yet been identified, some recorded authigenic carbonates and “bacteriopyrites” that appear to be unique in morphology and grain size might record microbial activity. Typical bauxite minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, covellite, galena, pyrite, zircon, calcium plagioclase, orthoclase, and albite have been investigated as part of an analysis of microbial mediation. The paleoecology of such bauxitic microorganisms inhabiting continental (sub surfaces, revealed through geomicrobiological analysis, will add a further dimension to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies.

  12. Rare Earth Element Phases in Bauxite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present work was to provide mineralogical insight into the rare earth element (REE phases in bauxite residue to improve REE recovering technologies. Experimental work was performed by electron probe microanalysis with energy dispersive as well as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. REEs are found as discrete mineral particles in bauxite residue. Their sizes range from <1 μm to about 40 μm. In bauxite residue, the most abundant REE bearing phases are light REE (LREE ferrotitanates that form a solid solution between the phases with major compositions (REE,Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3 and (Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3. These are secondary phases formed during the Bayer process by an in-situ transformation of the precursor bauxite LREE phases. Compared to natural systems, the indicated solid solution resembles loparite-perovskite series. LREE particles often have a calcium ferrotitanate shell surrounding them that probably hinders their solubility. Minor amount of LREE carbonate and phosphate minerals as well as manganese-associated LREE phases are also present in bauxite residue. Heavy REEs occur in the same form as in bauxites, namely as yttrium phosphates. These results show that the Bayer process has an impact on the initial REE mineralogy contained in bauxite. Bauxite residue as well as selected bauxites are potentially good sources of REEs.

  13. Analysis of ASTER data for mapping bauxite rich pockets within high altitude lateritic bauxite, Jharkhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Arindam; Singh, Vivek Kr.; Parveen, Reshma; Kumar, K. Vinod; Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2013-04-01

    Bauxite deposits of Jharkhand in India are resulted from the lateritization process and therefore are often associated with the laterites. In the present study, ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) image is processed to delineate bauxite rich pockets within the laterites. In this regard, spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples are analyzed in the laboratory with reference to the spectral features of gibbsite (main mineral constituent of bauxite) and goethite (main mineral constituent of laterite) in VNIR-SWIR (visible-near infrared and short wave infrared) electromagnetic domain. The analysis of spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples helps in understanding the differences in the spectral features of bauxites and laterites. Based on these differences; ASTER data based relative band depth and simple ratio images are derived for spatial mapping of the bauxites developed within the lateritic province. In order to integrate the complementary information of different index image, an index based principal component (IPC) image is derived to incorporate the correlative information of these indices to delineate bauxite rich pockets. The occurrences of bauxite rich pockets derived from density sliced IPC image are further delimited by the topographic controls as it has been observed that the major bauxite occurrences of the area are controlled by slope and altitude. In addition to above, IPC image is draped over the digital elevation model (DEM) to illustrate how bauxite rich pockets are distributed with reference to the topographic variability of the terrain. Bauxite rich pockets delineated in the IPC image are also validated based on the known mine occurrences and existing geological map of the bauxite. It is also conceptually validated based on the spectral similarity of the bauxite pixels delineated in the IPC image with the ASTER convolved laboratory spectra of bauxite samples.

  14. Sustainable Bauxite Mining — A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian

    In 2008 the International Aluminium Institute commissioned its fourth sustainable bauxite mining report with the aim to collect global data on the environmental, social and economic impacts of bauxite mining operations and their rehabilitation programmes. The report shows that bauxite mining has become sustainable and land area footprint neutral;it is a relatively small land use operation when compared to most other types of mining. All operations have clearly defined rehabilitation objectives, fully integrated rehabilitation programmes, and written rehabilitation procedures. The rehabilitation objectives can be summarized as follows: "The bauxite mining operations aim to restore pre-mining environment and the respective conditions; this can be a self-sustaining ecosystem consisting of native flora and fauna or any other land-use to the benefit of the local community".

  15. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  16. Bauxite formation on Tertiary sediments and Proterozoic bedrock in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsels, D.A.

    2018-01-01

    The lateritic bauxite deposits in Suriname are traditionally distinguished into Coastal plain bauxites and Plateau bauxites, a subdivision that is primarily based on their topographic and geographic position. The first group is located in the lowlands of the coastal plain, while the second group is

  17. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a measure will increase the unemployment rate since the sachet water business employs a significant proportion of people. Meanwhile, the country currently exports its bauxite raw, without any value addition. Gradual depletion of high grade bauxite (with high alumina content) and the emergence of low grade bauxite with ...

  18. Assessment of bauxite, clay, and laterite deposits in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Karine M.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2015-01-01

    Bauxite-bearing rocks are present in several regions of Afghanistan; specifically, the southeast segment of the North Afghanistan Platform, the eastern parts of South Afghanistan, and within the Afghanistan-North and -South Pamir Fold Regions. Bauxite-bearing rocks occur at various stratigraphic levels, in lithologically different sequences of sedimentary rocks. The bauxites are paleosols and represent previous, rather than recent, weathering events. Bauxites and bauxite-type horizons are most common at the base of carbonate rock units, where they form the basal horizons of sedimentary rock sequences separated by erosion and stratigraphic unconformity surfaces. Less common are zones in redeposited weathering developed on igneous rocks. At present there are five known stratigraphic intervals with significant bauxite and bauxite-type deposits and occurrences: the lower Permian, the upper Permian, the Upper Triassic, the Lower Jurassic, and the base of the Upper Jurassic.

  19. Image analyses in bauxitic ores: The case of the Apulian karst bauxites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccione, Roberto; Sinisi, Rosa; Mongelli, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    This study concern two different karst bauxite deposits of the Apulia region (southern Italy). These deposits outcrop in the Murge and Salento areas: the Murge bauxite (upper Cretaceous) is a typical canyon-like deposit formed in a karst depression whereas the Salento bauxite (upper Eocene - Oligocene) is the result of the erosion, remobilization and transport of older bauxitic material from a relative distant area. This particular bauxite arrangement gave the name to all the same bauxite deposits which are thus called Salento-type deposits. Bauxite's texture is essentially made of sub-circular concentric aggregates, called ooids, dispersed in a pelitic matrix. The textural properties of the two bauxitic ores, as assessed by SEM-EDX, are different. In the bauxite from the canyon-like deposit the ooids/matrix ratio is higher than in the Salento-type bauxite. Furthermore the ooids in the Salento-like bauxite are usually made by a large core surrounded by a narrow, single, accretion layer, whereas the ooids from the canyon-like deposit have a smaller core surrounded by several alternating layers of Al-hematite and boehmite (Mongelli et al., 2014). In order to explore in more detail the textural features of both bauxite deposits, particle shape analyses were performed. Image analyses and the fractal dimension have been widely used in geological studies including economic geology (e.g. Turcotte, 1986; Meakin, 1991; Deng et al., 2011). The geometric properties evaluated are amounts of ooids, average ooids size, ooids rounding and the fractal dimension D, which depends on the ooids/matrix ratio. D is the slope of a plotting line obtained using a particular counting technique on each sample image. The fractal dimension is slightly lower for the Salento-type bauxites. Since the process which led to the formation of the ooids is related to an aggregation growth involving chemical fractionation (Mongelli, 2002) a correlation among these parameters and the contents of major

  20. Kaolinite removal from bauxite by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávia Martins Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a potential condition to separate kaolinite through flotation when it is present in bauxite ore. This research anticipates a Brazilian industry requirement, considering the tendency towards the need for aluminosilicates removal from bauxite ores, as has already occurred in China. Kaolinite is the most abundant aluminosilicate, and gibbsite is the main aluminum bearing mineral in Brazilian bauxite ores. The first step was a fundamental study involving microflotation experiments with pure samples of kaolinite and gibbsite. Ammonium quaternary salts and amines were used as the collector and corn starch as the depressant. In a fundamental study, the best conditions determined in the first step were evaluated for the flotation of kaolinite from bauxite ore using laboratory scale experiments. Tests with AQ142/starch (pH 10 and CTAB (pH 7 led to satisfactory results. In general, the highest values of alumina/silica mass ratio were obtained with AQ142/starch and the highest values of mass recovery and metallurgical recovery were achieved with CTAB.

  1. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy to iron-57 bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.G.; Wynter, C.

    1978-01-01

    Five different samples from bauxite and related terrains in Jamaica were selected for Moessbauer analysis. Sample 1 is lithiophorite, a lithium aluminum manganese oxide, present as an impurity in Jamaican bauxite; sample 2 is a common red bauxite ore, from Kirkvine, Manchester; sample 3 is a pisolitic bauxite from Reynolds, St. Ann; sample 4 is a red bauxite with pisolites from Mocho; and sample 5 is a shaly material containing some lateritic material which characterizes mining areas. Whereas sample 1 contains fine particles of goettite and/or aluminium substituted goettite, samples 2,3,4,5 contain mixtures of haematite and goettite and/or aluminium substituted goettite in varying concentrations. The findings are consistent with Hill's bauxitization process

  2. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of bauxite and bentonite deposits from Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Muchangos, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of bauxites, kaolinitic clays and bentoniteS from Mozambique are presented in this thesis. The bauxite and kaolinitic clay deposits in Penhalonga area (in the central western part of Mozambique) are associated with Precambrian magmatic rocks and

  4. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in bauxite miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J R; de Klerk, N H; Fritschi, L; Sim, M R; Musk, A W; Benke, G; Abramson, M J; McNeil, J J

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether cumulative bauxite exposure is associated with respiratory symptoms or changes in lung function in a group of bauxite miners. Current employees at three bauxite mines in Australia were invited to participate in a survey comprising: questionnaire on demographic details, respiratory symptoms, and work history; skin prick tests for four common aeroallergens; and spirometry. A task exposure matrix was constructed for bauxite exposure in all tasks in all jobs based on monitoring data. Data were examined for associations between cumulative bauxite exposure, and respiratory symptoms and lung function, by regression analyses. The participation rate was 86%. Self-reported work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by relatively few subjects (1.5%-11.8%). After adjustment for age and smoking no significant differences in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms were identified between subjects, in the quartiles of cumulative bauxite exposure distribution. The forced expiratory volume in I s (FEV1) of the exposed group was found to be significantly lower than that for the unexposed group. After adjustment for age, height, and smoking there were no statistically significant differences between quartiles in FEVI, forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEVl/FVC ratio. These data provide little evidence of a serious adverse effect on respiratory health associated with exposure to bauxite in an open-cut bauxite mine in present day conditions.

  5. Bauxite deposits in Suriname : Geological context and resource development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsels, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite, the raw material of aluminum, has been one of the economically vital natural resources for Suriname. Mining operations started about a century ago, and subsequent development of a refinery industry and hydro-electric power made Suriname one of the foremost bauxite and alumina producers

  6. Basic and Morphological Properties of Bukit Goh Bauxite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muzamir; Nor Azmi, Ahmad Amirul Faez Ahmad; Tam, Weng Long; Phang, Biao Yu; Azizul Moqsud, M.

    2018-03-01

    Investigation conducted by International Maritime Organization (IMO) concluded that the loss of the Bulk Jupiter that carrying bauxite from Kuantan has uncovered evidence to suggest liquefaction led to loss of stability. This research analysed Bukit Goh bauxite and comparison was made with International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC Code) standard. To analyse these characteristics of the bauxite, four samples were selected at Bukit Goh, Kuantan ; two of the samples from the Bukit Goh mine and two samples from the stock piles were tested to identify the bauxite basic and morphological properties by referring to GEOSPEC 3 : Model Specification for Soil Testing ; particle size distribution, moisture content and specific gravity and its morphological properties. Laboratory tests involved including Hydrometer test, Small Pycnometer test, Dry Sieve test and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscop (FESEM) test. The results show that the average moisture content of raw Bukit Goh bauxite is 20.64% which exceeded the recomended value of maximum 10%. Average fine material for raw bauxite is 37.75% which should not be greater than 30% per IMSBC standard. By that, the bauxite from Bukit Goh mine do not achieved the minimum requirements and standards of the IMSBC standard and need to undergo beneficiation process for better quality and safety.

  7. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  8. Restraining Sodium Volatilization in the Ferric Bauxite Direct Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct reduction is an emerging utilization technology of ferric bauxite. However, it requires much more sodium carbonate than ordinary bauxite does. The volatilization is one of the most significant parts of sodium carbonate consumption, as reported in previous studies. Based on the new direct reduction method for utilization of ferric bauxite, this paper has systematically investigated factors including heating temperature, heating time, and sodium carbonate dosage influencing sodium volatilization. For the purpose of reducing sodium volatilization, the Box–Benhken design was employed, and the possibility of separating iron and sodium after direct reduction was also investigated.

  9. Spectral unmixing of hyperspectral data to map bauxite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Sanjeevi; Abhishekh, P. V.

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a study about the potential of remote sensing in bauxite exploration in the Kolli hills of Tamilnadu state, southern India. ASTER image (acquired in the VNIR and SWIR regions) has been used in conjunction with SRTM - DEM in this study. A new approach of spectral unmixing of ASTER image data delineated areas rich in alumina. Various geological and geomorphological parameters that control bauxite formation were also derived from the ASTER image. All these information, when integrated, showed that there are 16 cappings (including the existing mines) that satisfy most of the conditions favouring bauxitization in the Kolli Hills. The study concludes that spectral unmixing of hyperspectral satellite data in the VNIR and SWIR regions may be combined with the terrain parameters to get accurate information about bauxite deposits, including their quality.

  10. The mineralogy of bauxite for producing smelter-grade alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier-Martin, M.; Forte, G.; Ostap, S.; See, J.

    2001-12-01

    Aluminum-producing companies rely on low-cost, high-purity, smelter-grade alumina (aluminum oxide), and alumina production utilizes the bulk of bauxites mined world-wide. The mineralogy of the bauxites has a significant impact on the operation of the Bayer process for alumina production. Typically, the Bayer process produces smelter-grade alumina of 99.5% Al2O3, starting from bauxite containing 30% to 60% Al2O3. The main objective of the Bayer process is to extract the maximum amount of aluminum from the bauxite at as high an aluminate concentration in solution as possible, while limiting any troublesome side reactions. Only with a better understanding of the chemistry of the mineral species and a strict control of the operating/processing conditions can the Bayer process produce efficiently, a low cost, high-quality alumina with minimum detrimental environmental impact.

  11. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC, a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate was used to adjust pH value and the basicity of the pickle liquor, the PAFC was subsequently prepared after the polymerization process. The optimal synthesizing parameters for the preparation of PAFC obtained were as follows: the concentration of hydrochloric acid of 24 wt%, ratio of hydrochloric acid to bauxite tailings of 6:1, temperature of 90ºC, leaching time of 2.5 hours, ration of pickle liquor to calcium aluminate of 12:1, polymerization temperature of 90ºC and polymerization time of about 3 hours. The basicity of PAFC was higher than 68%, the sum concentration of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 was beyond 12.5%. The results of flocculation tests indicate that the PAFC has a better performance of removing the turbidity of wastewater compared to PAC, and PAFC prepared by bauxite tailings is a kind of high quality flocculants.

  12. Merits of using andalusite-based refractories compared to bauxite-based refractories

    OpenAIRE

    Nyoka, M.; Brazier, D.; Courtney, T.; Parry, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically bauxite-based refractories have been used in applications where andalusite-based refractories could work. Bauxite-based refractories were chosen over andalusite-based refractories mainly because of the availability of low-cost Chinese bauxite and also because many furnaces were designed by international companies that cannot easily access high-quality products. Currently, the availability of low-cost bauxite is under threat as a result of high export duties and tariffs as well as...

  13. A study of bauxite tailing quality improvement by reverse flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, W.; Purwasasmita, M.; Sanwani, E.; Malatsih, W.; Fadilla, F.

    2018-01-01

    The pre-treatment of bauxite ore from Tayan, West Kalimantan includes washing and screening fine bauxite particles (-2mm) prior as the feed to the Bayer process for producing alumina. These fine particles are believed to have high content of silica which is detrimental to the process. This washed bauxite tailing still has a significant amount of alumina content. Previous research has indicated that bauxite ore can be upgraded by applying reverse flotation method to reduce its silica content in the ore. Therefore, this study is aimed to utilize reverse flotation method to recover alumina content from washed bauxite tailing. The reverse flotation experiments were carried out at pH of 6 and 8; while the particle sizes were varied at - 140+270 mesh and -270 mesh, using a batch and circuit configuration. The result of this study shows that the batch reverse flotation can recover alumina in the tailing up to 81.4%, however the silica content is still significant. The complexity of silica-alumina minerals in the tailing prevents a complete separation of the ores by only using reverse flotation.

  14. Raman spectroscopic analysis of real samples: Brazilian bauxite mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulstich, Fabiano Richard Leite; Castro, Harlem V.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Neumann, Reiner

    2011-10-01

    In this investigation, Raman spectroscopy with 1064 and 632.8 nm excitation was used to investigate real mineral samples of bauxite ore from mines of Northern Brazil, together with Raman mapping and X-rays diffraction. The obtained results show clearly that the use of microRaman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification of all the minerals usually found in bauxites: gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite, hematite, anatase and quartz. Bulk samples can also be analysed, and FT-Raman is more adequate due to better signal-to-noise ratio and representativity, although not efficient for kaolinite. The identification of fingerprinting vibrations for all the minerals allows the acquisition of Raman-based chemical maps, potentially powerful tools for process mineralogy applied to bauxite ores.

  15. ROCKBOLTS SUPPORT OF THE DRIFTS AND CROSSCUTS IN BAUXITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Majić

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the excavation method in bauxite underground exploitation of the »Trobukva« mine in the »Bauxite Mine Posušje«, and the experiences in drift and crosscut supporting so far. Frame support is the only activity which is not mechanized and it has an important part in the production costs. Therefore the possibility of supporting by bolts and wire mesh has been developed. The estimation of bolting elements was performed for the Swellex boit and it proved, that bolt support compared with the frame support, beside the technical and safety advantages has also a considerable economic justification.

  16. Bauxite and Kaolin Deposits of the Irwinton district, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Walter B.; Warren, Walter C.; Thompson, Raymond M.; Overstreet, Elizabeth F.

    1965-01-01

    The Irwinton district is in the central part of Georgia at the inner margin of the Coastal Plain province. The oldest rocks exposed in the district are crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. They are unconformably overlain by nonmarine sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous age, including gravel, micaceous sand, and lenses of kaolin. Bauxite has been found in a few of the kaolin lenses near the top of the sequence of these strata. During a long period prior to deposition of the over- lying marine beds of the Claiborne and Jackson Groups (middle and upper Eocene), the Upper Cretaceous strata were subjected to subaerial erosion. The bauxite deposits are considered to have formed during this period. They range in thickness from a few inches to more than 10 feet and occupy areas ranging from a few square feet to more than 5 acres. Most of the known bauxite deposits lie along the valleys of Commissioners Creek and Big Sandy Creek in Wilkinson County. The kaolin lenses are much larger than the bauxite deposits; some of the lenses underlie more than 200 acres and are more than 20 feet thick. Bauxite was discovered in the district in 1907 and was mined from 1910 to 1928. A few additional carloads of ore were shipped in 1941 and 1942, but no ore has been mined since that time. Reserves of high-grade bauxite are very small. Reserves of all grades of bauxite plus bauxitic clay may be about 400,000 long tons. The Irwinton district is the principal source of high-grade kaolin in the United States. The presence of kaolin here has been known since early colo- nial time, and it has been mined continuously since 1897. Production in 1959 was 1,940,279 short tons. The reserves of kaolin are very large but have never been adequately measured. Reserves of first and second grade kaolin may be 67 to 84 million short tons. Kaolin of lower grade is present in larger quantity.

  17. Soil Quality of Bauxite Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terezinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The study on soil quality index (SQI) aims to assess the current state of the soil after use and estimating its recovery through sustainable management practices This type of study is being used in this work in order to check the efficiency of forest recovery techniques in areas that have been deeply degraded by bauxite mining process, and compare them with the area of native forest, through the determination of SQI. Treatments were newly mined areas, areas undergoing restoration (topsoil use with planting of native forest species), areas in rehabilitation (employment of the green carpet with topsoil and planting of native forest species) and areas of native forests, with six repetitions, in areas of ALCOA, in the municipality of Poços de Caldas/MG. To this end, we used the additive pondered model, establishing three functions: Fertility, water movement and root development, based on chemical parameters (organic matter, base saturation, aluminum saturation and calcium content); physical (macroporosity, soil density and clay content); and microbiological testing (basal respiration by the emission of CO2 ). The SQIs obtained for each treatment was 41%, 56%, 63% and 71% for newly mined areas, native forest, areas in restoration and rehabilitation, respectively. The recovering technique that most approximates the degraded soil to the soil of reference is the restoration, where there was no statistically significant difference of areas restored with native forest. It was found that for the comparison of the studied areas must take into account the nutrient cycling, that disappear with plant removal in mining areas, once the soil of native forest features low fertility and high saturation by aluminum, also taking in account recovering time.

  18. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... Bauxite Ore using Sawdust and Coconut Shells as Reductant”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp ... The fruit is consumed locally, producing greater volumes .... made into paste by drop-wise addition of water. The paste ...

  19. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... The use of PWS as reductant prevented the formation of hercynite (FeAl2O4). Keywords: Pure water ... bauxite with high iron oxide content calls for novel .... mineral assemblages likely to form at temperatures below 900 °C ...

  1. Isolation of chromium resistant bacteria from a former bauxite mine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cr (VI) reducing capacity of bacteria has been investigated in many different soils and waters but little or no information is available from soils originating from bauxite mine areas. From soil, mud and rhizospheres of the floating aquatic plant Potamogeton natans L. and the terrestrial plant Carduus acanthoides L., the Cr ...

  2. Serum aluminium levels of workers in the bauxite mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kom, J F; Dissels, H M; van der Voet, G B; de Wolff, F A

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium is produced from the mineral bauxite. Occupational exposure is reported during the industrial processing of aluminium and is associated with pulmonary and neurotoxicity. However, data on exposure and toxicity of workers in the open bauxite mining industry do not exist. Therefore, a study was performed to explore aluminium exposure in employees involved in this bauxite mining process in a Surinam mine. A group of workers occupationally exposed to aluminium in an open bauxite mine were compared with a group of nonexposed wood processors. Serum aluminium was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry Data from the clinical chemistry of the blood and a questionnaire were used to explore determinants for aluminium exposure. No significant difference between serum aluminium in the exposed (4.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/L, n = 27) and control group (5.1 +/- 1.5 micrograms/L, n = 27) was detected. For the serum concentration of the clinical chemical variables (calcium, citrate, and creatinine), a statistically significant difference was computed (p < or = 0.02) between the exposed and control group. All levels were slightly higher in the exposed group; no statistically significant correlations with serum aluminium were found. In this study, serum aluminium values were in the normal range, no significant difference between the groups could be detected despite long-term occupational exposure.

  3. Arsenic ِAdsorption on Bauxite Mineral Using Batch Equilibrium Test

    OpenAIRE

    Fares Y. Alshaebi; Wan Z.W. Yaacob; Abdul R. Samsudin; Esmail Alsabahi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Study suggested a solution to remove arsenic contamination from contaminated water. Approach: Bauxite, which is a mineral, was proposed as natural remediation material used in this study. Bauxite was collected from Johor mining company in Teluk Ramunia, Johor Bharu, Malaysia. Batch equilibrium test was performed in accordance to different initial concentrations, shaking time and different initial pH values. Results: Results showed that mineral bauxite has high Cation Exchan...

  4. The bauxite deposits of Floyd, Bartow, and Polk counties of northwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter S.; Denson, N.M.

    1952-01-01

    Most of the bauxite deposits ipf northwest Georgia are in the Hermitage, Bobo, and Cave Spring districts in Floyd, Bartow, and Polk Counties. The region has produced in the neighborhood of 400,000 tons of bauxite from about 65 small mines, but the known reserves of high grade bauxite are very small. The region was studied in 1942-43 as part of the strategic minerals program of the U. S. Geological Survey.

  5. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE EXCAVATION METHODS IN BAUXITE DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Perić

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground bauxite excavation in Yugoslavia is getting more important recently due to gradual exploitation of shallow deposits. The main excavation method is sublevel caving method. That technology of exploitation is characterized by high excavation loosses reaching even to 50% due to mixing of bauxite with waste. By beds with competent limestone roof which are not liable to direct caving are formed unplanned open spaces so the work safety is often dangercd by sudden caving. That was the reason for carrying out the observations in situ and investigations on mathematical models to define boundary of excavated space stability. This investigation were the basis for the new conception of further excavation of the »Jukići-Didare« mine with the application of even three exploitation methods maximally adapted to the characteristics of the remaining part of deposit.

  6. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a di...

  7. THE SOLUBILITY OF MILAS BAUXITE ORE IN SULPHURIC ACI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GULFEN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcination conditions,sulphuric acid concentrations and dissolvingtemperature and period as parameters to thesolubility of the bauxite ore from Gobekdagı reservesin Mugla-Milas region were investigated. The bauxitesamples were calcined in different periods at differenttemperatures. Then the solubility of the calcinedbauxite samples in sulphuric acid solution wasexamined. Dissolving activation energy (Ea wascalculated using the optimum kinetics equation andthe results obtained from the solubility studiesexamined dissolving temperatures and periods

  8. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  9. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R.; del Monaco, Anthony; Macfarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was

  10. LOWER PALEOGENE BAUXITES OF VINIŠĆE, UGLJAN, SILBA AND OLIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite Deposits of Lower Paleogene in the studied area are minor and rare. In these bauxites and bauxitic limestones oolitic textures and bochmite composition prevail as in other Lower Paleogene bauxites of Dinarides, however, with a difference that these bauxites more frequently have increased contents of kaolinite. Bauxites were created during the emergence wich lasted from the end of Senonian to the Upper Paleocene — Lower Eocene. The analyzed bauxites have the increased contents of silica and they differ in regard to the contents of Al2O3 and microelements. There are differences also in the degree of sphericity of ooides, while the degree of roundness is more or less equal. On the basis of investigations so far, it may be concluded that the most advantageous conditions for the formation of Lower Paleogene bauxites have been in Istria and Herzegovina. Less favourable condi¬tions have been in the area of today's islands of the Northern Adriatic. The most unfavourable were the areas of Southern Primorje and Northern Dalmatia, as shown in the example of Lower Paleogene deposits described here (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. Bauxite mining and alumina refining: process description and occupational health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, A Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-05-01

    To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Review article. The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures.

  12. Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of iron in the Timan bauxite and products of their technological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O.; Silaev, V.; Lutoev, V.; Vakhrushev, A.

    2016-04-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical features of two series of samples of typical bauxites from two deposits of Middle Timan mining area (Vezhayu-Vorykva and Svetlinskoe) were studied. The phase composition of ferrous bauxites generally is boehmite, hematite, ultradisperse low-ordered goethite and berthierine. In a boehmite and kaolinite structural impurity of iron to 10%, and in the iron oxidehydroxides aluminum impurity is revealed. On iron content bauxites are subdivided into three mineral types for which quantitative data on valence states of ions of iron and proportions of their distribution last on nonequivalent structural positions in hematite, goethite and berthierine are obtained. Noble metals (Ag, Au, Ir, Rh, Pd) concentrating in bauxites are revealed for the first time. Obtained data can lead to decrease of power consumption during aluminum production and high quality ceramics, to provide production of valuable iron oxide, and also to minimize the ecological harm from accumulation of bauxite wastes.

  13. UNDERGROUND BAUXITE EXPLOITATION IN THE WESTERN DINARIDS ESSENTIAL FACTS AND COMMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available After a short information about the causes both for the deficiency of papers on bauxite underground mines and for the development of such mines, a concise sketch of the geologic structures of the bauxite regions in the Western Dinarids, inclusive the chemical composition of the bauxites, is given. The main portion of the paper is devoted to the description of the following bauxitic regions: Drniš (with the mines Kalun and Kumanovo, Obrovac (Dračevac, Ćukovac—Grižinice and Krš, Mostar (Orašnica, Tribošić, Trobukva, Dabrica, Jajce (Poljane, Crvene Stijene, Bosanska Krupa (Risovac, and Sinj (Visoka. Presented are the »bauxitic« history of the region as well as its mining characteristics, from the mode of opening to the used mining methods, with their adventages and disadvantages. Comments are made, but no conclusions drawn; the future remains open.

  14. Bio-mineralization and potential biogeochemical processes in bauxite deposits: genetic and ore quality significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskou, Magdalini; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The Parnassos-Ghiona bauxite deposit in Greece of karst type is the 11th largest bauxite producer in the world. The mineralogical, major and trace-element contents and δ18O, δ12C, δ34S isotopic compositions of bauxite ores from this deposit and associated limestone provide valuable evidence for their origin and biogeochemical processes resulting in the beneficiation of low grade bauxite ores. The organic matter as thin coal layers, overlying the bauxite deposits, within limestone itself (negative δ12C isotopic values) and the negative δ34S values in sulfides within bauxite ores point to the existence of the appropriate circumstances for Fe bio-leaching and bio-mineralization. Furthermore, a consortium of microorganisms of varying morphological forms (filament-like and spherical to lenticular at an average size of 2 μm), either as fossils or presently living and producing enzymes, is a powerful factor to catalyze the redox reactions, expedite the rates of metal extraction and provide alternative pathways for metal leaching processes resulting in the beneficiation of bauxite ore.

  15. Bauxite Mine Rehabilitation Programs — A Progress Report Patrick Atkins, Alcoa Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Don; Raahauge, Benny E.

    Bauxite is the primary source of raw material for the production of aluminum oxide and aluminum metal. At the current primary aluminum production level, known bauxite reserves will last for hundreds of years. Two to three tonnes of bauxite are required to produce one tonne of alumina and two tonnes of alumina are required to produce one tonne of aluminum metal. Typical bauxites contain from 30%-60% aluminum hydroxides and various levels of iron, silica, and titanium impurities. Approximately 125 million tonnes of bauxite are mined each year from 45 mines located on every continent except Antarctica. The major mining areas are located in the tropics, above and below the equator, as well as in Western Australia, the Caribbean Region, and the Mediterranean. Most bauxite is surface mined, although a few small underground mines remain active. The overburden depth ranges from almost none to several 10s of meters, with the average near five meters. The total land disturbed by bauxite mining each year is estimated to be 2,000-2,500 hectares per year.

  16. The Influence of Backwater Al3+ on Diaspore Bauxite Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Fang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Al3+ in backwater on the flotation of diaspore bauxite was investigated by micro-flotation tests and the underlying mechanisms were investigated by inductively coupled plasma (ICP measurement, zeta potential measurements, solution chemistry analyses, and synchrotron near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS analyses. The ICP measurement results show the concentration of Al3+ in backwater was up to 1 × 10−4 mol/L. The micro-flotation results indicated that backwater Al3+ reduced the flotation recovery of diaspore and improved the flotation recovery of kaolinite at pH 9, which was the pH value used in the industrial flotation. The adsorption of Al3+ species changed the zeta potential, the Al atomic abundance, and the number of active sites on the mineral surface. In particular, the result of solution chemistry analyses and synchrotron NEXAFS analyses show that the Al3+ in backwater was adsorbed on the mineral surface in the form of Al(OH3 (s, and the bond of –Al–O–Al–(OH2 or –Al/Si–O–Al–(OH2 was formed at pH 9. It changed the intensity of hydrogen bond force between minerals and collectors, and resulted in the depression of diaspore flotation and the activation of kaolinite flotation. This study can be used to guide the application of backwater in the flotation of diaspore bauxite in industry.

  17. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Processes for Recovery of Rare Earths from Bauxite Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Chenna Rao; Blanpain, Bart; Pontikes, Yiannis; Binnemans, Koen; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Environmental concerns and lack of space suggest that the management of bauxite residue needs to be re-adressed. The utilization of the residue has thus become a topic high on the agenda for both academia and industry, yet, up to date, it is only rarely used. Nonetheless, recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) with or without other metals from bauxite residue, and utilization of the left-over residue in other applications like building materials may be a viable alternative to storage. Hence, different processes developed by the authors for recovery of REEs and other metals from bauxite residue were compared. In this study, preliminary energy and cost analyses were carried out to assess the feasibility of the processes. These analyses show that the combination of alkali roasting-smelting-quenching-leaching is a promising process for the treatment of bauxite residue and that it is justified to study this process at a pilot scale.

  19. One step sintering of homogenized bauxite raw material and kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chang-he; Jiang, Peng; Li, Yong; Sun, Jia-lin; Zhang, Jun-jie; Yang, Huan-ying

    2016-10-01

    A one-step sintering process of bauxite raw material from direct mining was completed, and the kinetics of this process was analyzed thoroughly. The results show that the sintering kinetics of bauxite raw material exhibits the liquid-phase sintering behavior. A small portion of impurities existed in the raw material act as a liquid phase. After X-ray diffraction analyses, scanning electron microscopy observations, and kinetics calculations, sintering temperature and heating duration were determined as the two major factors contributing to the sintering process and densification of bauxite ore. An elevated heating temperature and longer duration favor the densification process. The major obstacle for the densification of bauxite material is attributed to the formation of the enclosed blowhole during liquid-phase sintering.

  20. Design and Operation of the World's First Long Distance Bauxite Slurry Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ramesh; Weston, Mike; Talavera, Maru; Brittes, Geraldo Pereira; Barbosa, Eder

    Mineracão Bauxita Paragominas (MBP) is the first long distance slurry pipeline transporting bauxite slurry. Bauxite had developed a reputation for being difficult to hydraulically transport using long distance pipelines. This myth has now been proven wrong. The 245-km- long, 13.5 MTPY capacity MBP pipeline was designed and commissioned by PSI for CVRD. The pipeline is located in the State of Para, Brazil. The Miltonia bauxite mine is in a remote location with no other efficient means of transport. The bauxite slurry is delivered to Alunorte Alumina refinery located near Barcarena. This first of its kind pipeline required significant development work in order to assure technical and economic feasibility. This paper describes the technical aspects of design of the pipeline. It also summarizes the operating experience gained during the first year of operation.

  1. Processing of low-quality bauxite feedstock by thermochemistry-Bayer method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Дубовиков

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern production of aluminum which by its global output ranks first among the non-ferrous metals includes three main stages: ore extraction, its processing into alumina and, finally, the production of primary aluminum. Alumina production from bauxites,  being the  primary raw material in the  alumina industry,  is based  on two main methods: the Bayer method and the sintering method developed in Russia under the lead of an academician Nikolay Semenovich Kurnakov. Alumina production by the Bayer’s method is more cost effective,  but  has  higher  requirements to the  quality of the bauxite feedstock.  A great deal  of research has  been carried  out on low quality bauxites focusing firstly on finding ways to enrich the feedstock, secondly on improving the combined sequential Bayer-sintering method and thirdly on developing new hydrometallurgical ways for bauxites processing. Mechanical methods of bauxite enrichment have not yet brought any positive outcome, and a development of new hydrometallurgical high alkaline  autoclave process  faced  significant hardware  difficulties not addressed so far. For efficient processing of such low quality bauxite feedstock it is suggested to use a universal thermochemistry-Bayer method, which was developed in St. Petersburg Mining University under  the lead  of  Nikolay Ivanovich Eremin, allows to process different substandard bauxite feedstock and has a competitive costing as compared to the sintering method and combined methods. The main stages of thermochemistry-Bayer method are thermal activation of feedstock, its further desiliconization with the alkaline solution and leaching of the resultant bauxite product  under Bayer’s method. Despite high energy consumption at  the baking stage,  it  allows to condition the  low quality bauxite feedstock by neutralizing a variety of technologically harmful impurities such as organic matter, sulfide sulfur, carbonates, and at the

  2. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Dragičević; Miroslav Andrić; Ivan Blašković

    1991-01-01

    The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary ...

  3. Natural radioactivity in Egyptian and industrially used australian bauxites and its tailing red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahirm, N.; Abd el Maksoud, T.; El Ezaby, B.; Nada, A.; Abu Zeid, H.

    1999-01-01

    Red mud is produced in considerable masses as a waste product in the production of aluminum from bauxite. It may be used for industrial or agricultural purposes. According to it's genesis by weathering and sedimentation bauxites contain high concentrations of uranium and thorium. Three Egyptian bauxites, Australian industry used bauxite and its red mud tailing were analyzed by a high resolution gamma spectrometer, with a hyper pure germanium detector. The three Egyptian bauxites show high concentrations in uranium series, and around 120 Bq kg -1 for uranium -235. K-40 concentrations for these samples ranged from 289 to 575 Bq kg -1 . Thorium series concentrations show lower values. The industrially used bauxite shows very low concentrations for all radioactive nuclides. Its tailing red mud as a low level radioactive waste LLRW, shows low concentrations for uranium - series, thorium - series and also 40 K, so it is recommended to be used in industrial and agricultural purposes, which is not permissible for the normal red mud. (author)

  4. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.

  5. Radiological assessment for bauxite mining and alumina refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian H; Donoghue, A Michael; Manning, Timothy J H; Chesson, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    Two international benchmarks assess whether the mining and processing of ores containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) require management under radiological regulations set by local jurisdictions. First, the 1 Bq/g benchmark for radionuclide head of chain activity concentration determines whether materials may be excluded from radiological regulation. Second, processes may be exempted from radiological regulation where occupational above-background exposures for members of the workforce do not exceed 1 mSv/year. This is also the upper-limit of exposure prescribed for members of the public. Alcoa of Australia Limited (Alcoa) has undertaken radiological evaluations of the mining and processing of bauxite from the Darling Range of Western Australia since the 1980s. Short-term monitoring projects have demonstrated that above-background exposures for workers do not exceed 1 mSv/year. A whole-of-year evaluation of above-background, occupational radiological doses for bauxite mining, alumina refining and residue operations was conducted during 2008/2009 as part of the Alcoa NORM Quality Assurance System (NQAS). The NQAS has been guided by publications from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The NQAS has been developed specifically in response to implementation of the Australian National Directory on Radiation Protection (NDRP). Positional monitoring was undertaken to increase the accuracy of natural background levels required for correction of occupational exposures. This is important in view of the small increments in exposure that occur in bauxite mining, alumina refining and residue operations relative to natural background. Positional monitoring was also undertaken to assess the potential for exposure in operating locations. Personal monitoring was undertaken to characterise exposures in Similar

  6. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Mei, E-mail: zhangmei@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Jingbo [The Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363 (United States); The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Concept to convert waste to valuable product is carried out in this study. • An industrially feasible and cost-effective approach was developed and optimized. • Highly crystalline and well-defined zeolite was produced under moderate conditions. • The zeolite derived from the bauxite tailings displayed high ion exchange capacity. • Bauxite tailings have potential application in heavy metal ions adsorbent. - Abstract: Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO{sub 3}/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO{sub 3}/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China.

  7. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concept to convert waste to valuable product is carried out in this study. • An industrially feasible and cost-effective approach was developed and optimized. • Highly crystalline and well-defined zeolite was produced under moderate conditions. • The zeolite derived from the bauxite tailings displayed high ion exchange capacity. • Bauxite tailings have potential application in heavy metal ions adsorbent. - Abstract: Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO 3 /g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO 3 /g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China

  8. Predictive hydrogeochemical modelling of bauxite residue sand in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissmeier, Laurin; Barry, David A; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-07-15

    The suitability of residue sand (the coarse fraction remaining from Bayer's process of bauxite refining) for constructing the surface cover of closed bauxite residue storage areas was investigated. Specifically, its properties as a medium for plant growth are of interest to ensure residue sand can support a sustainable ecosystem following site closure. The geochemical evolution of the residue sand under field conditions, its plant nutrient status and soil moisture retention were studied by integrated modelling of geochemical and hydrological processes. For the parameterization of mineral reactions, amounts and reaction kinetics of the mineral phases natron, calcite, tricalcium aluminate, sodalite, muscovite and analcime were derived from measured acid neutralization curves. The effective exchange capacity for ion adsorption was measured using three independent exchange methods. The geochemical model, which accounts for mineral reactions, cation exchange and activity corrected solution speciation, was formulated in the geochemical modelling framework PHREEQC, and partially validated in a saturated-flow column experiment. For the integration of variably saturated flow with multi-component solute transport in heterogeneous 2D domains, a coupling of PHREEQC with the multi-purpose finite-element solver COMSOL was established. The integrated hydrogeochemical model was applied to predict water availability and quality in a vertical flow lysimeter and a cover design for a storage facility using measured time series of rainfall and evaporation from southwest Western Australia. In both scenarios the sand was fertigated and gypsum-amended. Results show poor long-term retention of fertilizer ions and buffering of the pH around 10 for more than 5 y of leaching. It was concluded that fertigation, gypsum amendment and rainfall leaching alone were insufficient to render the geochemical conditions of residue sand suitable for optimal plant growth within the given timeframe. The

  9. Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

    2014-11-01

    Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296 mg CaCO3/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310 mg CaCO3/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proposal for management and alkalinity transformation of bauxite residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shengguo; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhu, Feng; Hartley, William; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2016-07-01

    Bauxite residue is a hazardous solid waste produced during the production of alumina. Its high alkalinity is a potential threat to the environment which may disrupt the surrounding ecological balance of its disposal areas. China is one of the major global producers of alumina and bauxite residue, but differences in alkalinity and associated chemistry exist between residues from China and those from other countries. A detailed understanding of the chemistry of bauxite residue remains the key to improving its management, both in terms of minimizing environmental impacts and reducing its alkaline properties. The nature of bauxite residue and the chemistry required for its transformation are still poorly understood. This review focuses on various transformation processes generated from the Bayer process, sintering process, and combined Bayer-sintering process in China. Problems associated with transformation mechanisms, technical methods, and relative merits of these technologies are reviewed, while current knowledge gaps and research priorities are recommended. Future research should focus on transformation chemistry and its associated mechanisms and for the development of a clear and economic process to reduce alkalinity and soda in bauxite residue.

  11. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dragičević

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary basin Mesihovina-Rakitno, western Herzegovina, at the site of Studena vrila - after extensive geological explorations - a conclusion was drawn that the shallow seismic reflection geophysical method as well might be successfully applied in locating new bauxite deposits. In the paper, the geological framework of the bauxite deposits occurrences, stipulating the selection of this methode, will be presented. Measurements were performed on a known deposit (L-84, Povaljenica, completely defined by exploration drilling. The obtained results justify the selection of the shallow seismic reflection method as one of the methods for exploring bauxite deposits beneath the roof beds.

  12. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krishnakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  13. Reforestation of Bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karthikeyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted in degradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth. However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum (Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings ofEucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings ofE. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantly higher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher in AM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings. 

  14. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): Assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanier, C.; Fabri, M.-C.; Buscail, R.; Biscara, L.; Koho, K.A.; Reichart, G.-J.; Cossa, D.; Galaup, S.; Chabaud, G.; Pigot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived

  15. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud

  17. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  18. Rhizobial characterization in revegetated areas after bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardsson Lustrino Borges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known regarding how the increased diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria contributes to the productivity and diversity of plants in complex communities. However, some authors have shown that the presence of a diverse group of nodulating bacteria is required for different plant species to coexist. A better understanding of the plant symbiotic organism diversity role in natural ecosystems can be extremely useful to define recovery strategies of environments that were degraded by human activities. This study used ARDRA, BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene to assess the diversity of root nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria in former bauxite mining areas that were replanted in 1981, 1985, 1993, 1998, 2004 and 2006 and in a native forest. Among the 12 isolates for which the 16S rDNA gene was partially sequenced, eight, three and one isolate(s presented similarity with sequences of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium, respectively. The richness, Shannon and evenness indices were the highest in the area that was replanted the earliest (1981 and the lowest in the area that was replanted most recently (2006.

  19. Rhizobial characterization in revegetated areas after bauxite mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Wardsson Lustrino; Prin, Yves; Ducousso, Marc; Le Roux, Christine; de Faria, Sergio Miana

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding how the increased diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria contributes to the productivity and diversity of plants in complex communities. However, some authors have shown that the presence of a diverse group of nodulating bacteria is required for different plant species to coexist. A better understanding of the plant symbiotic organism diversity role in natural ecosystems can be extremely useful to define recovery strategies of environments that were degraded by human activities. This study used ARDRA, BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene to assess the diversity of root nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria in former bauxite mining areas that were replanted in 1981, 1985, 1993, 1998, 2004 and 2006 and in a native forest. Among the 12 isolates for which the 16S rDNA gene was partially sequenced, eight, three and one isolate(s) presented similarity with sequences of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium, respectively. The richness, Shannon and evenness indices were the highest in the area that was replanted the earliest (1981) and the lowest in the area that was replanted most recently (2006). Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Miners' radiation exposure in a subsurface bauxite-mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somlai, J.; Kovacs, T.; Jobbagy, V.; Varhegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the natural origin radioactivity of the bauxite samples we can establish that the 226 Ra activity concentration exceeded (155-489 Bq/kg) the average values measured in the rocks (25-40 Bq/kg). 222 Rn produced from the 226 Ra could be concentrated in the mines. In the course of our work we carried out an extensive radiological-dosimetric survey for 1 month. On the grounds of the different kind of working processes we put 11 track detectors in different places and continuous radon detector equipment were placed into 2 sites. Besides these measurements we determined the gamma dose rate, the equilibrium factor, the amount of the flying-dust and the long-lived alpha emitter isotopes 2 times in 7 different places. We gave personal radon dosimeter to 14 miners. It was worn only during the working time and after hours was stored in a well-controlled Rn concentration place. The average radon activity concentration measured in different places in the mine changed between 204-3910 Bq/m 3 . We found very high radon levels some places especially in the drawings. The miners during this 1 month have taken part several mining processes, so lower values were detected. To take into account the results, the miners' estimated annual dose exposure is between the range of 2.5-10.2 mSv/y which is not negligible compared to the natural radiation background (2.5 mSv/y). (author)

  1. Kinetics of the Leaching Process of an Australian Gibbsitic Bauxite by Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aichun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gibbsitic bauxite from Australia was leached by hydrochloric acid in this work. Analysis on kinetics for the extraction of Al2O3 was quantitatively studied. It was concluded that the hydrochloric acid leaching process of gibbsitic bauxite was controlled by chemical reaction. Moreover, the mechanism for the dissolution followed the equation, ln⁡k=39.44-1.66×104(1/T, with an apparent activation energy of 137.90 kJ/mol, according to the equation of k=Ae-Ea/RT. This work aims to provide a good theory support for the process control by using a new method of alumina production from the low grade bauxite.

  2. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for treating alkaline bauxite residue leachate: a 1-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Derek; Curtin, Teresa; Courtney, Ronan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing volumes of bauxite residues and their associated leachates represent a significant environmental challenge to the alumina industry. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential approach for leachate treatment, but there is limited data on field-scale applications. The research presented here provides preliminary evaluation of a purpose-built constructed wetland to buffer leachate from a bauxite residue disposal site in Ireland. Data collected over a 1-year period demonstrated that the pH of bauxite residue leachates could be effectively reduced from ca. pH 10.3 to 8.1 but was influenced by influent variability and temporal changes. The wetland was also effective in decreasing elemental loading, and sequential extractions suggested that the bulk of the sediment-bound metal inventory was in hard-to-leach phases. Elemental analysis of Phragmites australis showed that although vegetation displayed seasonal variation, no trace elements were at concentrations of concern.

  3. Analysis of bauxite by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ramon M.; Mahanti, Himansu S.

    Methods are described for the analysis of bauxite by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy. Bauxite samples were dissolved either in HCl, HNO 3, and HF at 160°C in all-PTFE bomb or fused with NaOH. Spectral lines were selected after examination of experimental wavelength scans at each potential analyte wavelength. Limits of detection, background equivalent concentration, and analytical figures of merit were established. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining 17 elements in NBS-SRM bauxite samples. Silicon in HF solutions was analyzed using a modified ICP torch with a graphite injector tube, an inert nebulizer using PTFE capillary tubes, and a PTFE spray chamber.

  4. IMPROVMENT OF THE MINING METHOD IN THE BAUXITE MINE ĆUKOVAC-GRIŽINICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Perić

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of bauxite in region of Dalmatia has tradition of more than 50 years. The biggest underground mine of this bauxite hearing area was developed in deposit Ćukovac-Grižinica with proved workable reserves of 1.2 x 106 t. Yearly output in 1990. was 100.000 t. Production in this mine started 1987, and sublevel caving method was used. Coefficient of extraction in the parts with weak rocks is low, and unsufficient security in the conditions with firm roof. Therefore investigation of improvement of mining method was carrying on to coinside characteristics of rocks, and mining methods. Following methods were selected: sublevel caving (actually retreat stoping, sublevel sloping and sublevel caving with bauxite protection layer (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in WZD area of northern Guizhou province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao

    2017-12-01

    The ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in Wuchuan-Zheng,an-Daozhen (short for WZD) Area of northern Guizhou Province was studied from the perspective of deposit formation mechanism. It was discovered that ore-forming fluids were mainly effective for transporting and leaching during the formation of bauxite. The means of transport mainly included colloidal transport, suspended transport and gravity flow transport. In the course of their leaching, fluids had a range of chemical reactions, as a result of which elements such as silicon and iron migrated downwards. In this process, properties of fluids changed as well.

  6. Improvement of Sodium Leaching Ratio of Ferric Bauxite Sinter after Direct Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium leaching ratio (ηN of ferric bauxite direct reduction process is much lower than that of ordinary bauxite; thus, the former consumes more sodium than the latter. ηN can be promoted by increasing the dosage of sodium or restricted by increasing the heating temperature and time. However, the restriction effect of heating temperature is 16.67 times larger than that of heating time, and the restriction effect decreases 47.03 times faster when heating temperature increases than that process of heating time. These imply that ηN improves with the increasing sodium carbonate dosage and the decreasing heating temperature.

  7. The Role of Organic Matter in the Formation of High-Grade Al Deposits of the Dopolan Karst Type Bauxite, Iran: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Sulfur Isotope Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Salamab Ellahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical and geochemical analyses of the Dopolan karstic bauxite ore were performed to identify the characteristics of four bauxite horizons, which comprise from top to bottom, bauxitic kaolinite, diaspore-rich bauxite, clay-rich bauxite, and pyrite-rich bauxite. Diaspore, kaolinite, and pyrite are the main minerals; böhmite, muscovite, rutile, and anatase are the accessory minerals. The main minerals of the Dopolan bauxite deposit indicate slightly acidic to alkaline reducing conditions during bauxitization. Immobile elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and rare earth elements are enriched in the diaspore-rich horizon, which also has the highest alumina content, whereas redox sensitive elements (e.g., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, and V are enriched in the lowest horizon of pyrite-rich bauxite. The presence of a high content of organic matter was identified in different horizons of bauxitic ore from wet chemistry. The presence of organic matter favored Fe bioleaching, which resulted in Al enrichment and the formation of diaspore-rich bauxite. The leached Fe2+ reacted with the hydrogen sulfur that was produced due to bacterial metabolism, resulting in the formation of the pyrite-rich horizon towards the bottom of the Dopolan bauxite horizons. Biogeochemical activity in the Dopolan bauxitic ore was deduced from the reducing environment of bauxitization, and the deposition of framboidal and cubic or cubic/octahedral pyrite crystals, with large negative values of δ34S of pyrite (−10‰ to −34‰ and preserved fossil cells of microorganisms.

  8. Soil physical properties of high mountain fields under bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmo Arantes de Barros

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining contributes to the life quality of contemporary society, but can generate significant impacts, these being mitigated due to environmental controls adopted. This study aimed to characterize soil physical properties in high-altitude areas affected by bauxite mining, and to edaphic factors responses to restoration techniques used to recover mined areas in Poços de Caldas plateau, MG, Brazil. The experiment used 3 randomized block design involving within 2 treatments (before mining intervention and after environmental recovery, and 4 replicates (N=24. In each treatment, soil samples with deformed structures were determined: granulometry, water-dispersible clay content, flocculation index, particle density, stoniness level, water aggregate stability, and organic matter contend. Soil samples with preserved structures were used to determine soil density and the total volume of pores, macropores, and micropores. Homogenization of stoniness between soil layers as a result of soil mobilization was observed after the mined area recovery. Stoniness decreased in 0.10-0.20 m layer after recovery, but was similar in the 0-0.10 m layer in before and after samples. The recovery techniques restored organic matter levels to pre-mining levels. However, changes in soil, including an increase in soil flocculation degree and a decrease in water-dispersible clays, were still apparent post-recovery. Furthermore, mining operations caused structural changes to the superficial layer of soil, as demonstrated by an increase in soil density and a decrease in total porosity and macroporosity. Decreases in the water stability of aggregates were observed after mining operations.

  9. Development of a process for continuous determination of aluminium in bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, A.M.R. de.

    1984-01-01

    A system for aluminium analysis in bauxite using activation technique with the aid of a 5 Ci 241 Am/Be neutron source was developed. The system comprises the following steps: sampling, irradiation and counting. The reaction 27 Al(n,γ) 28 Al is used for determination of aluminium. A 2'' x 2'' NaI(T1) scintillation detector was used for the γ-activity measurements and integral counting technique was employed. Half-life determinations for samples were carried out in order to assure that the induced activity was predominantly due to the radionuclide 28 Al. In order to construct a system with solids, paraffin was chosen as moderator and reflector and an optimum irradiation position was determined. Analysis on a laboratory scale with 100g of the sample showed a good linear correlation between counts and aluminium content in bauxite samples. An irradiation chamber consisting of neutron source, moderator and reflector was constructed for activation of 2 Kg samples. Analysis with these bauxite samples indicated a relative precision in the range of 2 to 3% in less than ten minutes. Based on these results, a preliminary pilot-project was designed for continuous aluminium analysis in bauxite. (Author) [pt

  10. Semi-industrial experimental study on bauxite separation using a cell-column integration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning-ning; Zhou, Chang-chun; Cong, Long-fei; Cao, Wen-long; Zhou, You

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic-static micro-bubble flotation column (FCSMC) is a highly efficient mineral processing equipment. In this study, a cell-column (FCSMC) integration process was investigated for the separation of bauxite and its feasibility was analyzed on a theoretical basis. The properties of low-grade bauxite ore from Henan Province, China were analyzed. Parameters such as reagent dosage, scraping bubble time, and pressure of the circulating pump during the sorting process were investigated and optimized to improve the flotation efficiency. On the basis of these parameters, continuous separation experiments were conducted. Bauxite concentrate with an aluminum-to-silicon (A/S) mass ratio of 6.37 and a 77.63wt% recovery rate were achieved via a flow sheet consisting of "fast flotation using a flotation cell, one roughing flotation and one cleaning flotation using flotation columns". Compared with the full-flotation-cells process, the cell-column integration process resulted in an increase of the A/S ratio by 0.41 and the recovery rate by 17.58wt%. Cell-column integration separation technology represents a new approach for the separation of middle-to-low-grade bauxite ore.

  11. Gold and radioactive elements in the bauxite deposits of Shevaroy hills, Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, B K; Sengupta, D K

    1982-11-01

    The presence of gold and radioactive elements in the bauxite deposits of Shevaroy Hills has been determined by neutron activation technique. The behaviour of uranium supports the theoretical findings. The higher concentration of gold (<10/sup 3/%) indicates that the deposits are auriferous.

  12. Extraction of rare earth elements from low-grade Bauxite via precipitation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, E.; Nurani, Y.; Bahari, ZJ

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the optimum hydrometallurgical parameters to extract the rare earth elements (REE) from low-grade bauxite through acid leaching and precipitation reaction. REE or lanthanide recovery by a precipitation method with sodium sulphate and sodium phosphate as precipitation agents is reported where the effect of pH and recovery of REE are described. The metal composition of REE in low-grade bauxite after treatment were analyzed by ICP-OES. The total recovery values of REE elements at the first precipitation reaction using sodium sulphate as the precipitation agent at pH 3.5 showed ~68.2% of lanthanum, ~18.9% cerium, and ~7.8% yttrium. Lanthanum was the rare-earth element present at the highest concentration in the low-grade bauxite after the series treatments. An optimum pH of 3.5 for precipitation of rare-earth elements using sodium sulphate was demonstrated where this method is recommended for the extraction of REE elements from low-grade bauxite.

  13. Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang. ... mining area. Water samples were collected at Kuantan River, Riau River, Pinang River and Pandan Rivers. ... All these rivvers were classified into class II based on INWQS and required conventional treatment for water supply purposes.

  14. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  15. Restoration of tropical moist forest on bauxite mined lands in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A Parrotta; Oliver H. Knowles

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated forest structure and composition in 9- to 13-year-old stands established on a bauxite-mined site at Trombetas (Pará), Brazil, using four different reforestation techniques following initial site preparation and topsoil replacement. These techniques included reliance on natural forest regeneration, mixed commercial species plantings of mostly exotic timber...

  16. Moengo on strike: the politics of labour in Suriname’s Bauxite industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines one crucial period of contestation in colonial Suriname, the years 1941 and 1942, when sustained labour unrest in the bauxite town of Moengo led to the establishment of the first mining unions. It argues that these strikes laid the groundwork for future relations between

  17. Elemental analysis and radiation hazards parameters of bauxite located in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashrah, S.; E Taher, A.

    2017-04-01

    Since Bauxite has been widely used in industry and in scientific investigations for producing Aluminum, it is important to measure the radionuclides concentrations to determine the health effect. The Bauxite mine is located in Az Zabirah city in Saudi Arabia. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the bauxite samples were measured using γ-ray spectrometer NaI (Tl). The average and range values of the concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 102.2 (141.1-62.7), 156.3 (202.8-102.8) and 116.8 (191.7- 48.9) Bq/kg respectively. These results were compared with the reported ranges in the literature from other locations around the world. The radiation hazard parameters; radium equivalent activity, annual dose, external hazard were also calculated and compared with the recommended levels by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) and united nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation UNSCEAR reports. There are no studies for the natural radioactivity in the bauxite mine in Az Zabirah city, so these results are a start to establishing a database in this location.

  18. Development of a process for continuous determination of aluminium in bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, A.M.R. de; Dantas, C.C.; Narain, R.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of a process to determine aluminium in Bauxite is done, when a relatively small (5 Ci) Am-Be neutron source with 10 7 n/sec giving neutron flux approximatelly 10 4 n/cm 2 .s. is used. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Shadows of the Plantation? A social history of Suriname’s bauxite town Moengo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the social history of Suriname’s first bauxite town, Moengo, founded in the late 1910s. It recounts the rise of a new industry that drew workers away from the plantations and urban artisanal occupations to work in a massive, highly organized and orchestrated

  20. Gold and radioactive elements in the bauxite deposits of Shevaroy hills, Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.K.; Sengupta, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of gold and radioactive elements in the bauxite deposits of Shevaroy Hills has been determined by neutron activation technique. The behaviour of uranium supports the theoretical findings. The higher concentration of gold ( -3 %) indicates that the deposits are auriferous. (author)

  1. Occurrence and mineralogy of ferruginous bauxites along the eastern seaboard of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of ferruginous bauxites along the eastern seaboard of South Africa is shown in a small-scale map and their genesis is briefly described. The aluminium oxide, iron oxide, primary slightly-altered iron and titanium oxides and layer silicate minerals in some typical ferruginous bauxites from the eastern seaboard of South Africa have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), thin section, electron optical (SEM and TEM) and chemical extraction analysis. The dominant aluminium oxide mineral is well-crystalline gibbsite. Traces of boehmite were identified in some samples. The dominant iron oxide mineral is finely-divided goethite containing from 20 to 25 mole per cent AIO(OH), this being the mineral which gives the bauxites their characteristic yellowish colour. The reddish bauxites also contain finely-divided Al-substituted hematite which masks the colour of the goethite. The aluminium incorporated in the iron oxide structures is not recoverable by the normal Bayer Process

  2. Natural radionuclides in bauxitic tailings (Red-Mud) in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Maratou, A.; Ferentinos, G.; Papaefthymiou, H.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed environmental survey was carried out in the central Gulf of Corinth in order to determine radionuclides in the bauxite ed-mud tailings which have been discharged on the sea floor by a Bauxite Processing Plant (Aluminio Ellados A.E). The discharge of bauxitic tailings via two pipelines at a water depth of 100 m, in Antikyra Bay (Northern Gulf of Corinth), has resulted in the formation of two red-mud mound-like deposits. The red-mud deposits at the mouth of the out falls, are not stable and very often red-mud masses are detached from the two main deposits and are transported to the Corinth central basin, by turbidity currents, at a water depth of 850 m and about 17 km away from the main deposits. Thus, at the Antikyra bay, the red-mud has formed a surficial veneer (0.5-2.0 cm) on the sea floor. On the Corinth central basin floor the red mud has formed successive red-mud layers which are interrupted by layers of natural mud. Fifteen gravity cores have been selected from the studied area and a number of bauxite samples have been collected from mines that supply the bauxite processing plant. Red-mud, natural mud and bauxite samples were analyzed for 238 U 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs by direct gamma spectrometry. The study of radionuclides concentrations has shown that: (a) the enrichment factor of radionuclides in the red-mud in the main deposit at the mouth of the out falls, in relation to bauxite samples, is about 2.0, (b) the enrichment factor of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the red-mud in the main deposit and the central basin, in relation to natural sediments below, is visibly higher than 1.0 (2.0-19.0) whilst 40 K exhibits the opposite trend, and (c) the enrichment/dilution factor of radionuclides in the red-mud surficial veneer at the Antikyra Bay, in relation to the natural sediments below, is ranging between 0.4 and 3.5. (author)

  3. Ground Radiometric Method as a Tool for Determining the Surface Boundary of a Buried Bauxitic Karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kareem Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty two ground radiometric measurements along nine traverses within a rectangular network area were taken across a bauxitic karst within the Ubaid Formation (Lower Jurassic in the Western Desert of Iraq. A 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GAD-6 with sodium iodide NaI (Tl crystal (GSP-4S was used in the field to measure the total radioactivity of the surface soil. Soil samples collected from the surface at each measurement point and core samples collected from a test well penetrating the karst were analyzed by Gamma ray spectrometer. The main objective of this study was to detect the hidden bauxitic karst and determine its surface boundary. The radioactivity on the surface of the karst was ranging between 60 and 80 count per second (c/s, while the background radioactivity of the Ubaid Formation, which hosts the karst, was ranging between 100 and150 c/s. Chemical weathering, especially dissolution and leaching moved uranium (238U and thorium(232Th from the overburden downward. Accordingly, these elements have been adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and bauxite buried at a depth of about 5m causing enrichment with radioactivity. The leached overburden lack radioelements, so its radioactivity was less than background radioactivity level. The gamma ray spectroanalysis showed that the radioactivity of 238U and 232Th in the overburden was 0.5 and 3 Bq/Kg, whereas, in the bauxite and flint clay bed, it was 240 and 160 Bq/Kg respectively. Based on the radioactivity anomaly contrast on the surface, an isorad map was plotted and the karst diameter which represents low anomaly was determined to be ranging from 150 to 200m. The current study demonstrates that the ground radiometric method is quite useful for detecting the bauxitic karst and inferring its surface boundaries.

  4. Neopterin: A candidate biomarker for the early assessment of toxicity of aluminum among bauxite dust exposed mine workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingle, Shubhangi K.; Thakkar, Lucky R.; Jawade, Aruna A.; Tumane, Rajani G.; Jain, Ruchika K.; Soni, Pravin N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bauxite ore is a major source of aluminum (Al) which contains approximately 35–60% Al by weight. Occupational and environmental bauxite dust exposure may cause toxicity by interaction with human biological systems resulting in oxidative stress (OS) and cell death. A neopterin derivative as an antioxidant is able to modulate cytotoxicity by the induction of OS. Materials and Methods: A total of 273 subjects were selected for blood collection from three different major Al producing bauxite mines and were categorized into three groups as experimental (Exp) (n = 150), experimental controls (ExC) (n = 73) and control (Con) (n = 50). Whole blood and serum samples were used for measurement of Al, neopterin, urea and creatinine values. Statistical analysis was performed using R-2.15.1 programming language. Results and Discussion: The result showed that age, body mass index and the behavioral habits, that is, smoking, tobacco and alcohol consumption have possible effects on neopterin level. Serum neopterin levels were found to be significantly higher (P bauxite dust (even at low levels of Al) changes biochemical profile leading to high levels of serum neopterin. Levels of serum neopterin in workers exposed to bauxite dust were probably examined for the 1st time in India. The outcome of this study suggested that serum neopterin may be used as potential biomarker for early detection of health risks associated with bauxite dust exposed population. PMID:26500413

  5. Characterization of bauxite mud of Alumar to be used as a geopolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.F.B.; Cartaxo, J.M.; Sousa, B.V.; Menezes, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    The process of Geopolymerization aluminium-siliceous materials has prompted several scientific works to develop materials with interesting thermomechanical properties. Currently, one of the problems encountered by the industries responsible for the production of aluminum is the waste from the Bayer process, known as mud bauxite. In our study, the characterization of bauxite (fresh) and residue from two different lakes company ALUMAR to be applied in obtaining geopolymers. Through the results of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (EDX) was observed after the Bayer process, the presence of oxides of sodium, silicon, aluminum and iron in larger quantities. It was found through a combination of diffraction and vibration obtained by infrared spectrometry the presence of silicates and aluminate groups. Thus, the analyzed material will be activated and tested as geopolymer. (author)

  6. CROSSING SUPPORT OF THE DRIFT AND CROSSCUTS IN SUBLEVEL BAUXITE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Majić

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The report discusses the excavation method in underground bauxite exploitation of the Bauxite Mine Posušjc, as well as the experiences in crossing support of drifts and crosscuts till now, where it came in about 6% cases to the breakage of the frame support and to crossing ceiling caving. On the basis of such biggest caving, the estimate and dimensioning of critical support elements (runner and bar were performed. The possibility of supporting by bolting and stell plate was also considered. For the central part of the crosscut the use of bolts was assumed, which are fixed in the up-face. and for the rest of crossing the expansion shell anchors. For the latter, the estimate for anchoring elements was elaborated. Technical, safety and economic advantage of the bolts support is proved when compared with the frame support (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL AND GEOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF THE POSSIBLE BAUXITE DEPOSITS IN THE KARST REGION OF WESTERN HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Blašković

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation results of morphological and geological potential bauxite deposit indicators in the Mesihovina-Rakitno bauxitebearing sedimentary basin in Western Herzegovina are presented. Region with carbonate and clastic hangingwalls as well as those without overlying sediments have been studied. It was established that the expression and number of the indicators depend size as well as on character and thickness of hangingwall sediments. The morphological indicators are expressed as a particular relief forms situated right above the deposits or nearby and are a consequence of geological relations and exodynamic processes. Ihe numerous geological indicators resulted from complex geological events. The most important are: preore structural relations, the formation of paleorelief, peculiar way of hangingwall rocks sedimentation, lithification processes and the formation of the recent structural pattern. It has been observed that particular indicators should be recognized within a relatively thick succession of the overlying sediments which is of the great importance in the exploration of bauxite deposits.

  8. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  9. Process Design Aspects for Scandium-Selective Leaching of Bauxite Residue with Sulfuric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Hatzilyberis; Theopisti Lymperopoulou; Lamprini-Areti Tsakanika; Klaus-Michael Ochsenkühn; Paraskevas Georgiou; Nikolaos Defteraios; Fotios Tsopelas; Maria Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the industrial scale development of a Scandium (Sc)-selective leaching process of Bauxite Residue (BR), a set of process design aspects has been investigated. The interpretation of experimental data for Sc leaching yield, with sulfuric acid as the leaching solvent, has shown significant impact from acid feed concentration, mixing time, liquid to solids ratio (L/S), and number of cycles of leachate re-usage onto fresh BR. The thin film diffusion model, as the fundamental theory for l...

  10. Investigation of the anomalous isotope ratios of the Central-Transdanubian bauxites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viczian, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the case of the Central Transdanubian bauxite deposits significant anomaly of the lead isotope ratios has been found. The 206 Pb/ 204 Pb isotope ratio in approximately 40 samples was investigated and the results have shown an average deviation from the literary value by about 80%. These results have been cont confirmed by thermal ionisation measurings, too. Some possibilities for the explanation of this isotope anomaly are also dealt with in the paper. (author)

  11. On-line and bulk analysis of iron ore and bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.; Roczniok, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A number of analysis techniques based on neutron and gamma radiation have been developed for the mining industry. Current projects include the measurement of annihilation radiation arising from pair production for the on-line determination of the iron content of iron ores, and the construction of a demonstration bauxite analyser based on fast-neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and silicon content

  12. Hydrological response to bauxite mining and rehabilitation in the jarrah forest in south west Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew H. Grigg

    2017-01-01

    Study region: Jarrah forest in south west Australia. Study focus: The hydrological response to bauxite mining in the jarrah forest could differ from other land uses such as timber harvesting or clearing for agriculture, since mining involves excavation of the upper regolith in addition to changes in forest cover due to clearing and subsequent rehabilitation. Three catchments, one subject to mining, a second subject to an intensive forest thinning treatment and an untreated control were mon...

  13. Growing Eremanthus erythropappus in crushed laterite: A promising alternative to topsoil for bauxite-mine revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Naiara Amaral de Miranda; Leite, Mariangela Garcia Praça; Figueiredo, Maurílio Assis; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues

    2013-11-15

    Topsoil is the preferred substrate for areas requiring rehabilitation after bauxite mining. However, topsoil is sometimes lacking and so there is a need to test the suitability of other, locally available substrates. In an abandoned bauxite mine in Southeastern Brazil, small patches of native vegetation spontaneously established in shallow depressions over weathered laterite, suggesting that granulometric reduction may have facilitated the establishment of plants. To test this hypothesis, blocks of laterite collected in the area were crushed to simulate texture observed in the vegetation patches. Topsoil collected in a preserved ferruginous field near to the extraction area was also used as a substrate in which Eremanthus erythropappus seedlings, a native woody species, were grown. Seedlings were cultivated without fertilizers in these two substrates and also directly over the exposed and uncrushed laterite. The species proved to be very promising for the revegetation, showing a high survival rate in all substrates. Higher annual growth rates and higher final biomass values were observed in topsoil, but the granulometric reduction of laterite doubled plant growth rate in comparison to the exposed laterite. This result was likely due to the increased availability of essential nutrients to plants and to the improvement in physical conditions for root growth and functioning. Moreover, seedling allometry was not altered by the type of substrate, suggesting that the species was highly tolerant to the new substrate conditions, a fundamental characteristic for success of revegetation of bauxite extraction degraded areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives for on-line analysis of bauxite by neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurton, Gabriel; Ledru, Bertrand; Letourneur, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    The interest in bauxite as a major source of alumina results in a strong demand for on-line instrumentation suitable for sorting, blending, and processing operations at the bauxite mine and for monitoring instrumentation in the Bayer process. The results of laboratory experiments based on neutron interactions with bauxite are described. The technique was chosen in order to overcome the problem of spatial heterogeneity in bulk mineral analysis. The evaluated elements contributed to approximately 99.5% of the sample weight. In addition, the measurements provide valuable information on physical parameters such as density, hygrometry, and material flow. Using a pulsed generator, the analysis system offers potential for on-line measurements (borehole logging or conveyor belt). An overall description of the experimental set-up is given. The experimental data include measurements of natural radioactivity, delayed radioactivity induced by activation, and prompt gamma rays following neutron reaction. In situ applications of neutron interactions provide continuous analysis and produce results which are more statistically significant. The key factors contributing to advances in industrial applications are the development of high count rate gamma spectroscopy and computational tools to design measurement systems and interpret their results.

  15. The investigation of efficient conditions for alumina production from diasporic bauxites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, A.; Aydin, A.O.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the leach conditions of diasporic bauxites in the region of Mugla-Milas for alumina production. The chemical composition was 57.91% Al 2 O 3 , 21.33% Fe 2 O 3 , 3.84% SiO 2 , 2.20% TiO 2 , 2.10% CaO, 1.02% FeS 2 , 1.65% CO 2 , and 0.52% other. The effects of alkaline (CaO and/or Na 2 CO 3 ) additives, precalcination temperature, calcination time, leaching time, solution concentration, liquid/bauxite ratio and particle size on the efficiency of alumina and silica dissolution were investigated. The optimum conditions of the process were the addition of alkaline in 0.5 mole fraction, 900 o C precalcination temperature, 2 hours of calcination time, 3 hours of leaching time, 1.5 molar Na 2 O of caustic concentration and liquid/bauxite ratio of 30 at the boiling temperature of leach solution under continuous stirring. Although the highest extraction efficiency of Al 2 O 3 was found to be 81.77% with precalcination at 1200 o C, 900 o C was preferred as an optimum calcination temperature. (author)

  16. Adsorption decontamination of radioactive waste solvent by activated alumina and bauxites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; Marra, J.C.; Kyser, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    An adsorption process utilizing activated alumina and activated bauxite adsorbents was evaluated as a function of operating parameters for the removal of low level radioactive contaminants from organic waste solvent generated in the fuel reprocessing facilities and support operations at Savannah River Site. The waste solvent, 30% volume tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin diluent, was degraded due to hydrolysis and radiolysis reactions of tributyl phosphate and n-paraffin diluent, producing fission product binding degradation impurities. The process, which has the potential for removing these activity-binding degradation impurities from the solvent, was operated downflow through glass columns packed with activated alumina and activated bauxite adsorbents. Experimental breakthrough curves were obtained under various operating temperatures and flow rates. The results show that the adsorption capacity of the activated alumina was in the order 10 4 dpm/g and the capacity of the activated bauxite was 10 5 dpm/g. The performance of the adsorption process was evaluated in terms of dynamic parameters (i.e. adsorption capacity, the height and the efficiency of adsorption zone) in such a way as to maximize the adsorption capacity and to minimize the height of the mass transfer or adsorption zone

  17. Ball milled bauxite residue as a reinforcing filler in phosphate-based intumescent system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiat Ibironke Arogundade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite residue (BR is an alumina refinery waste with a global disposal problem. Of the 120 MT generated annually, only 3 MT is disposed via utilization. One of the significant challenges to sustainable utilization has been found to be the cost of processing. In this work, using ball milling, we achieved material modification of bauxite residue. Spectrometric imaging with FESEM showed the transformation from an aggregate structure to nano, platy particulates, leading to particle size homogeneity. BET analysis showed surface area was increased by 23%, while pH was reduced from 10.8 to 9.1 due to collapsing of the hydroxyl surface by the fracturing action of the ball mill. Incorporation of this into a phosphate-based fire retardant, intumescent formulation led to improved material dispersion and the formation of reinforcing heat shielding char nodules. XRD revealed the formation of ceramic metal phosphates which acted as an additional heat sink to the intumescent system, thereby reducing char oxidation and heat transfer to the substrate. Steel substrate temperature from a Bunsen burner test reduced by 33%. Therefore, ball milling can serve as a simple, low-cost processing route for the reuse of bauxite residue in intumescent composites.

  18. Measurement of the loss on ignition of bulk calcined bauxite samples by neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylmer, J.A.; Borsaru, M.

    1985-01-01

    The production of high-grade calcined bauxite is very dependent on the moisture content of the final product. Existing procedures rely on the ignition of small samples to monitor the effectiveness of the calcination process. The results obtained by this gravimetric technique are several hours behind production and do not permit regular adjustment of the furnace to optimize the control of the chemically bound water content (LOI). To provide rapid and more relevant results, a neutron moderation technique has been developed for measuring the LOI of bulk samples of calcined bauxite while they are still hot. The method uses fast neutrons from an 241 Am-Be neutron source to irradiate the samples, and the backscattered thermal neutrons detected are a measure of bound moisture content. The rms deviation between neutron and conventional determinations of LOI, in 15 calcined bauxite samples, was 0.08 per cent LOI over the range 0.1 to 0.9 per cent LOI. When allowance is made for the rms error in the ignition method, the error in the neutron method is found to be 0.07 per cent LOI

  19. Carnian bauxite horizon on the Kopitov grič near Borovnica (Slovenia – is there a »forgotten« stratigraphic gap in its footwall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Celarc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beds underlying the Carnian bauxite on the Kopitov gri~ (Slovenia are by the author’s opinion not Carnian (Cordevolian, but Ladinian age. The considerable stratigraphical gap is presented between Carnian clastic rocks and underlying limestones and dolomites. Bauxite is result of the weathering during the emersion.

  20. Vanadium removal and recovery from bauxite residue leachates by ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I; Jones, Ashley; Rogerson, Mike; Burke, Ian T; Mayes, William M

    2016-11-01

    Bauxite residue is an important by-product of the alumina industry, and current management practices do not allow their full valorisation, especially with regard to the recovery of critical metals. This work aims to test the efficiency of ion exchange resins for vanadium (V) removal and recovery from bauxite residue leachates at alkaline pH (11.5 and 13). As an environmental pollutant, removal of V from leachates may be an obligation of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDA) long-term management requirements. Vanadium removal from the leachate can be coupled with the recovery, and potentially can be used to offset long-term legacy treatment costs in legacy sites. Kinetics studies were performed to understand the adsorption process. The rate kinetics for the V adsorption was consistent with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, with a higher adsorption rate for pH 11.5 (1.2 min -1 ). Adsorption isotherm data fitted better to Freundlich equations than to the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Langmuir value q max ) was greatest for pH 13 (9.8 mg V g -1 resin). In column tests, breakthrough was reached at 70 bed volumes with the red mud leachate at pH 13, while no breakthrough was achieved with the effluent at pH 11.5. In regeneration, 42 and 76 % of V were eluted from the resin with 2 M NaOH from the red mud leachate at pH 13 and 11.5, respectively. Further optimization will be needed to upscale the treatment.

  1. Bryophyte communities as biomonitors of environmental factors in the Goujiang karst bauxite, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhihui

    2015-12-15

    Bauxite mining on karst results in several ecological and environmental issues including heavy metal pollution, soil erosion and the destruction of vegetation. In turn, these may affect the distribution of plant communities and endanger human health. In general, bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are pioneer plants, lacking roots, vascular systems and well-developed cuticles. Due to their high sensitivity to the environment, they are often used to monitor air and soil pollution. A total of 25 bryophyte taxa from 19 genera and 9 families were recorded on Goujiang karst bauxite near the city of Zunyi in the Guizhou Province of southwestern China. Eleven principal bryophyte communities were identified, most of which consisted of only one species (monospecific assemblage), although the proportion of these single-species communities differed at the six locations. The levels of heavy metals also differed in soil from the six locations: iron, 8748.9-10,023μg/g; zinc, 146.7-240.9μg/g; copper, 24.6-60.4μg/g; and nickel, 35.6-95.1μg/g. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the bryophyte communities and environmental variables revealed the effect of gradient (slope), altitude and heavy metals in the soil on the distribution of the principal bryophyte communities. More than 36% of bryophyte taxa identified reproduced asexually by gemmae, as gemmiferous bryophyte communities tolerate substrates with high levels of heavy metals more readily than non-gemmiferous communities do. The distribution of heavy metals in the soil is reflected in the distribution of the bryophyte communities. The distribution characteristics of the principal bryophyte communities and of the gemmiferous bryophyte communities are useful in monitoring heavy metal pollution in karst bauxite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Shadows of the Plantation? A Social History of Suriname’s Bauxite Town Moengo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Koning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the social history of Suriname’s first bauxite town, Moengo, founded in the late 1910s. It recounts the rise of a new industry that drew workers away from the plantations and urban artisanal occupations to work in a massive, highly organized and orchestrated organization-cum-social community. Using oral narratives about life in Moengo, as well as census and other statistical data, this contribution asks whether everyday life in the mining enclave echoed features of the plantation.

  4. Cost analysis and ecological benefits of environmental recovery methodologies in bauxite mining

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,João Carlos Costa; Barros,Dalmo Arantes de; Pereira,José Aldo Alves; Silva,Rossi Allan; Oliveira,Antonio Donizette de; Borges,Luís Antônio Coimbra

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzed and compared three methods of environmental recovery in bauxite mining commonly used in Poços de Caldas Plateau, MG, by means of recovery costs and ecological benefits. Earnings and costs data of environmental recovery activities were obtained for the areas that belonged to the Companhia Geral de Minas – CGM, on properties sited in the city of Poços de Caldas, MG. The amount of costs of these activities was used to compare the recovery methods by updating them monetarily to...

  5. Post-mining deterioration of bauxite overburdens in Jamaica: storage methods or subsoil dilution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark A.; Omoregie, Samson N.

    2008-03-01

    Rapid degradation of disturbed soil from a karst bauxite mine in Jamaica was recorded. Substantial macronutrient losses were incurred during a short (1 month) or a long (12 months) storage of the replaced topsoils during frequent wet/dry changes. The results suggested very high rates (>70% in the first year) of soil degradation from storage, alongside moderate rates (30%) within the same storage dump. However, higher levels of soil organic matter (SOM) were indicated just below the surface, compared with the surface horizons. It was unlikely that under a high leaching humid tropical rainfall regime, natural degradation processes could have re-emplaced such material firmly intact in the 15-30 cm zone. It was therefore concluded that these SOM anomalies were due to mechanical dilution of surface soil with subsoil material during overburden removal and emplacement rather than from long storage. Increasing the soil organic content during storage could be one corrective approach. However, it is far less costly to exercise greater care to apply more precise overburden removal and emplacement techniques initially, than it is to correct the results of topsoil contamination with subsoil. Although this study was limited to one mine, in the context of imminent large-scale mining expansion and current practices, further investigations are needed to accurately ascertain the proportion of similar subsoil contamination in other bauxite-mined sites.

  6. Environmental impact of noise levels in and around opencast bauxite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisku, G C; Barman, S C; Kidwai, M M; Bhargava, S K

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, noise pollution has not been paid adequate attention as air, water and land pollution. In order to assess (predict) the impact of bauxite mine noise on employees health and in and around bauxite mine environment, general noise sources and equipment noise were monitored. All these noise sources were compared with prescribed standard noise levels laid down by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Data has also been compared with reference site, north block hill top which is barren and virgin plateau/top covered with grass only and free from human interference. Equipment noise levels were much higher than the other zone of the mine which does not have the corresponding standards. Rock breaker recorded the highest noise level with 73.1 +/- 14.2 to 89.5 +/- 10.1 dB (A) while from ripper dozer it was least with 61.0 +/- 17.3 to 76.2 +/- 6.2 dB (A). Meteorological parameters did not have much influence upon equipment noise up to 100 feet from the source.

  7. Experimental Simulation of Long Term Weathering in Alkaline Bauxite Residue Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C. Santini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite residue is an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of the Bayer process used for alumina refining. Developing effective plans for the long term management of potential environmental impacts associated with storage of these tailings is dependent on understanding how the chemical and mineralogical properties of the tailings will change during weathering and transformation into a soil-like material. Hydrothermal treatment of bauxite residue was used to compress geological weathering timescales and examine potential mineral transformations during weathering. Gibbsite was rapidly converted to boehmite; this transformation was examined with in situ synchrotron XRD. Goethite, hematite, and calcite all precipitated over longer weathering timeframes, while tricalcium aluminate dissolved. pH, total alkalinity, and salinity (electrical conductivity all decreased during weathering despite these experiments being performed under “closed” conditions (i.e., no leaching. This indicates the potential for auto-attenuation of the high alkalinity and salinity that presents challenges for long term environmental management, and suggests that management requirements will decrease during weathering as a result of these mineral transformations.

  8. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giridhar Babu, A.; Sudhakara Reddy, M.

    2011-01-01

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  9. Internal standard method for determination of gallium and some trace elements in bauxite by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.G.; Tsai, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of gallium and other trace elements such as Ce, Cr, Hf, Lu and Th in bauxite by the technique of neutron activation analysis using gold as internal standard. Isopropyl ether was used as organic extractant radioactive gallium from the sample. This method yields very good accuracy with a relative error of +-3%. (author)

  10. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giridhar Babu, A., E-mail: anamgiri@gmail.co [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India); Sudhakara Reddy, M., E-mail: msreddy@thapar.ed [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India)

    2011-01-15

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  11. Development of floristic diversity in 10-year-old restoration forests on a bauxite mined site in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Parrotta; O. H. Knowles; J.M. Wunderle Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of plant and animal diversity were studied in a 10-year-old native species reforestation area at a bauxite-mined site at porto Trombetas in western Para State, Brazil. Understorey and overstorey floristic composition and structure, understorey light conditions, forest floor development and soil properties were evaluated in a total of 38 78.5-m2

  12. Late Gothic/early Renaissance gilding technology and the traditional poliment material "Armenian bole": Truly red clay, or rather bauxite?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, David; Hradilová, J.; Bezdička, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 135, JAN (2017), s. 271-281 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22984S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Historical gilding technology * Poliment * Armenian bole * X-ray powder micro-diffraction * Bauxite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  13. Thorium partitioning in Greek industrial bauxite investigated by synchrotron radiation and laser-ablation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsos, P.; Godelitsas, A.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Göttlicher, J.; Steininger, R.; Xanthos, S.; Berndt, J.; Klemme, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Bárdossy, G.

    2011-12-01

    Typical red-brown (Fe-rich) and high-quality white-grey (Fe-depleted) bauxite samples from active mines of the Parnassos-Ghiona area, central Greece, were investigated. According to XRF and ICP-MS analyses their actinide content, and particularly of Th, is relatively increased. Fe-depleted samples contain up to 62.75 ppm Th corresponding to 220 Bq/kg due to 228Ac ( 232Th-series), whereas Fe-rich samples are less Th-radioactive (up to 58.25 ppm Th, 180 Bq/kg due to 228Ac). Powder-XRD patterns showed that Th-enriched (Fe-depleted) bauxite consists mostly of diaspore (AlOOH polymorph), anatase and rutile (TiO 2 polymorphs). SEM-EDS indicated the presence of Ti-Fe-containing phases (e.g. ilmenite, FeTiO 3), chromite (Cr-spinel) and besides LREE-minerals (mostly bastnäsite/parisite-group) and zircon (ZrSiO 4) hosting a part of the bulk Th. The presence of Th in diaspore and in Ti-containing phases (not detected by SEM-EDS as in the case of REE-minerals and zircon) was investigated, into distinct pisoliths of Fe-depleted bauxite, using μ-XRF and μ-XAFS in the SUL-X beamline of the ANKA Synchrotron facility (KIT, Germany). XAFS spectra of Th salts and Th-containing reference materials were obtained as well. Accordingly it was revealed, for the first time in the literature, that Ti-phases, and particularly anatase, host significant amounts of Th. This novel conclusion was complementary supported by LA-ICP-MS analyses indicated an average of 73 ppm Th in anatase grains together with abundant Nb (3356 ppm), Ta (247 ppm) and U (33 ppm). The Th LIII-edge XAFS spectra as compared to reference materials, give also evidence that Th 4+ may not replace Ti 4+ in distorted [TiO 6] fundamental octahedral units of anatase and ilmenite lattice (CN = 6). The occupation of either extraframework sites of higher coordination (CN = 6.9 or even CN = 7.4), according to EXAFS signals evaluation, or of defected/vacant (**) sites is more probable. This is likely explained by the difficulty of

  14. Thorium partitioning in Greek industrial bauxite investigated by synchrotron radiation and laser-ablation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamaletsos, P.; Godelitsas, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Göttlicher, J.; Steininger, R.; Xanthos, S.; Berndt, J.; Klemme, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Bárdossy, G.

    2011-01-01

    Typical red–brown (Fe-rich) and high-quality white–grey (Fe-depleted) bauxite samples from active mines of the Parnassos-Ghiona area, central Greece, were investigated. According to XRF and ICP-MS analyses their actinide content, and particularly of Th, is relatively increased. Fe-depleted samples contain up to 62.75 ppm Th corresponding to 220 Bq/kg due to 228 Ac ( 232 Th-series), whereas Fe-rich samples are less Th-radioactive (up to 58.25 ppm Th, 180 Bq/kg due to 228 Ac). Powder-XRD patterns showed that Th-enriched (Fe-depleted) bauxite consists mostly of diaspore (AlOOH polymorph), anatase and rutile (TiO 2 polymorphs). SEM-EDS indicated the presence of Ti–Fe–containing phases (e.g. ilmenite, FeTiO 3 ), chromite (Cr-spinel) and besides LREE-minerals (mostly bastnäsite/parisite-group) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) hosting a part of the bulk Th. The presence of Th in diaspore and in Ti-containing phases (not detected by SEM-EDS as in the case of REE-minerals and zircon) was investigated, into distinct pisoliths of Fe-depleted bauxite, using μ-XRF and μ-XAFS in the SUL-X beamline of the ANKA Synchrotron facility (KIT, Germany). XAFS spectra of Th salts and Th-containing reference materials were obtained as well. Accordingly it was revealed, for the first time in the literature, that Ti-phases, and particularly anatase, host significant amounts of Th. This novel conclusion was complementary supported by LA-ICP-MS analyses indicated an average of 73 ppm Th in anatase grains together with abundant Nb (3356 ppm), Ta (247 ppm) and U (33 ppm). The Th L III -edge XAFS spectra as compared to reference materials, give also evidence that Th 4+ may not replace Ti 4+ in distorted [TiO 6 ] fundamental octahedral units of anatase and ilmenite lattice (CN = 6). The occupation of either extraframework sites of higher coordination (CN = 6.9 or even CN = 7.4), according to EXAFS signals evaluation, or of defected/vacant (**) sites is more probable. This is likely explained by

  15. THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE HYDROLYSİS PROCESS OF ALUMINA PRODUCTION FROM THE BAUXITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ŞAHİN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of growth level for many countries can be measured with their aluminum production and explatation rates. Ever though a great partion of aluminum hydroxide is turned into alumina still it has great merit. On the other hand, a large percentage of alumina is used in the aluminum production. The operation in the decomposition processes is referred to succinetly as hydrolysis process. Aluminum hydroxide is obtained from the aluminate solution. This production is named as hydrate and settled down which is proceded by filtration and finally sent to the calcination unit. Hydrolysis process is one of the most important stages in the production of alumina from bauxites. The ocovinence of hydrolysis reaction in a desirable manner is dependent on the factors that effect the reaction rate.

  16. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN THE STUDY OF BAUXITE REFRACTORY CASTABLE PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kieliba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an investigation of the influence of preparation conditions of low-cement refractory castables on their service properties using experiment planning methods. Using the orthogonal Plackett-Burman design, the influence of the amount of water, vibration time, curing conditions and firing conditions on the service properties of the finished refractory castable (apparent density, open porosity, permanent linear changes, Young's modulus, bending strength and compressive strength at ambient temperature is demonstrated. It is found that, among the investigated properties under the conditions of the conducted experiment, only the mixing time is a negligible factor that has no significant influence on the process of developing service properties of low-cement bauxite castables.

  17. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  18. The occurrence and potential ecological risk assessment of bauxite mine-impacted water and sediments in Kuantan, Pahang,Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Rahman, Muhammad Syazwan Abd; Madzin, Zafira; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Ariffin, Mariani; Z, Mohd Syakirin Md

    2017-01-01

    Recent bauxite mining activities in the vicinity of Kuantan, Pahang, have been associated with apparent environmental quality degradation and have raised environmental concerns among the public. This study was carried out to evaluate the overall ecological impacts on water and sediment quality from the bauxite mining activities. Water and sediment samples were collected at seven sampling locations within the bauxite mining areas between June and December 2015. The water samples were analyzed for water quality index (WQI) and distribution of major and trace element geochemistry. Sediment samples were evaluated based on geochemical indices, i.e., the enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo ). Potential ecological risk index was estimated to assess the degree to which sediments of the mine-impacted areas have been contaminated with heavy metals. The results showed that WQIs of some locations were classified as slightly polluted and contained metal contents exceeding the recommended guideline values. The EFs indicated minimal to moderate enrichment of metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, and Sr) in the sediments. I geo showed slightly to partially polluted sediments with respect to As at some locations. The potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that As posed the highest potential ecological risk with RI of 52.35-60.92 at two locations, while other locations indicated low risk. The findings from this study have demonstrated the impact of recent bauxite mining activities, which might be of importance to the local communities and relevant authorities to initiate immediate rehabilitation phase of the impacted area.

  19. Assessing the grass Schizachyrium gracile for capacity to ecologically restore the polluted soils of ecosystems in a bauxite mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, J.; Alexis, S.; Hernandez, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    Abandoned bauxite mines in the tropical forest of the Dominican Republics only biosphere reserve are leaving behind extensive areas and landfills, whose negative impacts need restoring because of the ecological interest of the sites they occupy. Given that any realistic recovery program should be based on knowledge of the ecological succession, in this report we present the results derived from the study of two populations of a pioneer species of these ecosystems. (Author)

  20. Assessing the grass Schizachyrium gracile for capacity to ecologically restore the polluted soils of ecosystems in a bauxite mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, J.; Alexis, S.; Hernandez, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Abandoned bauxite mines in the tropical forest of the Dominican Republics only biosphere reserve are leaving behind extensive areas and landfills, whose negative impacts need restoring because of the ecological interest of the sites they occupy. Given that any realistic recovery program should be based on knowledge of the ecological succession, in this report we present the results derived from the study of two populations of a pioneer species of these ecosystems. (Author)

  1. Technospheric Mining of Rare Earth Elements from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud): Process Optimization, Kinetic Investigation, and Microwave Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sable; Tam, Jason; Yang, Mingfan; Azimi, Gisele

    2017-11-10

    Some rare earth elements (REEs) are classified under critical materials, i.e., essential in use and subject to supply risk, due to their increasing demand, monopolistic supply, and environmentally unsustainable and expensive mining practices. To tackle the REE supply challenge, new initiatives have been started focusing on their extraction from alternative secondary resources. This study puts the emphasis on technospheric mining of REEs from bauxite residue (red mud) produced by the aluminum industry. Characterization results showed the bauxite residue sample contains about 0.03 wt% REEs. Systematic leaching experiments showed that concentrated HNO 3 is the most effective lixiviant. However, because of the process complexities, H 2 SO 4 was selected as the lixiviant. To further enhance the leaching efficiency, a novel process based on microwave pretreatment was employed. Results indicated that microwave pretreatment creates cracks and pores in the particles, enabling the lixiviant to diffuse further into the particles, bringing more REEs into solution, yielding of 64.2% and 78.7% for Sc and Nd, respectively, which are higher than the maximum obtained when HNO 3 was used. This novel process of "H 2 SO 4 leaching-coupled with-microwave pretreatment" proves to be a promising technique that can help realize the technological potential of REE recovery from secondary resources, particularly bauxite residue.

  2. Characterization of three Brazilian bauxites and the corresponding bayer liquors in regard to rare earth and other minor elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda Oba, C.A.; Avritscher, W.; Pini, R.A.; Abrao, A.; Chaves, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the results of chemical analysis of representative Brazilian bauxites are presented and discussed. Analyses were made on original mother rocks, ores, tailings from washing plants, Bayer liquors produced from this ores and also from the red muds. Samples of the ores were submitted to size, magnetic and density separation and these fractions were also analysed. Minor elements of interest assayed were rare earth, gallium and vanadium. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence and emission spectroscopy were applied for the minor elements and also conventional wet chemical analyses mainly for major elements. A special technique for a rapid identification and semi-quantitative analysis of gallium and a permanent file for the results are presented as well. Brazilian bauxites are all of lateritic origin, constituted essentially by gibbsite and formed by intense tropical weathering of different rocks. This paper presents the chemical characterization of three Brazilian bauxites, namely Porto Trombetas, Cataguazes and Pocos de Caldas and the behaviour of their minor elements during the industrial processing in the mines and alumina mills. The grades of rare earths elements, gallium and vanadium show significant variations. This is most probably due to mother rocks characteristics than to bauxitization processes. The review deposits have the following mother rocks: Porto Trombetas Sedimentary - Cataguazes Metamorphic - Pocos de Caldas Alkaline (sienite). The samples from Pocos de Caldas show high grade for La+Ce with an average over 800ppm, Cataguazes has an average of 76 ppm La+Ce and Porto Trombetas 6,5ppm. Gallium grades are higher for Pocos de Caldas (average 135 ppm), followed by Porto Trombetas (62 ppm) and Cataguazes (37ppm). Vanadium grades are higher for Porto Trombetas (243 ppm) then Pocos de Caldas (165 ppm). Pocos de Caldas shows 50% enrichment in Ce in the washed ore and in Porto Trombetas most of the Y goes to the fines (product

  3. A study of inter-particle bonds in dry bauxite waste resulting in atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Thompson, Bentley

    1988-02-01

    Bauxite and Alumina production are one of the main activities of several third world countries such as Jamaica, Brazil, India, Guinea, eastern European countries such as Hungary and Rumania and advanced countries such as Australia, West Germany, Japan and the United States. The mining operations lead to dust pollution, but the refining of bauxite to alumina yield large amounts of highly caustic sludge waste, called "Red Mud". Millions of tons of the waste produced in every country are stored in containment dams or natural valleys. This leads to ground water pollution, destruction of plant and bird life and is hazardous to human settlement in earthquake prone regions like Jamaica. As a result several companies have been looking into dry mud stacking which involves thickening the mud in the refining plants and sprying it on the slopes to sun dry it. Typically it involves a drying field of about two hundred acres, which could act as a potential source of caustic dust. In Jamaica one company has started disposing of the mud in this way. The aerosol formation from such areas depends mainly on the integrity of the top dry layers. Presently this is done by studying the approximate parameters such as the friability of the mud. However, following the recent advances in powder technology it has been possible for us to develop an instrument to study the average interparticle forces between the red mud particles. The instrument is based on the principle of a tensometer and a split cell is used to load specimens. A load cell is used to measure the force and a chart recorder is used for plotting separation and the force. The present study reports elemental composition of the dust and its health hazards. It also reports the physical measurement of the average interparticle force as a function of their separation in the Jamaican mud. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the strength of the material is studied to see the effect of sun-drying of the waste. The five-fold increase

  4. Evaluation of blends bauxite-calcination-method red mud with other industrial wastes as a cementitious material: Properties and hydration characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Na; Liu Xiaoming; Sun Henghu; Li Longtu

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is generated from alumina production, and its disposal is currently a worldwide problem. In China, large quantities of red mud derived from bauxite calcination method are being discharged annually, and its utilization has been an urgent topic. This experimental research was to evaluate the feasibility of blends red mud derived from bauxite calcination method with other industrial wastes for use as a cementitious material. The developed cementitious material containing 30% of the bauxite-calcination-method red mud possessed compressive strength properties at a level similar to normal Portland cement, in the range of 45.3-49.5 MPa. Best compressive strength values were demonstrated by the specimen RSFC2 containing 30% bauxite-calcination-method red mud, 21% blast-furnace slag, 10% fly ash, 30% clinker, 8% gypsum and 1% compound agent. The mechanical and physical properties confirm the usefulness of RSFC2. The hydration characteristics of RSFC2 were characterized by XRD, FTIR, 27 Al MAS-NMR and SEM. As predominant hydration products, ettringite and amorphous C-S-H gel are principally responsible for the strength development of RSFC2. Comparing with the traditional production for ordinary Portland cement, this green technology is easier to be implemented and energy saving. This paper provides a key solution to effectively utilize bauxite-calcination-method red mud.

  5. Digestion of Alumina from Non-Magnetic Material Obtained from Magnetic Separation of Reduced Iron-Rich Diasporic Bauxite with Sodium Salts

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    Guanghui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by the Bayer process from non-magnetic material obtained after magnetic separation of reduced iron-rich diasporic bauxite with sodium salts was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of sodium salts can destroy the original occurrences of iron-, aluminum- and silicon-containing minerals of bauxite ore during reductive roasting. Meanwhile, the reactions of sodium salts with complex aluminum- and silicon-bearing phases generate diaoyudaoite and sodium aluminosilicate. The separation of iron via reductive roasting of bauxite ore with sodium salts followed by magnetic separation improves alumina digestion in the Bayer process. When the alumina-bearing material in bauxite ore is converted into non-magnetic material, the digestion temperature decreases significantly from 280 °C to 240 °C with a nearly 99% relative digestion ratio of alumina.

  6. Physical quality of bauxite tailing after a decade of environmental recovery

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    Lorena Abdalla de Oliveira Prata Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tailings from bauxite washing produced in Porto Trombetas, Pará state, a Brazilian Amazon region, have chemical and physical characteristics limiting the development of plants, which hinders to revegetate the tanks where they are deposited. This study was carried out under field conditions, and aimed to assess the physical quality of these tailings after a decade of recovery practices. Three treatments were assessed: no application of inputs and planting of seedlings (T1 and two levels of fertilization, one with lower (T2 and other with higher (T3 doses of limestone and fertilizers associated with planting tree seedlings. After ten years of experimentation, penetration resistance (PR and substrate moisture up to 60 cm depth were assessed and the least limiting water range (LLWR, water retention curve (WRC, and pore size distribution were determined and calculated. After a decade of environmental recovery, differences in physical characteristics were observed in the tailings due to different revegetation modes. Moisture in the substrate profile, LLWR, WRC, and pore size distribution were sensitive indicators to variations in substrate physical quality. Liming, fertilization, and planting of seedlings are necessary for revegetation and improvement of the physical quality of tailings. Treatment T3 was the best intervention identified so far for tank revegetation. The absence of fertilization and planting precludes revegetation even with sources of propagules nearby.

  7. Cost analysis and ecological benefits of environmental recovery methodologies in bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Costa Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed and compared three methods of environmental recovery in bauxite mining commonly used in Poços de Caldas Plateau, MG, by means of recovery costs and ecological benefits. Earnings and costs data of environmental recovery activities were obtained for the areas that belonged to the Companhia Geral de Minas – CGM, on properties sited in the city of Poços de Caldas, MG. The amount of costs of these activities was used to compare the recovery methods by updating them monetarily to a reference date, in other words, the present moment. It is concluded that the difference between the present value of costs for simple restoration and rehabilitation activities are less than 1% and that between the complete restoration and rehabilitation is about 15.12%, suggesting that the choice of the methods to be used must be based on the ecological earnings proportional to each of them. The methodology of environmental restoration of the mining areas emphasizes the ecological variables in the process of establishment of the community, to the detriment of complex ecological aspects, which show difficulties in measuring the actual moment of the development of the ecosystem considered.

  8. An investigation of radionuclide uptake into food crops grown in soils treated with bauxite mining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Clarke, P.C.; Robertson, W.; McPharlin, I.R.; Jeffrey, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Sandy soils of the coastal plain area of Western Australia have poor phosphorous retention capacity which leads to pollution of surface water bodies in the region. Application of bauxite mining residues (termed 'red mud') to vegetable and crops has been proposed as a solution to increase the phosphorous and water retention and thereby reduce the leaching of nutrients. The thorium and radium-226 concentrations in the 'red mud' residues are in excess of 1 kBq/kg, and 300 Bq/kg respectively. Potentially, the use of these residues on agricultural land could result in increased levels of radionuclides in food grown in amended soils. The transfer of long-lived radionuclides of both the natural thorium and uranium series to a variety of vegetable crops grown under controlled conditions is investigated. The effects of varying the rates of application of 'red mud' and phosphate fertilizers on radionuclide uptake are studied. It has been shown previously that fallout caesium-137 is sandy soils of the region transfers readily to food and grazing crops. Some of the parameters which influence that transfer are also examined. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  9. Effect of Bauxite addition on Adhesion Strength and Surface Roughness of Fly ash based Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Samal, S.; Pattnaik, D.; Sahu, A.; Swain, B.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    The environment is being contaminated with advancement of new technology, day by day. One of the primary sources for this contamination is the industrial waste. Industrialization is the prime reason behind the prosperity of any country to meet the materialistic demand. To run the industries, a huge amount of (electric) power is needed and hence need for thermal power plants to serve the purpose. In present scenario, coal fired thermal power plants are set up which generates a huge quantity of Fly ash. Consumption of industrial waste (Fly ash), continually a major concern for human race. In recent years, fly ash is being utilized for various purposes i.e. making bricks, mine reclamation, production of cements etc. The presence of Silica and Alumina in fly ash makes it useful for thermal barrier applications also. The plasma spray technology has the advantage of being able to process any types of metal/ceramic mineral, low-grade-ore minerals etc. to make value-added products and also to deposit ceramics, metals and a combination of these to deposit composite coatings with desired microstructure and required properties on a range of substrate materials. The present work focuses on utilization of fly ash mixing with bauxite (ore mineral) for a high valued application. Fly ash with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray overlay coatings at different power levels (10-20kW) on aluminum and mild steel substrates. Adhesion strength and surface roughness of the coatings are evaluated. Phase composition analysis of the coatings were done using X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface morphology of the coatings was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Maximum adhesion strength of 4.924 MPa is obtained for the composition fly ash and bauxite (10%), coated on mild steel at 16kW torch power level. The surface roughness (Ra) of the coatings is found to vary between 10.0102 to 17.2341 micron.

  10. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tingzhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

  11. Late Cretaceous coal overlying karstic bauxite deposits in the Parnassus-Ghiona Unit, Central Greece: Coal characteristics and depositional environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaitzidis, Stavros; Siavalas, George; Christanis, Kimon [Dept. of Geology, University of Patras, 26504 Rio-Patras (Greece); Skarpelis, Nikos [Dept. of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, 15784 Zografou (Greece); Araujo, Carla Viviane [Petrobras-Cenpes GEOQ/PDEXP, Rua Horacio Macedo n 950, Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, 21941-915 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-04-01

    The Pera-Lakkos coal located on top of bauxite deposits in the Ghiona mining district (Central Greece), is the only known Mesozoic (Late Cretaceous) coal in the country. It was derived from herbaceous plants and algae growing in mildly brackish mires that formed behind a barrier system during a regression of the sea, on a karstified limestone partly filled in with bauxitic detritus. Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data point to the predominance of reducing conditions and intense organic matter degradation in the palaeomires. O/C vs. H/C and OI vs. HI plots, based on elemental analysis and Rock-Eval data, characterize kerogen types I/II. This reflects the relatively high liptinite content of the coal. Besides kerogen composition, O/C vs. H/C plot for the Pera-Lakkos coals is in accordance with a catagenesis stage of maturation in contrast with vitrinite reflectance and T{sub max} from Rock-Eval pyrolysis, which indicate the onset of oil window maturation stage. Suppression of vitrinite reflectance should be considered and the high liptinite content corroborates this hypothesis. Despite some favourable aspects for petroleum generation presented by the Pera-Lakkos coal, its maximum thickness (up to 50 cm) points to a restricted potential for petroleum generation. Coal oxidation took place either during the late stage of peat formation, due to wave action accompanying the subsequent marine transgression, or epigenetically after the emergence of the whole sequence due to percolation of drainage waters. Both options are also supported by the REE shale-normalized profiles, which demonstrate an upwards depletion in the coal layer. Oxidation also affected pyrite included in the coal; this led to the formation of acidic (sulfate-rich) solutions, which percolated downwards resulting in bleaching of the upper part of the underlying bauxite. (author)

  12. MERCURY IN SOIL AND ATMOSPHERE AS A PATHFINDER ELEMENT FOR ISTRIAN BAUXITE DEPOSITS — A TENTATIVE EXPLORATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available ID order to find out a secondary dispersion halo of mercury and some other trace elements around the bauxite ore bodies, the authors sampled terra rossa along traverses over them. At the same time, mercury in air is measured and expressed by relative values (mA using Zeeman mercury vapor analyser. Mercury in soil was determined by flameless atomic absorption method and Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co and Mn by standard AA techniques. The results are equivocal since the natural vertical soil profiles are severely disturbed on traverses due to different land use, what should be taken into consideration during continuation of the survey.

  13. Biosorption of nickel by Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 native to bauxite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prithviraj, Desale; Deboleena, Kashyap; Neelu, Nawani; Noor, Nahar; Aminur, Rahman; Balasaheb, Kapadnis; Abul, Mandal

    2014-09-01

    The current scenario of environmental pollution urges the need for an effective solution for toxic heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater. Bioremediation is the most cost effective process employed by the use of microbes especially bacteria resistant to toxic metals. In this study, Lysinibacillus sp. BA2, a nickel tolerant strain isolated from bauxite mine was used for the biosorption of Ni(II). Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 biomass had isoelectric point (pI) of 3.3. The maximum negative zeta potential value (-39.45) was obtained at pH 6.0 which was highly favourable for Ni(II) biosorption. 238.04mg of Ni(II) adsorbed on one gram of dead biomass and 196.32mg adsorbed on one gram of live biomass. The adsorption of Ni(II) on biomass increased with time and attained saturation after 180min with rapid biosorption in initial 30min. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms could fit well for biosorption of Ni(II) by dead biomass while Langmuir isotherm provided a better fit for live biomass based on correlation coefficient values. The kinetic studies of Ni(II) removal, using dead and live biomass was well explained by second-order kinetic model. Ni(II) adsorption on live biomass was confirmed by SEM-EDX where cell aggregation and increasing irregularity of cell morphology was observed even though cells were in non-growing state. The FTIR analysis of biomass revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, which seem responsible for biosorption of Ni(II). The beads made using dead biomass of Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 could efficiently remove Ni(II) from effluent solutions. These microbial cells can substitute expensive methods for treating nickel contaminated industrial wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Moengo on strike: The Politics of Labour in Suriname’s Bauxite Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Koning

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one crucial moment of contestation in colonial Suriname, the years 1941- 42, when sustained labour unrest in bauxite town Moengo led to the founding of the first mining unions. It argues that these strikes laid the groundwork for future relations between labour, company and the state and explores the kinds of socio-political alliances that were forged between labour and nationalist politicians on the one hand, and government and transnational company on the other, thereby situating this particular contestation in a larger struggle over a colonial system that aligned itself with metropolitan economic interests.Resumen: Moengo en huelga: Políticas Laborales en la Industria de la Bauxita en SurinameEn este artículo se aborda un momento crucial de la impugnación en el Suriname colonial entre los años 1941-42, cuando un persistente malestar entre los trabajadores del pueblo de la bauxita de Moengo condujo a la fundación de los primeros sindicatos mineros. Se sostiene que esas huelgas sentaron las bases de las futuras relaciones entre el trabajo, las compañías y el estado y se exploran los tipos de alianzas socio-políticas que se forjaron entre políticos laboristas y nacionalistas por un lado, y el gobierno y compañías transnacionales por el otro, situando por ello esta particular impugnación en una lucha de mayor alcance contra un sistema colonial que se identificaba a sí mismo con los intereses económicos metropolitanos.

  15. Novel Approach for Enhanced Scandium and Titanium Leaching Efficiency from Bauxite Residue with Suppressed Silica Gel Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Gözde; Yagmurlu, Bengi; Cakmakoglu, Seckin; Hertel, Tobias; Kaya, Şerif; Gronen, Lars; Stopic, Srecko; Friedrich, Bernd

    2018-04-04

    The need of light weight alloys for future transportation industry puts Sc and Ti under a sudden demand. While these metals can bring unique and desired properties to alloys, lack of reliable sources brought forth a supply problem which can be solved by valorization of the secondary resources. Bauxite residue (red mud), with considerable Ti and Sc content, is a promising resource for secure supply of these metals. Due to drawbacks of the direct leaching route from bauxite residue, such as silica gel formation and low selectivity towards these valuable metals, a novel leaching process based on oxidative leaching conditions, aiming more efficient and selective leaching but also considering environmental aspects via lower acid consumption, was investigated in this study. Combination of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) was utilized as the leaching solution, where various acid concentrations, solid-to-liquid ratios, leaching temperatures and times were examined in a comparative manner. Leaching with 2.5 M H 2 O 2 : 2.5 M H 2 SO 4 mixture at 90 °C for 30 min was observed to be the best leaching conditions with suppressed silica gel formation and the highest reported leaching efficiency with high S/L ratio for Sc and Ti; 68% and 91%; respectively.

  16. The effects of bauxite, metakaolin, and porosity on the thermal properties of prepared Iraqi clays refractory mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Shihab A.; Omar, Mustafa H.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most important requirements for the manufacture of refractory mortars, especially those used in the construction of thermal systems (building or plastering), is the balance between thermal insulation properties and porosity. Where, increasing porosity of mortar to a large amount may be always undesirable, because the absorption of liquid and gases emitted from industrial system is decline the bonded with bricks and structural properties of mortars. Refractory mortars prepared from either fired bauxite or metakaolin clays with different percentages of kaolin (10, 20, 30, and 40 wt%). Bauxite rocks were fired at 1200 °C and metakaolin was obtained by firing kaolin up to 700 °C then crushed and grinded. Grog was added to mixture to reduce the shrinkage. Cylindrical specimens are prepared and then sintered at 1200 °C. All mixtures maintained a low thermal conductivity within the limits of thermal insulation material (less than 0.5 W/m K); it was done by controlling the porosity which reached a maximum value approximately 25%. The volumetric heat capacity and thermal diffusivity was ranged between (1-10 MJ/m3 K), (0.06-0.2 mm2/s), respectively.

  17. Recovery of alumina from khushab bauxite by leaching with sulphuric acid and removal of iron impurity by ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Iqbal, M.M.; Shafiq, M.; Aziz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Bauxite is heterogeneous material principally composed of aluminum oxide minerals and found in all continents. It is being used in chemical, cement, refractory, abrasive, fertilizer, steel and other industries. In order to extract the alumina, the calcined samples of bauxite of Khushab area were ground to -710 meum. Sulphuric acid of purity 40% was used as leaching agent and slurry of pulp density 14% was prepared by dissolving 60 ml acid in 20 gm sample. The leaching was carried out at 90 degree C for 2 hours. The iron impurity was removed by ethanol of purity 68%. The drying, dehydration and desulphurization temperatures were kept 105 degree C, 450 degree C and 850 degree C respectively in all the stages of the process. Alumina recoveries from four samples of Sultan Mehdhi, Chamil More, Niaz Mine and Nadi locations were 20.8%, 9.81%, 15.47% and 7.78% respectively. Iron was almost completely removed as the analysis shows that the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ removal was from 97.8% to 99.6%. It is concluded that leaching efficiency was quite encouraging except Nadi ore sample. However the iron free alumina recoveries were low as the analysis of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ processed residue shows that it contains 72.72% to 92.94% of leached alumina in all the four experiments. (author)

  18. Geochemical behaviour of U3O8, Mo, Y, Ga, V and Zr in laterite - bauxitic sequence of the ''Croanta-Paragominas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraioli, R.N.M.; Ferreira, Z.C.A.

    1987-10-01

    Fifteen samples are studied, analyzed for U 3 O 8 (delayed neutrons), ThO 2 (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and Mo, Y, Ga, V and Zr (optical emission spectrography) in laterite - bauxitic sequence of the Paragominas, Brazil. Generical datas about the arrangements of thorium, uranium and zirconium are also presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  19. Use of red mud (bauxite residue) for the retention of aqueous inorganic mercury(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinos, David A; Barral, María Teresa

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of the oxide-rich residue from bauxite refining (red mud) to remove inorganic Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed. The aspects studied comprised the kinetics of the process (t = 1 min-24 h), the effect of pH (3.5-11.5), the interacting effect between salt concentration (0.01-1 M NaNO3) and pH and the Hg(II) sorption isotherm. Hg leaching from spent red mud was evaluated using the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) method. The sorption of Hg(II) onto red mud was very fast, with most of Hg(II) (97.0-99.7%) being removed from 0.5-50 μM Hg solutions in few minutes. The kinetic process was best described by Ho's pseudo-second order equation, pointing to chemisorption as the rate controlling step. Hg(II) sorption efficiency was very high (% removal between 93.9 and 99.8%) within all the studied pH range (3.5-11.5) and added Hg concentrations (5 and 50 μM), being optimal at pH 5-8 and decreasing slightly at both lowest and highest pH. The effect of background electrolyte concentration suggests specific sorption as the main interaction mechanism between Hg(II) and red mud, but the increasing non-sorbed Hg concentrations at low and high pH for higher electrolyte concentrations also revealed the contribution of an electrostatic component to the process. The sorption isotherm showed the characteristic shape of high affinity sorbents, and it was better described by the Redlich-Peterson and Freundlich equations, which are models that assume sorbent heterogeneity and involvement of more than one mechanism. The estimated Hg(II) sorption capacity from the Langmuir equation (q m ~9 mmol/kg) was comparable to those of some inorganic commercial sorbents but lower than most bio- or specifically designed sorbents. The leachability of retained Hg(II) from spent red mud (0.02, 0.25 and 2.42 mmol Hg/kg sorbed concentration) was low (0.28, 1.15 and 2.23 μmol/kg, respectively) and accounted for 1.2, 0.5 and 0.1% of previously sorbed Hg

  20. Enrichment of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} from bauxite ore residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Bona; Li, Guanghui, E-mail: liguangh@csu.edu.cn; Luo, Jun; Ye, Qing; Liu, Mingxia; Peng, Zhiwei; Jiang, Tao

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} from bauxite ore residue were successfully enriched. • H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaOH were efficient for enriching Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} by removing SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and partial Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO. • Enriching mechanism of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} was explicitly explained. - Abstract: As a major byproduct generated in the alumina industry, bauxite ore residue is an important reserve of scandium and titanium. In this study, the feasibility and mechanism of enriching Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} from a non-magnetic material, which was obtained from carbothermal reductive roasting and magnetic separation of bauxite ore residue, were investigated based on a two-step (acidic and alkali) leaching process. It was revealed that approximately 78% SiO{sub 2} and 30–40% of CaO, FeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were removed from a non-magnetic material with 0.0134 wt.% Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 7.64 wt.% TiO{sub 2} by phosphoric acidic leaching, while about 95% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} were further leached by subsequent sodium hydroxide leaching of the upper-stream leach residue. A Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}-, TiO{sub 2}- rich material containing 0.044 wt.% Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 25.5 wt.% TiO{sub 2} was obtained, the recovery and the enrichment factor of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were about 85% and 5, respectively. The enrichment of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} was attributed to higher pH (>3.3) of phosphoric acid solution than its dissolution pH{sup 0}, and the enrichment of TiO{sub 2} was mainly associated with the insoluble perovskite (CaTiO{sub 3}) in the acidic solution at ambient temperature. As Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} cannot be dissolved in the alkali solution, they were further enriched in the leach residue.

  1. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of rare earth elements in Greek bauxites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Maria; Luck, Joachim

    1991-01-01

    Fore the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in bauxitic materials the techniques of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were compared. In the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) bauxites SRM 697 Dominican, and SRM 69 b Arkansas, the concentration of some REEs were determined. With the reference bauxite BX-N of the ARNT (Association Nationale de la Recherche Technique) the precision and accuracy of ICP-AES for the determination of REEs in bauxites was tested. Furthermore, Greek bauxites of the Parnassos-Giona area were investigated. In a comparison of the three methods it was possible to calculate from the data series the precision of each method, which showed that the tendency found in the deviations for the different REEs is in accordance with published values. Also the limits of detection for REEs in bauxites were calculated and found to be in the same range as those in the literature. (author)

  2. Bauxite to eclogite: Evidence for late Permian supracontinental subduction at the Red River shear zone, northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Nobuhiko; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nam, Nguyen Van; Tri, Tran Van

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the geological processes recorded in aluminous granulites from the Red River shear zone in northern Vietnam using mineral and whole-rock chemistries, fluid inclusions, metamorphic pressure-temperature paths, and geochronology. The granulites are extremely rich in Al2O3 (36.3-50.9 wt%), TiO2, and total Fe2O3, and poor in SiO2 (7.9-24.1 wt%), MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O. The granulites are enriched in high-field-strength elements and rare earth elements, and severely depleted in large-ion lithophile elements. These features strongly suggest the protolith was lateritic bauxite. Moreover, the other elemental concentrations and the Zr/Ti ratios point to basaltic rock as the precursor of the bauxite. Some of the aluminous granulites contain high-pressure mineral inclusions of kyanite, staurolite, siderite, and rutile, none of which are observed in the matrix. Abundant primary carbonic fluid inclusions are observed in garnet, corundum, and staurolite, but are rare in quartz and zircon. The average densities of fluid inclusions in garnet, corundum, staurolite, quartz, and zircon are 1.00 ± 0.06, 1.07 ± 0.04, 1.09 ± 0.03, 0.29 ± 0.07, and 1.15 ± 0.05 g/cm3, respectively. The mineral features not only in the matrix and but also in garnet from all rock types, isochemical phase diagrams obtained for each bulk rock composition, and Zr-in-rutile thermometry indicate an early eclogite-facies metamorphism ( 2.5 GPa at 650 °C) and a subsequent nearly isothermal decompression. Zircons yield a wide range of U-Pb ages from 265 to 36 Ma, whereas the dark luminescent cores of the zircons, which contain high-density CO2 inclusions, yield a concordia age of 257 ± 8 Ma. These observations suggest that the dark luminescent zircon cores were formed at the same time as the garnet, corundum, and staurolite that contain high-density CO2 fluid inclusions. Based on the carbonic fluid inclusion isochore and the densities as well as calculated phase diagram, the concordia

  3. A Technological Comparison of Six Processes for the Production of Reduction-Grade Alumina from Non-Bauxitic Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, K. B.

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines, by means of a contract with Kaiser Engineers and with Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation as a subcontractor, has sponsored a technological and an economic evaluation of six candidate processes for the manufacture of alumina from certain U. S. raw materials other than bauxite. This paper describes each process. Flow diagrams and the total energy requirement for each process are included. Important characteristics affecting the economics of producing alumina by each process are discussed, and some presently unsolved technical problems are identified. The extraction of alumina from clay via hydrochloric acid with iron separation by solvent extraction, and the crystallization of intermediate AlCl3·6H2O through the introduction of HCl gas into the pregnant mother liquor, appears to be technically feasible and the most attractive of the six raw material/process combinations.

  4. A review of the surface features and properties, surfactant adsorption and floatability of four key minerals of diasporic bauxite resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Nguyen, Anh V; Zhou, Changchun

    2018-04-01

    Diasporic bauxite represents one of the major aluminum resources. Its upgrading for further processing involves a separation of diaspore (the valuable mineral) from aluminosilicates (the gangue minerals) such as kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite. Flotation is one of the most effective ways to realize the upgrading. Since flotation is a physicochemical process based on the difference in the surface hydrophobicity of different components, determining the adsorption characteristics of various flotation surfactants on the mineral surfaces is critical. The surfactant adsorption properties of the minerals, in turn, are controlled by the surface chemistry of the minerals, while the latter is related to the mineral crystal structures. In this paper, we first discuss the crystal structures of the four key minerals of diaspore, kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite as well as the broken bonds on their exposed surfaces after grinding. Next, we summarize the surface chemistry properties such as surface wettability and surface electrical properties of the four minerals, and the differences in these properties are explained from the perspective of mineral crystal structures. Then we review the adsorption mechanism and adsorption characteristics of surfactants such as collectors (cationic, anionic, and mixed surfactants), depressants (inorganic and organic), dispersants, and flocculants on these mineral surfaces. The separation of diaspore and aluminosilicates by direct flotation and reverse flotation are reviewed, and the collecting properties of different types of collectors are compared. Furthermore, the abnormal behavior of the cationic flotation of kaolinite is also explained in this section. This review provides a strong theoretical support for the optimization of the upgrading of diaspore bauxite ore by flotation and the early industrialization of the reverse flotation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. pH and Organic Carbon Dose Rates Control Microbially Driven Bioremediation Efficacy in Alkaline Bauxite Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Talitha C; Malcolm, Laura I; Tyson, Gene W; Warren, Lesley A

    2016-10-18

    Bioremediation of alkaline tailings, based on fermentative microbial metabolisms, is a novel strategy for achieving rapid pH neutralization and thus improving environmental outcomes associated with mining and refining activities. Laboratory-scale bioreactors containing bauxite residue (an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of alumina refining), to which a diverse microbial inoculum was added, were used in this study to identify key factors (pH, salinity, organic carbon supply) controlling the rates and extent of microbially driven pH neutralization (bioremediation) in alkaline tailings. Initial tailings pH and organic carbon dose rates both significantly affected bioremediation extent and efficiency with lower minimum pHs and higher extents of pH neutralization occurring under low initial pH or high organic carbon conditions. Rates of pH neutralization (up to 0.13 mM H + produced per day with pH decreasing from 9.5 to ≤6.5 in three days) were significantly higher in low initial pH treatments. Representatives of the Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which contain many known facultative anaerobes and fermenters, were identified as key contributors to 2,3-butanediol and/or mixed acid fermentation as the major mechanism(s) of pH neutralization. Initial pH and salinity significantly influenced microbial community successional trajectories, and microbial community structure was significantly related to markers of fermentation activity. This study provides the first experimental demonstration of bioremediation in bauxite residue, identifying pH and organic carbon dose rates as key controls on bioremediation efficacy, and will enable future development of bioreactor technologies at full field scale.

  6. Growth and nutritional status of Brazilian wood species Cedrella fissilis and Anadenanthera peregrina in bauxite spoil in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and substrate amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tótola Marcos Rogério

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Cedrella fissilis Vell. (Cedro Rosa and of Anadenanthera peregrina Benth (Angico Vermelho in bauxite spoil was studied to evaluate their response to substrate amendment or to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The plants were grown in bauxite spoil, topsoil or spoil amended with either topsoil or compost, and inoculated with the AMF Acaulospora scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita or Glomus etunicatum. Root colonization was highly dependent on the interaction plant-fungus-substrate. In C. fissilis, root colonization by Gigaspora margarita dropped from 75% in bauxite spoil to only 4% in topsoil. Contrarily, root colonization of A. peregrina by the same fungus increased from 48% in spoil to 60% in topsoil. Root colonization of C. fissilis in topsoil was lower than in the three other substrates. The opposite was observed for A. peregrina. Inoculation of the plants with Acaulospora scrobiculata or Glomus etunicatum was very effective in promoting plant growth. Plants of both C. fissilis and A. peregrina did not respond to amendments of bauxite spoil unless they were mycorrhizal. Also, a preferential partitioning of photosynthates to the shoots of A. peregrina inoculated with G. etunicatum or A. scrobiculata, and of C. fissilis inoculated with any of the three species of AMF was observed. C. fissilis showed a greater response to mycorrhizal inoculation than A. peregrina. The mean mycorrhizal efficiency (ME for dry matter production by C. fissilis was 1,847% for A. scrobiculata, 1,922% for G. etunicatum, and 119% for G. margarita. In A. peregrina, the ME was 249% for A. scrobiculata, 540% for G. etunicatum, and 50% for G. margarita. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on plant growth seems to be related in part to an enhanced phosphorus absorption by inoculated plants. Moreover, the efficiency with which the absorbed nutrients were used to produce plant biomass was much greater in plants inoculated with A. scrobiculata or

  7. Environment-oriented low-cost porous mullite ceramic membrane supports fabricated from coal gangue and bauxite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Qikai [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Dong, Xinfa [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Zhu, Zhiwen [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China); Dong, Yingchao, E-mail: ycdong@iue.ac.cn [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Coal gangue was recycled to fabricate low-cost porous mullite membrane supports. • A unique volume-expansion occurred due to a mullitization-crystal-growth process. • A porous structure consists of glassy particles and embedded mullite crystals. - Abstract: Porous mullite ceramic supports for filtration membrane were successfully fabricated via recycling of coal gangue and bauxite at sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1500 °C with corn starch as pore-forming agent. The dynamic sintering behaviors, phase evolution, shrinkage, porosity and pore size, gas permeation flux, microstructure and mechanical property were systematically studied. A unique volume-expansion stage was observed at increased temperatures from 1276 to 1481 °C caused by a mullitization-crystal-growth process. During this stage, open porosity increases and pore size distributions broaden, which result in a maximum of nitrogen gas flux at 1400 °C. The X-ray diffraction results reveal that secondary mullitization took place from 1100 °C and the major phase is mullite with a content of ∼84.7 wt.% at 1400 °C. SEM images show that the as-fabricated mullite supports have a porous microstructure composed of sintered glassy particles embedded with inter-locked mullite crystals, which grew gradually with increasing temperature from rod-like into blocky-like morphologies. To obtain mullite membrane supports with sufficient porosity and acceptable mechanical strength, the relationship between porosity and mechanical strength was investigated, which was fitted using a parabolic equation.

  8. Reliability analysis of mining equipment: A case study of a crushing plant at Jajarm Bauxite Mine in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabady, Javad; Kumar, Uday

    2008-01-01

    The performance of mining machines depends on the reliability of the equipment used, the operating environment, the maintenance efficiency, the operation process, the technical expertise of the miners, etc. As the size and complexity of mining equipments continue to increase, the implications of equipment failure become ever more critical. Therefore, reliability analysis is required to identify the bottlenecks in the system and to find the components or subsystems with low reliability for a given designed performance. It is important to select a suitable method for data collection as well as for reliability analysis. This paper presents a case study describing reliability and availability analysis of the crushing plant number 3 at Jajarm Bauxite Mine in Iran. In this study, the crushing plant number 3 is divided into six subsystems. The parameters of some probability distributions, such as Weibull, Exponential, and Lognormal distributions have been estimated by using ReliaSoft's Weibull++6 software. The results of the analysis show that the conveyer subsystem and secondary screen subsystem are critical from a reliability point of view, and the secondary crusher subsystem and conveyer subsystem are critical from an availability point of view. The study also shows that the reliability analysis is very useful for deciding maintenance intervals

  9. Formulation of calcium dialuminate (CaO·2Al2O3 refractory cement from local bauxite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Tchamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of bauxites containing aluminum hydroxide of 58.1% gibbsite and 19.3% boehmite for BX3, 95.5% of gibbsite for BX55 and 84.5% of gibbsite for BX8 were used with lime at 95% of CaO through solid state sintering in one stage to prepare a refractory clinker at 1550 °C. The powder obtained after grinding the clinker showed in the XRD curves the presence of CaO·2Al2O3 and CaO·TiO2 phases in the cement samples. The density of cement powder varied between 2.95 and 3.17 g/cm3 and the specific area of powder obtained after grinding was between 0.72 and 0.85 m2/g. The properties of hydrated cement, W/C = 0.33, after stabilization of cement components for 48 h at 105 °C were showed by XRD, DTA, DTG and SEM (C3AH6, AH3, CA2 and CaO·TiO2. The Young's modulus of the cement made varied between 35.5 and 39.4 GPa, and these Young's moduli were compared to conventional CA14M cement.

  10. Hydration mechanism and leaching behavior of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiaoming, E-mail: liuxm@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline regions in size of ∼5 nm were found in the amorphous C-A-S-H gel. • A hydration model was proposed to clarify the hydration mechanism. • The developed cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: A deep investigation on the hydration mechanism of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials was conducted from viewpoints of hydration products and hydration heat analysis. As a main hydration product, the microstructure of C-A-S-H gel was observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the C-A-S-H gel is composed of amorphous regions and nanocrystalline regions. Most of regions in the C-A-S-H gel are amorphous with continuous distribution, and the nanocrystalline regions on scale of ∼5 nm are dispersed irregularly within the amorphous regions. The hydration heat of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials is much lower than that of the ordinary Portland cement. A hydration model was proposed for this kind of cementitious materials, and the hydration process mainly consists of four stages which are dissolution of materials, formation of C-A-S-H gels and ettringite, cementation of hydration products, and polycondensation of C-A-S-H gels. There are no strict boundaries among these four basic stages, and they proceed crossing each other. Moreover, the leaching toxicity tests were also performed to prove that the developed red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable.

  11. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2018-04-01

    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  12. Environment-oriented low-cost porous mullite ceramic membrane supports fabricated from coal gangue and bauxite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qikai; Dong, Xinfa; Zhu, Zhiwen; Dong, Yingchao

    2014-05-30

    Porous mullite ceramic supports for filtration membrane were successfully fabricated via recycling of coal gangue and bauxite at sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1500°C with corn starch as pore-forming agent. The dynamic sintering behaviors, phase evolution, shrinkage, porosity and pore size, gas permeation flux, microstructure and mechanical property were systematically studied. A unique volume-expansion stage was observed at increased temperatures from 1276 to 1481°C caused by a mullitization-crystal-growth process. During this stage, open porosity increases and pore size distributions broaden, which result in a maximum of nitrogen gas flux at 1400°C. The X-ray diffraction results reveal that secondary mullitization took place from 1100°C and the major phase is mullite with a content of ∼84.7wt.% at 1400°C. SEM images show that the as-fabricated mullite supports have a porous microstructure composed of sintered glassy particles embedded with inter-locked mullite crystals, which grew gradually with increasing temperature from rod-like into blocky-like morphologies. To obtain mullite membrane supports with sufficient porosity and acceptable mechanical strength, the relationship between porosity and mechanical strength was investigated, which was fitted using a parabolic equation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Methodology of reducing rock bump hazard during room and rillar mining of North Ural deep bauxite deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. В. Сидоров

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes practical experience of using room and pillar mining (RAPM under conditions of deep horizons and dynamic overburden pressure. It was identified that methods of rock pressure control efficient at high horizons do not meet safety requirements when working at existing depths, that is explained by changes in geodynamic processes during mining. With deeper depth, the geodynamic processes become more intensive and number of pillar and roof failures increase. When working at 800 m the breakage of mine structures became massive and unpredictable, which paused a question of development and implementation of tools for compliance assessment of used elements of RAPM and mining, geological, technical and geodynamic conditions of North Ural bauxite deposits and further development of guidelines for safe mining under conditions of deep horizons and dynamic rock pressure.It describes reasons of mine structure failures in workings depending on natural and man-caused factors, determines possible hazards and objects of geomechanic support. It also includes compliance assessment of tools used for calculations of RAPM structures, forecast and measures for rock tectonic bursts at mines of OAO “Sevuralboksitruda” (SUBR. It describes modernization and development of new geomechanic support of RAPM considering natural and technogenic hazards. The article presents results of experimental testing of new parameters of RAPM construction elements of SUBR mines. It has data on industrial implementation of developed regulatory and guideline documents at these mines for identification of valid parameters of RAPM elements at deep depths.

  14. Feasibility analysis of As(III) removal in a continuous flow fixed bed system by modified calcined bauxite (MCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhakat, P.B.; Gupta, A.K.; Ayoob, S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examine the feasibility of As(III) removal from aqueous environment by an adsorbent, modified calcined bauxite (MCB) in a continuous flow fixed bed system. MCB exhibited excellent adsorption capacity of 520.2 mg/L (0.39 mg/g) with an adsorption rate constant 0.7658 L/mg h for an influent As(III) concentration of 1 mg/L. In a 2 cm diameter continuous flow fixed MCB bed, a depth of only 1.765 cm was found necessary to produce effluent As(III) concentration of 0.01 mg/L, from an influent of 1 mg/L at a flow rate of 8 mL/min. Also, bed heights of 10, 20, and 30 cm could treat 427.85, 473.88 and 489.17 bed volumes of water, respectively, to breakthrough. A reduction in adsorption capacity of MCB was observed with increase in flow rates. The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different flow rates and influent As(III) concentrations had shown good correlation with the corresponding experimental values. The theoretical breakthrough curve developed from constantly mixed batch reactor (CMBR) isotherm data also correlated well with experimental breakthrough curve

  15. Nano-mineralogy and -geochemistry of high-grade diasporic karst-type bauxite from Parnassos-Ghiona mines, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkamaletsos, Platon; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Kasama, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    and electron microscopy in microscale and mesoscale (SEM-EDS including STEM mode), proved the presence of “Fe-Cr-Ti-containing diaspore”, anatase and minor rutile. The study by means of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, in correlation with magnetic susceptibility measurements and, complemented, with Synchrotron......In the present work, a combination of various techniques is utilized for the study of nano-mineralogy and -geochemistry of high-grade karst-type bauxite (Al-rich and Fe-depleted samples; Al2O3 ca. 80 wt.%) from the Parnassos-Ghiona mines located in Greece. Initial characterization using PXRD......-based spectroscopies at the microscale (SR micro-XRF and micro-XANES/-EXAFS), indicated that Fe3+, in contrast to [6]Cr3+, is not exclusively a component of the diaspore structure. While Cr3 + substitutes Al3 + in octahedral sites of diaspore ([6]Cr3+ ↔ [6]Al3+), the electron microscopy in nanoscale (TEM-EDS & EELS...

  16. Hydration mechanism and leaching behavior of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline regions in size of ∼5 nm were found in the amorphous C-A-S-H gel. • A hydration model was proposed to clarify the hydration mechanism. • The developed cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: A deep investigation on the hydration mechanism of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials was conducted from viewpoints of hydration products and hydration heat analysis. As a main hydration product, the microstructure of C-A-S-H gel was observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the C-A-S-H gel is composed of amorphous regions and nanocrystalline regions. Most of regions in the C-A-S-H gel are amorphous with continuous distribution, and the nanocrystalline regions on scale of ∼5 nm are dispersed irregularly within the amorphous regions. The hydration heat of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials is much lower than that of the ordinary Portland cement. A hydration model was proposed for this kind of cementitious materials, and the hydration process mainly consists of four stages which are dissolution of materials, formation of C-A-S-H gels and ettringite, cementation of hydration products, and polycondensation of C-A-S-H gels. There are no strict boundaries among these four basic stages, and they proceed crossing each other. Moreover, the leaching toxicity tests were also performed to prove that the developed red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable.

  17. Improvement of CBR and compaction characteristics of bauxite rich dispersive soils available in pakistan: a case study of khushab soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of dispersive soil occurs when it comes in contact with water and clay particles deflocculate and disperse away from each other. Thus dispersive soils undergo erosion under low seepage velocity leading to instability problems of slopes and earth retaining structures. The amount of dispersion depends upon the mineralogy and geochemistry of clayey soil as well as the dissolved salts of the pore fluid. The dispersivity of the soil mainly depends on the amount of exchangeable sodium present in its formation. Under saturated conditions, the attractive forces are less than the repulsive forces and this will help the particles to disperse and go into colloidal suspension. The use of chemical stabilizers such as lime and cement to bind the clay particles and reduce the dispersivity of soil and to improve the compaction and CBR characteristics of bauxite rich dispersive soil present in Khushab district have been studied in this research. Soil behavior was studied after addition of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% Lime and Cement, at optimum level of 6% for Lime and Cement; it has been observed that the CBR and compaction characteristics of Khushab soil have been improved. (author)

  18. Sorptive removal of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from water by unconventional sorbents. 1. Usage of bauxite wastes (red muds)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apak, R.; Atun, G.; Gueclue, K.; Tuetem, E.; Keskin, G. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-01

    Bauxite wastes of alumina manufacture, i.e., red muds, have been tested for radiocesium and strontium removal from water. The red muds were water-washed, acid-, and heat-treated before usage to produce hydrous oxide like sorbents. Surface treatment of the sorbent was beneficial for {sup 137}Cs uptake, while heat-treatment was detrimental to the -SOH surface sites responsible for high {sup 90}Sr affinity. Fractionation of the sorbent with respect to apparent grain size did not produce significant differences in the sorption efficiency. The distribution coefficients vs. equilibrium activity in solution showed a maximum with Cs, and a gradual decrease trend with Sr. The solution activity vs. adsorption data were fitted to B.E.T. (essentially types IV-V) isotherms for Cs and B.E.T.-Langmuir isotherms for Sr. Desorption, temperature-, pH-, and ionic strength-dependence tests revealed that the primary mode of sorption for both cations is specific adsorption while the secondary mode is ion exchange. A rise in pH favours the ion-exchange sorption of Sr while the specific adsorption of Cs is negatively affected. Competitive adsorption of an inert electrolyte, i.e., NaCl, severely hinders Cs sorption, while Sr sorption on water-washed red mud is not significantly affected. (author).

  19. Sorptive removal of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from water by unconventional sorbents. 1. Usage of bauxite wastes (red muds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apak, R.; Atun, G.; Gueclue, K.; Tuetem, E.; Keskin, G.

    1995-01-01

    Bauxite wastes of alumina manufacture, i.e., red muds, have been tested for radiocesium and strontium removal from water. The red muds were water-washed, acid-, and heat-treated before usage to produce hydrous oxide like sorbents. Surface treatment of the sorbent was beneficial for 137 Cs uptake, while heat-treatment was detrimental to the -SOH surface sites responsible for high 90 Sr affinity. Fractionation of the sorbent with respect to apparent grain size did not produce significant differences in the sorption efficiency. The distribution coefficients vs. equilibrium activity in solution showed a maximum with Cs, and a gradual decrease trend with Sr. The solution activity vs. adsorption data were fitted to B.E.T. (essentially types IV-V) isotherms for Cs and B.E.T.-Langmuir isotherms for Sr. Desorption, temperature-, pH-, and ionic strength-dependence tests revealed that the primary mode of sorption for both cations is specific adsorption while the secondary mode is ion exchange. A rise in pH favours the ion-exchange sorption of Sr while the specific adsorption of Cs is negatively affected. Competitive adsorption of an inert electrolyte, i.e., NaCl, severely hinders Cs sorption, while Sr sorption on water-washed red mud is not significantly affected. (author)

  20. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  1. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Enterline, P E; Sussman, N B; Bonney, T B; Rippey, L L

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure.

  2. On the Origin of Bastnaesite-(La,Nd,Y in the Nissi (Patitira Bauxite Laterite Deposit, Lokris, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kalatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed geochemical study and a thorough mineralogical description of the rare-earth elements (REE-minerals and associated minerals were carried out in two vertical profiles of approximately 4 m length, from the Nissi (Patitira bauxite laterite deposit, Lokris, Greece, characterized by the presence of goethite in small sizes resembling bacterial cell coated by goethite and a significant REE enrichment. The enrichment of the REE concentrated in bastnaesite-group minerals, the intergrowths between REE-minerals and Al–Ni–silicates with significant sulfur contents and their association with goethite microtextures interpreted as bacteriomorphic, indicate REE remobilization along with iron bio-leaching and re-precipitation on karstified limestone. In addition to the previous-reported hydroxylbastnaesites, a (La,Nd,Y(CO3F member of the bastnaesite-group associated with Al–Ni–silicates were identified, the stability of which may reflect the dependence on the source rocks and the local variations of pH-Eh. Interaction between downward percolating water and carbonate rocks seems to be a very effective mechanism for REE fluorocarbonates deposition under alkaline and reducing conditions.

  3. Influence of organic waste and residue mud additions on chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite residue sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin E H; Haynes, Richard J; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    In an alumina refinery, bauxite ore is treated with sodium hydroxide at high temperatures and pressures and for every tone of alumina produced, about 2 tones of alkaline, saline bauxite processing waste is also produced. At Alcoa, a dry stacking system of disposal is used, and it is the sand fraction of the processing waste that is rehabilitated. There is little information available regarding the most appropriate amendments to add to the processing sand to aid in revegetation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the addition of organic wastes (biosolids and poultry manure), in the presence or absence of added residue mud, would affect the properties of the residue sand and its suitability for revegetation. Samples of freshly deposited residue sand were collected from Alcoa's Kwinana refinery. Samples were treated with phosphogypsum (2% v/v), incubated, and leached. A laboratory experiment was then set up in which the two organic wastes were applied at 0 or the equivalent to 60 tones ha(-1) in combination with residue mud added at rates of 0%, 10% and 20% v/v. Samples were incubated for 8 weeks, after which, key chemical, physical and microbial properties of the residue sand were measured along with seed germination. Additions of residue mud increased exchangeable Na(+), ESP and the pH, and HCO (3) (-) and Na(+) concentrations in saturation paste extracts. Additions of biosolids and poultry manure increased concentrations of extractable P, NH (4) (+) , K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. Addition of residue mud, in combination with organic wastes, caused a marked decrease in macroporosity and a concomitant increase in mesoporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. With increasing residue mud additions, the percentage of sample present as sand particles (2 mm diameter) increased; greatest aggregation occurred where a combination of residue mud and poultry manure were added. Stability of aggregates, as measured by

  4. Contrasting physiological responses of two co-occurring eucalypts to seasonal drought at restored bauxite mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Koch, John M; Lambers, Hans; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the physiological response of two co-occurring tree species (Eucalyptus marginata and Corymbia calophylla) to seasonal drought at low- and high-quality restored bauxite mine sites in south-western Australia. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf water potential (ψ), leaf osmotic potential (ψ), leaf relative water content (RWC) and pressure-volume analysis were captured over an 18-month field study to (i) determine the nature and severity of physiological stress in relation to site quality and (ii) identify any physiological differences between the two species. Root system restriction at the low-quality site reduced maximum rates of gas exchange (g(s) and A) and increased water stress (midday ψ and daily RWC) in both species during drought. Both species showed high stomatal sensitivity during drought; however, E. marginata demonstrated a higher dehydration tolerance where ψ and RWC fell to -3.2 MPa and 73% compared with -2.4 MPa and 80% for C. calophylla. Corymbia calophylla showed lower g(s) and higher ψ and RWC during drought, indicating higher drought tolerance. Pressure-volume curves showed that cell-wall elasticity of E. marginata leaves increased in response to drought, while C. calophylla leaves showed lower osmotic potential at zero turgor in summer than in winter, indicating osmotic adjustment. Both species are clearly able to tolerate seasonal drought at hostile sites; however, by C. calophylla closing stomata earlier in the drought cycle, maintaining a higher water status during drought and having the additional mechanism of osmotic adjustment, it may have a greater capacity to survive extended periods of drought.

  5. Radiographic abnormalities in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, M.C.; Sussman, N.B.; Enterline, P.E.; Morgan, W.K.; Belk, H.D.; Dinman, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 788 male employees of an aluminum production company examined the relationship of radiographic abnormalities to smoking and dust exposure from the mining and refining of bauxite to alumina. Among the aluminas produced were low temperature range transitional forms. The present analyses were limited to nonsmokers and current smokers. Two National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified B readers interpreted the radiographs. The predominant radiographic abnormalities noted were scanty, small, irregular opacities in the lower zones of profusion 0/1 to 1/1. Rounded opacities were rare. Among nonsmokers with low dust exposures, the prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0 showed no trend with increasing age and duration of exposure, suggesting no relationship between age and prevalence of opacities of Category 1 or more in this cohort (p greater than 0.10). Nonsmokers who had accumulated higher dust exposures showed a trend of increasing prevalence of opacities with increasing duration, suggesting an effect of occupational exposure at higher cumulative exposure levels (p less than 0.05). In most exposure categories, smokers exceeded nonsmokers in their prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0; the overall prevalence among smokers being 12 and 11% according to Readers A and B, respectively, compared with 4% in nonsmokers (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, 7 to 8% of aluminum workers in this cohort had radiographic findings of scanty, small, irregular opacities, the prevalence of which was increased among smokers (p less than 0.01). There was a moderate increase in the prevalence of opacities with increasing tenure in nonsmokers with high cumulative exposures (p less than 0.05)

  6. Architectural plasticity in young Eucalyptus marginata on restored bauxite mines and adjacent natural forest in south-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleby, Timothy M; Colquhoun, Ian J; Adams, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    The aboveground architecture of Eucalyptus marginata (Jarrah) was investigated in chronosequences of young trees (2.5, 5 and 10 m height) growing in a seasonally dry climate in a natural forest environment with intact soils, and on adjacent restored bauxite mine sites on soils with highly modified A and B horizons above an intact C horizon. Compared to forest trees, trees on restored sites were much younger and faster growing, with straighter, more clearly defined main stems and deeper, narrower crowns containing a greater number of branches that were longer, thinner and more vertically angled. Trees on restored sites also had a higher fraction of biomass in leaves than forest trees, as indicated by 20-25% thicker leaves, 30-70% greater leaf area, 10-30% greater leaf area to sapwood area ratios and 5-30% lesser branch Huber values. Differences in crown architecture and biomass distribution were consistent with putatively greater soil-water, nutrient and light availability on restored sites. Our results demonstrate that under the same climatic conditions, E. marginata displays a high degree of plasticity of aboveground architecture in response to the net effects of resource availability and soil environment. These differences in architecture are likely to have functional consequences in relation to tree hydraulics and growth that, on larger scales, is likely to affect the water and carbon balances of restored forest ecosystems. This study highlights substrate as a significant determinant of tree architecture in water-limited environments. It further suggests that the architecture of young trees on restored sites may need to change again if they are to survive likely longer-term changes in resource availability.

  7. Microbial and geochemical assessment of bauxitic un-mined and post-mined chronosequence soils from Mocho Mountains, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dawn E; Chauhan, Ashvini; White, John R; Overholt, Will; Green, Stefan J; Jasrotia, Puja; Wafula, Denis; Jagoe, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Microorganisms are very sensitive to environmental change and can be used to gauge anthropogenic impacts and even predict restoration success of degraded environments. Here, we report assessment of bauxite mining activities on soil biogeochemistry and microbial community structure using un-mined and three post-mined sites in Jamaica. The post-mined soils represent a chronosequence, undergoing restoration since 1987, 1997, and 2007. Soils were collected during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for pH, organic matter (OM), total carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), and phosphorus. The microbial community structure was assessed through quantitative PCR and massively parallel bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Edaphic factors and microbial community composition were analyzed using multivariate statistical approaches and revealed a significant, negative impact of mining on soil that persisted even after greater than 20 years of restoration. Seasonal fluctuations contributed to variation in measured soil properties and community composition, but they were minor in comparison to long-term effects of mining. In both seasons, post-mined soils were higher in pH but OM, TC, and TN decreased. Bacterial rRNA gene analyses demonstrated a general decrease in diversity in post-mined soils and up to a 3-log decrease in rRNA gene abundance. Community composition analyses demonstrated that bacteria from the Proteobacteria (α, β, γ, δ), Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes were abundant in all soils. The abundance of Firmicutes was elevated in newer post-mined soils relative to the un-mined soil, and this contrasted a decrease, relative to un-mined soils, in proteobacterial and acidobacterial rRNA gene abundances. Our study indicates long-lasting impacts of mining activities to soil biogeochemical and microbial properties with impending loss in soil productivity.

  8. Grade Distribution Modeling within the Bauxite Seams of the Wachangping Mine, China, Using a Multi-Step Interpolation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mineral reserve estimation and mining design depend on a precise modeling of the mineralized deposit. A multi-step interpolation algorithm, including 1D biharmonic spline estimator for interpolating floor altitudes, 2D nearest neighbor, linear, natural neighbor, cubic, biharmonic spline, inverse distance weighted, simple kriging, and ordinary kriging interpolations for grade distribution on the two vertical sections at roadways, and 3D linear interpolation for grade distribution between sections, was proposed to build a 3D grade distribution model of the mineralized seam in a longwall mining panel with a U-shaped layout having two roadways at both sides. Compared to field data from exploratory boreholes, this multi-step interpolation using a natural neighbor method shows an optimal stability and a minimal difference between interpolation and field data. Using this method, the 97,576 m3 of bauxite, in which the mass fraction of Al2O3 (Wa and the mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 (Wa/s are 61.68% and 27.72, respectively, was delimited from the 189,260 m3 mineralized deposit in the 1102 longwall mining panel in the Wachangping mine, Southwest China. The mean absolute errors, the root mean squared errors and the relative standard deviations of errors between interpolated data and exploratory grade data at six boreholes are 2.544, 2.674, and 32.37% of Wa; and 1.761, 1.974, and 67.37% of Wa/s, respectively. The proposed method can be used for characterizing the grade distribution in a mineralized seam between two roadways at both sides of a longwall mining panel.

  9. Radiographic abnormalities in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Sussman, N B; Enterline, P E; Morgan, W K; Belk, H D; Dinman, B D

    1988-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of 788 male employees of an aluminum production company examined the relationship of radiographic abnormalities to smoking and dust exposure from the mining and refining of bauxite to alumina. Among the aluminas produced were low temperature range transitional forms. The present analyses were limited to nonsmokers and current smokers. Two National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified "B" readers interpreted the radiographs. The predominant radiographic abnormalities noted were scanty, small, irregular opacities in the lower zones of profusion 0/1 to 1/1. Rounded opacities were rare. Among nonsmokers with low dust exposures, the prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0 showed no trend with increasing age and duration of exposure, suggesting no relationship between age and prevalence of opacities of Category 1 or more in this cohort (p greater than 0.10). Nonsmokers who had accumulated higher dust exposures showed a trend of increasing prevalence of opacities with increasing duration, suggesting an effect of occupational exposure at higher cumulative exposure levels (p less than 0.05). In most exposure categories, smokers exceeded nonsmokers in their prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0; the overall prevalence among smokers being 12 and 11% according to Readers A and B, respectively, compared with 4% in nonsmokers (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, 7 to 8% of aluminum workers in this cohort had radiographic findings of scanty, small, irregular opacities, the prevalence of which was increased among smokers (p less than 0.01). There was a moderate increase in the prevalence of opacities with increasing tenure in nonsmokers with high cumulative exposures (p less than 0.05).

  10. Amelioration of bauxite residue sand by intermittent additions of nitrogen fertiliser and leaching fractions: The effect on growth of kikuyu grass and fate of applied nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjot; Phillips, Ian; Fey, Martin V

    2016-04-15

    Bauxite residue, a waste product of aluminium processing operations is characterised by high pH, salinity and exchangeable sodium which hinders sustainable plant growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake form, optimum application rate and timing of nitrogen fertiliser to improve bauxite residue characteristics for plant growth. Kikuyu grass was grown in plastic columns filled with residue sand/carbonated residue mud mixture (20:1) previously amended with gypsum, phosphoric acid and basal nutrients. The experiment was set up as a 4×4 factorial design comprising four levels of applied nitrogen (N) fertiliser (0, 3, 6 and 12mgNkg(-1) residue) and four frequencies of leaching (16, 8 and 4day intervals). We hypothesised that the use of ammonium sulfate fertiliser would increase retention of N within the rhizosphere thereby encouraging more efficient fertiliser use. We found that N uptake by kikuyu grass was enhanced due to leaching of excess salts and alkalinity from the residue profile. It was also concluded that biomass production and associated N uptake by kikuyu grass grown in residue is dependent on the type of fertiliser used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies of mineralogy and geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in permo-Triassic Bauxite deposit, Northeast of Bukan, North West of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedini, A.; Calagari, A. A.; Hadjalilu, B.; Jahangiri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bauxite deposit of Permo-Triassic age in northeast of Bukan was developed stratiformly along the boundary between Ruteh and Elika formations, and includes four distinct rock units. This deposit was affected by tectonic and morphological processes. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations showed that during weathering processes, two mechanisms of ferrugenization and deferrugenization played crucial role in formation of minerals such as Diaspora, boehmite, hematite, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, clinochlore, illite, montmorillonite, anatase, rutile, albite, sanidine, quartz, and calcite in this deposit. By taking notice of field evidence and of mineralogical and geochemical data, the basalts (whose remnants are still present along the contact of this deposit with carbonate bedrock) are the potential parent rock of this deposit. The distribution pattern of rare earth elements (normalized to chondrite and basaltic parent rock) along with anomaly variations of Eu, Ce, and (La/Yb) N indicates differentiation of LREEs from HREEs during bauxitization processes. Further geochemical considerations indicate that the concentrations of LREEs were occurred by hematite, goethite, manganese oxides, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (rhabdophane, vitusite, gorceixite, monazite) and of HREEs by clay minerals; rutile, anatase, zircon, euxenite, and fergusonite. Incorporation of the results obtained from mineralogical and geochemical investigations suggests that in addition to factors such as p H of weathering solutions, ionic potential, composition of the parent rock, and fixation by residual minerals, adsorption processes also played crucial role in enrichment of rare earth elements during moderate to intense lateritization in the study area

  12. Determination of Leacheability of U, Th and Heavy Metals of Water Leached Purification (WLP) Residue and Soil from Bauxite Mining Area using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aminah Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to analyse the leachability of U, Th and heavy metals Cu, Cd, As, Pb, Mn, Zn, Ba, Se, Cr and Fe of water leached purification (WLP) residue gathered from Lynas Malaysia Sdn Bhd and soil from bauxite mining area, Kuantan. Their toxicity was assessed using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The concentration of the elements studied was analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results from the analysis indicated that the concentrations for all the elements studied in this project are well below than the TCLP regulatory limit. The concentrations of U and Th in leached solution were between 0.01 - 0.20 Bq/ kg. The concentrations of the multi elements were mostly between 0.02 - 1471 μg/ l, but certain elements such as Fe had concentration as high as 4707 μg/ l. Hence, it can be concluded that the WLP residue from Lynas and soil from bauxite mining area are very stable in the environment and does not pose any environmental problem. (author)

  13. on bauxite in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    In comparison, the kinetics for As(III) adsorption was initially fast but then dropped ..... Handbook of elemental speciation ii: Species in the environment, food, medicine ... Leaching of chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives: A review.

  14. Exergoecology: A thermodynamic approach for accounting the Earth's mineral capital. The case of bauxite-aluminium and limestone-lime chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Antonio; Valero, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    As man extracts minerals, the natural deposits become depleted in quantity and concentration, and hence the mineral wealth of the Earth decreases. This paper explains the exergoecological method used for calculating the mineral exergy bonus that Nature gives us for free for providing minerals concentrated in mines and not dispersed in the Earth's crust. The method is based on two concepts: Exergy and the Exergy cost. Exergy measures the minimum (reversible) work required to extract and concentrate the materials from a Reference Environment (RE) to the conditions found in Nature. This RE can be approximated to a completely degraded crepuscular planet with the absence of fossil fuels and mineral deposits. And the exergy cost accounts for the actual exergy required for accomplishing the same process with available technologies. These costs are complementary to the conventional extraction, land-recovering, processing and refining costs. The case studies of two industrial chains: bauxite-alumina-aluminium, and limestone-calcite-lime are presented and discussed. As the method provides values in energy units, the annual exergy decrease in the mineral endowment of the planet due to the extraction of minerals can now take into account the fossil fuel's exergy as well as the non-fuel mineral exergy costs.

  15. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Na [Green Construction Materials and Circulation Economy Center, Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Yao, Yuan, E-mail: yuanyaocas@163.com [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Al{sup IV} and Al{sup VI} both exist in the hydration products. • Increase of Ca/Si ratio promotes the conversion from [AlO{sub 4}] to [AlO{sub 6}]. • Polymerization degree of [SiO{sub 4}] in the hydration products declines. -- Abstract: In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si + Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al{sup IV} and Al{sup VI}, but mainly in the form of Al{sup VI}. Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO{sub 4}] to [AlO{sub 6}] and inhibits the combination between [AlO{sub 4}] and [SiO{sub 4}] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO{sub 4}] in the hydration products declines.

  16. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na; Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan

    2013-11-15

    In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, (27)Al MAS NMR and (29)Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si+Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al(IV) and Al(VI), but mainly in the form of Al(VI). Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO4] to [AlO6] and inhibits the combination between [AlO4] and [SiO4] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO4] in the hydration products declines. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na; Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Al IV and Al VI both exist in the hydration products. • Increase of Ca/Si ratio promotes the conversion from [AlO 4 ] to [AlO 6 ]. • Polymerization degree of [SiO 4 ] in the hydration products declines. -- Abstract: In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, 27 Al MAS NMR and 29 Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si + Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al IV and Al VI , but mainly in the form of Al VI . Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO 4 ] to [AlO 6 ] and inhibits the combination between [AlO 4 ] and [SiO 4 ] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO 4 ] in the hydration products declines

  18. Addition of an organic amendment and/or residue mud to bauxite residue sand in order to improve its properties as a growth medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    The effects of addition of carbonated residue mud (RMC) or seawater neutralized residue mud (RMS), at two rates, in the presence or absence of added green waste compost, on the chemical, physical and microbial properties of gypsum-treated bauxite residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. The growth of two species commonly used in revegetation of residue sand (Lolium rigidum and Acacia saligna) in the treatments was then studied in a 18-week greenhouse study. Addition of green waste-based compost increased ammonium acetate-extractable (exchangeable) Mg, K and Na. Addition of residue mud at 5 and 10% w/w reduced exchangeable Ca but increased that of Mg and Na (and K for RMS). Concentrations of K, Na, Mg and level of EC in saturation paste extracts were increased by residue mud additions. Concentrations of cations in water extracts were considerably higher than those in saturation paste extracts but trends with treatment were broadly similar. Addition of both compost and residue mud caused a significant decrease in macroporosity with a concomitant increase in mesoporosity and microporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. Increasing rates of added residue mud reduced the percentage of sample present as discrete sand particles and increased that in aggregated form (particularly in the 1-2 and >10mm diameter ranges). Organic C content, C/N ratio, soluble organic C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were increased by compost additions. Where compost was added, residue mud additions caused a substantial increase in microbial biomass and basal respiration. L. rigidum grew satisfactorily in all treatments although yields tended to be reduced by additions of mud (especially RMC) particularly in the absence of added compost. Growth of A. saligna was poor in sand alone and mud-amended sand and was greatly promoted by additions of compost. However, in the presence of compost, addition of carbonated

  19. Accuracy Assessment of Geometrical Elements for Setting-Out in Horizontal Plane of Conveying Chambers at the Bauxite Mine "KOSTURI" Srebrenica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Aleksandar; Ganić, Aleksandar; Tokalić, Rade

    2014-03-01

    Setting-out of objects on the exploitation field of the mine, both in surface mining and in the underground mines, is determined by the specified setting-out accuracy of reference points, which are best to define spatial position of the object projected. For the purpose of achieving of the specified accuracy, it is necessary to perform a priori accuracy assessment of parameters, which are to be used when performing setting-out. Based on the a priori accuracy assessment, verification of the quality of geometrical setting- -out elements specified in the layout; definition of the accuracy for setting-out of geometrical elements; selection of setting-out method; selection at the type and class of instruments and tools that need to be applied in order to achieve predefined accuracy. The paper displays the accuracy assessment of geometrical elements for setting-out of the main haul gallery, haul downcast and helical conveying downcasts in shape of an inclined helix in horizontal plane, using the example of the underground bauxite mine »Kosturi«, Srebrenica. Wytyczanie obiektów na polu wydobywczym w kopalniach, zarówno podziemnych jak i odkrywkowych, zależy w dużej mierze od określonej dokładności wytyczania punktów referencyjnych, przy pomocy których określane jest następnie położenie przestrzenne pozostałych obiektów. W celu uzyskania założonej dokładności, należy przeprowadzić wstępną analizę dokładności oszacowania parametrów które następnie wykorzystane będą w procesie wytyczania. W oparciu o wyniki wstępnej analizy dokładności dokonuje się weryfikacji jakości geometrycznego wytyczenia elementów zaznaczonych na szkicu, uwzględniając te wyniki dobrać należy odpowiednią metodę wytyczania i rodzaj oraz klasę wykorzystywanych narzędzi i instrumentów, tak by osiągnąć założony poziom dokładności. W pracy przedstawiono oszacowanie dokładności wytyczania elementów geometrycznych dla głównego chodnika transportowego

  20. Variation of biometric parameters and C, N, and P concentrations of Oryza glumaepatula at different depths of an amazonian lake impacted by bauxite tailings (Lake Batata, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ENRICH-PRAST

    Full Text Available Lake Batata is a typical Amazonian clear water lake which has undergone anthropogenic impacts. Thirty percent of its total area has been covered with bauxite tailings. Thus, it is possible to distinguish two areas in this ecosystem: the impacted and the natural. The goal of this research was to study C, N, and P content variation and the values of biomass, length, density, and culm diameter of Oryza glumaepatula at different depths in the natural and impacted areas of Lake Batata. The results obtained in this research suggest that the availability of P and N, in both water and sediment, is lower at the shallow site when compared to the deeper sites. On the other hand, C concentrations decreased as P and N concentrations increased. This may be explained by the structural function of C in aquatic macrophytes. At shallower sites, due to the reduced water column, individuals invest in supporting structures that display high C concentrations. The higher density and biomass of O. glumaepatula at the intermediate site indicate that this area presents the best conditions for germination and establishment of individuals of this species. The chemical composition and biometric parameters of O. glumaepatula have shown that this population has higher spatial variation in the natural area. In the impacted area, the absence of significant variations in N and P concentrations in O. glumaepatula among the three sampled sites promotes higher homogeneity in the stands. The high C:P and N:P ratios indicate that, in the impacted area, P is more limiting to the development of O. glumaepatula than it is in the natural area. The reduced values of biomass and density of O. glumaepatula in the impacted area suggest that the bauxite tailings limit the development of this population.

  1. Towards an impact assessment of bauxite red mud waste on the knowledge of the structure and functions of bathyal ecosystems: The example of the Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Since 1967, the alumina plants in the Marseilles area (Barasse and Gardanne) have been discharging the mineral residue (i.e., red mud) resulting from the alkaline processing of bauxite into the submarine Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea) through pipes situated at 320-330 m in depth. The Barasse pipe stopped being used in 1988. From 1987 to 1996, many decrees and regulations were promulgated by the French State to rule the conditions under which the Gardanne alumina refinery was authorized to dispose of the bauxite residue in the sea. The refinery was required: (i) to study the hydrodynamic circulation in the Cassidaigne canyon to evaluate the potential dispersion and transport of fine elements discharged into the water mass and their impact on the pelagic ecosystem; (ii) to survey the marine environment every five years to control the expansion and thickness of the red mud deposit and compare the evolution of the benthic macrofauna at representative sampling sites in the environment affected by the red mud discharge with that of reference sites outside of the red mud plume; (iii) to study the effect of the discharge on fishing activities; and (iv) to investigate the toxicity of the red mud, particularly its persistence, accumulation, interaction and effect on the marine ecosystem, paying special attention to the bio-accumulation of chromium and vanadium. A Scientific Committee was created to insure an independent evaluation of the studies promised by the manufacturer in response to the State's regulations. Since the beginning of the 1960s, data have been accumulating on the structure and long-term functioning of the Cassidaigne bathyal ecosystem. This paper presents the collaborative efforts of the State-Manufacturer-Committee triplet and summarizes the main results obtained during the last period's sea campaigns (1991-2007). This paper also illustrates how national regulations concerning manufacturers, such as Gardanne alumina refinery, have

  2. Characterization of bauxite residue (red mud) for 235U, 238U, 232Th and 40K using neutron activation analysis and the radiation dose levels as modeled by MCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Sharp, A; Wang, S; Pontikes, Y; Tkaczyk, A H

    2017-07-01

    This study employs thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) to quantitatively and specifically determine absorption dose rates to various body parts from uranium, thorium and potassium. Specifically, a case study of bauxite residue (red mud) from an industrial facility was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the NAA approach for radiological safety assessment, using small sample sizes to ascertain the activities of 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. This proof-of-concept was shown to produce reliable results and a similar approach could be used for quantitative assessment of other samples with possible radiological significance. 238 U and 232 Th were determined by epithermal and thermal neutron activation analysis, respectively. 235 U was determined based on the known isotopic ratio of 238 U/ 235 U. 40 K was also determined using epithermal neutron activation analysis to measure total potassium content and then subtracting its isotopic contribution. Furthermore, the work demonstrates the application of Monte Carlo Neutral-Particle (MCNP) simulations to estimate the radiation dose from large quantities of red mud, to assure the safety of humans and the surrounding environment. Phantoms were employed to observe the dose distribution throughout the human body demonstrating radiation effects on each individual organ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estudo da ativação ácida e tratamento térmico de bauxita extraída de jazidas em Minas Gerais, Brasil Study of acid activation and thermal treatment of bauxite extracted from deposits in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. R. Prado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores mundiais de bauxita, contudo pouco se conhece sobre as características químicas e mineralógicas desse mineral. Assim sendo, este trabalho tem por objetivo dar prosseguimento à caracterização de bauxita, estudando as transformações ocorridas nesse material quando submetido à ativação ácida e ao tratamento térmico. Os resultados demonstraram que a bauxita "in natura" é composta basicamente pelo mineral gibbsita, seguido de semicristalitos de goethita e óxido de silício, apresentando característica de sólido com ausência de mesoporosidade, com baixos valores de área superficial total, diâmetro e volume de poros. As modificações químicas e físicas que ocorrem no material durante a calcinação são governadas, principalmente, pela desidratação das fases de hidróxidos de alumínio presentes, levando à formação das fases boehmita, hematita e alfa alumina, além de resultar em aumento na porosidade e na área superficial da bauxita. As bauxitas ativadas em meio ácido mostraram que as transformações sofridas no sólido estão diretamente relacionadas com a concentração da solução ácida utilizada e resultam em aumento da área superficial total, diâmetro e volume de poros.Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of bauxite. Little is known, however, about the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of Brazilian bauxite. The objective of this paper is to characterize bauxite in both natural and thermally and chemically activated forms. The transformations occurring during these two processes are described. The results show that the raw bauxite is basically composed of the mineral gibbsite, followed by semicrystalites of goethite and silicon oxide. Its characteristics are those of a solid without mesoporosity, with small total surface area and pore diameter and volume. The chemical and physical modifications that occur in the material during the calcination process are

  4. Quantificação de macronutrientes no solo e em folhas de cana-de-açúcar em função de doses de resíduo da mineração de bauxita Nutrient diagnosis of sugarcane in function of residue rates of the bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio O. De Nobile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em ambiente protegido, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do resíduo da mineração de bauxita nos teores de macronutrientes, no solo e em plantas de cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados vasos de 10 L que receberam as seguintes doses de resíduo de bauxita: 0; 28;56; 84; 112 e 140 t ha-1, utilizando-se do clone de cana-de-açúcar SP92 4221. A incorporação do resíduo de bauxita no solo proporcionou aumento nos teores dos macronutrientes do solo, sendo que apenas para o enxofre doses acima de 83 t ha-1 proporcionaram reduções desse nutriente. Já para os teores de macronutrientes determinados na folha, doses acima de 70,5; 125; 101 e 56 t ha-1 diminuíram os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio e enxofre, respectivamente. Entretanto, para o cálcio e o magnésio, a utilização do resíduo proporcionou a diminuição dos seus teores foliares. A dose do resíduo de bauxita que teve a maior produção de massa seca foi de 64 t ha-1.The experiment was carried out in green house with the objective of evaluating the effect of the bauxite mining residue in the rates of macronutrients in sugarcane and soil. Containers of 10 L were used. They received the following rates of bauxite residue: 0; 28; 56; 84; 112 and 140 t ha-1 . The used culture was the sugarcane (SP92 4221. The incorporation of the bauxite residue in the soil provided an increase in the levels of the soil macronutrients, and only for sulphur levels above 83 t ha-1, it was possible to provide reductions of this nutrient. For rates of determined macronutrients in the leaf, levels above 70, 5; 125; 101; 56 t ha -1 diminished the rates of nitrogen, phosphorum, potassium and sulphur, respectively. However, for calcium and magnesium the use of the residue provided the reduction of leaf rates. The level of the bauxite residue which had the largest production of dry mass was 64 t ha-1.

  5. Determinação do ponto de carga zero da bauxita da região nordeste do Pará Determination of the zero point of charge of the northeast of Pará bauxite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. S. Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No nordeste do Pará o transporte da polpa de bauxita é através de mineroduto, sendo a viscosidade um parâmetro de controle fundamental para o bombeamento do minério. Este estudo ilustra a influência do pH na reologia da polpa por meio da determinação do ponto de carga zero (pHpcz da bauxita. Foram efetuadas análise granulométrica, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, ensaios potenciométricos testando o cloreto de amônia como eletrólito indiferente e ensaios reológicos em diferentes valores de pH. Os resultados revelaram que o cloreto de amônia pode ser utilizado como eletrólito indiferente para esse tipo de análise e que ocorre a redução da viscosidade em valores de pH distantes do ponto de carga zero.In the northeast of Pará, Brazil, the transport of bauxite pulp is through pipeline, being the viscosity a parameter which can interfere in the pumping. This study illustrates the influence of pH on pulp rheology through of determination of the zero point of charge. Were done particle size analysis, SEM, EDS, potentiometric tests testing ammonia chloride as indifferent electrolyte and rheological tests at different pH values. The results revealed that ammonia chloride can be used as indifferent electrolyte and showed a decrease in viscosity when there is far of the zero point of charge.

  6. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em estéril revegetado com Acacia mangium, após mineração de bauxita Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi in substrate, after bauxite mining, vegetated with Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição das comunidades de FMAs em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium após a mineração de bauxita na região de Porto Trombetas, PA. Foram coletadas amostras de solo compostas nos períodos seco e chuvoso, em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium, que receberam inóculos de Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita, com 1 e 5 anos de idade. Os solos foram revegetados sem a reposição do horizonte superficial orgânico. Os esporos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs foram extraídos e identificados através de suas características morfológicas. Analisou-se a densidade de esporos e de espécies em cada amostra, a densidade relativa e a freqüência de ocorrência de cada espécie por período de amostragem, além do índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF. Sob o plantio de mudas de A. mangium, a densidade de esporos de FMAs foi elevada e aumentou com a idade, enquanto o número de espécies não variou. Glomus clarum produz alta densidade de esporos na fase inicial do plantio e declina com o tempo, e Gigaspora margarita não esporula nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. A maioria das espécies de FMA não apresenta o mesmo padrão de esporulação nos períodos seco e chuvoso.The objective of this work was to monitor the establishment of Gigaspora margarita and Glomus clarum in reclaimed areas after the bauxite mining in Porto Trombetas, PA, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy periods under one and five-year-old Acacia mangium trees grown from seedlings that had been inoculated with Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita. The exposed subsoil was managed without replacing the organic soil layer. FMA spores were extracted and identified through their morphologic characteristics. Spore density and frequency of each species were determined in each sampling The index of abundance and frequency (IAF were estimated for all samples. Under A. mangium the arbuscular

  7. Ocorrência de Fungos Micorrízicos Arbusculares em resíduo da mineração de bauxita revegetado com espécies arbóreas Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi occurrence in bauxite mining residue planted to tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs em tanques contendo resíduo da mineração de bauxita cultivados com espécies arbóreas inoculadas com Glomus clarum Nicol. & Schenck e Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall na fase de viveiro. Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don juntamente com Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. ou uma mistura de várias espécies foram transplantadas em tanques contendo resíduo de bauxita. Coletaram-se amostras de resíduos em agosto/1998 (estação seca e abril/1999 (estação chuvosa, extraíram e identificaram-se os esporos de FMAs. Determinaram-se a densidade dos esporos de FMAs, a densidade relativa, a freqüência de ocorrência de cada espécie por período de amostragem e o índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF. A densidade dos esporos e a diversidade das espécies de FMAs foram baixas sob ambas as coberturas. Um maior número de esporos de Glomus clarum, e alto IAF, foram detectados no substrato cultivado com Acacia holosericea e Sesbania virgata na época seca. Isto também ocorreu em ambas as áreas na época chuvosa. Não foram encontrados esporos de Gigaspora margarita em ambas as áreas, nas duas épocas. Independentemente da inoculação, verificaram-se esporos de Archeospora leptoticha (Schenck & Smith Morton & Redecker, Entrophospora colombiana Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck e Glomus macrocarpum Tulasne & Tulasne em abundância.The establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was evaluated in two areas of bauxite mining residue planted to tree species inoculated with Glomus clarum Nicol. & Schenck and Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall in the nursery phase. Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don and Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. and a mixture of several tree species were transplanted to deposits of containing bauxite mining residue. In August, 1998 (dry season and April, 1999 (rainy season residue samples were collected and AMF spores extracted and

  8. Carbono orgânico, nitrogênio total, biomassa e atividade microbiana do solo em duas cronosseqüências de reabilitação após a mineração de bauxita Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass and activity in two rehabilitation chronosequences after bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro

    2008-04-01

    reas de referência a partir do primeiro ano, enquanto para o CO e o Nt estes só foram alcançados de modo consistente em períodos mais longos de reabilitação (18 anos. O coeficiente metabólico (qCO2 foi indicativo do estresse provocado pela mineração, mas não diferenciou os diferentes tempos de reabilitação. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que os atributos essenciais ao funcionamento adequado do solo são recuperáveis pela revegetação.Mining is a human activity with a harsh impact on ecosystems. The degradation degree depends on the intensity of soil impact, exploited soil volume and amount of mine spoil. Soil microbial activities are responsible for key functions in ecosystems and can indicate the degree of rehabilitation of mined areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of bauxite mining in two chronosequences with different rehabilitation strategies (revegetation on the following soil attributes: organic carbon (C org, total nitrogen (Nt, microbial biomass and respiration, and enzymatic activities. The study was developed in mining areas owned by Alcoa S/A in two different environments: (a areas originally covered by a tropical prairie vegetation called "campo", at elevations up to 1,000 masl, and (b in hilly areas, on the plateau top, including remnants of the native vegetation cover, represented by a subtropical decidous forest, at elevations about 1.600 masl, called "serra". Rehabilitation differed depending on strategies and time, varying from recent mining to 19 years of rehabilitation. Composite samples were collected in eight "campo" and nine "serra" areas, in two layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm in the winter as well as in the summer, in three replicates. Bauxite mining caused a negative impact on org C, Nt and microbial biomass (C, N and P. The values of these attributes were reduced by up to 99 % in comparison with those in reference areas (native vegetation. In both "campo" and "serra", the C org, Nt, microbial biomass and

  9. Capacidade infectiva de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em áreas reflorestadas após mineração de bauxita no Pará Infective capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in reforested areas after bauxite mining in the Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade infectiva das espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA e relacionála com o número mais provável (NMP de propágulos infectivos e número de esporos extraídos diretamente do campo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita com cobertura de 2, 6, 12 e 16 anos após revegetação e em uma área de floresta primária, em Porto Trombetas, PA. Os esporos de FMA foram extraídos e identificados taxonomicamente por suas características morfológicas. A maioria das espécies apresentou comportamento diferente nas áreas em estudo. Glomus macrocarpum foi a que apresentou infectividade mais rápida e alto potencial infectivo, nos solos das cinco áreas estudadas. Esta espécie também apresentou alto NMP de propágulos e alto número de esporos em todas as áreas estudadas. A capacidade infectiva das espécies não está relacionada com a densidade de propágulos. As espécies de FMA possuem diferentes graus de tolerância às condições de solo e se comportaram de maneira diferente de acordo com a idade da revegetação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the infective capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species and relate it to the most probable number (MPN of infective propagules and number of spores extracted directly from the field. Soil samples were taken from areas degraded by bauxite mining, 2, 6, 12 and 16 years after reforestation and from an area of primary forest. The spores were extracted and morphologically identified. Most of the species had different behavior for the areas of study. Glomus macrocarpum showed fast infectivity in soils with high infective potential, independently of the soil origin. This species also showed high MPN values of infective propagules and high number of spores in all areas. The infective capacity of the species did not relate to the density of infective propagules. AMF species have different

  10. Respostas de Acacia mangium Willd e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos provenientes de áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita na Amazônia Responses of Acacia mangium Willd and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from remaining areas of bauxite mining in Amazon

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    Ney Freitas Marinho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A resposta de Acacia mangium Willd (mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, oriundos de áreas em recuperação após a extração de bauxita, foi avaliada em experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (duas espécies leguminosas e sete tipos de solo e três repetições. Avaliou-se o número de esporos no solo, a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca total, o P acumulado, a dependência micorrízica das mudas, e a abundância e a freqüência de espécies. O número de propágulos infectivos (NPI foi estudado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito diluições de solo inóculo, cinco repetições e uma planta isca (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Utilizou-se substrato da mistura de um Planossolo mais areia lavada e fosfato de rocha araxá (0,60 g/kg. O número de esporos aumentou em função do tempo de cobertura das leguminosas. A colonização micorrízica foi mais intensa no tachi. Os valores de matéria seca dessa espécie foram inferiores aos de mangium, que por sua vez extraiu em torno de seis vezes mais P do substrato. Em geral, mangium, ao contrário do tachi, foi facultativa à presença dos FMA, sugerindo sua utilização na recuperação de áreas degradadas sem inoculação prévia. Dentre as 39 espécies de FMA identificadas, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. apresentou maior índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF e maior NPI, destacando-se entre as espécies pioneiras, ao passo que outras apareceram apenas em estádios sucessionais mais avançados das áreas em recuperação.The responses of Acacia mangium Willd (mangium and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation collected from areas under reclamation after bauxite mining, was evaluated in an completely randomized design distributed in 14 treatments (two legume, species and seven soil types, with three replicates. Evaluated

  11. Effect of bauxite addition on densification and mullitization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Kloprogge J T, Ruan H D and Frost R L 2002 J. Mater. Sci. 37. 1121. Liu K C and Thomas G 1994 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 1545. Liu K C, Thomas G, Caballero A, Moya J S and De Aza S 1991. Ceramics Today – Tomorrow's Ceramics, Material Sci. Monographs A66 177. Nurishi Y and Pask J A 1982 Ceram. Int. 8 57. Okada K ...

  12. Social Injustice from The Presence of the Bauxite Mining Companies

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    Fatmawati Fatmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the forms of social injustice by the presence of mining companies and local residents in the Tayan Hilir, Sanggau. This study used a qualitative approach accomplished through a descriptive method, and which was then analyzed using qualitative analysis to describe the form of social injustice for society by the presence of mining companies. Results of the study explained that point on begins the social injustice originated from government policies that tend to favor the mining entrepreneurs. With the capital and support of the state, these persons are in superior position to act half “forceful” against the society’s land concessions. On the other hand, society who does not possess the knowledge and power become the injured party. It is based on the reality that occurs when land concessions in Embaloh and Semerah Hamlet (Dusun which were not in accordance with the contractual agreement. Relocation offered by the company was far off and there are no public facilities.

  13. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... 1University of Mines and Technology, P.O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana. Fosu, A. Y. ... disposal of red mud in storage areas contribute to about 5 ... LPG was employed as the fuel ... Calcination of hydrated aluminium oxide to form.

  14. Rhizobial characterization in revegetated areas after bauxite mining

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Wardsson Lustrino; Prin, Yves; Ducousso, Marc; Le Roux, Christine; de Faria, Sergio Miana

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding how the increased diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria contributes to the productivity and diversity of plants in complex communities. However, some authors have shown that the presence of a diverse group of nodulating bacteria is required for different plant species to coexist. A better understanding of the plant symbiotic organism diversity role in natural ecosystems can be extremely useful to define recovery strategies of environments that were degraded by human ...

  15. Social Injustice From the Presence of the Bauxite Mining Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmawati, Fatmawati; Seko, Salfius

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the forms of social injustice by the presence of mining companies and local residents in the Tayan Hilir, Sanggau. This study used a qualitative approach accomplished through a descriptive method, and which was then analyzed using qualitative analysis to describe the form of social injustice for society by the presence of mining companies. Results of the study explained that point on begins the social injustice originated from government policies that tend to favor ...

  16. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Melloni

    2006-04-01

    as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

  17. Caracterização fenotípica e diversidade de bactérias diazotróficas associativas isoladas de solos em reabilitação após a mineração de bauxita Phenotypic characterization and diversity of diazotrophic associative bacteria isolated from soils rehabilitated after bauxite mining

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    R. S. A. Nóbrega

    2004-04-01

    eles.Grass species, which are frequently used for rehabilitation of degraded areas, can establish root associations with nitrogen fixing bacteria thus contributing to the ecosystem's sustainability. On the other hand, microbial diversity plays an important role in the resilience of biological processes, including N2 fixation. This study aimed at the phenotypic characterization of 72 diazotrophic Gram-negative bacteria. Samples were isolated from areas under different rehabilitation strategies after bauxite mining in Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and inoculated in NFb, Fam, and JNFb media. Type and reference strains of Herbaspirillum, Azospirillum and Burkholderia species were used for comparison as they are able to grow in such media. The similarity dendrogram based on seven cultural characteristics of the isolates in GNA medium presented a great diversity, as 50 groups were formed with 81 % similarity. NaCl tolerance in the potato/sucrose/acid malic medium varied from 0 to 50 g L-1 and allowed a separation of isolates and type strains into five groups. Cell diameters varied from 0.61 to 1.21 µm, and 13 isolates were not similar to the type strains. Fifteen groups with 75 % similarity were formed based on total proteins patterns obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Neither was there any relationship among groups based on the different characteristics, nor between these and the areas of bacteria isolation. Fam and JNFb media detected the target species as well as other unidentified ones. The high phenotypic dissimilarity among isolates and type strains, mainly regarding total protein eletrophoresis profiles suggests that new species could be present within these populations.

  18. Densidade e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas em solos de mineração de bauxita, em reabilitação Density and phenotypic diversity of endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria in soils under rehabilitation after bauxite mining

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    R. Melloni

    2004-02-01

    diversidade fenotípica no ambiente estudado.Diazotrophic endophytic bacteria enhance plant growth through biological nitrogen fixation and production and release of plant growth regulating substances, which facilitate the revegetation of areas degraded by human activities. However, little is known about populations of such bacteria in soils or plants of mining areas. Aiming to study the effects of different vegetation types and rehabilitation periods on some endophytic diazotrophic bacteria species, soil samples were collected under two environmental conditions ("Campo" and "Serra" in bauxite mined areas undergoing different rehabilitation processes. Population densities were evaluated by the most probable number method in media (NFb, JNFb, and Fam for Azospirillum brasilense and A. lipoferum, Herbaspirillum spp. and A. amazonense, respectively and ranged from 0 to 2.0 x 10(4 bacteria g-1 soil. The vegetation types affected the diazotrophic populations. Highest densities were found in mined soils revegetated with the grass species brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens, rye grass (Lolium multiflorum and capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora. However, these densities are considered low compared to those found in agricultural soils. No relationship was found between the rehabilitation time and population density. Thirty-six cultural phenotypes were found on potato medium among 72 isolates out of all three culture media. At a similarity of at least 63 %, these isolates formed seven great groups, five of which (comprising 62.5 % of the total isolates contained the type strains of Burkholderia brasilensis, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, and Azospirillum spp. (A. brasilense, A. amazonense, A. lipoferum, A. irakense. In spite of its low density, this group of bacteria presented a high phenotypic diversity in the studied environment.

  19. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud) for Titanium Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Alkan; Claudia Schier; Lars Gronen; Srecko Stopic; Bernd Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical...

  20. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud for Titanium Recovery

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    Gözde Alkan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical changes, induced by leaching. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and their combination have been utilized as leaching agents with the same leaching parameters. It has been determined that sulfuric acid is the best candidate for the red mud treatment in terms of titanium leaching efficiency at the end of 2 h with a value of 67.3%. Moreover, samples from intermediate times of reaction revealed that leaching of Ti exhibit various reaction rates at different times of reaction depending on acid type. In order to explain differences, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and QEMSCAN techniques were utilized. Beside titanium oxide (TiO2 with available free surface area, a certain amount of the TiO2 was detected as entrapped in Fe dominating oxide. These associations between Ti and Fe phases were used to explain different leaching reaction rates and a reaction mechanism was proposed to open a process window.

  1. Dependence of radon emanation of red mud bauxite processing wastes on heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobbagy, V.; Somlai, J.; Kovacs, J.; Szeiler, G.; Kovacs, T.

    2009-01-01

    Natural radioactivity content, radon emanation and some other physical characteristics of red mud were investigated, so that to identify the possibilities of the safe utilization of such material as a building material additive. Based on the radionuclide concentration, red mud is not permitted to be used directly as a building material, however, mixing of a maximum 20% red mud and 80% clay meets the requirements. The main aim of this work was to determine the dependence of the emanation factor of red mud firing temperature and some other parameters. The relevant experimental procedure was carried out in two different ways: without any additional material, and by adding a known amount of sawdust (5-35 wt%) then firing the sample at a given temperature (100-1000 deg. C). The average emanation factor of the untreated dry red mud was estimated to 20%, which decreased to about 5% at a certain heat treatment. Even lower values were found using semi-reductive atmosphere. It has been concluded that all emanation measurements results correlate well to the firing temperature, the specific surface and the pore volume.

  2. Sulfur Removal by Adding Iron During the Digestion Process of High-sulfur Bauxite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanwei, Liu; Hengwei, Yan; Wenhui, Ma; Keqiang, Xie; Dunyong, Li; Licong, Zheng; Pengfei, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to sulfur removal by adding iron during the digestion process. Iron can react with high-valence sulfur (S2O3 2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-) to generate S2- at digestion temperature, and then S2- enter red mud in the form of Na3FeS3 to be removed. As iron dosage increases, high-valence sulfur concentration decreases, but the concentration of S2- increases; sulfur digestion rate decreases while sulfur content in red mud markedly increases; the alumina digestion rate, conversely, remains fairly stable. So sulfur can be removed completely by adding iron in digestion process, which provide a theoretical basis for the effective removal of sulfur in alumina production process.

  3. Industrial Application of Valuable Materials Generated from PLK Rock-A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Routray, Sunita; Mohapatra, Abhisek; Ranjan Patra, Biswa

    2018-03-01

    PLK rock classified in to two products after a selective grinding to a particular size fraction. PLK rocks ground to below 45-micron size which is followed by a classifier i.e. hydrocyclone. The ground product classified in to different sizes of apex and vortex finder. The pressure gauge was attached for the measurement of the pressure. The production of fines is also increasing with increase in the vortex finder diameter. In order to increase in the feed capacity of the hydrocyclone, the vortex finder 11.1 mm diameter and the spigot diameter 8.0 mm has been considered as the best optimum condition for recovery of fines from PLK rock sample. The overflow sample contains 5.39% iron oxide (Fe2O3) with 0.97% of TiO2 and underflow sample contains 1.87% Fe2O3 with 2.39% of TiO2. The cut point or separation size of overflow sample is 25 μm. The efficiency of separation, or the so-called imperfection I, is at 6 μm size. In this study, the iron oxide content in underflow sample is less than 2% which is suitable for making of refractory application. The overflow sample is very fine which can also be a raw material for ceramic industry as well as a cosmetic product.

  4. Modification of bauxite residue generated in the Bayer process by thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.C.S.; Pileggi, R.G.; John, V.M.; Gouvea, D.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is the waste generated by the aluminum industry, and as other industrial waste presents complex characteristics with numerous difficulties in handling, as well as being a hazardous material due to its low granulometry, alkalinity and high amount generated. It is a waste with potential high polluter, aggravated by the generally adopted vulnerable disposal form, being this, the disposition of the residue in ponds designed for this purpose. The study and development of sustainable alternatives for the use of sludge, treated as raw materials from other processes, are important tendency and necessary trends in the global context of environmental preservation. This work deals with the thermal treatment as a method of modification of the characteristics of the residue, suggesting the reduction of alkalinity together with the lower leaching of alkaline ions. This approach can be a more reliable and environmentally safe disposal alternatives

  5. Soil functional diversity analysis of a bauxite-mined restoration chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dawn E; White, John R; Wafula, Denis; Athar, Rana; Dickerson, Tamar; Williams, Henry N; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2010-05-01

    Soil microorganisms are sensitive to environmental perturbations such that changes in microbial community structure and function can provide early signs of anthropogenic disturbances and even predict restoration success. We evaluated the bacterial functional diversity of un-mined and three chronosequence sites at various stages of rehabilitation (0, 10, and 20 years old) located in the Mocho Mountains of Jamaica. Samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons and analyzed for metal concentrations, microbial biomass carbon, bacterial numbers, and functional responses of soil microbiota using community-level physiological profile (CLPP) assays. Regardless of the season, un-mined soils consisted of higher microbial biomass and numbers than any of the rehabilitated sites. Additionally, the number and rate of substrates utilized and substrate evenness (the distribution of color development between the substrates) were significantly greater in the un-mined soils with carbohydrates being preferentially utilized than amino acids, polymers, carboxylic acids, and esters. To some extent, functional responses varied with the seasons but the least physiological activity was shown by the site rehabilitated in 1987 indicating long-term perturbation to this ecosystem. Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSUrDNA)-denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis analyses on the microbiota collected from the most preferred CLPP substrates followed by taxonomic analyses showed Proteobacteria, specifically the gamma-proteobacteria, as the most functionally active phyla, indicating a propensity of this phyla to out-compete other groups under the prevailing conditions. Additionally, multivariate statistical analyses, Shannon's diversity, and evenness indices, principal component analysis, biplot and un-weighted-pair-group method with arithmetic averages dendrograms further confirmed that un-mined sites were distinctly different from the rehabilitated soils.

  6. Restoring tropical forests on bauxite mined lands: lessons from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta; Oliver H. Knowles

    2001-01-01

    Restoring self-sustaining tropical forest ecosystems on surface mined sites is a formidable challenge that requires the integration of proven reclamation techniques and reforestation strategies appropriate to specific site conditions, including landscape biodiversity patterns. Restorationists working in most tropical settings are usually hampered by lack of basic...

  7. Hydrological response to bauxite mining and rehabilitation in the jarrah forest in south west Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Grigg

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Mining caused a peak streamflow response of 225 mm or 18% of rainfall, before returning to pre-disturbance levels 11 years after mining commenced. Streamflow changes were closely associated with changes in a groundwater discharge area in the valley floor. Changes in groundwater level, in turn, were related to rainfall and leaf area index, and these effects did not differ between mine rehabilitation and unmined catchment areas. The streamflow response to mining could not be distinguished from the intensive thinning treatment in this study, or from clearfelling or clearing for agriculture reported elsewhere in the jarrah forest. The results indicate that shallow subsurface flow processes, considered to dominate streamflow generation in jarrah forest catchments, do not extend beyond the valley floor and immediately adjacent slopes which were not disturbed by mining.

  8. Density and phenotypic diversity of endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria in soils under rehabilitation after bauxite mining

    OpenAIRE

    Melloni, R.; Nóbrega, R. S. A.; Moreira, F. M. S.; Siqueira, J. O.

    2004-01-01

    Bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas contribuem para o desenvolvimento das plantas por meio da fixação biológica do nitrogênio, produção e liberação de substâncias reguladoras do crescimento vegetal, podendo, assim, facilitar a revegetação de solos degradados por atividades antrópicas. No entanto, pouco se conhece sobre as populações destas bactérias em solos ou plantas de áreas de mineração. Objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de vegetação e tempo de reabilitação de áreas degrada...

  9. Fluorimetric analysis of gallium in bauxite, by-products, products from gallium processing and its control solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C.A.M.; Medeiros, V.

    1987-01-01

    The gallium processing since raw material analysis until end-products analysis is studied. Gallium presence in by-products and products, as well as the fluorimetric method is analyzed. Equipments and materials used in laboratory, reagents and chemical solutions are described. (M.J.C.) [pt

  10. The role of nano-perovskite in the negligible thorium release in seawater from Greek bauxite residue (red mud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkamaletsos, Platon; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    -ICP-MS, using Mediterranean seawater from Greece, indicated significant release of V, depending on S/L ratio, and negligible release of Th at least after 12 months leaching. STEM-EDS/EELS & HR-STEM-HAADF study of the leached BR at the nanoscale revealed that the significant immobility of Th4+ is due to its...

  11. Mine surveying works for the purpose of excavating the remaining reserves of bauxite in the deposit of "Podbracan"

    OpenAIRE

    Milutinovic, Aleksandar; Ganic, Aleksandar; Diyab, Thamer Rayes; Tokalic, Rade; Ganic, Meri

    2015-01-01

    Mining projects for mineral resource mining contain in certain cases specific technical and technological solutions, these being the result of the mine’s characteristic spatial position and the geometry of the ore deposit, existing mining works, structures, and terrain relief etc. For the purpose of completion of the mining project, it is necessary to carry out a series of mining and surveying tasks during the pre-project and project stage of mining, as well as during the construction o...

  12. Guinea: Background and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    multinational aluminum firm Alcoa, for instance, is a major shareholder in the Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinee, a bauxite mining and export partnership...world’s largest bauxite reserves, and joint-venture bauxite mining and alumina operations have historically provided about 80% of Guinea’s foreign...announced the approval of a $200 million loan to partly finance a $6.3 billion bauxite mining and alumina refinery project in Guinea. The project was

  13. Bacteria isolated from soils of the western Amazon and from rehabilitated bauxite-mining areas have potential as plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia Maria; Marra, Leandro Marciano; Lima Soares, Bruno; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; da Silva, Krisle; Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2014-04-01

    Several processes that promote plant growth were investigated in endophytic and symbiotic bacteria isolated from cowpea and siratro nodules and also in bacterial strains recommended for the inoculation of cowpea beans. The processes verified in 31 strains were: antagonism against phytopathogenic fungi, free-living biological nitrogen fixation, solubilization of insoluble phosphates and indole acetic acid (IAA) production. The resistance to antibiotics was also assessed. Sequencing of the partial 16S rRNA gene was performed and the strains were identified as belonging to different genera. Eight strains, including some identified as Burkholderia fungorum, fixed nitrogen in the free-living state. Eighteen strains exhibited potential to solubilize calcium phosphate, and 13 strains could solubilize aluminum phosphate. High levels of IAA production were recorded with L-tryptophan addition for the strain UFLA04-321 (42.3 μg mL⁻¹). Strains highly efficient in symbiosis with cowpea bean, including strains already approved as inoculants showed the ability to perform other processes that promote plant growth. Besides, these strains exhibited resistance to several antibiotics. The ability of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to perform other processes and their adaptation to environmental conditions add value to these strains, which could lead to improved inoculants for plant growth and environmental quality.

  14. Studying the Effect of Adding Doekhla kaolin Clay andAlumina to Iraqi Bauxite on Some Physical and Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead

    2011-01-01

    ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ( ??? ??????) ? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????. ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? (40) ?? ?? ?????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ????? (2.5,5,7.5,10 %) ???? ????? ?????.?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????.???? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? (1...

  15. Accountability of Vietnamese Government for Large Scale Exploitation of Mineral Resources : A Case Study of Bauxite Mining in South-central Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    中野, 亜里; 村尾, 智

    2014-01-01

    社会主義的国家計画経済から市場経済体制に移行したベトナムでは、共産党政府に対して自発的に公的異議申し立てを行なう市民階層が萌芽しつつある。特に2009年以降、中南部高原におけるボーキサイト開発問題を契機に、政府・企業に情報公開を要求する市民の活動が高揚した。本稿はこの事例を取り上げ、資源開発における政府・国有企業による「ガバメント」と、多様な利害関係者が政策決定と問題解決に参画する「ガバナンス」について、ベトナムの現状を検討する。...

  16. Rehabilitation of a bauxite tailing substrate in Central Amazonia: The effect of litter and seed addition on flood-prone forest restoration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.; Bozelli, R.L.; Darigo, R.M.; Esteves, F. de A.; Santos, H.F. dos; Figueredo-Barros, M.P.; Nunes, M.F.Q.S.; Roland, F.; Zamith, L.R.; Scarano, F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Impacts of mining activity can be particularly difficult to remediate in wetland ecosystems subject to inundation pulses due to the reduced length of the plant growing season. We used a factorial experiment to test whether litter and seed addition could be used to increase the efficiency of

  17. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2010: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    with Aluminum Corp. of China Ltd to mine bauxite in Vietnam’s Central Highlands.68 The venture appears to be part of a larger Vietnamese government...increasing its economic influence over and within Vietnam, as shown by the criticisms that followed the spring 2009 announcement of a bauxite mining joint...27 Controversial Bauxite Plan for Central Highlands.......................................................... 28 Political

  18. Mineralogical applications of Mossbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fysh, S.A.; Clark, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Mossbauer effect has been used to study a variety of bauxites, and has been shown to be capable of accurately characterizing the iron mineralogy of bauxite. Such studies may prove to be of great use in determining the suitability of bauxite for aluminium extraction, and in optimizing extraction conditions

  19. Jamaica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    increased since 2008, and is currently over 13%. The decrease in demand for mining exports led to the closure of two bauxite /alumina plants in 2009...price and demand for Jamaican bauxite /alumina exports. A difficult economic challenge for the government is dealing with a large external debt burden...remittances, and bauxite /alumina production. From 1990-2007, economic growth averaged about 1.5%, not much above population growth. Major constraints for

  20. 40 CFR 440.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic...

  1. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  2. Corrigendum to “Comparing activated alumina with indigenous laterite and bauxite as potential sorbents for removing fluoride from drinking water in Ghana” [Appl. Geochem. 56 (2015) 50–66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Laura; Stillings, Lisa; Decker, David L.; Thomas, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors regret that the application of the t-plot to determine the presence of micropores in the three sorbents needs the following corrections: (1) Fig. 1a, c, e are N2(g) adsorption and desorption isotherms” (remove “BET”). This correction applies to descriptions in the text as well. (2) Table 2, the column titled “Micropores” is mislabelled, and should be labelled “Film thickness”, which may not equal the pore width. The column titled “Micropore volume” is a correct description for laterite volume 0.0022 cm3 g−1 (t = 0.3–0.5 nm), but the other pore volumes listed cannot be identified as corresponding to micropores. They likely comprise both micropores and mesopores in laterite, while the presence of micropores in activated alumina is not clear. The positive y-intercept for the lowest linear portion of the laterite t-plot curve indicates micropores (Fig. 1f), and the shape of the t-plot curve suggests the presence of both micropores and mesopores. The shape of the activated alumina t-plot curve suggests the presence of micropores and mesopores, but the zero intercept for the lowest linear portion of the curve (Fig. 1b) creates uncertainty regarding the presence of micropores. Also see Storck et al., 1998; Hay et al. 2011 and references therein. (Additional note: analytical instrument Micromeritics® was misspelled as “Micrometrics”).The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  3. Mineralogical and geochemical trends in lateritic weathering profiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absence of bauxite minerals like gibbsite and diaspora in the profiles shows that the trend of weathering is towards iron enrichment (ferralitization) and not aluminum accumulation (bauxitization). The CIA values of the lateritic layers shows that the weathering process is matured and has reached advanced stage.

  4. Why Save a Can?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Melida; Johnson, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    This activity ties together the recycling of aluminum and the protection of rain forests. Students use critical thinking to study the effects of open pit mining of bauxite in rain forests and then draw their own conclusions about how to minimize the impact of bauxite mining and boost recycling efforts within their communities. Drawing conclusions…

  5. ČETIRI STOLJEĆA RUDARSTVA BOKSITA

    OpenAIRE

    Marušić, Rikard; Sakač, Krešimir; Vujec, Slavko

    1993-01-01

    In the paper the results of many years of archival and field investigations in the history of bauxite mining of the three authors are presented. It was established that in Istria in the valley of the river Mirna beneath the Castle of Sovinjak bauxite was exploited already 400 years ago, and that 1808 about this ore the first scientific account was published. Accordingly, the statements in the professional literature that the first bauxite mine opened 1873 in the French Provence and that the b...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017): Special Issue - Articles Water quality index assesment around industrial area in Kuantan, Pahang Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang

  7. Friction Surface Treatment Selection: Aggregate Properties, Surface Characteristics, Alternative Treatments, and Safety Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long term performance of the selected surface friction treatments, including high friction surface treatment (HFST) using calcined bauxite and steel slag, and conventional friction surfacing, in particular pavement pr...

  8. 33 CFR 402.3 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., but not otherwise processed) loose or in sacks, including alumina, bauxite, gravel, phosphate rock... bundled; (8) Raw sugar, flour, loose or in sacks; (9) Wood pulp, loose or in bales; and (10) Material for...

  9. Microwave Production of Manganese from Manganese (IV) Oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... energy consumption occurs in the upper part of the ferromanganese furnace ... The pre-reduction of manganese ores by carbon has been investigated by Abdel ..... Awaso Bauxite Ore using Waste Pure Water. Sachets as ...

  10. Resource-rich State an investor's dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    Queensland has a diverse selection of minerals and mineral projects, including reserves of bauxite, coal, nickel, tin, gold, copper, lead and zinc. This article reviews Queensland's contribution to development and export earnings, including previous financial problems.

  11. the study of thermal effect on the surface properties of gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    excellent properties such as highly uniform channels, large surface area and narrow pore size distribution. It has been widely used as adsorbents, ... important material that can be prepared from bauxite or kaolin in several different phases.

  12. Evaluation of Tyregrip(R) high-friction surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes the installation of Tyregrip, a high friction surface, on a high accident location to reduce accident : rates. Tyregrip is a thin polymer overlay system that uses a two part epoxy binder and calcined bauxite aggregate. Postc...

  13. Regional Applied Research Effort Project (RARE) with Region 8 - Beneficial Use of Red and Brown Mud and Phosphogypsum as Alternative Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red and brown muds are the secondary materials generated from the extraction of alumina from bauxite, an aluminum-containing sedimentary rock (Ref. 2). Phosphogypsum is the secondary material generated by the phosphorous fertilizer industry from phosphate-containing sedimentary ...

  14. Microstructure and properties of sintered mullite developed from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microstructure and properties of sintered mullite developed from Indian bauxite ... ductivity, high-temperature stability, good chemical inertia, ... refractory applications. Normally .... using sputtered gold coating on the polished surface after.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Cytec Industries, developed the MAX HT sodalite scale inhibitor for heat exchangers and pipes in the Bayer process, which converts bauxite into alumina.

  16. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Yugoslav Republics. 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-27

    potatoes, grapes, barley, hogs, sheep, cattle, poultry ). Mineral resources include: copper, iron, lead, zinc, bauxite, antimony, and manganese. Primary...infection has been associated with butchering infected animals. Immature ticks are presumed to acquire infection from animal hosts. CLINICAL

  17. 40 CFR 440.24 - New Source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.24 New... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producting bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart B are applicable to discharges from facilities engaged in the mining of bauxite as an aluminum ore. ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore...

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Department Malaysia 2010, the mining of bauxite has taken place in the state of Johor .... the weighting factors derived from the opinion poll. ..... [6] Water Environmental Federation and American Public Health Association.

  20. Cementitious artificial aggregate particles for high-skid resistance pavements

    OpenAIRE

    DE LARRARD, François; MARTINEZ CASTILLO, Rafael; SEDRAN, Thierry; HAUZA, Philippe; POIRIER, Jean Eric

    2012-01-01

    For some critical road sections, a high skid resistance of wearing course is required to minimise the risk of traffic accidents. Nowadays this skid resistance is mainly brought by the use of special aggregates as calcined bauxite, a scarce and expensive material. The paper presents a patented technology, where a special high-performance mortar is produced and crushed at early age. These cementitious artificial aggregates (CAA) can display aggregate properties close to those of calcined bauxit...

  1. Wastewater Treatment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana; Williams, Fred; Moffatt, Scott

    Alcoa's Point Comfort, Texas industrial facility is a combination of a bauxite refining plant utilizing the Bayer process and an aluminum fluoride production plant. Due to the location's use of dry stack technology for bauxite residue disposal, the pond surface areas for evaporation are minimal compared to the rainfall catchment areas. This results in the periodic need to reduce accumulated volumes of storm water at the Residue Disposal Area (RDA).

  2. Carbono orgânico, nitrogênio total, biomassa e atividade microbiana do solo em duas cronosseqüências de reabilitação após a mineração de bauxita Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass and activity in two rehabilitation chronosequences after bauxite mining

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro; José Oswaldo Siqueira; Fátima Maria de Souza Moreira; André Luis Lima Soares

    2008-01-01

    A mineração é uma das atividades antrópicas que causa grande impacto nos ecossistemas e o grau de degradação depende da intensidade de interferência no solo, do volume explorado e do rejeito produzido. Os microrganismos do solo e sua atividade, por participarem de funções-chave, podem fornecer indicações sobre o real estado de reabilitação de áreas mineradas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da atividade de mineração em duas cronosseqüências com diferentes estratégias (revegeta...

  3. LEGAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS AND ITS INFLUENCE OVER THE COSTS OF BAUXITE MINING: THE EXAMPLE OF ALCOA, POÇOS DE CALDAS (MG), BRAZIL = ASPECTOS LEGAIS AMBIENTAIS E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NOS CUSTOS DA ATIVIDADE MINERÁRIA DE BAUXITA: O EXEMPLO DA ALCOA, POÇOS DE CALDAS (MG), BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Santos Surgik; Serguei Aily Franco de Camargo

    2005-01-01

    The mining activity is regimented mainly in two levels. The regulatory stands are distributed in federal and provincial levels. In this case, provincial environmental law (of Minas Gerais) is more restrictive, shifting mining activity costs through the statement of obligations related to environmental protection. According to the Mining Department of Companhia Geral de Minas (CGM/Alcoa Alumínio S/A), since 1979 it has been performed the rehabilitation of mined areas in Poços de Caldas. Despit...

  4. The Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to Exploring Sedimentary Ore In North-Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Yasir; Almutair, Muteb

    2015-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a non-destructive geophysical method that provides a continuous subsurface profile, without drilling. This geophysical technique has great potential in delineating the extension of bauxites ore in north-central Saudi Arabia. Bauxite is from types sedimentary ores. This study aim to evaluate the effectiveness of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to illustrate the subsurface feature of the Bauxite deposits at some selected mining areas north-central Saudi Arabia. Bauxite is a heterogeneous material that consists of complex metals such as alumina and aluminum. An efficient and cost-effect exploration method for bauxite mine in Saudi Arabia is required. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have been carrying out along outcrop in order to assess the potential of GPR data for imaging and characterising different lithological facies. To do so, we have tested different antenna frequencies to acquire the electromagnetic signals along a 90 m profile using the IDS system. This system equipped with a 25 MHz antenna that allows investigating the Bauxite layer at shallow depths where the clay layers may existed. Therefore, the 25 MHz frequency antenna has been used in this study insure better resolution of the subsurface and to get more penetration to image the Bauxite layer. After the GPR data acquisition, this data must be processed in order to be more easily visualized and interpreted. Data processing was done using Reflex 6.0 software. A series of tests were carried out in frequency filtering on a sample of radar sections, which was considered to better represent the entire set of data. Our results indicated that the GPR profiling has a very good agreement for mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 7 m to 11 m. This study has emphasized that the high-resolution GPR method is the robust and cost-effect technique to map the Bauxite layer. The exploration of Bauxite resource using the GPR technique could reduce the number of holes to

  5. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  6. Agglomeration of powders with a new-coupled vibration-compaction device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serris Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic powder recycling should be a crucial process for the “smart factories” in the future. A complex three-phase system (bauxite mixed with ordinary Portland cement and water with a new-coupled vibration-compaction device is studied. The compressive stress of compacts seems to be improved by using this device at low compaction pressure leaving the other characteristics unchanged. The tomographic study of macroscopic porosities shows differences in the pores repartitions inside vibrated and untreated compacts. Classic porosity repartition is shown in the classic compacted bauxite compacts whereas in the vibrated-compacted bauxite exhibits inhomogeneities. Despite this, we find these results quite promising for further investigations.

  7. Optimization Method of a Low Cost, High Performance Ceramic Proppant by Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Tian, Y. M.; Wang, K. Y.; Li, G.; Zou, X. W.; Chai, Y. S.

    2017-09-01

    This study focused on optimization method of a ceramic proppant material with both low cost and high performance that met the requirements of Chinese Petroleum and Gas Industry Standard (SY/T 5108-2006). The orthogonal experimental design of L9(34) was employed to study the significance sequence of three factors, including weight ratio of white clay to bauxite, dolomite content and sintering temperature. For the crush resistance, both the range analysis and variance analysis reflected the optimally experimental condition was weight ratio of white clay to bauxite=3/7, dolomite content=3 wt.%, temperature=1350°C. For the bulk density, the most important factor was the sintering temperature, followed by the dolomite content, and then the ratio of white clay to bauxite.

  8. A discovery of extremely-enriched boehmite from coal in the Junger Coalfield, the northeastern Ordos Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Li, S.; Chou, C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors found an extremely-enriched boehmite and its associated minerals for the first time in the super-thick No. 6 coal seam from the Junger Coalfield in the northeastern Ordos Basin by using technologies including the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and optical microscope. The content of boehmite is as high as 13.1%, and the associated minerals are goyazite, zircon, rutile, goethite, galena, clausthalite, and selenio-galena. The heavy minerals assemblage is similar to that in the bauxite of the Benxi Formation from North China. The high boehmite in coal is mainly from weathering crust bauxite of the Benxi Formation from the northeastern coal-accumulation basin. The gibbsite colloidstone solution was removed from bauxite to the peat mire, and boehmite was formed via compaction and dehydration of gibbsite colloidstone solution in the period of peat accumulation and early period of diagenesis.

  9. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops.

  10. Electron spin resonance as a high sensitivity technique for environmental magnetism: determination of contamination in carbonate sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Nigel P.; Hoon, Stephen R.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Perry, Chris T.

    2002-05-01

    This study investigates the application of high sensitivity electron spin resonance (ESR) to environmental magnetism in conjunction with the more conventional techniques of magnetic susceptibility, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and chemical compositional analysis. Using these techniques we have studied carbonate sediment samples from Discovery Bay, Jamaica, which has been impacted to varying degrees by a bauxite loading facility. The carbonate sediment samples contain magnetic minerals ranging from moderate to low concentrations. The ESR spectra for all sites essentially contain three components. First, a six-line spectra centred around g = 2 resulting from Mn2+ ions within a carbonate matrix; second a g = 4.3 signal from isolated Fe3+ ions incorporated as impurities within minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite or quartz; third a ferrimagnetic resonance with a maxima at 230 mT resulting from the ferrimagnetic minerals present within the bauxite contamination. Depending upon the location of the sites within the embayment these signals vary in their relative amplitude in a systematic manner related to the degree of bauxite input. Analysis of the ESR spectral components reveals linear relationships between the amplitude of the Mn2+ and ferrimagnetic signals and total Mn and Fe concentrations. To assist in determining the origin of the ESR signals coral and bauxite reference samples were employed. Coral representative of the matrix of the sediment was taken remote from the bauxite loading facility whilst pure bauxite was collected from nearby mining facilities. We find ESR to be a very sensitive technique particularly appropriate to magnetic analysis of ferri- and para-magnetic components within environmental samples otherwise dominated by diamagnetic (carbonate) minerals. When employing typical sample masses of 200 mg the practical detection limit of ESR to ferri- and para-magnetic minerals within a diamagnetic carbonate matrix is of the order of 1 ppm and 1 ppb

  11. Utilização de argilas para purificação de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Juliana Almeida de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively.

  12. Metabauxite horizons containing remobilized-origin gem diaspore and related mineralization, Milas-Muğla province, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Türk, Necdet; Chamberlain, Steven C.; Murat Akgün, A.

    2010-10-01

    Remobilized-origin gem diaspore and related minerals occur as infill within structurally controlled voids that developed in the upper of two distinct karst unconformity-type metabauxite (diasporite) horizons in the İlbir Mountains area of the Milas-Muğla province, SW Turkey. Colour-change diaspore (trademarked as zultanite) and associated mineral specimens (greenish muscovite, chloritoid, donbassite, specular hematite, ilmenite, goethite, and younger calcite) occur in fracture zones (veins and open structures) that cross-cut the metabauxite horizons. The mineralized fracture zones do not extend into the enclosing marbles, probably because of the ductility contrast between the brittle bauxite and relatively plastic carbonate beds. Thick, white to light gray and dark gray limestone beds were deposited in the İlbir Mountains area during the Cretaceous (146-65 Ma), and contain two stratigraphically distinct karst-fill bauxite horizons. Al-, Fe-, Si- and Ti-rich solutions that infiltrated the karstified limestone probably originated from altered schist and gneiss that surround the basin. The limestone beds (>2000 m thick) were subjected to burial metamorphism, forming marble. Subsequently, the marble block was folded during nappe emplacement toward the SSW as part of late Alpine contractional deformation during the Paleogene (65-23.8 Ma). The upper bauxite horizons within the folded block were cross-cut by fracture zones because of their relatively brittle rheology. At this time, increased pressure and temperature in the bauxite horizons resulted in remobilization of the primary constituents of the bauxite within an aqueous complex, resulting in the crystallization of coarse-grained assemblages in the cross-cutting structures. Ultimately, erosion and mineral exploration revealed the steeply dipping bauxite outcrops and mine workings evident today. This paper focuses on the mine geology of surface outcrops of diasporic bauxite, the upper bauxite horizon within

  13. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Melloni; Fátima Maria de Sousa Moreira; Rafaela Simão Abrahão Nóbrega; José Oswaldo de Siqueira

    2006-01-01

    A atividade de mineração provoca degradação ambiental em várias partes do mundo, e técnicas de revegetação, empregando diversas espécies vegetais, têm sido indicadas, com vistas em reabilitar essas áreas. A eficiência e a diversidade de grupos-chave de bactérias, como as que nodulam leguminosas e fixam N2 (BNLFN), são de extrema importância, uma vez que estas participam de processos de ciclagem de nutrientes e contribuem para a sustentabilidade dessas áreas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiê...

  14. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple method for measuring the dielectric parameter of materials in the form of powders at microwave frequencies is suggested. Measurement of the permittivity ε ′ and ε ″ at 9.967 GHz on powder samples of the aluminum ore bauxite gives interesting results. It is found that ε ′ and ε ″ increases with packing ...

  15. Ghana Mining Journal - Vol 16, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Sawdust and Coconut Shells as Reductant · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A. Y. Fosu, N. Fosu, K. B. Owusu, J. R. Dankwah, 58-64 ...

  16. Concentration of Trace Metals in Boreholes in the Ankobra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. Introduction. Ankobra basin is one of the main mining areas in Ghana. The major minerals mined in this area include gold, manganese, bauxite and diamond. Gold mining in this basin dates about 500 ...

  17. An ideal cascade for uranium 235 enrichment by centrifuge jet nozzle process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.C. dos.

    1981-01-01

    The design of an ideal cascade for the process of isotope separation by centrifugation for the U 235 enrichment, is presented. A selection of building materials used in fabrication of isotope separation plants, showing the importance of aluminium, due the bauxite mines in Northern Brazil, is done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. The U.S. Army Chemical Corps and a Future Within AFRICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Nonproliferation Review 7, no.2 (2000). 55 represents Nigeria’s Yoruba ethnic group, had taken the lead in instigating violent ethnic eruptions in...and cultures , it is not part of AFRICOM. • Equatorial Guinea: petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of titanium with ascorbic acid in aluminium alloys and other materials. Determinacion espectrofotometrica de titanio con acido ascorbico en aleaciones de base aluminio y otros materiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch Serrat, F. (Departamento de Quimica Analitica. Facultad de Qauimica. Valencia (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    A spectrophotometric determination of titanium with ascorbic acid in aluminium alloys and bauxite is described. The proposed procedures permit to determine levels of titanium down to 5.10 ''3% with a good accuracy and precision. (Author) 13 refs.

  20. Guangdong Aluminum to Raise RMB 3 billion for New Production Base in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On July 7, a loan signing ceremony was held between the Guangdong Aluminum Group, China Construction Bank, Hua Xia Bank and Guangzhou Bank Consortium. It is reported that these banks will provide Guangdong Aluminum Group with RMB 30 billion for an alu-minum oxide and supporting bauxite mining project in Guizhou.

  1. U. S. Multinational Corporations and National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    tfol/o) action between them. A random .Ci • t° def^ne the areas of inter- Acers A ä^^^-ä z^r***- were no references to foreign or mil^Lf, as1...the rubber of Malaysia ,and the bauxite of Jamaica, Surinam and Australia. The essential characteristics of these natural resource regions have

  2. Treatment of alumina refinery waste (red mud) through neutralization techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, K L; Agnihotri, A

    2017-06-01

    In the Bayer process of extraction of alumina from bauxite, the insoluble product generated after bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as 'red mud' or 'bauxite residue'. This alumina refinery waste is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5 and is conventionally disposed of in mostly clay-lined land-based impoundments. The alkaline constituents in the red mud impose severe and alarming environmental problems, such as soil and air pollution. Keeping in view sustainable re-vegetation and residue management, neutralization/treatment of red mud using different techniques is the only alternative to make the bauxite residue environmentally benign. Hence, neutralization techniques, such as using mineral acids, acidic waste (pickling liquor waste), coal dust, superphosphate and gypsum as amenders, CO 2 , sintering with silicate material and seawater for treatment of red mud have been studied in detail. This paper is based upon and emphasizes the experimental work carried out for all the neutralization techniques along with a comprehensive review of each of the processes. The scope, applicability, limitations and feasibility of these processes have been compared exhaustively. Merits and demerits have been discussed using flow diagrams. All the techniques described are technically feasible, wherein findings obtained with seawater neutralization can be set as a benchmark for future work. Further studies should be focused on exploring the economical viability of these processes for better waste management and disposal of red mud.

  3. THE PROPOSED ALUMINA INDUSTRY AND HOW TO MITIGATE AGAINST THE RED MUD FOOTPRINT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Y. Gawu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite tailings, also known as red mud, are often generated in vast quantities by extracting alumina from bauxites. The relatively complex composition of the red mud, an insoluble residue from bauxite processing, coupled with its fine particle size distribution, high pH, poor settling properties and some toxic rare metal associations, make its disposal problematic. Two locations are being considered for the sitting of a bauxite refinery in Ghana. Since large quantities of tailings is expected to be produced at a selected site efforts need to be geared towards its management to ensure that the red mud footprint is not repeated in Ghana as happened elsewhere. This paper considers the two proposed sites and applies a site ranking criteria to identify the most suitable site, as well as an environmentally suitable disposal technology based on the selected site conditions and the general red mud characteristics. This study could serve as a sustainable development approach in site selection and the choice of disposal technologies.

  4. Radiological aspects of the usability of red mud as building material additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somlai, Janos; Jobbagy, Viktor; Kovacs, Jozsef; Tarjan, Sandor; Kovacs, Tibor

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have examined and achieved favourable results in connection with the building industry's use of red mud extracted in large quantities from the processing of bauxite. These days more and more precedence is being given to limiting the radiological dose to the population. In this study carried out in Hungary, the use of red mud, bauxite, and clay additives recommended for the production of special cements, were examined from a radiological aspect. 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations measured in Hungarian bauxite, red mud and clay samples were significantly similar with the levels for such raw materials mentioned in international literature. Taking radiation protection aspects into consideration, none of these products can be directly used for building construction. Taking Hungarian and international values into consideration, a small amount of red mud, not exceeding 15% could be used for brick production, for example as a colouring material. However, beyond this amount the standards for building materials would not be met. For the production of cements an even stricter limit needs to be determined when both bauxite and red mud are used

  5. Pozzolanic properties of clays used for shelter construction in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pozzolanas produced from clay and bauxite wastes have been blended with Portland cement to produce Portland-Pozzolana composite cement. The production processes, including nodulization, are discussed. The mechanical properties of the composite cement, such as compressive strength and setting times, were ...

  6. Feasibility of introducing continuous systems in surface mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordia, S K

    1987-06-01

    The paper presents a brief outline of the mineral types, production trends and techno-economic feasiblity associated with the possible introduction of continuous mining systems to India. Production trends are outlined for coal, limestone, bauxite, phosphate, and iron ore. Continuous mining systems described are heavy-duty bucket wheel excavators, road milling type machines and shearing type machines. 8 refs.

  7. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Surinam. 1941 Iceland. Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States...through the Gulf. President Reagan reported that U.S. Navy ships had been fired upon or struck mines or taken other military action on September 23

  8. Amazonian forest restoration: an innovative system for native species selection based on phenological data and performance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver H. Knowles; John A. Parrotta

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and sixty taxa of upland moist forest trees were studied with reference to their suitability for forest restoration on bauxite mined Iands in western Para State, Brazil. Over a 14-year period, field observations in native primary forests, nursery studies, and evaluations of over 600 ha of mixed-species reforestation areas were used to characterize fruiting...

  9. Review of South American mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given

  10. Stagnation of the exploitation of Al ores and the depression of world prices of Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Jozef

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution, data on Al – a metal of the 20th century are compiled together with the problems of genesis of the Al mineral raw ma-terials as well as types of bauxite and Al-laterite deposits. Furthermore, an overview of the world exploitation of bauxite during 1935-1980 is given along with the prognoses to 2000 and present situation (1992-1996. Overviews of the production of Al follows, providing its rela-tion to the bauxite exploitation. Contrary to the prognoses, a stabilization or stagnation has been observed in the exploitation of bauxite and production of Al during nineties, which a tendency is directly reflected in the world price of this commodity. When analyzing the Al prices for a longer period, some serious deviations can be noticed, that however presently represent a long-term minimum. We hope the stagnation of the production and the price decline are only temporary and new possibilities of the utilization of Al will be found soon.

  11. Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkemo, Harold; Goudarzi, Gus H.

    1978-01-01

    There has been a general lag in minerals-exploration activity in the past few years. Government concern is reviewed in this article, along with significant developments that included the discovery of additional bauxite, copper, and molybdenum deposits and the reopening of different mining operations. (MA)

  12. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    kilometer track running through tropical forest. The track is a combination of a bauxite /dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...bridges crossing 11 creeks. The track site is located in a private concession used mainly for gold mining ; however, logging operations are active in the

  13. Soil Microbial Community Successional Patterns during Forest Ecosystem Restoration ▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Banning, Natasha C.; Gleeson, Deirdre B.; Grigg, Andrew H.; Grant, Carl D.; Andersen, Gary L.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Murphy, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    Soil microbial community characterization is increasingly being used to determine the responses of soils to stress and disturbances and to assess ecosystem sustainability. However, there is little experimental evidence to indicate that predictable patterns in microbial community structure or composition occur during secondary succession or ecosystem restoration. This study utilized a chronosequence of developing jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest ecosystems, rehabilitated after bauxite mini...

  14. Distribution of Selected Trace Elements in the Bayer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to achieve an understanding of the distribution of selected bauxite trace elements (gallium (Ga, vanadium (V, arsenic (As, chromium (Cr, rare earth elements (REEs, scandium (Sc in the Bayer process. The assessment was designed as a case study in an alumina plant in operation to provide an overview of the trace elements behaviour in an actual industrial setup. A combination of analytical techniques was used, mainly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was found that Ga, V and As as well as, to a minor extent, Cr are principally accumulated in Bayer process liquors. In addition, Ga is also fractionated to alumina at the end of the Bayer processing cycle. The rest of these elements pass to bauxite residue. REEs and Sc have the tendency to remain practically unaffected in the solid phases of the Bayer process and, therefore, at least 98% of their mass is transferred to bauxite residue. The interest in such a study originates from the fact that many of these trace constituents of bauxite ore could potentially become valuable by-products of the Bayer process; therefore, the understanding of their behaviour needs to be expanded. In fact, Ga and V are already by-products of the Bayer process, but their distribution patterns have not been provided in the existing open literature.

  15. Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christopher T.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Machent, Philip G.

    2006-03-01

    Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the southern section of the bay with surficial sediments presently composed of up to 35 weight% non-carbonate. Cores recovered from sites on the western side of the bay provide a stratigraphic record of this history of bauxite contamination across water depths from 5 to 25 m. The bauxite-influenced upper sediment horizons are clearly visible in each core from the distinctive red-brown colouration of the sediment. These sediments are composed of approximately 10% non-carbonate (bauxite) and have Fe contents of around 2-3000 μg/g (up to 7000 μg/g). The thickness of this upper bauxite-contaminated sequence increases down transect (approximately 18 cm in the shallowest core, to around 47 cm in the deepest core), and in each core overlies a sequence of 'clean' lagoon carbonates. These typically are poorly sorted carbonate sands with variable amounts of coral rubble. Down-core data on CaCO 3 and Fe content provide a chemical record of decreasing sediment contamination with depth, with the lower 'clean' carbonates composed of only around 2% non-carbonate and coral, mollusc, Amphiroa and Halimeda in the clean lagoon sands, to assemblages dominated by Halimeda and Amphiroa within the surficial sediments. At the deeper sites, no major down-core shifts in sediment constituents occur. These sites thus record a rather complex history of changes in sediment composition and chemistry. Clear shifts in chemistry and stratigraphy occur in all the cores and reflect progressive bauxite contamination in the near-surface horizons. These inputs, however, do not appear to have directly affected carbonate production, since the

  16. Comparison of Low Concentration and High Concentration Arsenic Removal Techniques and Evaluation of Concentration of Arsenic in Ground Water: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Abdullah; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Shahzadi, Uzma; Saleem, Pakeeza

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this study was the evaluation of arsenic concentration in the ground water of Lahore at different depth and application of different mitigation techniques for arsenic removal. Twenty four hours of solar oxidation gives 90% of arsenic removal as compared to 8 hr. or 16 hr. Among oxides, calcium oxide gives 96% of As removal as compared to 93% by lanthanum oxide. Arsenic removal efficiency was up to 97% by ferric chloride, whereas 95% by alum. Activated alumina showed 99% removal as compared to 97% and 95% removal with bauxite and charcoal, respectively. Elemental analysis of adsorbents showed that the presence of phosphate and silica can cause a reduction of arsenic removal efficiency by activated alumina, bauxite and charcoal. This study has laid a foundation for further research on arsenic in the city of Lahore and has also provided suitable techniques for arsenic removal

  17. Comparison of Low Concentration and High Concentration Arsenic Removal Techniques and Evaluation of Concentration of Arsenic in Ground Water: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasar, Abdullah; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Shahzadi, Uzma; Saleem, Pakeeza [GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    The main focus of this study was the evaluation of arsenic concentration in the ground water of Lahore at different depth and application of different mitigation techniques for arsenic removal. Twenty four hours of solar oxidation gives 90% of arsenic removal as compared to 8 hr. or 16 hr. Among oxides, calcium oxide gives 96% of As removal as compared to 93% by lanthanum oxide. Arsenic removal efficiency was up to 97% by ferric chloride, whereas 95% by alum. Activated alumina showed 99% removal as compared to 97% and 95% removal with bauxite and charcoal, respectively. Elemental analysis of adsorbents showed that the presence of phosphate and silica can cause a reduction of arsenic removal efficiency by activated alumina, bauxite and charcoal. This study has laid a foundation for further research on arsenic in the city of Lahore and has also provided suitable techniques for arsenic removal.

  18. Removal of arsenic from potable water by adsorptive media treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, S.; Khan, S.; Aslam, M.T.; Khan, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This study was conducted to investigate the arsenic removal efficiency of different adsorptive media from water. Different naturally occurring materials such as bauxite, plastic clay, plaster of Paris, lime, alum, and alumina etc. were used for the development of media to remove arsenic As/sup +5/ present in the artificially contaminated water. Different ratios of the selected materials were combined and ignited at 9000 C to enhance its arsenic removing efficiency. It was found that the media bauxite, plastic clay, lime (1:1:1) has a maximum removal (99%) of As +5 species from aqueous media and can be used on- site to reduce the arsenic contamination of potable water. Furthermore, the materials used in this experiment were cheaply and abundantly available within the country. The method is very simple and economically viable, for removal of arsenic from potable water. (author)

  19. Development of Ceramic Coating on Metal Substrate using Industrial Waste and Ore Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The technological advancement in modern era has a boon for enlightening human life; but also is a bane to produce a huge amount of (industrial) wastes, which is of great concern for utilization and not to create environmental threats viz. polution etc. In the present piece of research work, attempts have been made to utilize fly ash (wastes of thermal power plants) and along with alumina bearing ore i.e. bauxite, for developing plasma spray ceramic coatings on metals. Fly ash and with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray coatings on a metal substrate. The surface morphology of the coatings deposited at different power levels of plasma spraying investigated through SEM and EDS analysis. The coating thickness is measured. The porosity levels of the coatings are evaluated. The coating hardness isalso measured. This piece of research work will be beneficial for future development and use of industrial waste and ore minerals for high-valued applications.

  20. Contaminated Sites by Residues from Romanian Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelian, F.; Georgescu, D.; Vacariu, V.; Popescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Romania, the mining industries of ferrous ore, non-ferrous ore, bauxite, coal, chemical fertilisers, the extraction of natural gas and oil, etc. have a considerable weight in economy. The study lets us know that in these industries, in different by-products and waste from the process, some radionuclides come out. The preliminary data, which are determined in these industries, are compared with those data, which are published by the countries from EU. There were determined uranium, radium and thorium from ore and sterile (ferrous, non-ferrous, bauxite, talc, clay, asbestos, barytine, salt, coal and bituminous schist). Also, there have been determined the radium and the uranium content of waters from non-uraniferous mining sites. The level of radioactive noxa has been informative determined in each mine. The level of the concentrations requires a systematic research and an assessment of the risk and the impact against the environment, the workers, and the public. (author)

  1. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  2. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application-study report: alumina-plant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.; Stanley, J.D.

    1981-05-01

    This report considers the HTGR-PS/C application to producing alumina from bauxite. For the size alumina plant considered, the 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C supplies 100% of the process steam and electrical power requirements and produces surplus electrical power and/or process steam, which can be used for other process users or electrical power production. Presently, the bauxite ore is reduced to alumina in plants geographically separated from the electrolysis plant. The electrolysis plants are located near economical electric power sources. However, with the integration of an 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C unit in a commercial alumina plant, the excess electric power available [approx. 233 MW(e)] could be used for alumina electrolysis

  3. Status and trends in nuclear techniques in the mineral industry in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Rao, S.M.; Murthy, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    The status and use of nuclear techniques in the various parts of the mineral industry in India are reviewed. The techniques and applications include nucleonic level control in ore hoppers; radiometric density gauges; coal ash monitoring using x-ray backscattering; mineral analysis by x-ray fluorescence and radioisotope analysis; neutron and gamma logging of oil wells; radiotracer techniques in bauxite processing and in the oil industry. (UK)

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang, Abstract PDF. N Yaakub, M.N.A. Raoff, M.N. Haris, A.A.A. Halim, M.K.A. Kamarudin. Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality index assesment around industrial area in Kuantan, Pahang, Abstract ...

  5. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  6. Queensland's mining industry vital to state and national economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, B

    1987-04-01

    Queensland's multi-billion dollar mining industry, and the industries it supports, continues to play a vital role in the economy of the State and the nation. According to Australian Bureau of Statistics figures, Queenland produces nearly half of the black coal mined in Australia, 70% of the copper, 54% of the silver, 42% of the lead, 31% of the zinc, 40% of the tungsten, 25% of the bauxite and tin, 46% of the rutile, and 9% of the gold.

  7. Cold-water coral ecosystems in Cassidaigne Canyon: An assessment of their environmental living conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Bargain, Annaelle; Pairaud, Ivane; Pedel, Laura; Taupier-letage, I.

    2017-01-01

    The Cassidaigne canyon is one of the two canyons (together with Lacaze-Duthiers) of the French Mediterranean coast in which cold-water corals have settled and formed large colonies, providing a structural habitat for other species. Nevertheless, the communities settled in the Cassidaigne canyon are physically impacted by discharges of bauxite residues. New information on the distribution of the species Madrepora oculata and the associated species diversity in Cassidaigne canyon was provid...

  8. Attenuation of fast neutron in concretes for biological shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrada, A.; Chavez, A.; Gonzalez Mateu, D.; Desdin, F.; Tenjeiro, J.I.; Tellez, E.

    1993-01-01

    The attenuation of neutrons emitted by an 10 6 n/s. Am-Be source, in concretes elaborated with different aggregates is discussed in this paper. Two measurement methods were used an dosimetric system with Bonner spheres and 6 LiI(Eu) detector, and LAVSAN dielectric nuclear track detectors - with 238 U converts. The concretes elaborated with magnetite is reported as the best for neutron shielding while the Bauxite is not advisable for this purpose

  9. The War Against Generational Poverty: A Comparative Study of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs in Brazil, Chile, and Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    based primarily on tourism , remittances, bauxite mining, and agricultural exports, the country has been particularly vulnerable to external shocks and...shifts in the commodities market. It suffered greatly from the drops in tourism from the United States following the September 11 attacks and the...and badly needed infrastructure upgrades has required fairly high taxes, particularly on consumer goods and businesses. Brazil sports a notoriously

  10. How Governmental Policies Regarding Strategic and Critical Materials Affect the Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    FRANCE (111 TANTALUM So THAILAND 1311. CANADA (131, MALAYSIA (III. BRAZIL (41 BAUXITE & ALUMINA 93 JAMAICA (331. AUSTRALIA f37). GUINEA (IS). SURINAM...TIn SI........ MALAYSIA (SS). THAILAND (16I, INDONESIA (11)1. BOLIVIA (6) NICKEL 77 CANADA (114). NORWAY (9). NIW CALEDONIA (8). DOMIN. PEP. (61 CADMIUM...Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administra- tion ( OSHA ) requirements. [25:15] Another area restrictive and counterproductive to the

  11. Acid rain may cause senile dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, F

    1985-04-25

    Aluminium, released from the soil by acid rain, may be a cause of several forms of senile dementia including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Many upland reservoirs, fed by acid rain, supply homes with water laced with significant amounts of aluminium. Studies in the Pacific have shown that communities living on soils that are extremely rich in bauxite, the rock containing aluminium, have a very high incidence of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  13. Ressources Minières En Afrique

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tous droits de reproduction, de traduction et d'adaptation réservés ..... 2.1 Production nationale de bauxite en Guinée (1986-2006) ...... et d'une obligation de suivi, de vérification et d'audits annuels transparents » (EIR, 2003d, p. ...... Strategy for African mining », Africa Technical Department Series, Mining Unit, Industry and ...

  14. Report of the Defense Science Board 1980 Summer Study Panel on Industrial Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    incentives , as discussed earlier. They have "made-do" with obsolete and aging tools. The government machine tool base contains about 115,000 tools of...critical materials when the U.S has substantial dependence on imports. Under Title III the government can help establish or support mining and...INDUSTRIES CAN BE CHARACTERIZED INTO THREE SEGMENTS: 1. MINING 2. REFINING, SMELTING, AND SCRAP RECLAIMATION 3. FABRICATION BAUXITE MINING IS 95% OFF

  15. Defense or Development? A Decisive Question in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-05

    become a closed group within a determined area, especially in the countryside. The economy, dominated by the mining industry (mainly by the bauxite ...indicators Uruguay 1997 – 2006 34 Given the current diplomatic and economic situation, by offering early retirement incentives , the government has...of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government

  16. Strategic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    government (oligopoly with duopsonistic buyers – military and civilian/other governmental security) sectors, the market is performing well. Firms...integration on a global basis. The starting minerals such as silica, boron, and bauxite are mined from the earth, but synthesis of these minerals to...that encourage agencies to get involved in government research. The government must encourage many more incentives to collaboration. For instance

  17. AFRICOM: Combatant Command for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    significant part of the world’s diamonds, gold, and chromium. Copper, bauxite , phosphate, uranium, tin, iron ore, cobalt, and titanium are also mined in...25%. World oil prices rose above $60 per barrel in Apr 2007 after the country held disputed national elections and above $70 per barrel in May 2007...which acknowledges the importance of establishing a mechanism for coordination between DoD and the other departments and agencies based in Washington

  18. Beryllium Metal Supply Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Carcinogen Assessment Group (U.S. Environmental Protec- tion Agency, 1987). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health is currently examining...Epidemiology of beryllium intox- ication. Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup . Med. 4:123-151. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 1987. Health Assessment Document...1957 to 1961. He rejoined the Bureau of Mines in 1961 as the aluminum and bauxite commcdity specialist. In 1973 he became chief of the Division of

  19. Modernization of hydrogeological and mine dewatering researches in the Transdanubian Mid-Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, G.; Vizy, B.

    1990-01-01

    The present state of the karst water system of the Transdanubian Mid-Mountains is outlined and the measures to be done in order to protect the main karst system of the region are listed. The items of modernization are presented including the closing of mines (both the coal and the bauxite mines) and the modernization of hydrogeological exploration methods (to develop a uniform information system on the karst system of the Transdanubian Mid-Mountains).

  20. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoyan, G A; Karamyan, G G; Vardan, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given. (paper)

  1. Chinese Soft Power in Latin America: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    5 billion in additional investments ■■ more than $4.4 billion in commitments to develop Peruvian mines , including Toro- mocho, Rio Blanco, Galleno...oil production, while China Railway Road and Tongling are ramping up for a $3 billion project in the recently opened Ecuadorian mining sector. In...companies key players in the extrac- tion of Venezuelan iron, gold, bauxite , and coal.7 Although Chinese companies have yet to attain the level of “key

  2. Implications of Competition for Strategic Minerals in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Officer to the German Navy Mine Countermeasures Flotilla. 1 Introduction Increased commodities demand symptomatic to globalization offer the...Escondida copper mine in Chile. Far and away the largest copper mine in the world, Escondida singlehandedly supplies over six percent over world copper...and manganese, over ten percent of uranium, petroleum, bauxite and alumina, and significant quantities of copper, nickel, coal, and iron ore. 4

  3. Effectiveness of United Nation’s Missions in Africa: A Comparative Assessment of UNAMSIL, MONUC, and UNAMID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    from the diamond they mined in their countries. The government of Botswana succeeded brilliantly in harnessing these revenues for economic growth in...Leone’s primary source of foreign exchange is natural resources that include rutile, titanium, iron ore, bauxite , gold and diamonds. The economy consists...of agriculture, exportation of raw materials, and light local industry. Alluvial diamond mining remains the main source of hard currency earnings

  4. Maoism in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ore, copper, coal, and bauxite . Since independence, these areas have been harnessed for their mineral wealth; however, the pace of industrialization... mining rights and for setting up industry and , Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in the region. The states have used the Land Acquisition Act of 1894 to...people depend on the government and private industry for compensation and rehabilitation . 31 While some people accept the compensation, many others do

  5. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-30

    we must reconstruct these capacities to the point where such an effort would be inefficient. In other words, bauxite mining and the manufacture of...reality expressed finally as capitulation and normalization should be considered as a Czechoslovak character deter- mined by fate. The predominance of...was it fraternal aid or an intervention by force? They could perhaps " rehabilitate " Masaryk, but never Dubcek because they would have lost the

  6. JPRS Report, Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-25

    mining in the Mecsek region was prohibited, and everyone said that they were mining bauxite . The subse- quent openness—similarly restricted from...Mberengwa District. Undernourishment It is a poor district with a few small mines but no industry. The people make a living from small patches of...carrier, a Chinese male, was tested positive in a Government rehabilitation centre last month, con- firming a fear that more IV drug users could be

  7. Emissions of naturally occurring radioactivity from aluminum and copper facilities. Report No. 6 (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, V.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes five surveys which were conducted at a Bauxite mining operation, an alumina reduction plant, an aluminum reduction plant, an underground copper mine and mill, and an open pit copper mine and concentrator. Process components and controlled source releases were sampled for naturally occurring radioactivity. Particular emphasis was given to radon-222, lead-210, and polonium-210 emissions from crushing and drying processes

  8. Social Metabolism and Environmental Conflicts in India

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains the methods for counting the energy and material flows in the economy, and gives the main results of the Material Flows for the economy of India between 1961 and 2008 as researched by Simron Singh et al (2012). Drawing on work done in the EJOLT project, some illustrations are given of the links between the changing social metabolism and ecological distribution conflicts, looking at responses in Odisha to bauxite mining, at conflicts on sand mining, at disputes on waste man...

  9. Social Metabolism and Environmental Conflicts in India

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Alier, Joan; Temper, Leah; Demaria, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains the methods for counting the energy and material flows in the economy, and gives the main results of the Material Flows for the economy of India between 1961 and 2008 as researched by Simron Singh et al (2012). Drawing on work done in the EJOLT project, some illustrations are given of the links between the changing social metabolism and ecological distribution conflicts, looking at responses in Odisha to bauxite mining, at conflicts on sand mining, at disputes on waste ma...

  10. Social Metabolism and Environmental Conflicts in India

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Martinez-Alier; Leah Temper; Federico Demaria

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains the methods for counting the energy and material flows in the economy, and gives the main results of the Material Flows for the economy of India between 1961 and 2008 as researched by Simron Singh et al (2012). Drawing on work done in the EJOLT project, some illustrations are given of the links between the changing social metabolism and ecological distribution conflicts, looking at responses in Odisha to bauxite mining, at conflicts on sand mining, at disputes on waste ...

  11. Minimising reversion, using seawater and magnesium chloride, caused by the dissolution of tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sara J; Frost, Ray L; Smith, Matthew K

    2011-01-15

    The increase in pH and aluminium concentration after the neutralisation of bauxite refinery residues is commonly known as reversion. This investigation reports the extent of reversion in synthetic supernatant liquor and possible methods to reduce reversion. This work is based on bauxite refinery residues produced from alumina refineries, where reversion is a real life situation in neutralised refinery residues. Tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate, a common phase in bauxite refinery residues, has been found to cause reversion. It has been established that reductions in both pH and aluminium from the seawater neutralisation process are due to the formation of 'Bayer' hydrotalcite Mg(7)Al(2)(OH)(18)(CO(3)(2-),SO(4)(2-))·xH(2)O. This is the primary mechanism involved in the removal of aluminium from solution. Increasing the volume of seawater used for the neutralisation process minimises the extent of reversion for both synthetic supernatant liquor and red mud slurry. The addition of MgCl(2)·6H(2)O also showed a reduction in reversion and confirmed that the decrease in aluminium and hydroxyl ions is due to the formation of Bayer hydrotalcite and not simply a dilution effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. System dynamics analysis of strategies to reduce energy use in aluminum-intensive sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Nicholson, Scott; 25-29 June 2017, Carpenter, Alberta

    2017-07-13

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used materials in industry, with applications in buildings, vehicles, aircraft, and consumer products. Its ubiquity is also on the rise: aluminum is beginning to supplant steel in lightweight vehicles and aircraft, and is used in many green or LEED-certified buildings. Although aluminum tends to be highly recycled, particularly by manufacturers of aluminum products, the sector as a whole is still far from a closed system. As a result, the increase in aluminum consumption also means an increase in primary aluminum production-an energy-intensive process-and an increase in consumption of the raw material bauxite, which in the U.S. is almost entirely imported. Our objectives for this study are to identify and analyze aluminum sector technologies and practices that reduce the energy required to manufacture aluminum products and reduce U.S. dependence on imported aluminum and bauxite. To accomplish these objectives, we will develop a system dynamics (SD) model of aluminum production, use and recycling in key application areas, including aerospace, ground vehicles and consumer products. The model will cover the entire aluminum supply chain as it exists in the U.S., from bauxite importing and refining, to the manufacture of products, to the product use phase and end-of-life processing steps. Aluminum flows throughout the model will be determined by the annual domestic demand for each application area as well as demand projections that extend to 2030. Energy consumption will be tracked based on the flows of aluminum through each step of the supply chain. Using the SD model, we will evaluate several technologies and practices that have the potential to reduce energy consumption and reliance on imported bauxite. These include implementation of advanced primary aluminum production technologies, increased recycling within and between application areas, increased material efficiency and increased product lifetimes. Each of these strategies

  13. Recovery of total Hg from geological matrices: a methodological intercomparison study (W6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, N.S.; Vondergeest, E.J.; Preus, E.M.; Horvat, M.; Prosenc, N.; Kingston, S.; Apte, S.; Pobbs, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Aqua regia is commonly used for the extraction of Hg from soils prior to cold vapor spectrometry, but mass balance studies suggested it is not sufficiently robust to recover all Hg from more recalcitrant materials such as crystalline ores. As a result, an intercomparison exercise was undertaken between the following methods: (a) aqua regia digestion (EPA 7471) followed by SnCl 2 reduction, gold trapping and CVAFS detection, (b) Teflon bomb digestion at 110 o C with a 10:5:2 HNO 3 + HF + HCl mixture followed by SnCl 2 reduction, gold trapping and CVAFS, (c) 800 o C pyrolysis with gold trapping and CVAAS detection (EPA 7473), and (d) NAA followed by radiochemical separations using oxidative combustion and gold trapping. All methods gave quantitative recoveries from soil and sediment CRMs, but only the HF/HCI/HNO 3 digestion gave quantitative recoveries in all media. Pyrolysis resulted in approximately 88 ± 10 % recovery, while aqua regia digestion resulted in only about 61 ± 24 % recovery in bauxite ores and residues. RNAA generally gave the best agreement with the HF based digestion, although in a significant number of samples, particularly bauxite ores, recoveries were as low as 50 %. Based on these findings, we recommend that bomb digestions which include the use HF be applied to the analysis of Hg in geological solids, unless the matrix is documented to be fully extractable by a less rigorous procedure. We suggest a reference value for Hg in bauxite reference material (NIST-600) of 79.0 ± 2.0 ng/g, based on the pooled results of three laboratories. (author)

  14. The influence of sea-level changes on tropical coastal lowlands; the Pleistocene Coropina Formation, Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Th. E.; de Kramer, R.; de Boer, P. L.; Langereis, C.; Sew-A-Tjon, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Pleistocene Coropina Formation largely constitutes the Old Coastal Plain of Suriname. It is exposed fully only in open-pit bauxite mines in the central coastal plain as part of the unconsolidated overburden of Paleocene-Eocene bauxites. This study deals with the stratigraphy, sedimentology and chronology of this formation, and is based on a study in the recently closed Lelydorp-III bauxite mine operated by N.V. BHP Billiton Maatschappij Suriname. The Coropina Formation consists of the Para and Lelydorp Members. We present a detailed lithological subdivision of these members. In the Para Member, four units are discerned which are grouped in two transgressive cycles, both ranging upward from terrestrial towards chenier and coastal mudflat deposits reflecting glacio-eustatic sea-level changes. The sandy sediments represent fluviatile and beach-bar (chenier) deposits, and were supplied by rivers from the Precambrian basement and to a lesser extent by westward longshore coastal drift. Clays, largely derived from the Amazon River and transported alongshore over the shelf, were deposited in extensive coastal mudflats. The Lelydorp Member, also comprising four units, represents a depositional system that is closely comparable to the recent Suriname coastal setting, i.e., a lateral and vertical alternation of mudflat and chenier deposits formed over a period characterised by more or less constant sea level. Palaeomagnetic data indicate a dominantly reversed magnetic polarity in the Para Member, whereas the Lelydorp Member shows a normal magnetic polarity with a minor reversed polarity overprint. The reversed polarities of the Para Member exclude a Brunhes Chron (0.78-0.0 Ma) age, and thus assign it to the Matuyama Chron (2.58-0.78 Ma). This implies that the Coropina Formation is much older than hitherto assumed, and that one or more (long-term) hiatuses are not recognizable in the lithological succession.

  15. Системы разломов тектонической зоны Рутба-Джезира на северо-востоке Аравийской платформы (Ирак) по космогеологическим данным

    OpenAIRE

    Аль-Обайди, М. М.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of remote sensing study for the tectonic zone Rutba-Jazeera, located within the Arabian platform (Iraq), revealed a system of lineaments of their contacts with faults both in the platform cover and crystalline basement. Structure of faults controls a placement of known deposits (iron ore, kaolinite, bauxite). The structural interpretations of satellite images are informative for mineral genetic studies in the Al-Hussainiat area. = Анализируются результаты космогеологическ...

  16. Clay minerals and Sr-Nd isotopes of the sediments along the western margin of India and their implication for sediment provenance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Ahmad, S; Babu, G.A.

    - gion is occupied by Recent alluvium and the Warkala beds (ferruginised sand stones with inter- calated clays) of Tertiary age. Extensive laterisation of the parent rocks is a characteristic feature in western India. Bauxite- and laterite...^Nd isotopes of the sediments along the western margin of India and their implication for sediment provenance Pratima M. Kessarkar a , V. Purnachandra Rao a;C3 , S.M. Ahmad b , G. Anil Babu b a National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India...

  17. Radon and rock bursts in deep mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulashevich, Yu.P.; Utkin, V.I.; Yurkov, A.K.; Nikolaev, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Variation fields of radon concentration in time to ascertain stress-strain state of the North Ural bauxite mines have been studied. It is shown that dynamic changes in the stress-strain state of the rocks prior to the rock burst bring about variations in radon concentration in the observation wells. Depending on mutual positioning of the observation points and the rock burst epicenter, the above-mentioned variations differ in principle, reduction of radon concentration in the near zone and its increase in the far zone are observed [ru

  18. Mining-related environmental impacts of carbon mitigation; Coal-based carbon capture and sequestration and wind-enabling transmission expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubert, Emily

    2010-09-15

    Carbon mitigation can occur by preventing generation of greenhouse gases or by preventing emissions from entering the atmosphere. Accordingly, increasing the use of wind energy or carbon capture and storage (CCS) at coal-fired power plants could reduce carbon emissions. This work compares the direct mining impacts of increased coal demand associated with CCS with those of increased aluminum demand for expanding transmission systems to enable wind power incorporation. Aluminum needs for expanded transmission probably represent a one-time need for about 1.5% of Jamaica's annual bauxite production, while CCS coal needs for the same mitigation could almost double US coal demand.

  19. Purifying mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, J J

    1919-02-24

    A natural or an uncracked oil is desulfurized by vaporizing it and bringing the vapor into contact with granular alumina or ignited magnesite at a temperature below the boiling-point of sulfur. The alumina may be prepared from the trihydrate or bauxite. Sulfuretted hydrogen resulting from the dissociation of the sulfur compounds may be absorbed in oxide of iron, Weldon mud, or the like. Specifications 5,208/83, 14,405/92, 7,272/14, and 109,077 are referred to.

  20. Overview of the Malaysian mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahan, A.R.B. (Department of Mines (Malaysia))

    1992-08-01

    The article describes the status of the mining industry in Malaysia. Tin dominated the industry until a price fall caused closure of many mines in 1987-1990. Other minerals mined include copper, gold, iron ore, bauxite, barite, kaolin, limestone, clays, sand and gravel. Coal production in Malaysia resumed when an opencast mine was opened in July 1988 in Sarawak. Another started operation in early 1989 by the underground method. At the end of 1990 there was a total of 53 exploration rights granted for gold, coal, base metals and industrial minerals. A few coalfields have been identified. Generally the industry has suffered a decline because of lack of new investment. 1 fig.

  1. Material for desulphurisation. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, F; Maus, W

    1979-07-19

    The invention concerns a material in pellet formm for desulphurisation of gases with a high CO/sub 2/ content, particularly sewer gas, where the material consists mainly of iron oxide hydrate, to which a loosening material, binding material and additional materials such as calcium carbonate and furnace slack are added, and which contains combined water. Chemically active iron oxide hydrate material such as material which occurs as remnant in pyrogenic bauxite treatment in aluminium manufacture, bog iron ore, material from water works and similar materials can be used as iron oxide hydrate. Sawdust or turf can be used as loosening material to increase the open porosity.

  2. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  3. Pinjarra 1970: Shame and the Country Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Ferrell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinjarra in 1970 lay on an extraordinary cusp. It lagged along a fault line between one order and another; or rather, it squatted at a precipice, over which its cherished values had already been dashed to pieces. In 1967, Aboriginal people were at last, by national referendum, declared citizens of Australia. In 1969, Alcoa began to prepare the site in the hills behind Pinjarra for the open-cut mining of the largest bauxite deposit so far discovered in the world. The past met the future, and they didn’t recognise each other.

  4. Recovery of rare earths from red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The prospect for the recovery of rare earths from red mud, the bauxite tailings from the production of alumina is examined. The Jamaican red mud by far has the higher trace concentrations of lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and yttrium. Scandium is also present. The dissolution of the rare earth is a major extraction problem because of the large volume of other materials. The recovery processes that have been proposed include the production of co-products such as iron, alumina, and titanium concentrates, with the rare earths going with the titanium. In this paper a critical examination of the possible processes are presented with the recommended research projects to be carried out

  5. Pengawasan Pemerintahan Daerah Kabupaten Lingga terhadap Izin Pertambangan Bauksit Tahun 2011

    OpenAIRE

    ", Isri; PUTRA, ARDI

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest archipelagic country in the world that is so large and has spread almost all over the country. One of these resources is the result of mining. Lingga regency is one area that is located in the province of Riau Islands which have the potential mining of natural resources is considerable potential as a source of local revenue and state. one of these is mining bauxite mining.This study aims to determine the District level Government oversight phallus against Bauxi...

  6. The Monte Carlo method in mining nuclear geophysics: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistenko, Yu.N.; Lukhminsky, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    Prospects for using a new generation of neutron generators in mining geophysics are discussed. For their evaluation we use Monte Carlo computational methods with a special package of FORTRAN programs code-named MOK. Among the methods of pulsed neutron logging we discuss the method of time-dependent slowing down for the measurement of resonance neutron absorbers (mercury, tungsten, silver, gold, gadolinium, etc.) and time dependent spectral analysis of capture γ-rays (mercury). Among the neutron activation methods, we discuss the two source methods ( 252 Cf + neutron generator) and the method of spectral activation ratio for bauxites ( 27 Al/ 27 Mg or 27 Al/ 24m Na). (author)

  7. Well logging instrumental and methodological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrassy, L.; Barath, I.; Dorko, R.

    1983-01-01

    This part of the Annual Report of the Roland Eoetvoes Geophysical Institute (ELGI) of Hungary for 1982, summarizes the well logging instrumental and methodological researches of ELGI. The theoretical neutron diffusion fluxes for black and brown coals of Hungarian mines were calculated. A coal probe was developed and tested in boreholes using computerized data processing and interpretation. An X-ray radiometric method was used for the determination of Cu and Fe contents of minerals. Researches in the field of magnetic susceptibility and induced polarization logging are also summarized. A rapid analyzer for bauxite mining and a photorecorder for petroleum industry were developed by ELGI. (D.Gy.)

  8. Development of the complex of nuclear-physical methods of analysis for geology and technology tasks in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, V.; Silachyov, I.; Poznyak, V.; Gorlachev, I.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the development of nuclear-physical methods of analysis and their applications in Kazakhstan for geological tasks and technology. The basic methods of this complex include instrumental neutron-activation analysis, x-ray fluorescent analysis and instrumental γ-spectrometry. The following aspects are discussed: applications of developed and adopted analytical techniques for assessment and calculations of rare-earth metal reserves at various deposits in Kazakhstan, for technology development of mining and extraction from uranium-phosphorous ore and wastes, for radioactive coal gasification technology, for studies of rare metal contents in chromite, bauxites, black shales and their processing products. (author)

  9. Efficient solutions from HVAC to offgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    Rio Tinto and Ingenero recently announced that agreement had been reached for the development of the Weipa Solar Photovoltaic Project in Queensland. First Solar will leverage its expertise in utility-scale grid integration and plant control systems to offer a FuelSmart solution that provides maximum fuel savings while maintaining system reliability. Combined with Ingenero's design and integration experience, the project will generate electricity for Rio Tinto Alcan's Weipa bauxite mine, processing facilities and township on the Western Cape York Peninsula

  10. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Reconstruction of sustainable ecosystems on mined lands in the subtropics and tropics of Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, D.; Grigg, A.; Harwood, M. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1999-07-01

    An overview is presented of results from trial sites of ecosystems that have been established across a range of climatic regimes and a wide variety of soils, tailings, and waste rock materials. The project sites described are four types of open-cut mining operations: the Kidson gold mine, bauxite mines at Weipa, coal mines in the Bowen Basin, and heavy mineral sand mining at North Stradbroke Island. Case studies are presented covering several biological processes, including nutrient cycling, vegetation succession, and seedling recruitment. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. MTA 1527-2000: A fast automatic analyzer for the analysis of mineral raw materials and products of the silicate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, H.; Renner, J.; Siklos, A.

    1982-01-01

    A new automatic analytical system designed and constructed for fast measurements on the spot is described. The system can be applied in cars, ships or galleries of mines. It consists of two independent analyzer systems: neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyzers. The main purpose of the design was to determine Al, Si, Ca and Fe oxides in bauxite, alumina, clays and in products of the silicate industry, mainly in cements. The measuring and data evaluation processes are fully automated. It can be used for the continuous monitoring and control of cement production. (D.Gy.)

  13. Investigation of Expanding Cements. Report 1. Summary of Information Available as of 1 July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-09-01

    the authors: (a) Portland cement mixed with CaSO4 and the dried hydratioQ products of lime and burnt kaolin (Budnikov and Kosuirevu[1 5i); it is...expansive ef- fects are strongly influenced by the amount of mixing water and by the nature of the alu.minous component; that is, kaolin , slag and bauxite...mechanical proper- ties of high-molecular system dispersion ." Colloidal Rev., Acad. Opement Sci. USSR, vol XVII, No. 2 (1955). .MI, 43. Mikhailov, V

  14. Control of alkali species in gasification systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turn, S.; Kinoshita, C.; Ishimura, D. Zhou, J.; Hiraki, T.; Masutani, S.

    2000-07-13

    Gas-phase alkali metal compounds contribute to fouling, slagging, corrosion, and agglomeration problems in energy conversion facilities. One mitigation strategy applicable at high temperature is to pass the gas stream through a fixed bed sorbent or getter material, which preferentially absorbs alkali via physical adsorption or chemisorption. This report presents results of an experimental investigation of high-temperature alkali removal from a hot filtered gasifier product gas stream using a packed bed of sorbent material. Two getter materials, activated bauxite and emathlite, were tested at two levels of space time by using two interchangeable reactors of different internal diameters. The effect of getter particle size was also investigated.

  15. Flood pulse influence and anthropic impact on the chemical composition and energy content of Oryza glumaepatula in an Amazonian lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Enrich-Prast

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the flood pulse influence and the anthropic impact caused by bauxite tailings on the chemical composition of O. glumaepatula in Batata lake (PA, Brazil. Sampling was carried out in stands of O. glumaepatula in the low-water, filling, high-water, and drawdown periods in impacted and natural areas of Batata lake. During the low-water and drawdown periods the stands of O. glumaepatula were exposed, and in the filling and high-water periods the water depth was respectively 1.4 and 3.8 m. The collected material was dried at 70ºC, ground, and concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and energy content were determined. The results indicate that the biomass increase, caused by the rise in water level, has a dilution effect on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in O. glumaepatula. The energy contents did not present significant differences in any of the studied periods. The results suggest that from the low water to filling period, nitrogen becomes more limiting to O. glumaepatula in the impacted area, whereas phosphorus becomes more limiting in the natural area. The population of O. glumaepatula contributes to the recovery of the impacted area of Batata lake as the detritus from this species accumulates over the sediment. This accumulation impedes future re-suspension of the bauxite tailings and increases the organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the impacted sediment.

  16. Optimizing Location of Bulk Metallic Minerals Processing Based on Greenhouse Gas Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The bulk minerals iron ore and bauxite cause significant greenhouse emissions in their processing to steel and aluminum respectively. The level of these emissions is highly dependent on the source of electrical and thermal energy. However, they also cause significant greenhouse gas emissions from their transportation across the globe for processing. This study examines these minerals from the perspective of greenhouse gas avoidance, examining the location of processing as an option for reducing transportation-based and process-based emissions. The analysis proposes a “radius of reduction” to define the potential for transporting ore to reduce emissions by offshore processing. Overall scenarios for localized steel production indicate potential for 85% reduction of transport emissions in the steel industry and 14% of overall industry emissions. Local high-carbon electricity grids and inefficient production mean that the benefit of reduced transportation is partially counteracted by increased processing emissions. The transportation of all global bauxite to Norway and other nations with low-emissions electricity for production of aluminum could result in an overall reduction of industry emissions of up to 44%.

  17. The contribution of lateritization processes to the formation of the kaolin deposits from eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Sousa, Daniel José Lima; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    The eastern region of the Amazon is home to the most important kaolin bauxite producing district in Brazil, referred to as the Paragominas-Capim kaolin bauxite district, which has a reserve of at least 1.0 billion tons of high-quality kaolin used in the paper coating industry. The kaolin deposits are closely related to sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba basin and their lateritic cover. Two large deposits are already being mined: IRCC (Ipixuna) and PPSA (Paragominas). The geology of the IRCC mine is comprised of the kaolin-bearing lower unit (truncated mature laterite succession derived from the Ipixuna/Itapecuru formation) and the upper unit (immature lateritized Barreiras formation). The lower kaolin unit is characterized by a sandy facies at the bottom and a soft (ore) with flint facies at the top. It is formed by kaolinite, quartz, some iron oxi-hydroxides, mica and several accessories and heavy minerals. The mangrove covering; and immature lateritization - partial kaolin ferruginization during the Pleistocene.

  18. Incorporation of zinc for fabrication of low-cost spinel-based composite ceramic membrane support to achieve its stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Dong, Xinfa; Dong, Yingchao; Zhu, Li; You, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Ya-Fen

    2015-04-28

    In order to reduce environment risk of zinc, a spinel-based porous membrane support was prepared by the high-temperature reaction of zinc and bauxite mineral. The phase evolution process, shrinkage, porosity, mechanical property, pore size distribution, gas permeation flux and microstructure were systematically studied. The XRD results, based on a Zn/Al stoichiometric composition of 1/2, show a formation of ZnAl2O4 structure starting from 1000°C and then accomplished at 1300°C. For spinel-based composite membrane, shrinkage and porosity are mainly influenced by a combination of an expansion induced by ZnAl2O4 formation and a general densification due to amorphous liquid SiO2. The highest porosity, as high as 44%, is observed in ZnAl4 membrane support among all the investigated compositions. Compared with pure bauxite (Al), ZnAl4 composite membrane support is reinforced by ZnAl2O4 phase and inter-locked mullite crystals, which is proved by the empirical strength-porosity relationships. Also, an increase in average pore diameter and gas flux can be observed in ZnAl4. A prolonged leaching experiment reveals the zinc can be successfully incorporated into ceramic membrane support via formation of ZnAl2O4, which has substantially better resistance toward acidic attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reaction-sintered porous mineral-based mullite ceramic membrane supports made from recycled materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yingchao; Zhou, Jian-Er; Lin, Bin; Wang, Yongqing; Wang, Songlin; Miao, Lifeng; Lang, Ying; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    2009-12-15

    Bulk porous mullite supports for ceramic membranes were prepared directly using a mixture of industrial waste fly ash and bauxite by dry-pressing, followed by sintering between 1200 and 1550 degrees C. The effects of sintering temperature on the phase composition and shrinkage percent of porous mullite were studied. The XRD results indicate that secondary mullitization reaction took place above 1200 degrees C, and completed at 1450 degrees C. During sintering, the mixture samples first shrunk, then expanded abnormally between 1326 and 1477 degrees C, and finally shrunk again above 1477 degrees C. This unique volume self-expansion is ascribed to the secondary mullitization reaction between bauxite and fly ash. More especially, the micro-structural variations induced by this self-expansion sintering were verified by SEM, porosity, pore size distribution and nitrogen gas permeation flux. During self-expansion sintering, with increasing temperature, an abnormal increase in both open porosity and pore size is observed, which also results in the increase of nitrogen gas flux. The mineral-based mullite supports with increased open porosity were obtained. Furthermore, the sintered porous mullite membrane supports were characterized in terms of thermal expansion co-efficient and mechanical strength.

  20. Silicate bonded ceramics of laterites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Douse, V.

    1989-05-01

    Sodium silicate is vacuum impregnated in bauxite waste (red mud) at room temperature to develop ceramics of mechanical properties comparable to the sintered ceramics. For a concentration up to 10% the fracture toughness increases from 0.12 MNm -3/2 to 0.9 MNm -3/2 , and the compressive strength from 7 MNm -2 to 30 MNm -2 . The mechanical properties do not deteriorate, when soaked in water for an entire week. The viscosity and the concentration of the silicate solution are crucial, both for the success of the fabrication and the economics of the process. Similar successful results have been obtained for bauxite and lime stone, even though the latter has poor weathering properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis, an attempt is made to identify the crystals formed in the composite, which are responsible for the strength. The process is an economic alternative to the sintered ceramics in the construction industry in the tropical countries, rich in lateritic soils and poor in energy. Also the process has all the potential for further development in arid regions abundant in limestone. (author). 6 refs, 20 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Political Legitimacy of Vietnam’s One Party-State: Challenges and Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyle A. Thayer

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the challenges to the authority of Vietnam’s one-party state that emerged in 2009 and state responses. Three separate challenges are discussed: opposition to bauxite mining in the Central Highlands; mass protests by the Catholic Church over land ownership issues; and revived political dissent by pro-democracy activists and bloggers. The Vietnam Communist Party bases its claims to political legitimacy on multiple sources. The bauxite mining controversy challenged the state’s claim to political legitimacy on the basis of performance. The Catholic land dispute challenged the state’s claim to legitimacy on rational-legal grounds. Revived political dissent, including the linkage of demands for democracy with concerns over environmental issues and relations with China, challenged the state’s claim to legitimacy based on nationalism. Vietnam responded in a “soft authoritarian” manner. Future challenges and state responses will be debated as Vietnam moves to convene its eleventh national party congress in 2010.

  2. Development of alumino-silicate refractories in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisiedu, A. K.; Tetteh, D.M.B.; Obiri, H. A.; Brenya, E. F.; Ayensu, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alumino-silicate (bauxite), andalusite, kaolin and clay were investigated for suitability in production of alumina, mullite and fireclay brick refractories. The raw materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and silicate analyses. The x-ray diffraction analysis of alumina and mullite refractories fired at 1450 0 C, and fireclay bricks fired at 1350 0 C, indicated presence of corundum and alpha-alumina crystals. The values of thermal (fired) shrinkage, crushing, strength, porosity, water absorption and bulk density determined were 31.1%, 2.3 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 4.86 x 10 6 N/m 2 and 13.2 % for mullite; 30.2%, 2.4 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 3.20 x 10 6 N/m 2 and W = 12.8 % for alumina; and 25.2 %, 2.1 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 2.61 x 10 6 N/m 2 and W = 11.8% for fireclay, respectively. Bauxite, andalusite and special kaolin were identified as potential raw materials for developing alumina and mullite refractories for construction of high temperature kilns and furnaces operating at 1350 0 C. The clay and kaolin minerals could be used to produce fireclay refractories for construction of incinerators operating at maximum temperatures of about 1000 0 C. The performance of the refractories was demonstrated by producing bricks to construct kilns and incinerators for the ceramic industry and hospitals. (au)

  3. Cracking hydrocarbons. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, E

    1926-03-09

    In distilling crude mineral, shale, or tar oils, coal, lignite, shale, etc. to obtain a greater yield of light oils or motor spirit as described in Specification 254,011, the materials in the still or retort as well as the vapors are treated with purifying or converting materials, and the heavy fractions are also treated for conversion. As purifying or converting materials, lime mixed with zinc oxide or chloride, magnesium or calcium chloride, common salt, or metallic sodium, the aluminum silicates known as montmorillonite, marialite or bentonite, bauxite or aluminum chloride may be used. Carbonaccous material is heated in a retort to temperatures up to about 700/sup 0/F. Light vapors are drawn off by an exhauster through pipes and are passed through a heated converter, and through condensors, to a collecting tank. The condensate may be washed with acid, water and caustic soda, and fractionally distilled, the vapors being treated with bauxite. The heavy vapors from the retort pass by pipes at the base through a separate converter.

  4. Consideration for aluminium; Aluminium ni omoi wo yosete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-04-05

    Remark is given on an aspect of the history of aluminum refining. It was said that the situation was quite serious when the first and second oil shocks came together with the strong demand for measures to deal with environmental pollution. Aluminum refining mills found themselves suddenly out of prosperity, and had to promise that they would abolish their facilities one by one without waiting for their new refineries to go into full operation. The Hall-Heroult process, which produces molten aluminum by electrolyzing alumina-containing molten cryolite at 1000{degree}C, encountered the Bayer process, in which bauxite is subjected to alkaline extraction for the production of alumina, to lord it over for a century as the only electrolytic aluminum refining method. Aluminum, for its excellent properties, won the position of the most reliable material with the exception of steel materials only. The method, however, had its own troubles, which concerned the securing of high-quality bauxite, effective use of the red mud, supply of low-ash carbon materials, environmental measures to deal with fluorine, and improvement on electric power consumption rate. ALCOA then made known its AlCl3 high-temperature electrolytic method. This report describes the basic study for this method which continued for ten and several years. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Radon monitoring in sites of economical importance in Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, C.N.; Lalor, G.C.; Balcázar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main task was to evaluate possible radon risk to the public and workers in four caves of economical importance. Green Grotto Cave is a large labyrinthine limestone cave, open to the tourism; kept Rn concentration in the range 30–40 Bq m −3 . Xtabil a coral limestone sea cave is part of a beach resort resulted in very low radon concentration of 10 Bq m −3 . Windsor is an intricate limestone cave system showed Rn concentration in the range 250–350 Bq m −3 . Whereas the Oxford caves, is situated in a region of high radioactivity in soil due to the bauxite mines, reached a maximum of 2592 Bq m −3 . - Highlights: ► Touristic caves of economical importance shown no radon risk for workers and visitors. ► Maximum permanence time due to abnormal radon is given for caves used by speleologist. ► Despite high Rn and U in soil in bauxite areas no risk is determined in houses.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing For Aluminum And Nickel Laterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.; Penfield, Glen T.; Grubbs, Donald K.

    1984-08-01

    The new LANDSAT-4,-5/Thematic Mapper (TM) land observational satellite remote sensing systems are providing dramatically new and important short wave infrared (SWIR) data, which combined with Landsat's Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) visible (VIS), very near infrared (VNIR), and thermal infrared (TI) data greatly improves regional geological mapping on a global scale. The TM will significantly improve clay, iron oxide, aluminum, and nickel laterite mapping capabilities over large areas of the world. It will also improve the ability to discriminate vegetation stress and species distribution associated with lateritic environments. Nickel laterites on Gag Island, Indonesia are defined by MSS imagery. Satellite imagery of the Cape Bougainville and the Darling Range, Australia bauxite deposits show the potential use of MSS data for exploration and mining applications. Examples of satellite syn-thetic aperture radar (SAR) for Jamaica document the use of this method for bauxite exploration. Thematic Mapper data will be combined with the French SPOT satellite's high spatial resolution and stereoscopic digital data, and U.S., Japanese, European, and Canadian Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to assist with logistics, mine development, and environ-mental concerns associated with aluminum and nickel lateritic deposits worldwide.

  7. Whole body vibration exposure in heavy earth moving machinery operators of metalliferrous mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanerkar, A P; Kulkarni, N P; Zade, P D; Kamavisdar, A S

    2008-08-01

    As mining operations get mechanized, the rate of profit generation increases and so do the rate of occupational hazards. This study deals with one such hazard - occupational vibration. The present study was carried out to determine the whole body vibration (WBV) exposure of the heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) operators in two types of metalliferous mines in India, when they were engaged in the mining activity. Cross-comparison was done of the vibration dose value (VDV) for HEMM operators as well as each type of mine. The VDV for the shovel operator in bauxite mine was observed to be 13.53 +/- 5.63 m/s(7/4) with 25% of the readings higher than the prescribed limit whereas in iron ore mine VDV for dumper operator was 10.81 +/- 3.44 m/s(7/4) with 14.62% readings on the higher side. Cross-comparison of the VDV values for bauxite and iron ore mines revealed that it was 9.57 +/- 4.93 and 8.21 +/- 5.12 m/s(7/4) with 21.28 and 14.95% of the readings on the higher side respectively. The Student's t test level was found to be insignificant for both type of mines, indicating that the WBV exposure is not dependent on the type of mine but is dependent on the working condition and type of HEMM in operation.

  8. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul M.; Yates, Brian J.; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona; Fimmen, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness

  9. Prevalent material parameters governing spalling of a slag-impregnated refractory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blond, E.; Schmitt, N.; Arnould, O.; Hild, F. [LMT-Cachan (ENS de Cachan / CNRS-UMR 8535 / Univ. Paris 6), Cachan (France); Blumenfeld, P. [CRDM / ARCELOR Grande Synthe, Dunkerque (France); Poirier, J. [CRDM / ARCELOR Grande Synthe, Dunkerque (France); CRMHT-CNRS, Orleans (France)

    2004-07-01

    In steel ladle linings, bauxite refractories in contact with iron and steel slag are subjected to complex loadings. To identify the causes of degradation in different reactor linings, a coupling diagram made up of three poles is established: namely, slag impregnation (I), Thermomechanics (TM) and phase transformations (P). The variation of the microstructure and the gradient of the chemical composition resulting from the (I-P) coupling are characterized by microprobe analyses; a natural impregnation tracer is identified. The (I-T) coupling is studied by modeling the refractory lining behavior subjected to a cyclic thermal loading within the framework of the mechanics of porous continua. Parameters governing the location and amplitude of the maximum pore pressure are obtained and their influences are studied. The analysis of the (TM) pole leads to the identification of a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic model for bauxite in various states of slag impregnation. Numerical simulations show that the stress state developed during the heating stages can induce spalling, probably generated by a localized over-pressure of slag. (orig.)

  10. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part II-evaluation of sorption materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Yates, Brian J.; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The function and longevity of traditional, passive, isolation caps can be augmented through the use of more chemically active capping materials which have higher sorptive capacities, ideally rendering metals non-bioavailable. In the case of Hg, active caps also mitigate the rate and extent of methylation. This research examined low cost, readily available, capping materials for their ability to sequester Hg and MeHg. Furthermore, selected capping materials were evaluated to inhibit the methylation of Hg in an incubation study as well as the capacity of a selected capping material to inhibit translocation of Hg and MeHg with respect to ebullition-facilitated contaminant transport in a column study. Results indicated that bauxite had a better capacity for mercury sorption than the other test materials. However, bauxite as well as soil capping materials did not decrease methylation to a significant extent. Materials with larger surface areas, higher organic matter and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content displayed a larger partitioning coefficient. In the incubation experiments, the presence of a carbon source (lactate), electron acceptor (sulfate) and the appropriate strains of SRB provided the necessary conditions for Hg methylation to occur. The column study showed effectiveness in sequestering Hg and MeHg and retarding transport to the overlying water column; however, disturbances to the soil capping material resulting from gas ebullition negated its effectiveness.

  11. Localities With Elevated Radiation Background in the High Karst Zone of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, R.; Andjelic, T.; Zekic, R.; Antovic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed to find localities in Montenegro with an elevated terrestrial gamma background was conducted during the period 2008-2009. For this purpose, 138 localities which have geological formations known to contain minerals with potentially high concentrations of U, Th and K, were selected throughout the country for a dosimetric survey. There are four distinctive geotectonic units in Montenegro: the Adriatic-Ionian Zone (JZ), the Budva-Cukali Zone (BZ), the High Karst Zone (VK), and the Durmitor Tectonic Unit (DTJ). The central and southern parts of Montenegro belong to the VK zone, whose geological structure is predominated by Mesozoic carbonate sediments, with occurrences of red and white bauxite formations, Triassic volcanic rocks, Paleogene flysch sediments and Quaternary sediments. In total, 38 localities belonging to the VK zone were selected for field investigations of terrestrial radiation. Knowing from earlier investigations that in Montenegro the average absorbed dose-rate in the air, 1 m above the ground, is 55 nGy/h, it was arbitrarily adopted that only localities with absorbed doses at least 50 % above this average value would be considered as having a relatively elevated radiation background. Field measurements have shown that 12 of the surveyed localities in the VK zone have such elevated dose values, five of them being with the highest dose rates in Montenegro. Among these five sites, the highest dose rate (192 nGy/h) was found at a locality which lies on andesite volcanic rock, while the other four localities (131 - 149 nGy/h) lie on bauxite deposits. Compared to the other areas in the world known to have a high natural radiation background, all of these localities in Montenegro have a moderately elevated radiation level. From the 12 localities with a relatively elevated radiation background, soil samples have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 226Ra and 137Cs

  12. Gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. Gallium is used in a wide variety of products that have microelectronic components containing either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium nitride (GaN). GaAs is able to change electricity directly into laser light and is used in the manufacture of optoelectronic devices (laser diodes, light-emitting diodes [LEDs], photo detectors, and solar cells), which are important for aerospace and telecommunications applications and industrial and medical equipment. GaAs is also used in the production of highly specialized integrated circuits, semiconductors, and transistors; these are necessary for defense applications and high-performance computers. For example, cell phones with advanced personal computer-like functionality (smartphones) use GaAs-rich semiconductor components. GaN is used principally in the manufacture of LEDs and laser diodes, power electronics, and radio-frequency electronics. Because GaN power transistors operate at higher voltages and with a higher power density than GaAs devices, the uses for advanced GaN-based products are expected to increase in the future. Gallium technologies also have large power-handling capabilities and are used for cable television transmission, commercial wireless infrastructure, power electronics, and satellites. Gallium is also used for such familiar applications as screen backlighting for computer notebooks, flat-screen televisions, and desktop computer monitors.Gallium is dispersed in small amounts in many minerals and rocks where it substitutes for elements of similar size and charge, such as aluminum and zinc. For example, gallium is found in small amounts (about 50 parts per million) in such aluminum-bearing minerals as diaspore-boehmite and gibbsite, which form bauxite deposits, and in the zinc-sulfide mineral sphalerite, which is found in many mineral deposits. At the present time, gallium metal is derived mainly as a

  13. Water yield issues in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, J. K.; Stoneman, G. L.

    1993-10-01

    The jarrah forest of south-western Australia produces little streamflow from moderate rainfall. Water yield from water supply catchments for Perth, Western Australia, are low, averaging 71 mm (7% of annual rainfall). The low water yields are attributed to the large soil water storage available for continuous use by the forest vegetation. A number of water yield studies in south-western Australia have examined the impact on water yield of land use practices including clearing for agricultural development, forest harvesting and regeneration, forest thinning and bauxite mining. A permanent reduction in forest cover by clearing for agriculture led to permanent increases of water yield of approximately 28% of annual rainfall in a high rainfall catchment. Thinning of a high rainfall catchment led to an increase in water yield of 20% of annual rainfall. However, it is not clear for how long the increased water yield will persist. Forest harvesting and regeneration have led to water yield increases of 16% of annual rainfall. The subsequent recovery of vegetation cover has led to water yields returning to pre-disturbance levels after an estimated 12-15 years. Bauxite mining of a high rainfall catchment led to a water yield increase of 8% of annual rainfall, followed by a return to pre-disturbance water yield after 12 years. The magnitude of specific streamflow generation mechanisms in small catchments subject to forest disturbance vary considerably, typically in a number of distinct stages. The presence of a permanent groundwater discharge area was shown to be instrumental in determining the magnitude of the streamflow response after forest disturbance. The long-term prognosis for water yield from areas subject to forest thinning, harvesting and regeneration, and bauxite mining are uncertain, owing to the complex interrelationship between vegetation cover, tree height and age, and catchment evapotranspiration. Management of the forest for water yield needs to acknowledge

  14. Stratigraphy, tectonic and ore potential of pre-cambrian unities from Serro region-MG (Mato Grosso quadrangle)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, L.C. de.

    1982-01-01

    Geological and stratigraphic elements of the Proterozoic units of the Serro region, Mato Grosso Quadrangle, show the absence of the faciological transition between the Espinhaco Group and the Minas Supergroup. Occurs in this region is a lithostratigraphical sequence of four distinct units: the Crystalline Basement; the Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence of Serro; the Minas Supergroup. The ore potential of the region includes: quartz veins, within the Galho do Miguel Formation; diamond, within the Sopa conglomerates; gold, in alluvial deposits and remobilized in quartz veins of the Sopa-Brumadinho Formation; bauxite, in the metabasics; uranium in the metaconglomerates of Moeda Formation; iron, in Caue Formation; chromium, gold and base metals in the Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence of Serro. Emphasis is given to the characterization of the Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence of Serro and its mineralization that is characterized as a stratiform massif with important volcano-sedimentary contribution, possible, a greenstone belt, with high gold-bearing potential. (author)

  15. Electron microscopy study of red mud after seawater neutralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, S.P.; Kiyohara, P.K.; Antunes, M.L.P.; Frost, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Red Mud, residue of Bayer process for extracting alumina from bauxite, is produced in large quantity. This residue is very alkaline and can cause damage to health and the environment. One way to minimize the environmental impact of this residue is neutralization by sea water. The Brazilian Red Mud was treated with sea water. It appears that the initial pH of the samples is reduced to 8. The analysis by x-ray diffraction allows to identify the formation of hydrotalcite and aragonite. The transmission electron microscopy images show that this consists of particles with dimensions between 0.02 to 2 μm. It was possible to identify by EDS/MET particles of magnesium, confirming the formation of hydrotalcite. (author)

  16. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  17. Termites as ecological indicators of mine-land rehabilitation in tropical Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents examples from field research of termites as indicators of rehabilitation success in the wet-dry tropics at Nabalco's bauxite mine, Gove, Australia and in Sierra Leone, West Africa. Field studies indicate that soil-plant-animal interactions are crucial in determining the recovery of disturbed land and that termites play an over-riding role in the process. Termites are seen as ecological indicators for successful soil and vegetation development in humid tropical environments. In land rehabilitation, termites help to create healthy, self-regulated vegetation systems that integrate with the surrounding landscapes and build structures and functions equal to those of the pre-disturbed system. They are reliable in signaling the health and stress factors of a system and provide a predictable response

  18. ON THE PART OF GEOLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE FORMATION OF EARTH'S CLIMATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanishvili, N.; Suladze, A.

    2008-01-01

    It is assumed that orbital and endogenous/depth processes are likely to be responsible for climatic changes on the Earth (global warming, thinning of ozon screen, aridity etc.). This assumption is attested by the fact that some deposits of mineral resources (coal, phosphorites, rock salt, bauxites etc.) may be connected directly with paleo- and present climatic zones. Based on processing of statistical data, there were plotted the graphs representing the number and the intensity of eruptions of volcanoes over the period of 1840-1998. When these plots are compared with the climatological data, it is evident that there is a functional (linear) relation between the global rise in ambient temperature and the volcanic activity. Therefore, a widely spread, but not well-reasoned, notation about technogenic-anthropogenic causes of global warming and the adequacy of measures taken in this direction are open to question. (author)

  19. Raw material supply: challenge and chance for economy and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casper, W

    1976-01-01

    The imprint left by the 1973 oil embargo makes all nations aware of their dependence upon this and other raw materials. The author says the brunt of the embargo has dealt a heavier blow than has been realized on industrial nations and developing countries alike. The drastic decline of raw material prices has had threatening consequences for a number of raw-material-producing developing countries, making some nations unite for the purpose of market regulation. The cartel-like union of copper-producing countries is cited; producers of bauxite, iron ore, and tungsten have united; and some producers of tin have united. So far, the attempt to apply the oil strategy to other raw materials has not achieved the desired results; however, raw materials are no longer just a phase of the industrial process but have become a political matter of prime importance. (MCW)

  20. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of microsilica addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Samples with decreasing cement content 15–05 wt.% were formulated in combination of both slag and calcined bauxite as matrix components. Effects of varying 0–10 wt.% microsilica as a micro-fine additive in these castables were investigated in this work. Pore filling properties of microsilica improved apparent porosity and bulk density. Phase analysis through X-ray diffraction techniques demonstrates successful formation of spinel and mullite crystalline phases. Mechanical behavior was evaluated through cold crushing strength and residual cold crushing strength after five consecutive water quenching cycles. Scanning electron microscopy measurements were carried out in order to better understand the packing density and reaction mechanisms of fired castables. Slag containing castables portrays good thermal properties such as thermal shock resistance, permanent linear change and pyrometric cone equivalent.

  1. Study of CO2 cyclic absorption stability of CaO-based sorbents derived from lime mud purified by sucrose method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, AiHua; Jia, QingMing; Su, HongYing; Zhi, YunFei; Tian, Na; Wu, Jing; Shan, ShaoYun

    2016-02-01

    Using lime mud (LM) purified by sucrose method, derived from paper-making industry, as calcium precursor, and using mineral rejects-bauxite-tailings (BTs) from aluminum production as dopant, the CaO-based sorbents for high-temperature CO2 capture were prepared. Effects of BTs content, precalcining time, and temperature on CO2 cyclic absorption stability were illustrated. The cyclic carbonation behavior was investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Phase composition and morphologies were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results reflected that the as-synthesized CaO-based sorbent doped with 10 wt% BTs showed a superior CO2 cyclic absorption-desorption conversion during multiple cycles, with conversion being >38 % after 50 cycles. Occurrence of Ca12Al14O33 phase during precalcination was probably responsible for the excellent CO2 cyclic stability.

  2. High pressure fracturing in Colombia: a quantum leap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Juan C. [BP Exploration (United Kingdom); Gutierrez, Jim; Ham, Ernesto; Castro, Alberto [BJ Services Company (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Fracturing has become one of the most common stimulation and well completion techniques in petroleum production. Due to the deeper depths and high frac gradients encountered in some areas, various treatments have resulted in early screen outs or aborted operations due to insufficient rate limited by the available treating pressures. A state of the art technology and high pressure equipment including the largest frac pumps (rated at 2,700 hhp) in the world, were used in Colombian fields to overcome these limitations. The reliability of this equipment has allowed the treatment of these wells to operating pressures of up to 18,000 psi and rates in excess of 40 bpm, placing up to 400,000 lbs of bauxite. Bottom hole treating pressures of 25,000 psi also were reached. This paper describes the development of the fracture campaign and relates the jobs performed to date, including the results and lessons learned (author)

  3. Red mud application in construction industry: review of benefits and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M. S. S.; Thives, L. P.; Haritonovs, V.; Bajars, K.

    2017-10-01

    Red mud is a waste originated in the processing of bauxite into aluminium, which properties of high alkalinity make it cumulatively stored, occupying increasing deforested areas. Annually, it is estimated that approximately 117 million tons of red mud are generated in the world, with no prospect of use, what represents an imminent risk of pollution prone to contamination. Nevertheless, environmental liabilities caused by red mud affect not only the environment, but also the companies responsible for the waste, which will be subject to highest fee payments. Although there are studies that prove the feasibility of using this solid waste in the constitution of ceramic materials, there are no large-scale applications. This study seeks to evaluate the possibilities of red mud application in construction industry, focusing into two main areas: cement production/ceramic material and road construction. Backgrounds from other researchers were taken into consideration and analysed according environmental, economic and technical feasibilities.

  4. FEATURES OF VENTILATION CONDITIONS BY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN MINING UNDERGROUND WORKINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial cultivation of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus in one of the dead faces of the »Krš« pit of the Dalmatian bauxite mines Obrovac proved, that an optimal yield can be attained with the domestic mycelium. The decision has been brought to go on with investments into equipment for new growing-site locations in underground workings of the mine. In order to cultivate high-quality mushrooms, the ventilation of growing sites has been particularly considered. Compressive separate ventilation of growing fields has been applied using the main and the return ventilating pipeline, with the air current regulation according to the growing stage (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Invited Article: In situ comparison of passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors at subsurface workplaces in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kávási, Norbert, E-mail: norbert@fml.nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Social Organization for Radioecological Cleanliness, Veszprém (Hungary); Vigh, Tamás [Social Organization for Radioecological Cleanliness, Veszprém (Hungary); Manganese Mining Process Ltd., Úrkút (Hungary); Németh, Csaba [Social Organization for Radioecological Cleanliness, Veszprém (Hungary); University of Pannonia, Veszprém (Hungary); Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Omori, Yasutaka; Janik, Miroslaw; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    During a one-year long measurement period, radon and thoron data obtained by two different passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors were compared at subsurface workplaces in Hungary, such as mines (bauxite and manganese ore) and caves (medical and touristic). These workplaces have special environmental conditions, such as, stable and high relative humidity (100%), relatively stable temperature (12°C–21°C), low or high wind speed (max. 2.4 m s{sup −1}) and low or elevated aerosol concentration (130–60 000 particles m{sup −3}). The measured radon and thoron concentrations fluctuated in a wide range among the different workplaces. The respective annual average radon concentrations and their standard deviations (in brackets) measured by the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with cellulose filter (CF) and the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with sponge filter (SF) were: 350(321) Bq m{sup −3} and 550(497) Bq m{sup −3} in the bauxite mine; 887(604) Bq m{sup −3} and 1258(788) Bq m{sup −3} in the manganese ore mine; 2510(2341) Bq m{sup −3} and 3403(3075) Bq m{sup −3} in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 6239(2057) Bq m{sup −3} and 8512(1955) Bq m{sup −3} in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). The respective average thoron concentrations and their standard deviation (in brackets) measured by CF and SF monitors were: 154(210) Bq m{sup −3} and 161(148) Bq m{sup −3} in the bauxite mine; 187(191) Bq m{sup −3} and 117(147) Bq m{sup −3} in the manganese-ore mine; 360(524) Bq m{sup −3} and 371(789) Bq m{sup −3} in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 1420(1184) Bq m{sup −3} and 1462(3655) Bq m{sup −3} in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). Under these circumstances, comparison of the radon data for the SF and CF monitors showed the former were consistently 51% higher in the bauxite mine, 38% higher in the manganese ore mine, and 34% higher in the caves

  6. Invited Article: In situ comparison of passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors at subsurface workplaces in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kávási, Norbert; Vigh, Tamás; Németh, Csaba; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Omori, Yasutaka; Janik, Miroslaw; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    During a one-year long measurement period, radon and thoron data obtained by two different passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors were compared at subsurface workplaces in Hungary, such as mines (bauxite and manganese ore) and caves (medical and touristic). These workplaces have special environmental conditions, such as, stable and high relative humidity (100%), relatively stable temperature (12°C–21°C), low or high wind speed (max. 2.4 m s −1 ) and low or elevated aerosol concentration (130–60 000 particles m −3 ). The measured radon and thoron concentrations fluctuated in a wide range among the different workplaces. The respective annual average radon concentrations and their standard deviations (in brackets) measured by the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with cellulose filter (CF) and the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with sponge filter (SF) were: 350(321) Bq m −3 and 550(497) Bq m −3 in the bauxite mine; 887(604) Bq m −3 and 1258(788) Bq m −3 in the manganese ore mine; 2510(2341) Bq m −3 and 3403(3075) Bq m −3 in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 6239(2057) Bq m −3 and 8512(1955) Bq m −3 in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). The respective average thoron concentrations and their standard deviation (in brackets) measured by CF and SF monitors were: 154(210) Bq m −3 and 161(148) Bq m −3 in the bauxite mine; 187(191) Bq m −3 and 117(147) Bq m −3 in the manganese-ore mine; 360(524) Bq m −3 and 371(789) Bq m −3 in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 1420(1184) Bq m −3 and 1462(3655) Bq m −3 in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). Under these circumstances, comparison of the radon data for the SF and CF monitors showed the former were consistently 51% higher in the bauxite mine, 38% higher in the manganese ore mine, and 34% higher in the caves. Consequently, correction is required on previously obtained radon data acquired by CF

  7. Influence of turning Treatments on Al6061 by Offline Inspection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annigeri, Ulhas K.; Sandeep, K. L. G.; Prasanna Chaitanya, M.; Sairam Varma, G.; Datta, B. Arun

    2018-02-01

    Aluminium is mostly extracted from bauxite and is frequently being utilised in the manufacture of sea, land and air vehicles. Since, it has the merit of resistance to corrosion it is frequently being used in sea vehicles. Another outstanding merit of aluminium is its weight which is very less compared to other ferrous materials. In our study, we have selected Al6061 as the material and based on full factorial design the surface roughness has been observed with three base parameters speed, feed and depth of cut. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the surface roughness and also the dominant factor affecting the turning process has been determined. The plots such as main effects, interaction and Pareto chart have been analysed to give an effective conclusion to the process followed in the study. The purpose of these experiments to compare the effect of process treatments in all possible pairs to select the best treatment to the process has been done satisfactorily.

  8. Statistical models for optimizing mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, T.K.; DeGeoffroy, J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of mineral exploration is to discover ore deposits. The emphasis of this volume is on the mathematical and computational aspects of optimizing mineral exploration. The seven chapters that make up the main body of the book are devoted to the description and application of various types of computerized geomathematical models. These chapters include: (1) the optimal selection of ore deposit types and regions of search, as well as prospecting selected areas, (2) designing airborne and ground field programs for the optimal coverage of prospecting areas, and (3) delineating and evaluating exploration targets within prospecting areas by means of statistical modeling. Many of these statistical programs are innovative and are designed to be useful for mineral exploration modeling. Examples of geomathematical models are applied to exploring for six main types of base and precious metal deposits, as well as other mineral resources (such as bauxite and uranium)

  9. Iron and copper in Plagioscion squamosissimus (Piscis: Sciaenidae) of river Orinoco, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A. R.; Marquez, A.; Chung, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Bauxite exploitation of the Orinoco River in recent years is an important source of heavy metals discharge in the ecosystem, changing the natural biochemical flow of these elements and their concentrations in water, sediment and organisms. Iron and copper concentrations were measured in the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus in the Orinoco river, by sampling the fish population for three months (September-November 1998) in the main channel of the middle Orinoco. The internal organs of 30 fishes per month and site were stove-dried, pulverized and dried in disecator for 30 min to use as indicators with the acid digestion method for predicting the effect of heavy metals. We found relatively high values of iron and copper concentrations in fishes of the lagoon, and high seasonal variations in the iron concentration. (Author) [es

  10. Production of Green Steel from Red Mud: A Novel Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Behera, Pravas Ranjan; Mishra, Chitta Ranjan

    Red mud of Indian origin contains around 55% plus of Fe2O3 and is considered as a hazardous waste for the alumina industry. For production of one tone of alumina employing the Bayer's Process, around two tones of red mud is generated from three tones of Bauxite. Conventional process of steel making is not devoid of environmental pollution. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to produce steel from red mud by adopting reduction roasting, magnetic separation and hydrogen plasma smelting route. Magnetic fraction, containing enriched iron oxide and minimal content of alumina, is produced following the first two stages which is then subjected to hydrogen plasma smelting process for production of steel. This novel concept follows a green path way for production of steel free from pollution and is termed as green steel. Further, the only by-product that is produced in the process, is water, which is eco-friendly and recyclable.

  11. Topicality and possibilities for complete processing of red mud of aluminous production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminum industry, the largest amount of waste is red mud (RM. that is a solid bauxite residue after hydrochemical processing and extraction of alumina. The topicality of its processing was shown by the ecological catastrophe in Hungary (2010, where the bund wall of the slurry storage was destroyed and the viscous mass of fine red mud fell on thousands of hectares of land.The risks of a recurrence of such a catastrophe increase due to the increased natural disasters: earthquakes, torrential rains and floods, as well as terrorist attacks. Therefore, it is proposed to exclude the storage of red mud in sludge storages and organize its shipment in transportable form to processing complexes.The article presents the results of scientific research and the experience of complex processing of red sludge on an industrial scale with the production of new types of marketable products.

  12. Leachability of heavy metals in geopolymer-based materials synthesized from red mud and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoc Thang; Pham, Vo Thi Ha Quyen; Dang, Thanh Phong; Dao, Thanh Khe

    2018-04-01

    Red mud is an industrial waste generated during aluminum production from bauxite whereas rice husk ash is an agricultural waste from burning of rice husk that could cause negative impact on the environment if not properly managed. This study demonstrates the utilization of red mud in combination with rice husk ash to form a geopolymer-based material which can be used as bricks or replacement for traditional cement materials. The focus of this study is on the leachability of heavy metals in the raw materials and the geopolymer as this would be significant in assessing the environmental impact of the product. Leachability of metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, and Cr was evaluated based on European (EN 124572-2 EU CEN TC292/ CEN TC 308) standard with pH value 7. Results indicate that the leachability of these metals in the geopolymer matrix is lower than that of the raw materials.

  13. Purifying oils and waxes. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1926-01-27

    Fractions of petroleum, shale oil, coal oil, and paraffin wax are refined by passing the vapour under reduced pressure through fuller's earth, bauxite, silica gel, or other adsorbent at a temperature not substantially more than sufficient to maintain the vapour phase. The vapour may be passed in succession through adsorbent of increasing strength. Treatment with sulphuric acid, or with alkali, or with both may precede treatment with absorbent, and this successive treatment may be repeated any number of times. The action is accelerated by passing a current of inert gas insufficient to affect the vacuum materially along with the vapours. In an example a 160 to 225/sup 0/C kerosene fraction is treated with sulphuric acid of 10 percent strength, and passed into a fuller's earth chamber under a vacuum of 27 in. of mercury and heated by steam to about 140/sup 0/C. The apparatus is described.

  14. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  15. Some problems of the development of physics and chemistry of carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, Z.A.

    2003-01-01

    Regularities of formation of nano carbon materials under catalytic thermal pyrolysis of propane-butane on the Kazakhstan natural clays, chromite and bauxite sludges, containing oxides of the iron sub-group metals, are investigated. Morphology and structures of forming carbon threads with metal particles, fixed at the end of the treads, are studied and formation of divaricate form of carbon threads - octopus - is found out. The process of carbonization is shown at walnut shells, grape and apricot stones and their cell immobilization for selective adsorption of heavy metal ions and sulfur dioxide. Metal-carbon composites considered as adsorbents for waste treatment, catalysts of cracking C 3 -C 4 hydrocarbons and components of refractories with improved characteristics. (author)

  16. Invited Article: In situ comparison of passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors at subsurface workplaces in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kávási, Norbert; Vigh, Tamás; Németh, Csaba; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Omori, Yasutaka; Janik, Miroslaw; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-02-01

    During a one-year long measurement period, radon and thoron data obtained by two different passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors were compared at subsurface workplaces in Hungary, such as mines (bauxite and manganese ore) and caves (medical and touristic). These workplaces have special environmental conditions, such as, stable and high relative humidity (100%), relatively stable temperature (12°C-21°C), low or high wind speed (max. 2.4 m s-1) and low or elevated aerosol concentration (130-60 000 particles m-3). The measured radon and thoron concentrations fluctuated in a wide range among the different workplaces. The respective annual average radon concentrations and their standard deviations (in brackets) measured by the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with cellulose filter (CF) and the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with sponge filter (SF) were: 350(321) Bq m-3 and 550(497) Bq m-3 in the bauxite mine; 887(604) Bq m-3 and 1258(788) Bq m-3 in the manganese ore mine; 2510(2341) Bq m-3 and 3403(3075) Bq m-3 in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 6239(2057) Bq m-3 and 8512(1955) Bq m-3 in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). The respective average thoron concentrations and their standard deviation (in brackets) measured by CF and SF monitors were: 154(210) Bq m-3 and 161(148) Bq m-3 in the bauxite mine; 187(191) Bq m-3 and 117(147) Bq m-3 in the manganese-ore mine; 360(524) Bq m-3 and 371(789) Bq m-3 in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 1420(1184) Bq m-3 and 1462(3655) Bq m-3 in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). Under these circumstances, comparison of the radon data for the SF and CF monitors showed the former were consistently 51% higher in the bauxite mine, 38% higher in the manganese ore mine, and 34% higher in the caves. Consequently, correction is required on previously obtained radon data acquired by CF monitors at subsurface workplaces to gain comparable data for SF monitors. In the

  17. Assessment of recycled PET properties for application on oil wells as sand control agents; Avaliacao de propriedades de PET reciclado para aplicacao em pocos de petroleo como agente de contencao de areia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Alexandre Zacarias Ignacio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delpech, Marcia Cerqueira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: mcd@uerj.br

    2008-07-01

    The Sand Control is fundamental for oil production in unconsolidated sandstone formations. It consists of the installation of a filter made of stainless steel screens and grained materials (sand control agents) which are, normally, high density inorganic substances (sand, ceramic, bauxite). Shallow formations, near to the sea bed, are more sensitive and need different kinds of sand control agents with low density. The objective of this work was the evaluation of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, as sand control agent for oil wells. Pack permeability and thermal stability tests results, after up to six months of exposure to sea water and crude oil, have indicated that the recycled PET kept the necessary characteristics for the proposed application. Also, it was observed that the PET grain pack did not presented significant property modifications in the exposure conditions, when compared to the non-exposed samples. (author)

  18. Sustainable development of the minerals sector in the APEC region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Melanie; Kate Penney; Angelica Austin; Chris Rumley; Robert Curtotti

    2007-01-15

    The objectives in this report are to analyse the global market outlook for minerals over the medium term, identify key issues affecting the sustainability of the minerals sector in the APEC region and recommend possible actions to respond to these issues. These issues are structured around the APEC pillars of trade and investment liberalisation; business facilitation; and economic and technical cooperation. The report highlights the need for a strong and effective policy framework to allow APEC economies to capitalise on growth opportunities in global minerals markets. This is an updated version of ABARE Research Report 06.8. Minerals covered are: thermal coal. metallurgical coal, aluminium, alumina, bauxite, copper, gold, iron ores, lead, nickel, tin, uranium and zinc. 15 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Use of red mud as addition for portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, D.V.; Morelli, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste that is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal of Portland cement mortars. The red mud is classified as dangerous, according to NBR 10004/2004, and world while generation reached over 117 million tons/year. This huge production requires high consuming products to be used as incorporation matrix and we studied the influence of red mud addition on the characteristics of cement mortars and concrete. In this paper the properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of red mud was evaluated: pH variation, fresh (setting time, workability or normal consistency and water retention), and hardened state (mechanical strength, capillary water absorption, density and apparent porosity). Results seem promising for red mud additions up to 20 wt%. (author)

  20. Social Metabolism and Environmental Conflicts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martinez-Alier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the methods for counting the energy and material flows in the economy, and gives the main results of the Material Flows for the economy of India between 1961 and 2008 as researched by Simron Singh et al (2012. Drawing on work done in the EJOLT project, some illustrations are given of the links between the changing social metabolism and ecological distribution conflicts, looking at responses in Odisha to bauxite mining, at conflicts on sand mining, at disputes on waste management options in Delhi and at ship dismantling in Alang, Gujarat. The aim is to show how a history of social metabolism, of socio-environmental conflicts, and of the changing valuation languages deployed by various social actors in such conflicts, could be written in a common framework.

  1. Effect of red mud addition on the corrosion parameters of reinforced concrete evaluated by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production from bauxite ore by the Bayer process, is considered "hazardous" due to its high pH. The high pH also provides greater protection of rebars, which is reflected in the low corrosion potential and high electrical resistivity (filler effect of concrete. The corrosion potential was monitored by electrochemical measurements and the electrical resistivity was evaluated using sensors embedded in concrete test specimens. The results showed that the addition of red mud is beneficial to concrete, reducing its corrosion potential and increasing its electrical resistivity. Red mud proved to be a promising additive for concrete to inhibit the corrosion process.

  2. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  4. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides 58 Co and 60 Co 100%, and over 60% for 134 Cs and 137 Cs. (authors)

  5. Considering the Epistemic Uncertainties of the Variogram Model in Locating Additional Exploratory Drillholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the certainty of the grade block model, it is necessary to increase the number of exploratory drillholes and collect more data from the deposit. The inputs of the process of locating these additional drillholes include the variogram model parameters, locations of the samples taken from the initial drillholes, and the geological block model. The uncertainties of these inputs will lead to uncertainties in the optimal locations of additional drillholes. Meanwhile, the locations of the initial data are crisp, but the variogram model parameters and the geological model have uncertainties due to the limitation of the number of initial data. In this paper, effort has been made to consider the effects of variogram uncertainties on the optimal location of additional drillholes using the fuzzy kriging and solve the locating problem with the genetic algorithm (GA optimization method.A bauxite deposit case study has shown the efficiency of the proposed model.

  6. Fuzzy linear model for production optimization of mining systems with multiple entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujic, Slobodan; Benovic, Tomo; Miljanovic, Igor; Hudej, Marjan; Milutinovic, Aleksandar; Pavlovic, Petar

    2011-12-01

    Planning and production optimization within multiple mines or several work sites (entities) mining systems by using fuzzy linear programming (LP) was studied. LP is the most commonly used operations research methods in mining engineering. After the introductory review of properties and limitations of applying LP, short reviews of the general settings of deterministic and fuzzy LP models are presented. With the purpose of comparative analysis, the application of both LP models is presented using the example of the Bauxite Basin Niksic with five mines. After the assessment, LP is an efficient mathematical modeling tool in production planning and solving many other single-criteria optimization problems of mining engineering. After the comparison of advantages and deficiencies of both deterministic and fuzzy LP models, the conclusion presents benefits of the fuzzy LP model but is also stating that seeking the optimal plan of production means to accomplish the overall analysis that will encompass the LP model approaches.

  7. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  8. Reminiscences From a Career in Geomicrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Henry L.

    2012-05-01

    This is a memoir relating how the author became a geomicrobiologist and how he practiced his specialty. Born in Germany and receiving his early schooling in Berlin, he completed his secondary education, followed by college and graduate school training, after emigration to the United States in 1940. After attaining a PhD degree in 1951, he spent his entire professional career as a faculty member of the Department of Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York. He was introduced to geomicrobiology in 1959 by a question from a colleague in the Department of Geology at RPI concerning the recent discovery of acidophilic iron-oxidizing, autotrophic bacteria in acid coal mine drainage. This led him to investigate bacterial interaction with metal sulfides, Mn(II) and Mn(IV) on land and in the sea, chromate, and bauxite; to teach a course in geomicrobiology; and to write a textbook on the subject, first published in 1981.

  9. Behavior of radioactive elements (uranium and thorium) in Bayer process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, C.; Kazama, S.; Sakamoto, A.; Hirayanagi, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that alumina used for manufacturing electronic devices should contain an extremely low level of alpha-radiation. The principal source of alpha-radiation in alumina is uranium, a minor source being thorium. Uranium in bauxite dissolves into the liquor in the digestion process and is fixed to the red mud as the desilication reaction progresses. A part of uranium remaining in the liquor precipitates together with aluminum hydroxide in the precipitation process. The uranium content of aluminum hydroxide becomes lower as the precipitation velocity per unit surface area of the seed becomes slower. Organic matters in the Bayer liquor has an extremely significant impact on the uranium content of aluminum hydroxide. Aluminum hydroxide free of uranium is obtainable from the liquor that does not contain organic matters

  10. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  11. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H.; Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author)

  12. Thoron measurements in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, several Hungarian dwellings and working places were surveyed using passive radon- and thoron-measuring devices (Radopot R and Raduet R from 2003 to 2008. The detectors were placed 15-30 cm from the wall throughout the 1-to 3-month period. In dwellings, the presence of thoron, ∼100 Bq m -3 , was detected almost in all cases; however, in the cellars of these buildings, a value ∼200 Bq m -3 was typical. In the cases of manganese and bauxite mines, the concentration of thoron was mainly 200 and 500 Bq m -3 , respectively. In caves, it was 1000 Bq m -3 , whereas in the radon bath it was ∼100 Bq m -3 . As in many cases, the ratio between thoron and radon concentrations was > 0.25 and the dose contribution from thoron and its progeny was not negligible. Therefore, further investigation on the thoron progeny will be necessary for an accurate dose estimation. (authors)

  13. The radon hazard in non - uranium European mines: Retrospective of a survey conducted between 1978 and 1982 in different mines across Europe and new results in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, S.; Pineau, J.F.; Zettwoog, P.; Skowronek, J.

    1996-01-01

    From 1979 to 1982, a study of the hazard due to the natural radioactivity in non-uranium mines has been initiated by the CEC. The programme of the work involved coal, potash salt, fluors par, gypsum, clay, graphite, tungsten, antimony, bauxite, cassiterite, slate, iron, pyrites, lead-zinc, tin, silver-zinc, as well as gold mines, situated in Belgium, France, United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. In all studies mines, a radiological and ventilation audit have been conducted and an individual dosimetry has been implemented for a group of a few tens of miners in some of the mines. An overview of the results is presented here, giving information about the radiological risk treatming the miner's health. The overview is completed with recent measurements made more recently, on a routine basis, in some French non-uranium mines. (author). 47 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Prediction of Al2O3 leaching recovery in the Bayer process using statistical multilinear regresion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of defining the mathematical model which describes the dependence of leaching degree of Al2O3 in bauxite from the most influential input parameters in industrial conditions of conducting the leaching process in the Bayer technology of alumina production. Mathematical model is defined using the stepwise MLRA method, with R2 = 0.764 and significant statistical reliability - VIF<2 and p<0.05, on the one-year statistical sample. Validation of the acquired model was performed using the data from the following year, collected from the process conducted under industrial conditions, rendering the same statistical reliability, with R2 = 0.759.

  15. Monitoring of waste disposal in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, V.; Mansurov, V.

    2003-04-01

    In the paper application of kinetic approach for description of rock failure process and waste disposal microseismic monitoring is advanced. On base of two-stage model of failure process the capability of rock fracture is proved. The requests to monitoring system such as real time mode of data registration and processing and its precision range are formulated. The method of failure nuclei delineation in a rock masses is presented. This method is implemented in a software program for strong seismic events forecasting. It is based on direct use of the fracture concentration criterion. The method is applied to the database of microseismic events of the North Ural Bauxite Mine. The results of this application, such as: efficiency, stability, possibility of forecasting rockburst are discussed.

  16. Current ecological research towards completion criteria in Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A.; Mulligan, D.; Bellairs, S.; Harwood, M. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1998-12-31

    There is a growing recognition of the need for criteria to determine when rehabilitation is successful or complete. Moreover, with the current emphasis on sustainability, criteria need to embrace a range of ecological attributes which in turn require an understanding of the ecosystems being created. This paper describes current research by the Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation on ecosystem development at a number of operations throughout Queensland in the a bauxite, heavy mineral sands, gold and coal mining sectors. Case studies are presented which cover a number of ecological processes including nutrient cycling, vegetation succession and seedling recruitment. They are based in a range of different environments and encompass several different proposed end land uses. The paper demonstrates the utility of an hierarchical approach in assessing rehabilitation success, and that different elements within the hierarchy have differing levels of importance depending on specific minesite conditions. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Titanium leaching from red mud by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agatzini-Leonardou, S.; Oustadakis, P.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Markopoulos, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The titanium recovery efficiency on the basis of red mud weight reached 64.5%. The characterization of the initial red mud, as well as this of the leached residues was carried out by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA and scanning electron microscopy

  18. A world of minerals in your mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jane E.; Ober, Joyce A.; Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2016-09-15

    Mobile phones and other high-technology communications devices could not exist without mineral commodities. More than one-half of all components in a mobile device—including its electronics, display, battery, speakers, and more—are made from mined and semiprocessed materials (mineral commodities). Some mineral commodities can be recovered as byproducts during the production and processing of other commodities. As an example, bauxite is mined for its aluminum content, but gallium is recovered during the aluminum production process. The images show the ore minerals (sources) of some mineral commodities that are used to make components of a mobile device. On the reverse side, the map and table depict the major source countries producing these mineral commodities along with how these commodities are used in mobile devices. For more information on minerals, visit http://minerals.usgs.gov.

  19. Guide to a Strategic Procurement Planning Approach on Regulated Commodity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Marcus; Wüst, Thorsten

    The access of Virtual Organizations to raw materials normally requires external resources. In many cases, the market for raw materials is regulated and the VO principles of trust, customer orientation etc. are not applicable. In consequence, the VO needs to provide reliable solutions for the customer while being dependent on the access to the required raw materials. The objective of the proposed paper is to present a guide to a strategic procurement planning for the manufacturing industry on regulated commodity markets. This guide can be used to evaluate specific sourcing options. The main goal of this guide is to identify the negative effects of market regulation at an early stage and reduce them by developing strategic alternatives. The successful application of this guide is demonstrated by the practical example of the refractory industry and one of their commodities, refractory grade bauxite.

  20. A mineração do espaço marinho e a oportunidade estratégica de Portugal no século XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, António Costa e

    2017-01-01

    Existe hoje um contraste entre o ritmo exponencial de consumo de matérias-primas e recursos e os limites da geologia. Comparando com o que se passava há sessenta anos atrás estamos a consumir, em termos percentuais,618 vezes mais petróleo, mil vezes mais gás, 756 vezes mais níquel, 1500 vezes mais bauxite. O crescimento demográfico, o crescimento económico, o aumento do nível de vida em vastas zonas do mundo, a emergência de uma nova classe média pujante em muitos países emergentes, o cres...

  1. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turki, Faten

    2010-01-01

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  2. Relief inversion in the geomorphological evolution of sub-Saharan West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, C. R. M.; Bristow, A. P. J.

    2013-03-01

    The geomorphology of much of sub-Saharan West Africa is dominated by the presence of plateaux and plains with ferruginous and, locally, aluminous (bauxitic) duricrusts. The plateaux occur at different elevations and have been correlated as two or more palaeosurfaces across much of the region. The duricrusts have generally been considered to be residual, formed by conformable erosion and chemical wasting of immediately underlying bedrock. This concept has been central to interpretations as diverse as the formation and evolution of the landscape and the development of geochemical exploration models. Recent regolith landform mapping, field observations and experience from mineral exploration in southern Mali and Burkina Faso, however, demonstrate that the duricrusts are mainly ferricretes, i.e., Fe oxide-cemented sediments. These observations require a re-interpretation of the geomorphological evolution of the region during the Cenozoic. The landscape has evolved by several cycles of weathering and erosion-deposition, triggered by climatic, tectonic or other environmental changes. It is proposed that an initial bauxitic/lateritic regolith was partly eroded following uplift and/or a change to a more arid climate, and that the detritus, rather than being removed, was deposited on slopes and valleys. During a subsequent humid period of lateritic weathering, Fe oxide cementation of this detritus formed ferricrete. Dehydration and hardening of the ferricrete after further uplift or aridity increased its resistance to erosion, resulting in relief inversion, with the detritus, in turn, being deposited downslope. This too has been weathered and cemented, to form a younger ferricrete. The occurrence of ferricrete landforms in adjacent countries, noted by field observation and inferred from satellite imagery, demonstrates that relief inversion is a very widespread and important phenomenon in southern Mali, Burkina Faso and adjacent countries in semi-arid West Africa.

  3. Comparative study on life cycle environmental impact assessment of copper and aluminium cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Lin, Ling; Song, Dan; Guo, Huiting; Chen, Liang; Sun, Liang; Liu, Mei; Chen, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization in China, domestic demands for copper and aluminium resources increase continuously and the output of copper and aluminium minerals rises steadily. The output of copper in China increased from 0.6 million tons (metal quantity) in 2003 to 1.74 million tons (metal quantity) in 2014, and the output of bauxite increased from 21 million tons in 2006 to 59.21 million tons in 2014. In the meantime, the import of copper and aluminium minerals of China is also on a rise. The import of copper concentrate and bauxite increased from 4.94 million tons and 9.68 million tons in 2006 to 10.08 million tons and 70.75 million tons in 2013 respectively. Copper and aluminium resources are widely applied in fields such as construction, electrical and electronics, machinery manufacturing, and transportation, and serve as important material basis for the national economic and social development of China. Cable industry is a typical industry where copper and aluminium resources are widely used. In this paper, a product assessment model is built from the perspective of product life cycle. Based on CNLCD database, differences in environmental impacts of copper and aluminium cables are analyzed from aspects such as resource acquisition, product production, transportation, utilization, and resource recycling. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of products at different stages with different types of environmental impact are analyzed, so as to provide data support for cable industry in terms of product design and production, etc.

  4. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste; Interactions solide/solution et transferts de matiere dans un gradient de temperature. Application au confinement des dechets nucleaires de haute-activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets; [Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Laboratoire de Geologie

    1999-12-31

    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the `hot` canisters and the `cold`geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  5. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  6. Usability of Clay Mixed Red Mud as Building Material in Transdanubian (Hungary) Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas, Z.; Somlai, J.J.; Szeiler, G.; Kovacs, T.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used building materials in Hungary and in numerous country of the world are the bricks, which made from clays. Due to the congenial internal structure properties of the clays these raw materials can be mixed with other materials, provides great possibility to reuse industrial by-products as additive material. The production and inbuilt of new types of synthetic building materials based on NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) by-products is raising concerns among authorities, public and scientists. Several NORM residues produced in large quantity, such as: phospogypsum (phosphate industry), red mud (aluminium processing industry), fly ash, coal slag (coal burning and steelworks) and so on are presently under investigation. The aluminum manufacturing in Ajka (Hungary) started in 1943. As a result of the bauxite refining activities up to now approximately 30 Mt of red mud has been produced in Hungary, stored in reservoirs. The radionuclide content of the bauxite usually exceeds the world average in soils (WA), which entirely remains in the by-product during Bayer process. The exposure pathways in case of application of NORM residues have to be explored in order to reveal the potential risks of NORMs on residents. The gamma radiation originated from the primordial radionuclides (K-40; U-238; Th-232) and their daughter elements found in nature and in building materials as well increase the external dose of the human body. In the EU the Radiation Protection 112 (RP 112) guideline serves for classification of building material, wherein the gamma exposure is limited by I-index

  7. Extraction of Alumina from Red Mud for Synthesis of Mesoporous Alumina by Adding CTABr as Mesoporous Directing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Putra Ramdhani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mines in Bintan were producing bauxite for many years. The production process of bauxite to alumina produced much red mud. From X-ray Fluorescence (XRF, alumina content on Bintan’s red mud was 28.87 wt.%. This research was studying on the extraction alumina from red mud with reduction of hematite (Fe2O3 and desilication processes. After extraction process alumina was collected about 52.89 wt.%. Synthesis of mesoporous alumina from red mud using sol-gel method at the room temperature for 72 h with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr as mesoporous directing agent. The CTABr/Al-salt ratio, i.e. 1.57; 4.71 and 7.85 with the sample code of AMC-1, AMC-3, AMC-5, respectively. The product was calcined at 550 °C for 6 h. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. XRD pattern of AMC-1, AMC-3, and AMC-5 showed that all synthesized materials have amorphous phase. The morphology were wormhole aggregate that were showed by SEM and TEM characterization. N2 adsorption-desorption characterization showed the distribution of pore size of about 3.2 nm. The highest surface area and pore volume were obtained in solid-solid ratio CTABr/GM-AL by 1.57 (AMC-1 i.e. 241 m2/g and 0.107 cm3/g, respectively.

  8. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses

    1998-01-01

    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the 'hot' canisters and the 'cold'geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  9. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste; Interactions solide/solution et transferts de matiere dans un gradient de temperature. Application au confinement des dechets nucleaires de haute-activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets]|[Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Laboratoire de Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the `hot` canisters and the `cold`geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  10. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90% of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha, an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA and members of the local "Quilombo" community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli. Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records; while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records. Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest

  11. MONITORING OF MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The way mining was monitored in the past depended on knowledge, interest and the existing legal regulations. Documentary evidence about this work can be found in archives, libraries and museums. In particular, there is the rich archival material (papers and books concerning the work of the one-time Imperial and Royal Mining Captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar, Klagenfurt and Split, A minor part of the documentation has not yet been transferred to Croatia. From mining handbooks and books we can also find out about mining in Croatia. In the context of Austro-Hungary. For example, we can find out that the first governorships in Zagreb and Zadar headed the Ban, Count Jelacic and Baron Mamula were also the top mining authorities, though this, probably from political motives, was suppressed in the guides and inventories or the Mining Captaincies. At the end of the 1850s, Croatia produced 92-94% of sea salt, up to 8.5% of sulphur, 19.5% of asphalt and 100% of oil for the Austro-Hungarian empire. From data about mining in the Split Mining Captaincy, prepared for the Philadephia Exhibition, it can be seen that in the exploratory mining operations in which there were 33,372 independent mines declared in 1925 they were looking mainly for bauxite (60,0%, then dark coal (19,0%, asphalts (10.3% and lignites (62%. In 1931, within the area covered by the same captaincy, of 74 declared mines, only 9 were working. There were five coal mines, three bauxite mines and one for asphalt. I suggest that within state institution, the Mining Captaincy or Authority be renewed, or that a Mining and Geological Authority be set ap, which would lead to the more complete affirmation of Croatian mining (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    A summary description of Suriname's population, geography, history, government, economy, and foreign relations is provided. Suriname, a tropical country, situated on the northern coast of South America, consists of a coastal zone, a central forested region, and a sparsely populated southern savanna zone. Most of the country's approximately 400,000 inhabitants live in the coastal zone, which contains most of the country's agricultural land. The population is ethnically diverse and is 37% Hindustani, 31% Creole, 15.3% Javanese, 10.3% Bush Negro, 2.7% Amerindian, 2.7% Chinese, and 1% European. European settlement began in 1651. Between 1667-1815 the country was rule alternately by the Netherlands and Great Britian. In 1975 Suriname obtained independence from the Netherlands and was governed as a parliamentary democracy between 1975-80. In 1980 the government was overthrown by a military coup, and the constitution was suspended. Although there have been several changes in government structure and leadership since 1980, the country continues to be ruled by military decree. In 1984 a Supreme Council, composed of representives of the military, labor federations, and business organizations and chaired by the army commander, Desire D. Bouterse, was established. Although ultimate authority resides in the commander and in the military, there is also a Council of Ministers, composed of labor and business leaders and headed by the Minister-President, L.F. Ramdat-Misier. The government exerts considerable control over the news media. During the colonial era, a plantation economy, based on the production of cocoa, coffee, sugar, and cotton, was established. The system was supported first by African slave labor, and then by Asian contract agricultural laborers. Suriname's current economy is based largely on the mining, processing and exporting of bauxite. The bauxite industry is dominated by the Suriname Aluminum Company, a subsidiary of the Aluminum Company of America, and by the

  13. Water requirements of the aluminum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Howard L.

    1956-01-01

    Aluminum is unique among metals in the way it is obtained from its ore. The first step is to produce alumina, a white powder that bears no resemblance to the bauxite from which it is derived or to the metallic aluminum to which it is reduced by electrolytic action in a second step. Each step requires a complete plant facility, and the plants may be adjacent or separated by as much as the width of the North American continent. Field investigations sf every alumina plant and reduction works in the United States were undertaken to determine the industry's water use. Detailed studies were made of process and plant layout so that a water balance could be made for each plant to determine not only the gross water intake but also an approximation of the consumptive use of water. Water requirements of alumina plants range from 0.28 to 1.10 gallons per pound of alumina; the average for the industry is 0.66 gallon. Water requirements of reduction works vary considerably more, ranging from 1.24 to 36.33 gallons per pound of aluminum, and average 14.62 gallons. All alumina plants in the United States derive alumina from bauxite by the Bayer process or by the Combination process, a modification of the Bayer process. Although the chemical process for obtaining alumina from bauxite is essentially the same at all plants, different procedures are employed to cool the sodium aluminate solution before it enters the precipitating tanks and to concentrate it by evaporation of some of the water in the solution. Where this evaporation takes place in a cooling tower, water in the solution is lost to the atmosphere as water vapor and so is used consumptively. In other plants, the quantity of solution in the system is controlled by evaporation in a multiple-effect evaporator where practically all vapor distilled out of the solution is condensed to water that may be reused. The latter method is used in all recently constructed alumina plants, and some older plants are replacing cooling towers

  14. NOVAS APLICAÇÕES DE SISTEMAS SFE "HOME MADE": III. ENERGIA QUÍMICA E ELÉTRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. LANÇAS

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta três aplicações da SFE com diferentes fluídos supercríticos, matrizes e sistemas de extração. Um sistema estático "home made" foi utilizado na pesquisa de fontes alternativas de insumos químicos e energéticos tais como o bagaço de cana-de-açucar e o carvão mineral. Foram usados, respectivamente, o etanol (sem e com catalisador e o tolueno como fluídos extratores e hidrogênio como gás de pressurização. Na extração dos contaminantes do óleo mineral adsorvidos em bauxita, foi utilizado o dióxido de carbono como fluído extrator em um sistema "home made"/dinâmico. Estudos visando a maximização do rendimento de alguns dos processos também foram realizados, utilizando o planejamento fatorial e a metodologia da superfície de resposta. Os produtos de maior interesse neste trabalho (fração de resinas, obtidos do processo de extração do bagaço de cana-de-açucar e aqueles contaminantes do óleo isolante adsorvidos em bauxita extraídos com fluídos supercríticos foram caracterizados usando cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução com detector de ionização de chama (CGAR - DIC e cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução com detector seletivo de massas (CGAR - EM após fracionamento por cromatografia líquida preparativa em 8 frações distintas.This work presents three aplications of SFE with different supercritical fluids, samples and extraction systems. A home made static system was utilized in the search for alternative chemicals and energetics resources such as sugar cane bagasse and mineral coal. Ethanol (with and without catalyst and toluene were used, respectively ,as extraction fluids and hydrogen as pressurization gas. The adsorbed contaminants of mineral oil in bauxite were also extracted with carbon dioxide as extractor fluid in a home made dinamical system. Maximization of yields in some processes was studied using factorial design and response surface methodologies. The products

  15. Experimental studies on combustion of composite biomass pellets in fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feihong; Zhong, Zhaoping

    2017-12-01

    This work presents studies on the combustion of Composite Biomass Pellets (CBP S ) in fluidized bed using bauxite particles as the bed material. Prior to the combustion experiment, cold-flow characterization and thermogravimetric analysis are performed to investigate the effect of air velocity and combustion mechanism of CBP S . The cold-state test shows that CBPs and bauxite particles fluidize well in the fluidized bed. However, because of the presence of large CBPs, optimization of the fluidization velocity is rather challenging. CBPs can gather at the bottom of the fluidized bed at lower gas velocities. On the contrary, when the velocity is too high, they accumulate in the upper section of the fluidized bed. The suitable fluidization velocity for the system in this study was found to be between 1.5-2.0m/s. At the same time, it is found that the critical fluidization velocity and the pressure fluctuation of the two-component system increase with the increase of CBPs mass concentration. The thermogravimetric experiment verifies that the combustion of CBPs is a first-order reaction, and it is divided into three stages: (i) dehydration, (ii) release and combustion of the volatile and (iii) the coke combustion. The combustion of CBPs is mainly based on the stage of volatile combustion, and its activation energy is greater than that of char combustion. During the combustion test, CBP S are burned at a 10kg/h feed rate, while the excess air is varied from 25% to 100%. Temperatures of the bed and flue gas concentrations (O 2 , CO, SO 2 and NO) are recorded. CBPs can be burnt stably, and the temperature of dense phase is maintained at 765-780°C. With the increase of the air velocity, the main combustion region has a tendency to move up. While the combustion is stable, O 2 and CO 2 concentrations are maintained at about 7%, and 12%, respectively. The concentration of SO 2 in the flue gas after the initial stage of combustion is nearly zero. Furthermore, NO concentration

  16. Hungarian situation of the technologically enhanced naturally occuring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.; Szerbin, P.; Czoch, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Hungary, the main goal is that the Hungarian regulations should meet with the EU Directive No. 96/29. For this aim, a surveying project has been launched in order to collect all relevant information about the Hungarian TENORM situation. This surveying programme covers a lot of data collection (work activities, disposal places, residue quantities) and radiological measurements on the TENORM site. The Hungarian situation of TENORM definitely differs from other countries in the aspect of occurrence forms of natural sources (or in the imported raw materials), in the quantities of exploitation, in the level of the radioactivity and in the applied technological processes. Firstly, those work activities have been choosen where the huge amount of residues have been produced. The other criteria is that the activity concentration in a great portion of the given residues is much higher than the average activity concentration of the typical Hungarian soil. After filtering and ranking, the following main activities enhanced the radioactivity level are left: uranium mining and milling, coal mining, coal firing in power plants, bauxite mining and aluminous earth production. At the uranium mining and milling area the uranium content of residues ranges from 20 to 70 g t -1 , and above those the dose rate is 0.4-10 μSv h -1 . The waste rock piles and heaps for leaching were restored and the remediation of tailings ponds is still under way. In the mountain Mecsek and on the territory from the highland Balaton to the mountain Vertes, the radioactivity level of the coals is 10-50 times higher than the worldwide average. The coal fired plants have piled up in the order of magnitude of 10 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash and slag in ponds around the plants. The radioactivity of U-238 series of ash and slag is in the range from 200 to 2000 Bq·kg -1 . The radionuclide concentrations of bauxite ores range from 200 to 300 Bq·kg -1 . At the refining factories, a lot of red

  17. Manupulation of microstructure, phase evolution and mechanical properties by devitrification of andesite for use as proppant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseski, Ryan P.

    Small, roughly spherical ceramic particles, approximately 1mm in size are used for a number of applications including casting sands, catalysts, and cement fillers. The oil and natural gas industry utilizes such materials in tonnage quantities yearly as extraction aids. Particles intended for this application are referred to as proppants. Proppants are composed of materials that differ by density, strength and cost, and are selected on a site by site basis. Recently, competing usage and depletion of reserves of one of the most popular category of proppant materials, sintered aluminosilicates (e.g. kaolinite, bauxite) have driven the need for alternative raw materials for proppant manufacturing. Andesite, a by-product of mining operations in the south-west United States was identified as an abundant, readily available, and low cost alternative proppant material that can be fused and net-shaped into a glass which when crystallized results in microstructures which may offer substantial toughening and fracture characteristics which may serve to their advantage for use as proppants that do not decrease the permeability ("blind") the particle bed. This study addressed the devitrification behavior and its role on the mechanical properties of andesite-based glass-ceramic spheres for use as proppants. Timetemperature- transformation studies were performed to evaluate the devitrification behavior of andesite glass. Crystalline phase evolution and microstructural development were evaluated using quantitative x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and spectrophotometry. The andesite glass devitrification commenced with the precipitation of iron oxides (magnetite) which served as seeds for the epitaxial growth of dendritic pyroxenes. Mechanical properties, such as diametral compressive strength, fracture toughness, hardness, and fracture morphology were correlated with crystalline phase evolution. Selected heat treatments resulting in the

  18. Morphological description of collateral branches from the abdominal aorta of lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Costa Macedo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tamandua tetradactyla, Xenarthra, is a native species from South America which, due to the few number of studies on its biology, still has many unknown aspects in its morphology. Taking into account the importance of morphological data for various studies, this paper aimed to elucidate the branching of the abdominal aorta in this species to foster the development of further studies. To do this, 4 specimens were used, 2 male and 2 female, all young, from the Bauxite Mine – Paragominas, Para, Brazil, donated after death due to running over to the Animal Morphology Research Laboratory (LaPMA of Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA. The arterial system was filled with contrasted latex and the animals were fixed in a formaldehyde solution (10%, and then dissected, in order to evidence the abdominal aorta and its collateral branches. The parietal branches consisted of 1 pair of caudal phrenic arteries, 2 pairs of intercostal arteries, and 3 pairs of lumbar arteries. Among the visceral branches, stood out: celiac artery; cranial mesenteric artery; adrenal arteries; renal arteries; caudal mesenteric artery; and external, internal, and median sacral iliac arteries, formed from the final portion of the abdominal aorta. Testicular and ovarian arteries originated from the renal arteries, differing from that described in various species.

  19. Utilization of red mud and bagasse for production of gas absorption materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Hoc; Quyen, Pham Vo Thi Ha; Nhung, Le Thuy; Phong, Dang Thanh; Tuyen, Nguyen Ngoc Kim

    2018-04-01

    Gas treatment or/and gas absorption is field which has more investigation from researchers. They are finding optimal solutions from catalyst or synthesized materials to obtain the best benefit for factories and community. This study would like to introduce a method to synthesis the gas absorption materials responding requirements for the process of gas treatment. More specially, raw materials used to produce the materials are industrial waste impacting negatively on the environment. In which, red mud is solid waste of Bayer process from bauxite mining which is being the hard problem to have solutions for its management and utilization, and bagasse is industrial waste of sugar factories. Both red mud and bagasse were dried, ground, and sieved and then mixed with bentonite and water for forming by wet pressing method. Continuously, the mixtures were passed processes of heat treatment at 400°C. The final samples were tested physic-chemical properties and characterized for microstructure. The productions were also tested for gas absorption capacity with data obtained very positive in comparison with others.

  20. Morphology of the lumbosacral plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Albuquerque Lopes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Popularly known as the ocelot, Leopardus pardalis occurs throughout Brazil in all ecosystems, but prefers riparian regions and forests. The objective of this study was to learn more about the macroscopic, anatomical aspects of the plexus lumbossacral of this species. Three specimens were studied, two males and one female, from the region near the Bauxite Mine in Paragominas, PA. The specimens were donated to the Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA at UFRA after being run over (authorization numbers 485/2009 and 522/2009. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde and then the hind limb was dissected by removing some muscles to expose the nerves. In two animals, the femoral nerve originated in the fourth lumbar nerve (L4 and transformed into the saphenous nerve. The obturator nerve and sciatic nerve originated in the last lumbar nerve (L5, and the latter was divided into branches that formed the tibial and common peroneal nerves, which dorsally formed the cranial gluteal and caudal gluteal nerves.

  1. Matures fields of Northeast of Brazil: who to work with and renew them; Rejuvenescimento dos campos maduros de Alagoas sob a otica de intervencao em pocos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payao, Edson da C.; Fernandes, Emanoel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There are mature fields in Alagoas, such as Furado and Pilar, discovered in 1969 and 1981, respectively. Drilling was resumed in 1998 and the Well Intervention Team was called upon to meet the newfound challenges: pronounced well deviation of up to 75 deg, a horizontal well, and the difficulties that ensue; to perform hydraulic fracture at deep horizons, with high pressure on the surface (in excess of 8,000 psi), premature screen out, tortuosity, secondary fractures (fissuring), etc. These setbacks can be overcome by employing: calibration test with high output; bauxite slugs; sand to decrease filtering; high performance gel. Deep damage in areas where there is water contact inside the well. Problems were overcome using TCP with extreme under balance (EUB) to bypass perforation damage and prevent the sort of damage caused by completion activity. Multidisciplinary approach towards determining onshore production rig interventions; these must be carried out with zeal and an eye to new opportunities, thus underscoring the importance of the data collected onsite. New equipment and completion methods. Upgrading and newer procedures. The yield curve rose once again, bringing renewed enthusiasm and resulting in highly attractive costs for PETROBRAS. (author)

  2. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of calcined alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of conventional and low-cement ferrochrome slag-based castables were prepared from 40 wt.% ferrochrome slag and 45 wt.% calcined bauxite. Rest fraction varied between high alumina cement (HAC acting as hydraulic binder and calcined alumina as pore filling additive. Standard ASTM size briquettes were prepared for crushing and bending strengths evaluation, and the samples were then subjected to firing at 800, 1100 and 1300 °C for a soaking period of 3 h. The microstructure and refractory properties of the prepared castables have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cold crushing strength, modulus of rupture and permanent linear changes (PLCs test. Castables show good volume stability (linear change <0.7% at 1300 °C. The outcomes of these investigations were efficacious and in accordance with previously reported data of similar compositions. High thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties were attained pointing out an outstanding potential to increase the refractory lining working life of non-recovery coke oven and reheating furnaces.

  3. Biomarkers and Microfossils in the Murchison, Rainbow, and Tagish Lake meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Davies, Paul C.

    2003-02-01

    During the past six years, we have conducted extensive scanning electron and optical microscopy investigations and x-ray analysis to determine the morphology, life cycle processes, and elemental distributions in living and fossil cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae sampled from terrestrial environments relevant to Astrobiology. Biominerals, pseudomorphs and microfossils have been studied for diverse microbial groups in various states of preservation in many types of rocks (e.g., oil shales, graphites, shungites, bauxites, limestones, pyrites, phosphorites, and hydrothermal vent chimneys). Results of these studies have been applied to the search for biosignatures in carbonaceous chondrites, stony, and nickel iron meteorites. We review important biomarkers found in terrestrial rocks and meteorites and present additional evidence for the existence of indigenous bacterial microfossils in-situ in freshly fractured surfaces of the Murchison, Rainbow and Tagish Lake carbonaceous meteorites. We provide secondary and backscatter electron images and spectral data obtained with Field Emission and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopes of biominerals and microfossils. We discuss techniques for discriminating indigenous microfossils from recent terrestrial contaminants. Images are provided of framboidal magnetites in oil shales and meteorites and images and 2D x-ray maps are shown of bacterial microfossils embedded in the mineral matrix of the Murchison, Rainbow and Tagish Lake Carbonaceous Meteorites. These microfossils exhibit characteristics that preclude their interpretation as post-arrival contaminants and we interpret them as indigenous biogenic remains.

  4. Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. State Department's background notes on the Caribbean island nation of Jamaica discusses geography, people, history, government, defense and foreign relations, with lengthier sections on politics and economy. Jamaica, lying south of Cuba, has 10,991 sq. km., 2.3 million people of African and African-European origin primarily, a growth rate of 1.1%, infant mortality rate of 28/1000 and life expectancy of 71 years. The island has diverse climatic regions, mountainous structure, rich resources in bauxite, and agriculture. It was settled in the 1500s by Spain, occupied since 1670 Britain, and became independent in 1962. The first election in 1945 established the roots of the government, modeled after the British system. The 2 major parties, derived from preceding labor unions, are the Jamaican Labour Party, centrist but favoring private business and agriculture, and the People's National Party, more populist and socialist. The economy has suffered in recent years from recession, unemployment, high interest rates, international trade deficit and government spending deficits, as well as a brief alignment with Cuba that discouraged both tourism and foreign investment. Initiatives from U.S. investors have begun to reverse the trend, concentrating on establishment of light industry such as garment making and data entry. Jamaica's wealth in her stable government, literate population, natural resources, fertile soil, and good relations with other nations and institutions suggest that she will rise above her economic troubles.

  5. N-(6-(hydroxyamino)-6-oxohexyl) decanamide collector: Flotation performance and adsorption mechanism to diaspore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Lanqing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Yueyang Chinese Herbal Utilization, Yueyang Vocational Technical College, Yueyang 414000 (China); Wang, Shuai [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhong, Hong, E-mail: zhongh@csu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Guangyi, E-mail: guangyiliu@csu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: The potential absorption model of NHOD on diaspore surface. - Highlights: • A novel surfactant NHOD was first introduced as diaspore flotation collector. • NHOD exhibited superior collecting power to diaspore against gangue. • NHOD's has double active centers to mineral surfaces and double hydrophobic groups. • NHOD molecules formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds on diaspore surfaces. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel surfactant, N-(6-(hydroxyamino)-6-oxohexyl)decanamide (NHOD) was synthesized and used as a collector for flotation separation of diaspore and aluminosilicate minerals. The adsorption mechanism of NHOD onto diaspore was also investigated by FTIR spectra, zeta potential measurement and XPS. The flotation results demonstrated that NHOD exhibited superior collecting power to diaspore and selectivity against kaolinite and illite and could effectively realize flotation recovery of diaspore from bauxite ores contained aluminosilicate minerals under neutral conditions. The results of XPS, FTIR spectra and zeta potential illustrated that at around pH 7.0, NHOD might chemisorb on diaspore surfaces through Al−O coordination bonds formed by binding its −C(=O)NHOH or −C(=O)NH− chelate groups with aluminum atoms on diaspore surfaces. NHOD's unique properties, such as characteristic bond patterns onto diaspore surfaces, two hydrophobic groups, and intermolecular hydrogen bonds between neighboring NHOD molecules coated on diaspore surfaces, rendered it to be a superior flotation collector for diaspore.

  6. N-(6-(hydroxyamino)-6-oxohexyl) decanamide collector: Flotation performance and adsorption mechanism to diaspore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Lanqing; Wang, Shuai; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Guangyi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The potential absorption model of NHOD on diaspore surface. - Highlights: • A novel surfactant NHOD was first introduced as diaspore flotation collector. • NHOD exhibited superior collecting power to diaspore against gangue. • NHOD's has double active centers to mineral surfaces and double hydrophobic groups. • NHOD molecules formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds on diaspore surfaces. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel surfactant, N-(6-(hydroxyamino)-6-oxohexyl)decanamide (NHOD) was synthesized and used as a collector for flotation separation of diaspore and aluminosilicate minerals. The adsorption mechanism of NHOD onto diaspore was also investigated by FTIR spectra, zeta potential measurement and XPS. The flotation results demonstrated that NHOD exhibited superior collecting power to diaspore and selectivity against kaolinite and illite and could effectively realize flotation recovery of diaspore from bauxite ores contained aluminosilicate minerals under neutral conditions. The results of XPS, FTIR spectra and zeta potential illustrated that at around pH 7.0, NHOD might chemisorb on diaspore surfaces through Al−O coordination bonds formed by binding its −C(=O)NHOH or −C(=O)NH− chelate groups with aluminum atoms on diaspore surfaces. NHOD's unique properties, such as characteristic bond patterns onto diaspore surfaces, two hydrophobic groups, and intermolecular hydrogen bonds between neighboring NHOD molecules coated on diaspore surfaces, rendered it to be a superior flotation collector for diaspore

  7. The Australian mineral resources industry in 2006 - ongoing business and new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschhorn, F.

    2006-08-15

    Australia has the potential to remain as a stable long-term supplier of important minerals for the entire world (Table 1). The national income of Australia is direct related to the exports of minerals and it is no wonder that the annual poker-style price negotiations for iron ore and coking coal have become the most important events on the Australian economic calendar. The 2005 price increases for the two biggest export commodities, iron ore and coal, alone have contributed to a 2% rise of the national income. The total value of exported minerals will be 91.8 bn AS in 2006/2007. This boom was mainly driven by the surge of demand from China. In addition to iron ore and coal there are also gold, copper, nickel, bauxite, and many more metals which are creating headlines. Diamond and recently uranium mining have become hot topics. Besides the big players there are hundreds of small exploration and mining companies especially in the gold and base metal sector. Australia's rich resources, social stability and economic strengths have shaped a unique investment environment which continues to attract investors from around the world. The following will give you an overview on Australia's supply potential for the most important minerals. (orig.)

  8. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutchkov, M.; Lalor, G.C.; Preston, J.

    1999-01-01

    Air quality has been monitored at selected areas in Jamaica using high volume samplers. The results obtained, showed elevated levels of aluminium in bauxitic areas and very high lead concentrations in urban areas, from 5 to 35 times greater than in rural areas. The lower throughput of the conventional air particulate samplers however, restricts the air quality and health assessment on a nation-wide scale. Biomonitoring offers a cost-effective alternative to air-quality assessment if appropriate indicator species are chosen. The epiphytic lower plants such as lichens and mosses have been used as indicators of regional air quality in several European countries and USA. However, there is not enough studies on lichens and mosses in tropical countries, probably due to the lower occurrence of these species, which cover only 8% of the world's land surface. In Jamaica the epiphytic higher plants, represented by the genus Tillandsia are widely distributed, which make them along with the lichens and mosses potential site-specific bioindicators of air quality. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear And Related Analytical Techniques' will address these needs of the country. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop specific bioindicators of atmospheric air pollution in Jamaica, which will provide baseline information for health hazards assessment

  9. Chemical elements in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), phytoplankton and estuarine sediments from eastern Amazon (Northern Brazil): Bioaccumulation factors and trophic transfer factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Maria P. S. P.; Costa, Marcondes L.; Berrêdo, José F.; Paiva, Rosildo S.; Souza, Crisvaldo C. S.

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted near Barcarena County, which is a mid-sized urban center where aluminum ore processing industries (bauxite) and Vila do Conde cargo terminal are located. It aims to discuss the bioaccumulation factors as well as factors related to the trophic transfer of chemical elements in water, oyster, phytoplankton and bottom sediments from an estuary in the Brazilian Northern coast. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), trophic transfer factor (TTF) and biota-sediment-water were used to correlate the contents of chemical elements found in organisms. The sediment, surface water, phytoplankton and pearl oysters chemical composition was analyzed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Pearl oysters showed K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Ba and Pb accumulation, which concentration increase is associated with their diet (phytoplankton). Al concentrations are 14 times higher in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), assuming that they are associated with wastewater emissions and with industrialization processes in the area. BAF and BSAF values are 1000 times higher than the metal concentrations in water and bioavailable fraction concentrations. The oyster-phytoplankton trophic transfer factor indicates that P, Ba, Ca, Na, Cd and Zn showed the largest transfers (from 5 to 19). These trophic transfers may be sufficient to cause significant ecotoxicological effects on the region biota.

  10. Hollow proppants and a process for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.H.; Cutler, R.A.

    1985-10-15

    Hollow, fine-grained ceramic proppants are less expensive and improve fracture control when compared to conventional proppants (dense alumina, mullite, bauxite, zirconia, etc.). Hollow proppants of the present invention have been fabricated by spray drying, followed by sintering in order to obtain a dense case and a hollow core. These proppants generally have high sphericity and roundness (Krumbein sphericity and roundness greater than 0.8), have diameters on average between 2,250 and 125 [mu]m, depending on proppant size required, and have strength equal to or greater than that of sand. The hollow core, the size of which can be controlled, permits better fracture control in hydraulic fracturing treatments since the proppant can be transported in lower viscosity fluids. Hollow proppants produced at the same cost/weight as conventional proppants also provide for lower costs, since less weight is required to fill the same volume. The fine-grained (preferably less than 5 [mu]m in diameter) ceramic case provides the strength necessary to withstand closure stresses and prevent crushing. 6 figs.

  11. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao

    2015-04-09

    The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP-AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM-EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na6CaAl6Si6(CO3)O24 · 2H2O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH · H2O and Na2Ca(CO3)2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Properties and application of carbon composite brick for blast furnace hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao K.X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of carbon composite brick was produced via the microporous technique using natural flack graphite, α-Al2O3 and high-quality bauxite chamotte (Al2O3≥87 mass% as raw materials with fine silicon powder as additive. The composition and microstructure of the obtained carbon composite were characterized using chemical analysis, XRD and SEM with EDS. The high temperature properties of thermal conductivity, oxidization and corrosion by molten slag and hot metal of the composite were analyzed. Based on these, the type of carbon composite brick worked in a blast furnace hearth for six years was further sampled at different positions. The protective layer was found and its chemical composition and microscopic morphology were investigated. It is found that the carbon composite brick combines the good properties of both the conventional carbon block and ceramic cup refractory. The protective layer near the hot face consists of two separated sublayers, i.e. the slag layer and the carbon layer. A certain amount of slag phase is contained in the carbon layer, which is caused by the reaction of coke ash with the refractory. No obvious change in the chemical composition of the protective layer along the depth of the sidewall is found. This work provides a useful guidance for the extension of the lifetime of blast furnace hearths.

  13. Large-Scale Consumption and Zero-Waste Recycling Method of Red Mud in Steel Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshan Ning

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To release the environmental pressure from the massive discharge of bauxite residue (red mud, a novel recycling method of red mud in steel making process was investigated through high-temperature experiments and thermodynamic analysis. The results showed that after the reduction roasting of the carbon-bearing red mud pellets at 1100–1200 °C for 12–20 min, the metallic pellets were obtained with the metallization ratio of ≥88%. Then, the separation of slag and iron achieved from the metallic pellets at 1550 °C, after composition adjustment targeting the primary crystal region of the 12CaO·7Al2O3 phase. After iron removal and composition adjustment, the smelting-separation slag had good smelting performance and desulfurization capability, which meets the demand of sulfurization flux in steel making process. The pig iron quality meets the requirements of the high-quality raw material for steel making. In virtue of the huge scale and output of steel industry, the large-scale consumption and zero-waste recycling method of red mud was proposed, which comprised of the carbon-bearing red mud pellets roasting in the rotary hearth furnace and smelting separation in the electric arc furnace after composition adjustment.

  14. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  15. The etiology of occupational pulmonary aluminosis--the past and the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkova, Petra; Nakladalova, Marie

    2014-12-01

    The authors review pulmonary aluminosis caused by exposure to dust containing aluminium and its compounds, mainly oxides. Special attention is paid to various factors of occupational exposure as to an important etiologic issue. The condition has a rich and interesting history dating back to the 1930s. The most significant occupational exposures are associated with processes in bauxite smelting, the use of fine aluminium powder, exposure to aluminium welding fumes, grinding and polishing of aluminium materials. A literature search for relevant scientific studies in English was performed using the following internet databases: relevant sections of The Cochrane Library, EBSCO Discovery Service, Ovid, ProQuest Science Journals, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The initial clinical manifestations of pulmonary aluminosis are exertional dyspnea with dry, non-productive cough. Depending on the type and length of the occupational exposure, ventilatory defects may vary considerably from restrictive to obstructive pattern. Radiographic findings commonly showing nodular or slightly irregular opacities are predominantly located in the upper, less frequently in the lower lung fields, or can have a diffuse pattern. In advanced stages, severe pulmonary fibrosis with honeycombing occured. Although pulmonary aluminosis is a very rare disease, it still occurs. Since the industrial importance and use of aluminium continue to rise, lung damage from exposure to respirable aluminium particles should not be overlooked but monitored and prevented. Even today, the pathophysiology of pulmonary aluminosis has not been explained as yet.

  16. Red mud addition in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Agatzini-Leonardou, S; Oustadakis, P

    2004-12-10

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker. For that reason, two samples of raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample ((PC)Ref), and another with 3.5% red mud ((PC)R/M). The effect on the reactivity of the raw mix was evaluated on the basis of the unreacted lime content in samples sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 degrees C. Subsequently, the clinkers were produced by sintering the two raw meals at 1450 degrees C. The results of chemical and mineralogical analyses as well as the microscopic examination showed that the use of the red mud did not affect the mineralogical characteristics of the so produced Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, both clinkers were tested by determining the grindability, setting time, compressive strength and expansibility. The hydration products were examined by XRD analysis at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days. The results of the physico-mechanical tests showed that the addition of the red mud did not negatively affect the quality of the produced cement.

  17. Review of cadmium transfers from soil to humans and its health effects and Jamaican environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, Gerald C.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the effects of cadmium on human health have led to numerous guidelines and regulations limiting its concentrations in soils and food and allowable human intakes. These have socio-economic consequences in terms of land use and the marketing of food. The bauxite soils in Jamaica, which are both aluminium ores and agricultural soils contain orders of magnitude higher than world normal concentrations of cadmium resulting in elevated Cd concentrations in several foodstuffs and significant transfers to humans, which would seem to represent a risk factor for increased mortality and/or morbidity in the local populations. But, as in Shipham and other examples, there is no evidence of cadmium-related human distress. Macro-indicators like life expectancy and median ages of death do not show cadmium related geographical distributions. The present review focuses on the soils and foods and illnesses of high incidence especially cancers and renal disease that have been traditionally associated with cadmium. In view of the remarkable concentrations of cadmium involved in Jamaica, and often contradictory reports in the literature, it appears that much remains to be learned about certain details of cadmium toxicity

  18. Glassceramics frits attainment from industrial solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Matheus Chianca

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the residue obtained from the process of aluminum metal extraction activities, a great interest process, because of Brazil own some of the biggest bauxite mineral reserves in all the world. As a useful choice for no residue generation, and a support for environmentally friendly technologies, this work studies the white dross residue (WDR), from the process of aluminum metal reduction by thermal plasma. The phase equilibrium diagram of Al 2 O 3 -Ca O-SiO 2 system was used to calculate the compositions. The WDR were incorporated in a ceramic product without modifying its principal characteristics. The fusion and devitrification treatments were studied. XRD (X-ray diffractometry), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (transformed Fourier infrared) were used to investigate the glass and glassceramic samples. These techniques showed that is possible to get glassceramic with up to 30 mass% of WDR after molten at 1300 deg C and annealed at 900 deg C. In addition, the WDR showed to be a promising material in attainment of crystalline phases in less times of heat treatment for annealing. (author)

  19. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, C.; Akber, R.; Johnston, A.; Cassels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia. (authors)

  20. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale.

  1. Mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical transformations in the initial steps of the weathering process of charnockite from the Caparaó Range, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Caroline Cibele Vieira; Varajão, Angélica Fortes Drummond Chicarino; Varajão, César Augusto Chicarino; Boulangé, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and Electron Probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and Wavelength-Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) were conducted on charnockite from the Caparaó Suite and its alteration cortex to determine the mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical transformations resulting from the weathering process. The hydrolysis of the charnockite occurred in different stages, in accordance with the order of stability of the minerals with respect to weathering: andesine/orthopyroxene, pargasite and alkali feldspar. The rock modifications had begun with the formation of a layer of incipient alteration due to the percolation of weathering solutions first in the pressure relief fractures and then in cleavage and mineral edges. The iron exuded from ferromagnesian minerals precipitated in the intermineral and intramineral discontinuities. The layer of incipient alteration evolves into an inner cortex where the plagioclase changes into gibbsite by direct alitisation, the ferromagnesian minerals initiate the formation of goethitic boxworks with kaolinitic cores, and the alkali feldspar initiates indirect transformation into gibbsite, forming an intermediate phase of illite and kaolinite. In the outer cortex, mostly traces of alkali feldspar remain, and they are surrounded by goethite and gibbsite as alteromorphics, characterising the formation of the isalteritic horizon that occurs along the slope and explains the bauxitization process at the Caparaó Range, SE Brazil.

  2. Carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007: A 135-sector inventory and input-output embodiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, Z. M.

    2010-11-01

    A 135-sector inventory and embodiment analysis for carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007 is presented in this paper by an ecological input-output modeling based on the physical entry scheme. Included emissions and resources belong to six categories as: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O; (2) energy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, and firewood; (3) water in terms of freshwater; (4) exergy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, grain, bean, tuber, cotton, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, jute, sugarcane, sugar beet, tobacco, silkworm feed, tea, fruits, vegetables, wood, bamboo, pulp, meat, egg, milk, wool, aquatic products, iron ore, copper ore, bauxite, lead ore, zinc ore, pyrite, phosphorite, gypsum, cement, nuclear fuel, and hydropower; (5) and (6) solar and cosmic emergies in terms of sunlight, wind power, deep earth heat, chemical power of rain, geopotential power of rain, chemical power of stream, geopotential power of stream, wave power, geothermal power, tide power, topsoil loss, coal, crude oil, natural gas, ferrous metal ore, non-ferrous metal ore, non-metal ore, cement, and nuclear fuel. Accounted based on the embodied intensities are carbon emissions and resources use embodied in the final use as rural consumption, urban consumption, government consumption, gross fixed capital formation, change in inventories, and export, as well as in the international trade balance. The resulted database is basic to environmental account of carbon emissions and resources use at various levels.

  3. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars; Avaliacao da lama vermelha como material pozolanico em substituicao ao cimento para producao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C., E-mail: elizmanfroi@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: malik@valores.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  4. Sustainable Mineral-Intensive Growth in Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S.

    2012-04-01

    The focus of the work is to highlight the present environmental and social impacts of extensive mining on the health of the common people of Odisha. The mining activities have created havoc impact to the environment and social life of the state. Odisha has huge deposits of ores and minerals of chromite, nickel, bauxite, iron, coal, copper, manganese, graphite, vanadium etc. The mining activities have encouraged rapid urbanization and at the same time have altered the topography of these areas and extensively degraded the forest land. For long term sustainable development of the society, it is necessary to take a balanced and integrated approach towards environmental protection and economic advancement. Industries should aim at achieving their goals, through a system of permits based on best available techniques, which gives emphasis on integrated prevention and control of consumption of energy and water as well as pollution of water, air and soil. The rapid industrial growth has brought promising opportunities for economic development and poverty reduction in Odisha but at the same time has caused extensive environmental degradation. The best management practices to deal with environmental and social impacts on mineral-intensive growth are suggested in this work. In addition to lean technology, economic implications of the introduction of environmental technologies for mining activities are also discussed.

  5. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of californium-252 sources in Hungary for teaching and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.

    1976-01-01

    An activation facility was designed to accommodate up to 50 mg of 252 Cf; it contains at present a 500 μg source. The absolute values of thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes were determined by the foil activation method using In, Dy, Au, Al and Fe detectors. Cross-sections averaged for unmoderated 252 Cf neutrons were determined for 22 different reactions for elements with atomic weights lying between A=27 and 204. The sensitivity for determination of Al, Ti, Cu, As, Sr, Mo, In, Cd, Ba, Au, Hg and Pb was calculated for NaI(Tl) and Ge(Li) detectors. Average (n,2n) cross-sections for 252 Cf spectrum were calculated for 49 nuclei lying between A=14 and 204. Angular distributions and cross-sections for the fragments from 252 Cf neutron-induced fission of 232 Th and 238 U were measured. Titanium in bauxite and manganese in aluminium alloys were determined with a 252 Cf source. The applicability of solid-state track detectors for neutron dosimetry, radiography and for the determination of fuel burn-up were investigated using 252 Cf neutron and fragment sources. Characteristics of a jumping spark counter for counting fission fragments were studied with 252 Cf sources. (author)

  7. Institutional arrangements for the reduction of proliferation risks formulation, evaluation, and implementation of institutional concepts. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this supporting analysis is to provide a foundation for developing a model, an international or multinational institution capable of accomodating the back end of the fuel cycle, while meeting US nonproliferation goals. The analysis is based on a review of selected, defunct and extant institutions which, although not necessarily concerned with nonproliferation, have faced a trade-off between acceptability and effectiveness in meeting their objectives. Discussion of the various institutions is divided into three categories: international organizations, multinational consortia, and cartels or producer associations. Examples of international organizations include the International Seabed Authority, Intelsat, the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Seabed Authority is discussed. Multinational consortia are organizations that have been developed primarily to meet common commercial objectives. Membership includes at least three member nations. Examples include the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), URENCO, Unilever, Royal Dutch Shell, Eurochemic, Eurodif, Euratom, European Coal and Steel Community, and Serena. Cartels or producer associations are multinational agreements that restrict market forces; viz, production, market share, customers or prices. Examples include the Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Fifth International Tin Agreement (ITA), as well as agreements governing diamonds and uranium, bauxite and coffee. OPEC, CIPEC and ITA are discussed

  8. Novel highly dispersible, thermally stable core/shell proppants for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, Ian M.; Endres, Mackenzie; Burns, Carolyne; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Liu, Jian; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Bonneville, Alain; Moore, Joseph; Leavy, Ian I.; Zhong, Lirong; Schaef, Herbert T.; Fu, Li; Wang, Hong-Fei; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-11-01

    The use of proppants during reservoir stimulation in tight oil and gas plays requires the introduction of highly viscous fluids to transport the proppants (µm–mm) with the fracturing fluid. The highly viscous fluids required result in increased pump loads and energy costs. Furthermore, although proppant deployment with fracturing fluids is a standard practice for unconventional oil and gas stimulation operations, there are only a few examples in the US of the applying proppant technology to geothermal energy production. This is due to proppant dissolution, proppant flowback and loss of permeability associated with the extreme temperatures found in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This work demonstrates proof-of-concept of a novel, CO2-responsive, lightweight sintered-bauxite/polymer core/shell proppant. The polymer shell has two main roles; 1) increase the stability of the proppant dispersion in water without the addition of rheology modifiers, and 2) once at the fracture network react with CO2 to promote particle aggregation and prop fractures open. In this work, both of these roles are demonstrated together with the thermal and chemical stability of the materials showing the potential of these CO2-responsive proppants as an alternative proppant technology for geothermal and unconventional oil/gas applications.

  9. Red mud as a carbon sink: variability, affecting factors and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chunhua; Ma, Yingqun; Lin, Chuxia

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of red mud to sequester CO(2) varied markedly due to differences in bauxite type, processing and disposal methods. Calcium carbonates were the dominant mineral phases responsible for the carbon sequestration in the investigated red mud types. The carbon sequestration capacity of red mud was not fully exploited due to shortages of soluble divalent cations for formation of stable carbonate minerals. Titanate and silicate ions were the two major oxyanions that appeared to strongly compete with carbonate ions for the available soluble Ca. Supply of additional soluble Ca and Mg could be a viable pathway for maximizing carbon sequestration in red mud and simultaneously reducing the causticity of red mud. It is roughly estimated that over 100 million tonnes of CO(2) have been unintentionally sequestered in red mud around the world to date through the natural weathering of historically produced red mud. Based on the current production rate of red mud, it is likely that some 6 million tonnes of CO(2) will be sequestered annually through atmospheric carbonation. If appropriate technologies are in place for incorporating binding cations into red mud, approximately 6 million tonnes of additional CO(2) can be captured and stored in the red mud while the hazardousness of red mud is simultaneously reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  11. Application of radioactivation analysis for determination of impurities in aluminium, raw materials and in samples from aluminium production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    Trace elements in aluminium, raw materials and in the samples from different stages of aluminium production were determined by nondestructive neutron radioactivation analysis. The samples were taken from the Bayer's process of alumina production (bauxite, red sludge and alumina), from the components of the reduction cell (anode, criolyte and AlF 3 ) and of the final product - aluminium (purity 99.5-99.7%). Under given set of conditions ten trace elements (V,La,Ga,Mn,Co,Cr,Sc,Sb,Zn and Fe) were determined in aluminium and followed through the production process. It was found that the main impurities in aluminium are iron (0.15%) and zinc (0.O6%). It has been concluded that the purity of produced aluminium depends mainly on the purity of used alumina. The second important source of contamination of aluminium is anode. The results obtained by radioactivation analysis for V, Mn, Cr and Fe fall within the ranges of concentrations of these elements determined by use of other methods (volumetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption). Higher values for zinc were obtained by radioactivation analysis, probably due to unsatisfactory irradiation and measuring conditions for this element. The possibilities of application of radioactivation analysis to these kinds of samples are also disscused

  12. Temperature measurements of Transdanubian Mesozoic rocks by the oxygen isotope method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornides, I.; Csaszar, G.; Haas, J.; Jochane Edelenyi, E.

    1979-01-01

    Subjected to paleotemperature measurements with the use of oxygen and carbon isotopes were Upper Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and their fossils from the Transdanubian Central Mountains, the Mecsek and the Villany Mts. In determining formation temperature, an important parameter of the environment of formation, the authors relied on the fact that the oxygen isotope composition of calcium carbonate precipitating from its aqueous solution deviates, in dependence on the temperature of the solution concerned, from that of the water. Consequently, the temperature of the water of the one-time seas must have been recorded by the 18 O/ 16 O ratio in the calcite of fossils or sediments. The results reported indicate smaller changes in temperature as compared to international results. In the Jurassic the values of temperature remain consistently below those quoted for Swiss and French territories, being around the values reported from/sroe/thern Germany. These u curves have their maxima in the Toarcian, Aalenian, sediments for which unfortunately no Hungarian results are available. The few results of Cretaceous belemnites are values higher than their international counterparts. The high temperature value obtained for the Albian correlates very well with the formation of rocks known from this stratigraphic stage (red clays, bauxites). (A.L.)

  13. Underground Mining Method Selection Using WPM and PROMETHEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balusa, Bhanu Chander; Singam, Jayanthu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to represent the solution to the problem of selecting suitable underground mining method for the mining industry. It is achieved by using two multi-attribute decision making techniques. These two techniques are weighted product method (WPM) and preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE). In this paper, analytic hierarchy process is used for weight's calculation of the attributes (i.e. parameters which are used in this paper). Mining method selection depends on physical parameters, mechanical parameters, economical parameters and technical parameters. WPM and PROMETHEE techniques have the ability to consider the relationship between the parameters and mining methods. The proposed techniques give higher accuracy and faster computation capability when compared with other decision making techniques. The proposed techniques are presented to determine the effective mining method for bauxite mine. The results of these techniques are compared with methods used in the earlier research works. The results show, conventional cut and fill method is the most suitable mining method.

  14. Technological, Economic, and Environmental Optimization of Aluminum Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin

    2013-08-01

    The four strategic directions (referring to the entire life cycle of aluminum) are as follows: production, primary use, recycling, and reuse. Thus, in this work, the following are analyzed and optimized: reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aluminum production, increasing energy efficiency in aluminum production, maximizing used-product collection, recycling, and reusing. According to the energetic balance at the gaseous environment level, the conductive transfer model is also analyzed through the finished elements method. Several principles of modeling and optimization are presented and analyzed: the principle of analogy, the principle of concepts, and the principle of hierarchization. Based on these principles, an original diagram model is designed together with the corresponding logic diagram. This article also presents and analyzes the main benefits of aluminum recycling and reuse. Recycling and reuse of aluminum have the main advantage that it requires only about 5% of energy consumed to produce it from bauxite. The aluminum recycling and production process causes the emission of pollutants such as dioxides and furans, hydrogen chloride, and particulate matter. To control these emissions, aluminum recyclers are required to comply with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production. The results of technological, economic, and ecological optimization of aluminum recycling are based on the criteria function's evaluation in the modeling system.

  15. Glassceramics frits attainment from industrial solid wastes; Obtencao de fritas vitroceramicas a partir de residuos solidos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Matheus Chianca

    2006-07-01

    This work studies the residue obtained from the process of aluminum metal extraction activities, a great interest process, because of Brazil own some of the biggest bauxite mineral reserves in all the world. As a useful choice for no residue generation, and a support for environmentally friendly technologies, this work studies the white dross residue (WDR), from the process of aluminum metal reduction by thermal plasma. The phase equilibrium diagram of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ca O-SiO{sub 2} system was used to calculate the compositions. The WDR were incorporated in a ceramic product without modifying its principal characteristics. The fusion and devitrification treatments were studied. XRD (X-ray diffractometry), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (transformed Fourier infrared) were used to investigate the glass and glassceramic samples. These techniques showed that is possible to get glassceramic with up to 30 mass% of WDR after molten at 1300 deg C and annealed at 900 deg C. In addition, the WDR showed to be a promising material in attainment of crystalline phases in less times of heat treatment for annealing. (author)

  16. Red mud flocculation process in alumina production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, E. R.; Firsov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    The process of thickening and washing red mud is a gooseneck of alumina production. The existing automated systems of the thickening process control involve stabilizing the parameters of the primary technological circuits of the thickener. The actual direction of scientific research is the creation and improvement of models and systems of the thickening process control by model. But the known models do not fully consider the presence of perturbing effects, in particular the particle size distribution in the feed process, distribution of floccules by size after the aggregation process in the feed barrel. The article is devoted to the basic concepts and terms used in writing the population balance algorithm. The population balance model is implemented in the MatLab environment. The result of the simulation is the particle size distribution after the flocculation process. This model allows one to foreseen the distribution range of floccules after the process of aggregation of red mud in the feed barrel. The mud of Jamaican bauxite was acting as an industrial sample of red mud; Cytec Industries of HX-3000 series with a concentration of 0.5% was acting as a flocculant. When simulating, model constants obtained in a tubular tank in the laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) were used.

  17. Morphology and morphometry of the reproductive system of female Saguinus midas (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Nathaly Cristine Da Silva; De Lima, Ana Rita; De Carvalho, Ana Flávia; De Carvalho Garcia, Rafael; Therrier, Joanne; Souza, Ana Carla Barros; Pereira, Luiza Correia; Branco, Erika

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the reproductive system's morphology of three young animals of the species Saguinus midas, from the bauxite mine in Paragominas, is described. The specimens were fixed and preserved in a solution of 10% aqueous formaldehyde, followed by dissection, measurement of the genital organs (uterus, vagina, ovaries, and uterine tubes), and histological processing. The vulva is delimited by the labia, with a clitoris. It is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with sebaceous glands of holocrine secretion. The vagina is an elongated tube with an average length of 26 mm and diameter of 1 mm, presenting a non-keratinized squamous epithelium, disposed between the vestibule of the vagina and cervix, the latter being relatively short. The uterus is simple, has globular shape and is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity, with an average length of 14 mm and average width of 7 mm. It is formed by vascular and serous layers of muscles, and undergoes a bifurcation to form two structures on the bottom of blind sac. The uterine tubes are long and convoluted with an average length of 35 mm (right) and 36 mm (left), consisting of loose connective tissue and muscle layer lined by simple ciliated columnar epithelium. The ovaries are large and ellipsoid with smooth surface. Histologically, one animal showed ovulation fosse. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  19. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (research and development of secondary hydrogenation); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niji suiten no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among the items of the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981 for development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant, this paper describes the achievements in developing secondary hydrogenation. A small continuous hydrogenation device equipped with three reaction columns that can be filled with catalyst of 50 cc, and a dedicated testing room were designed, and orders were placed with manufacturers. The fabrication, assembly, delivery, installation, piping and wiring were all completed. The device passed a completion inspection based on the high-pressure gas safety assurance law in December 1981. After leakage due to gas and material oil was checked, a trial operation was performed, and verified of normal operation. A screening test was carried out on three kinds of commercially available and prototype catalysts before testing the SRC containing material for studying the secondary hydrogenation. The circulating solvent having a boiling point from 180 to 430 degree C (F56-01) was used as the test sample. In order to investigate the relationship between the kinds of solvent used for the SRC fraction and the secondary hydrogenation capability, solvents were made by treating the spent solvent F56-01. Trial manufacture was begun on the alumina based catalyst as a deliming catalyst, and on the red mud, bauxite and alumina based catalysts as hydrogenation and decomposition catalysts. (NEDO)

  20. Development of Automatic Control of Bayer Plant Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffaud, J. P.

    Supervisory computer control has been achieved in Alcan's Bayer Plants at Arvida, Quebec, Canada. The purpose of the automatic control system is to stabilize and consequently increase, the alumina/caustic ratio within the digester train and in the blow-off liquor. Measurements of the electrical conductivity of the liquor are obtained from electrodeless conductivity meters. These signals, along with several others are scanned by the computer and converted to engineering units, using specific relationships which are updated periodically for calibration purposes. On regular time intervals, values of ratio are compared to target values and adjustments are made to the bauxite flow entering the digesters. Dead time compensation included in the control algorithm enables a faster rate for corrections. Modification of production rate is achieved through careful timing of various flow changes. Calibration of the conductivity meters is achieved by sampling at intervals the liquor flowing through them, and analysing it with a thermometric titrator. Calibration of the thermometric titrator is done at intervals with a standard solution. Calculations for both calibrations are performed by computer from data entered by the analyst. The computer was used for on-line data collection, modelling of the digester system, calculation of disturbances and simulation of control strategies before implementing the most successful strategy in the Plant. Control of ratio has been improved by the integrated system, resulting in increased Plant productivity.

  1. The effect of synthesis temperature on the formation of hydrotalcites in Bayer liquor: a vibrational spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sara J; Frost, Ray L

    2009-07-01

    The seawater neutralization process is currently used in the alumina industry to reduce the pH and dissolved metal concentrations in bauxite refinery residues through the precipitation of Mg, Al, and Ca hydroxide and carbonate minerals. This neutralization method is very similar to the co-precipitation method used to synthesize hydrotalcite (Mg6Al2(OH)16CO3.4H2O). This study looks at the effect of temperature on the type of precipitates that form from the seawater neutralization process of Bayer liquor. The Bayer precipitates have been characterized by a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The mineralogical composition of Bayer precipitates largely includes hydrotalcite, hydromagnesite, and calcium carbonate species. Analysis with XRD determined that Bayer hydrotalcites that are synthesized at 55 degrees C have a larger interlayer distance, indicating that more anions are removed from Bayer liquor. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques have identified an increase in hydrogen bond strength for precipitates formed at 55 degrees C, suggesting the formation of a more stable Bayer hydrotalcite. Raman spectroscopy identified the intercalation of sulfate and carbonate anions into Bayer hydrotalcites using these synthesis conditions.

  2. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Banerjee, D.D. (Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  3. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  4. Bioaccumulation of metals by Rhodophyta species at Antikyra Gulf (Greece) near an aluminium factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malea, P. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany; Haritonidis, S. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany; Stratis, I. [Inst. of Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1994-11-01

    The bioaccumulation of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Na, K, Ca and Mg by seven species of red algae (Rhodophyta) was studied after their seasonal collection from 9 stations in Antikyra Gulf (Greece). This area is characterized by its bauxite substrate and the discharge of wastes from an aluminium factory. Corallina elongata, Jania rubens and Liagora viscida showed elevated concentrations of Cu, Na and Mg and low Fe, Na and K concentrations, whereas Pterosiphonia complanata, Laurencia obtusa and Vidalia volubilis displayed entirely contrary behaviour. These interspecific differences are discussed in relation to morphology, ecology, plant structure and the binding sites available on the algae. Among the nine metals, only Cd concentrations in P. complanata showed significantly positive correlation with the respective concentrations in the sediment; no metal in L. obtusa and P. complanata showed a significant correlation with the concentrations of the dissolved metals in seawater. Significant positive or negative correlations with the concentrations of several metals in L. obtusa and P. complanata were also observed, which may be attributed to metal interactions in binding to plant tissues. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Na and Ca in Laurencia obtusa were higher in summer or autumn; Pb and Mg followed an opposite pattern of seasonal variation, whereas Cd levels were higher in spring and summer. The red algae of Antikyra Gulf generally exhibited higher Fe, Ca, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations than those of similar species from other geographical areas. (orig.)

  5. Bioaccumulation of aluminium in the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Aschers. and Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and macroalgae of the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malea, P. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany

    1993-12-31

    Mean concentrations of Aluminium ({+-}SE) in two seagrasses, four Chlorophytes, three Chromophytes and seven Rhodophyte species from the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece) decreased in the order: Chlorophyta > Chromophyta > Rhodophyta > P. oceanica > C. nodosa. This area is of particular interest because of the bauxite composition of the substrate and of the wate discharge from an aluminium factory in the Gulf. Aluminium concentrations in the two seagrasses were evenly distributed at the Gulf stations. Only the concentrations of Al in C. nodosa displayed significant seasonal variation. The mean concentrations increased from spring to summer, at which point they reached their maxima. This pattern is discussed in relation to the leaf-age of the seagrass. Regarding the amount of Al accumulated by the macroalgae of each division, there were interspecific differences which were attributed to differences in the structure, the ecology and the binding sites offered by the plants. The dependence of Al concentrations in the macrophytes on the concentrations in the sediment and the correlation of Al concentrations with the concentrations of some other metals in the plants were also investigated. (orig.)

  6. COLETA SELETIVA E RECICLAGEM COMO INSTRUMENTOS PARA CONSERVAÇÃO AMBIENTAL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM UBERLÂNDIA, MG / Separate collection and recycling as instruments to environmental conservation: a case study in Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Marçal Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest problems of urban centers is the final disposal of waste, the capitalist systemmakes this situation worse. The separate collection and material recycling are among theprincipal solutions to this problem. This study aims to determine the quantity of collectedmaterials from a separate collection company from the city of Uberlândia (MG and to evaluatethe environmental gains from this process. In the period 2001/2004, the activities carried outby the company were accompanied by the researcher, who also had access to the data registersregarding to the separation, classification and weight of recyclable materials. This data wereused to calculate the potential savings in terms of energy and natural resources. In total, therewere 4.727,74 t. of recyclable materials collected. The mean weight of aluminum deviated from the landfill was 8,22 t/year, this may provide a bauxite saving of 41,1 t. The mean weight ofpaper was 804,26 t/year, allowing a water saving of 19.571,63 thousand of liters. The meanweight of plastic was 369,51 t/year. We remind that plastics recycling provides saving of animportant non-renewable resource: oil. The results indicate that the separate collection andmaterials recycling may offer significant economics and environmental gains to the city ofUberlândia.

  7. Radionuclides and radiation doses in heavy mineral sands and other mining operations in Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Matine, O. F.; Taimo, S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Silva, L.; Malta, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sites at the littoral of Mozambique with heavy mineral sands exploited for ilmenite, rutile and zircon and inland mineral deposits exploited for tantalite, uranium and bauxite were surveyed for ambient radiation doses, and samples were collected for the determination of radionuclide concentrations. In heavy mineral sands, 238 U and 232 Th concentrations were 70±2 and 308±9 Bq kg -1 dry weight (dw), respectively, whereas after separation of minerals, the concentrations in the ilmenite fraction were 2240±64 and 6125±485 Bq kg -1 (dw), respectively. Tantalite displayed the highest concentrations with 44 738±2474 Bq kg -1 of 238 U. Radiation exposure of workers in mining facilities is likely to occur at levels above the dose limit for members of the public (1 mSv y -1 ) and therefore radiation doses should be assessed as occupational exposures. Local populations living in these regions in general are not exposed to segregated minerals with high radionuclide concentrations. However, there is intensive traditional mining and a large number of artisan miners and their families may be exposed to radiation doses exceeding the dose limit. A radiation protection programme is therefore needed to ensure radiation protection of the public and workers of developing mining projects. (authors)

  8. Determination of the apparent porosity level of refractory concrete during a sintering process using an ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJUBICA M. PAVLOVIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete which undergoes a thermal treatment before (pre-casted concrete blocks and during (concrete embedded in-situ its life-service can be applied in plants operating at high temperature and as thermal insulation. Sintering is a process which occurs within a concrete structure in such conditions. Progression of sintering process can be monitored by the change of the porosity parameters determined with a nondestructive test method - ultrasonic pulse velocity and computer program for image analysis. The experiment has been performed on the samples of corundum and bauxite concrete composites. The apparent porosity of the samples thermally treated at 110, 800, 1000, 1300 and 1500 C was primary investigated with a standard laboratory procedure. Sintering parameters were calculated from the creep testing. The loss of strength and material degradation occurred in concrete when it was subjected to the increased temperature and a compressive load. Mechanical properties indicate and monitor changes within microstructure. The level of surface deterioration after the thermal treatment was determined using Image Pro Plus program. Mechanical strength was estimated using ultrasonic pulse velocity testing. Nondestructive ultrasonic mea¬surement was used as a qualitative description of the porosity change in specimens which is the result of the sintering process. The ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and image analysis proved to be reliable methods for monitoring of micro-structural change during the thermal treatment and service life of refractory concrete.

  9. Historical trends in U.S. mineral statistics for selected non-ferrous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Z.; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2002-01-01

    Production figures for selected nonferrous metals-aluminum (including bauxite and alumina), copper, lead, tin, titanium, and zinc-by the United States, as well as other statistics for these commodities, show strong volatility during 20th century. Major shifts were driven by the Great Depression and the two World Wars, but other major temporal changes are also noted that are not directly related to such global crises. For example, the price of tin exhibited a strong maximum in the 1980's, which is unrelated to world production, but rather to failed efforts of the International Tin Council to control price. In the case of copper, U.S. exports have varied throughout the second half of the century, by more than a factor of 5. Such volatility might be explained in part by global economic conditions, at least throughout recent decades. Supporting the interpretation of the importance of foreign pressure on the domestic commodities market is a close correlation between domestic consumption of antimony and its elevated price in the mid 1980's,possibly pushed up mostly by the world dominance in production of this commodity by China. However, only very superficial explanations can be advanced for such relations before we have examined, in concert, information for a much larger suite of commodities.

  10. Environmental Impacts on the Strength Parameters of Mineral-Acrylic (PMMA/ATH Facade Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Byrdy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite mineral-acrylic panels consist in 80% of natural minerals produced from bauxite (aluminium hydroxides (ATH and in 20% from acrylic resin (polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA. This material due to high usability is widely used in interior finishes. Recently, the mineral-acrylic panels have been used as external claddings of buildings. So far, there are several dozen elevations realized worldwide. Due to the variability of the strength parameters of PMMA acrylic resins depending on the environmental influence, a number of tests on samples of mineral-acrylic panels to verify their suitability for use in climate conditions in Central Europe were performed. The studies determined the change of the material parameters after being subjected to aging process in conditions of high temperature, high relative humidity, freeze-thaw cycles, and UV radiation. In the studies parameters such as flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were measured at a reference temperature of 23°C. In raised and lowered temperatures only the tensile strength tests were conducted. Due to the lack of information in the available literature, the authors carried out tests of the temperature influence on the PMMA/ATH composite modulus of elasticity and flexural strength which is crucial in designing process.

  11. Institutional arrangements for the reduction of proliferation risks formulation, evaluation, and implementation of institutional concepts. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this supporting analysis is to provide a foundation for developing a model, an international or multinational institution capable of accomodating the back end of the fuel cycle, while meeting US nonproliferation goals. The analysis is based on a review of selected, defunct and extant institutions which, although not necessarily concerned with nonproliferation, have faced a trade-off between acceptability and effectiveness in meeting their objectives. Discussion of the various institutions is divided into three categories: international organizations, multinational consortia, and cartels or producer associations. Examples of international organizations include the International Seabed Authority, Intelsat, the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Seabed Authority is discussed. Multinational consortia are organizations that have been developed primarily to meet common commercial objectives. Membership includes at least three member nations. Examples include the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), URENCO, Unilever, Royal Dutch Shell, Eurochemic, Eurodif, Euratom, European Coal and Steel Community, and Serena. Cartels or producer associations are multinational agreements that restrict market forces; viz, production, market share, customers or prices. Examples include the Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Fifth International Tin Agreement (ITA), as well as agreements governing diamonds and uranium, bauxite and coffee. OPEC, CIPEC and ITA are discussed.

  12. Microfacies, Depositional environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of Upper Carboniferous- Lower Permian rocks from Ozbak-Kuh region (Zaladou Section, East Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zaladou section is located in Ozbak-Kuh mountains in the nourthen part of Tabas block and consist of shale, limy sandstone, limestone and dolomite. Continous relationship of Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian deposits, is quite evident in Zaladou section. The lower boundry of this section is located on the Absheni formation of Sardar Group with disconformity surface, and upper boundry’s is covered by disconformity surface and bauxite horizon of Bagh-e-Vang formation. According to the lithological Characters and microscopic studies, tidal flat, lagoon, bar, tidal inlet and open marine sub-environment are identified for Zaladou section. Results of this study show that Zaladou section was deposited in silisiclastic-carbonate mix homoclinal ramp in late Carboniferous and in carbonate homoclinal ramp in early Permian. Field study, microfacies and analysis through the sequence led to recognition of main sequence surface, such as: sequence boundry, maximum flooding surface, marine flooding surface, system tracts and two depositional sequences.

  13. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  14. Life-Cycle environmental impact assessment of mineral industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mining is the extraction and processing of valuable ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals to be further used in manufacturing industries. Valuable metals and minerals are extracted from the geological deposits and ores deep in the surface through complex manufacturing technologies. The extraction and processing of mining industries involve particle emission to air or water, toxicity to the environment, contamination of water resources, ozone layer depletion and most importantly decay of human health. Despite all these negative impacts towards sustainability, mining industries are working throughout the world to facilitate the employment sector, economy and technological growth. The five most important miners in the world are South Africa, Russia, Australia, Ukraine, Guinea. The mining industries contributes to their GDP significantly. However, the most important issue is making the mining world sustainable thus reducing the emissions. To address the environmental impacts caused by the mining sectors, this paper is going to analyse the environmental impacts caused by the 5 major minerals extraction processes, which are bauxite, ilmenite, iron ore, rutile and uranium by using the life-cycle impact assessment technologies. The analysis is done here using SimaPro software version 8.4 using ReCipe, CML and Australian indicator method.

  15. Mineralized lateritic profile in Sn, Zr, Th, Nb, Y and ETR (Serra do Madeira - Pitinga - AM): mineralogical characteristics and geochemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Costa, Marcondes L. da

    1997-01-01

    The Pitinga region is located in the north 250 km far from Manaus, in the Amazonas State, Brazil. The Serra do Madeira is the local name of one hill located in the Madeira granite with important primary and supergenic mineralizations of Sn (cassiterite), Zr (zircon), Th (thorite), Nb (columbite and pyroclore), Y and REE (xenotime). The Serra do Madeira was constituted by a lateritic profile with 20 m of thickness where were identified seven horizons: parent rock, saprolite, clayey, bauxitic, concretionary, coluvion and latosol. The lateritization promoted the chemistry instability of the parent-rock forming a clayey material where Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , Sn, Th and Nb were enriched as kaolinite, gibbsite, hematite, goethite, cassiterite, zircon, thorite and columbite; SiO 2 , FeO, CaO, Na 2 O, K 2 O, F, Pb, Rb, and U were leached as quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, riebeckite/arfvedsonite, biotite, and iron sulfides; Y, P and ETR were enriched and leached correlated to xenotime, bastnaesite, fluorcerite and probably churchite and ytriofluorite

  16. Technological Proposals for Recycling Industrial Wastes for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Romero-Hermida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-fold objective is proposed for this research: removing hazardous and unpleasant wastes and mitigating the emissions of green house gasses in the atmosphere. Thus, the first aim of this work is to identify, characterize and recycle industrial wastes with high contents of calcium or sodium. This involves synthesizing materials with the ability for CO2 sequestration as preliminary work for designing industrial processes, which involve a reduction of CO2 emissions. In this regard, phosphogypsum from the fertilizer industry and liquid wastes from the green olive and bauxite industries have been considered as precursors. Following a very simple procedure, Ca-bearing phosphogypsum wastes are mixed with Na-bearing liquid wastes in order to obtain a harmless liquid phase and an active solid phase, which may act as a carbon sequestration agent. In this way, wastes, which are unable to fix CO2 by themselves, can be successfully turned into effective CO2 sinks. The CO2 sequestration efficiency and the CO2 fixation power of the procedure based on these wastes are assessed.

  17. Economic impact of world mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walser, G.

    2002-01-01

    Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

  18. Bedrock neutralization study for the Bruin Lagoon Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patelunas, G.M.; Lenhardt, D.R.; Niece, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Bruin Lagoon site is located in Bruin Butler County, Pennsylvania, and is listed as No. 3 on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencies' National Priority List. The Lagoon contains waste petroleum tars, sulfuric acid, coal combustion ash, spent bauxite and other waste materials. This paper reports on the bedrock neutralization study, conducted to assess the feasibility of injecting caustic solutions into acid-contaminated bedrock beneath the lagoon. The site is underlain by a fine to medium grain quartz sandstone which is contaminated with acid to depths in excess of 30 feet. For this investigation, Nx-cores were obtained and pressure tests conducted to a depth of 30 feet below the top of rock. Leach tests were conducted on contaminated core sections using sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate solutions. A total of 12 core sections were exposed in 3-inch diameter test cylinders and permeated under a positive pressure of 25 to 50 psi. Measurements of leachate volume, temperature, pH, and hydraulic conductivity were recorded

  19. Challenges of safety in Indian mines during twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, S.C. [Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    Mining industry in India has been progressing steadily during the last five decades. Production of coal, limestone, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead and zinc ores has gone up several times during this period. Ambitious production targets have been set for the years to come. With depletion of easily mineable deposits, mining activities would have to be extended to difficult geo-mining locales like greater depth and geologically disturbed areas. Extension of workings to deeper horizons would give rise to problems and mechanisation would introduce hazards like accidental fires, electrocution, environmental pollution by internal combustion engines, generation of dust, noise and vibration. The mining industry will have to prepare itself right from now to meet the challenges of safety and health problems. Thus strategies will have to be evolved to solve problems of strata control including slope stability, ventilation, hazards of explosions etc. Timber supports would have to be phased out and be replaced by steel supports. Disasters and their prevention would need a fresh look. Communication, human resource development and management information system are the other areas needing attention. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 app.

  20. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Ociński, Daniel; Kociołek-Balawejder, Elżbieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common--a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.