Nisser Ali Umar
Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the economic cost shouldered by government, as providers, in the provision of free tuberculosis (TB diagnosis and treatment services in Bauchi State, northern Nigeria. A cost analysis study was designed and questionnaires administered by the principal investigators to officers in charge of 27 randomly sampled government TB services providers across the State of Bauchi. Seventeen of these centers were primary care centers, 9 secondary care providers and one was a tertiary care provider. Data was also collected from personnel and projects records in the State Ministry of Health, of Works as well as the Ministry of Budget and Planning. The cost of buildings, staff and equipment replacement, laboratory, radiology and drugs in facilities were assessed and costs attributable tuberculosis inpatient, outpatient and directly observed therapy (DOT services were estimated from the total cost based on the proportion of TB cases in the total patient pool accessing those services. The average proportion of TB patients in facilities was 3.4% in overall, 3.3% among inpatients and 3.1% in the outpatient population. The average cost spent to treat a patient with TB was estimated at US $227.14. The cost of inpatient care averaged $16.95/patient; DOT and outpatient services was $133.34/patient, while the overhead cost per patient was $30.89. The overall cost and all computed cost elements, except for DOT services, were highest in the tertiary center and least expensive in the infectious diseases hospital partly due to the higher administrative and other overhead recurrent spending in the tertiary health facility while the lower overhead cost observed in the infectious diseases hospital could be due to the economy of scale as a result of the relative higher number of TB cases seen in the facility operating with relatively same level of resources as other facilities in the state.
Full Text Available Public Private Partnership (PPP Housing scheme in Nigeria is intended to complement government effort toward increasing housing stock and providing affordable housing in the country. However, Bauchi state government adopted the construction of 5,000 phases PPP Housing. But 6 years after the commencement of the scheme, only a few numbers of housing units were completed and commissioned. Therefore, it becomes imperative to carry out research on the impact level of those factors affecting the implementation of the scheme. The aim of the study is to investigate impact level of factors affecting the implementation of PPP housing projects in Bauchi state with a view to find out possible ways that will improve the implementation of the scheme. The descriptive and explorative research design was adopted for this study. 54 structured Questionnaires were administered to construction professional’s staff under private housing developers and relevant government agencies in Bauchi state. 42 valid Questionnaires were retrieved and analysed with SPSS software. The result of the quantitative data analysis shows that creation of favourable investment environment and government support have very high Impact on the implementation of Bauchi PPP housing projects. Therefore, this study recommends that government and other stakeholders should give more attention to the creation of favourable investment environment, support in policy formulation and managerial strategies in the future for improving the implementation of PPP housing projects.
Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Sadauki, Habib; Bassi, Amos; Kabo, Ibrahim A; Abdulkarim, Masduq
Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria's Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. At baseline (2012) and then at follow-up (2013), we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated. For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up. Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic considerations
Full Text Available Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria's Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR and infant mortality rate (IMR are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5.At baseline (2012 and then at follow-up (2013, we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated.For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up.Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic
Objective: To analyse and document our experiences with maternal mortality with the view of finding the trends over the last seven years, common causes and attributing socio-demographic factors. Design: A prospective analysis of maternal mortality. Setting: State Specialists Hospital Bauchi, Bauchi Northeastern Nigeria.
Ajayi, S A; Ogedengbe, J D; Dogo, G I [National Veterinary Research Inst., Vom, Plateau State (Nigeria). Parasitology Div.; Frame, I A [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Med. Parasitol
Between July 1994 and January 1995 a total of 1153 samples were collected from cattle in Plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosome infections using parasitological (Buffy Coat Technique [BCT] and blood film smears) and serological techniques (Ag-ELISA). A simple random sampling technique was employed. Tsetse flies and other insects were trapped during the same period using NITSE and biconical traps. Twenty two tsetse flies (6 Glossina p. palpalis, 3 G. longipalpis and 13 G. tachinoides) were caught, identified and dissected to check for trypanosomal infections. The results obtained using parasitological techniques showed an average prevalence rate in the two states surveyed of 3.4%. The antigen-capture ELISA technique (Ag-ELISA) was used to analyze 280 serum samples which were negative for trypanosomes when checked by BCT. Of these samples none were positive for T. congolense and 4 (1.4%) were detected positive for T. brucei. A subset of 120 samples was analyzed for the presence of T. vivax and 3 (2.5%) were found to be positive. The relative specificity of the Ag-ELISA for T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax was 98.5% 100% and 97.5%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Ajayi, S.A.; Ogedengbe, J.D.; Dogo, G.I.; Frame, I.A.
Between July 1994 and January 1995 a total of 1153 samples were collected from cattle in Plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosome infections using parasitological (Buffy Coat Technique [BCT] and blood film smears) and serological techniques (Ag-ELISA). A simple random sampling technique was employed. Tsetse flies and other insects were trapped during the same period using NITSE and biconical traps. Twenty two tsetse flies (6 Glossina p. palpalis, 3 G. longipalpis and 13 G. tachinoides) were caught, identified and dissected to check for trypanosomal infections. The results obtained using parasitological techniques showed an average prevalence rate in the two states surveyed of 3.4%. The antigen-capture ELISA technique (Ag-ELISA) was used to analyze 280 serum samples which were negative for trypanosomes when checked by BCT. Of these samples none were positive for T. congolense and 4 (1.4%) were detected positive for T. brucei. A subset of 120 samples was analyzed for the presence of T. vivax and 3 (2.5%) were found to be positive. The relative specificity of the Ag-ELISA for T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax was 98.5% 100% and 97.5%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs
Kabo, Ibrahim; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Williams, Emma; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdullahi, Hannatu; Sadauki, Habib; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Abegunde, Dele
This study assessed the correlation between compliance with set performance standards and maternal and neonatal deaths in health facilities. Baseline and three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, and each was followed by a quality improvement initiative using the Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach. Twenty-three secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Health care workers and maternity unit patients. We examined trends in: (i) achievement of SBM-R set performance standards based on annual assessment data, (ii) the use of maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices based on data from health facility registers and supportive supervision and (iii) MNH outcomes based on routine service statistics. At the baseline assessment in 2010, the facilities achieved 4% of SBM-R standards for MNH, on average, and this increased to 86% in 2013. Over the same time period, the study measured an increase in the administration of uterotonic for active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and a decline in the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 3.3% to 1.9%. Institutional neonatal mortality rate decreased from 9 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, while the institutional maternal mortality ratio dropped from 4113 to 1317 deaths per 100 000 live births. Scaling up SBM-R for quality improvement has the potential to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and similar settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.
Hamel, Candyce; Enne, Joseph; Omer, Khalid; Ayara, Ndem; Yarima, Yahaya; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil
Malnutrition remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality; the levels of childhood malnutrition in Nigeria are among the highest in the world. The literature supports many direct and indirect causes of malnutrition, but few studies have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study examines this potential link in Bauchi and Cross River states in Nigeria. In 2011, a household survey collected information about children under four years old and their mothers' last pregnancy. Trained fieldworkers measured mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children aged 6-47 months. We examined associations with childhood malnutrition in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Some 4.4% of 3643 children in Cross River, and 14.7% of 2706 in Bauchi were malnourished (MUAC z-score). In both states, a child whose mother had fewer than four government antenatal care visits was more likely to be malnourished (Cross River: OR 1.85, 95%CIca 1.33-2.55; Bauchi: OR 1.29, 95%CIca 1.02-1.63). In Bauchi, a child whose mother who rarely or never discussed pregnancy and childbirth with her husband (OR 1.34, 95%CIca 1.07-1.68), and who did not have her last delivery attended by a skilled health worker was more likely to be malnourished (OR 1.50, 95%CIca 1.09-2.07). These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that poor care of women in pregnancy and childbirth could pose a longer term risk to the health of the child, as well as increasing immediate risks for both mother and child. Significance for public healthChildhood malnutrition is a public health priority, accounting for almost 1/5 of global disease burden among children under five years old. Many studies have examined risk factors for childhood malnutrition, but few have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study, albeit a cross-sectional design, provides evidence of a link between poor
The study aimed at identifying the evidences of climate change in Bauchi. The emphasis was to find out if there are changes on the temperature and rainfall over time; to what extent these changes occur and likely impact these changes will have in Bauchi. The study was done in Bauchi town, Bauchi state of northeastern ...
Trends in newborn umbilical cord care practices in Sokoto and Bauchi States of Nigeria: the where, who, how, what and the ubiquitous role of traditional birth attendants: a lot quality assurance sampling survey.
Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Beal, Katherine; Bassi, Amos; Bamidele, Moyosola; Akomolafe, Toyin; Ohanyido, Francis; Umar-Farouk, Olayinka; Danladi, Saba'atu
Neonatal infections caused by unsafe umbilical cord practices account for the majority of neonatal deaths in Nigeria. We examined the trends in umbilical cord care practices between 2012 and 2015 that coincided with the introduction of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel in Bauchi and Sokoto States. We obtained data from three rounds of lot quality assurance samples (LQAS) surveys conducted in 2012, 2013 and 2015. Households were randomly sampled in each round that totaled 1140 and 1311 households in Bauchi and Sokoto States respectively. Mothers responded to questions on cord care practices in the last delivery. Coverage estimates of practice indicators were obtained for each survey period. Local Government Area (LGA) estimates for each indicator were obtained with α ≤ 5%, and β ≤20% statistical errors and aggregated to State-level estimates with finite sample correction relative to the LGA population. Over 75 and 80% of deliveries in Bauchi and Sokoto States respectively took place at home. The proportion of deliveries in public facilities reported by mothers ranged from 19% in 2012 to 22.4% in 2015 in Bauchi State and from 12.9 to 13.2% in 2015 in Sokoto State. Approximately 50% of deliveries in Bauchi and more than 80% in Sokoto States were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or relatives and friends, with little change in the survey periods. In Bauchi and in Sokoto States, over 75% and over 80% of newborn cords were cut with razor blades underscoring the pervasive role of the TBAs in the immediate postpartum period. Use of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel for cord dressing significantly increased to the highest level in 2015 in both States. Health workers who attended deliveries in health facilities switched from methylated spirit to chlorhexidine. There were no observable changes in cord care practices among the TBAs. Unsafe umbilical cord care practices remained prevalent in Bauchi and Sokoto States of Nigeria, although a recent
Full Text Available Objective To determine the time spent and income lost by patients and their households for seeking tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in Bauchi State-Nigeria. Method A cross sectional study where 242 TB patients were sampled from 27 out of 67 facilities providing TB services in a north-eastern state of Nigeria. Sampling was stratified based on facility type, patients’ HIV status and gender. Results The income lost among the hospitalized group was estimated at $156/patient and about $114 in the non-hospitalized patients group. Age, gender, facility of diagnosis, level of education and occupation were significant (p-values Conclusion Tuberculosis poses causes tremendous burden in terms of time and productivity lost to both patients and their households in Bauchi State Nigeria.
Full Text Available Technical and Vocational Education emphases skill acquisition, Quality Assurance in vocational education is concept that is concerned with high performance involved activities with vocational education such as teaching, learning, infrastructures, student’s behavior and entire academic process. Good quality education is very necessary in the total development of staff and students which ensures proper development, job prospects and the realization of academic goals and objects. Enhanced and sustained to ensure accountability and improve performance. Higher educational institutions in Nigeria continue to experience carelessly attitude about the use of Quality Assurance to understand the risk they are exposed to poor standard. To address these issues, the study embarked upon to determine the level of performance and difference usability of Quality Assurance in Polytechnics and Technical Colleges in Bauchi state. Quantitative method technique was employed using survey questionnaires, 60 staff both senior and junior within these institutions were selected and a questionnaire distributed for their responses. The data were analysed using SPSS software. The result reveals that Federal Polytechnic Bauchi and State Polytechnic Bauchi has high level of Performance about Quality Assurance indicators while College of Education Azare has medium level of Performance. College of education Azare has highest mean rank of 29.87 and percentage of 31.8% obtained from the output result indicated that it has high usability to Quality Assurance, followed by Federal Polytechnic Bauchi with medium usability then State Polytechnic Bauchi has low usability to Quality Assurance. The study concluded by Quality Assurance Unit be made aware to each institution staff to enable recognize the benefits of it. Federal government should give more funding and employ staff to cater the need of Quality Assurance Unit in every institution so that it will help the students to develop
The study was undertaken to examine the economics of poultry production in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State. Cost, returns and constraints associated with poultry production under intensive system of management were examined. Four farms were randomly selected for the study. The major tools used for ...
Attitude of Rural Youths towards Family Farming in Dass, Bauchi State, Nigeria and the ... Majority were males (88 %), single (51 %), literate (99 %) and had rural ... most of them (78 %) said was learned through parents (non-formal sources).
The birth weight of 2.4kg for Yankasa lambs in Bauchi however was not significantly different from the birth weight of Yankasa lambs in Kaltungo. The effects of breed of lamb (P< 0.05), year (P < 0.01) season (P< 0.01) and type of birth (P < 0.01) on birth weight in Kaltungo were significant, while the effect of sex of lamb was ...
A Study was conducted to examine the characteristics, management and use of draught animals in Bauchi State, Northeastern, Nigeria. A total of 100 farmers made up of 10 from each of the 10 Local Government Areas of the state were personally interviewed using structured pre-tested questionnaires. Data were generated ...
Nisser A. Umar
Full Text Available Aiming to assess the impact of the intervention in reducing the patients’ waiting time in the clinic, two surveys were conducted before and after task shifting intervention in an anti-retroviral (ARV clinic at the Specialist Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria in November 2008 and April 2009, respectively. Before the task shifting, six nurses from the clinic were trained on integrated management of adolescent and adult illness, as well as on the principle and guidelines for the anti-retroviral therapy, after which their schedule in the clinic was broadened to include seeing HIV patients presenting for routine refill and follow-up visits. In this study, fifty-six and sixty patients, respectively out of 186 and 202 who attended the clinic on the days of the pre- and post-intervention surveys, were randomly sampled. Data on patients’ sex, age and marital status, whether patient a first timer or follow up visitor and the time spent in the clinic on that day as well as the number and composition of staff and equipment in the clinic was collected. The difference in waiting time spent between the first group before task shifting and second group after task shifting was statistically analyzed and significance tested using unpaired t- test. There was a reduction in the average waiting time for patients attending the clinic from 6.48 h before task shifting to 4.35 h after task shifting. The difference of mean was -2.13 h, with 95% CI: -2.44:-1.82 hours and the test of significance by unpaired t-test P
Zubairu Abubakar Ghani
Full Text Available In the last three decades globally higher institutions (HIs have been experiencing an unprecedented upsurge in student population and student enrolment in His generally outstrip the HIs student housing. In many countries of the world like Nigeria, HIs are obviously incapacitated in accommodating the growing student population which compelled numerous students to overflow into their HIs’ neighbourhood seeking for alternative housing accommodation in the private housing rental market. Indeed the scenario of HIs student's housing shortfalls and increasing students housing demand evolved the interest of many people in a student housing rental market. This is because it has been uncovered that business in student housing rental is lucrative and guaranteeing business that ensured profit for a long term. This paper, therefore, explores the nature and landscape of student housing rental in Nigeria where the business is immature then drawn the conclusion.
Gyoh, L.; Gyoh, S.
Despite the progress made by the democratic government of Nigeria to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. It would not be financially viable to extend the national electricity grid to each electoral ward, in remote locations in the country. The use of photovoltaic technology now brings electricity to many rural areas as part of the provision of basic needs by the Nigerian authorities. The Nasarawa State Government has embarked on the provision of all it electoral wards with solar powered water supply systems to carter for a mostly rural population of 3.4 million people. The Benue, Taraba, Bauchi and Jigawa State governments have embarked on similar schemes in Rural Water Supply, Health and the Educational sectors of the economy. Ambitious PV programmes, of this nature, inevitably face challenges in developing countries. The preliminary recommendations, of this ongoing study, have been made to address some of the potential challenges in some of the key areas. This paper reviews the implementation progress and suggests some of the lessons that might be learnt. (authors)
Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...
Context: Infertility is a common condition and is now viewed as a global reproductive health issue. The causes of infertility vary widely, both among and within countries. Objectives: To describe the magnitude, pattern, aetiology, outcome of infertility and its associated factors in Bauchi, northern Nigeria. Methods: This was a ...
The Northern part of Nigeria especially the frontline states comprising of Bauchi/ Gombe, Borno, Yobe, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto/Zamfara and Kebbi which lie roughly North of latitude 120N face serious threats of desertification occasioned by over exposure of the fragile environment mostly through improper farming ...
3Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria ... Government Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, the highest prevalence rate of 64.0% was observed in ... A GIS is a combination of hardware (computers ..... clear vision of the area that requires active and rapid ... Principles of Medicine in Africa 3rd. edition.
waterfall still possesses some potential for conservation purposes. Logging ... The supervising ministry on tourism and forestry in Ekiti State, Nigeria in charge of this site should take ..... participate in the conservation education program so as to ...
*Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. ** Department of ..... reduce oxidative stress thus alleviating the effect of oxidative agents ... cumin oil on spatial cognitive functions of rats that ...
Muhammad Umar Bello
Full Text Available Real estate investment is an emerging business in many countries of the world. Real estate investment was thoroughly investigated to come up with solution faced by the transaction of land and building. Real estate investment is strictly related to the housing price. It has been pointed out by many researchers that the housing price is affected by many factors, such as interest rate, land supply, government policies and inflation rate. The research highlighted most important aspects of the outcomes. An increase in international real estate capital flows could foster increasing demand for stronger institutions across a global real estate market. The method adopted in this research was quantitative through which 100 questionnaires were developed and distributed within the study area (Bauchi, Gombe, Adamawa and Yobe States. The simple percentage was used to analyzed the data collected. The research is exploratory in nature; hence, a non-probability purposive sampling technique was used for the study. The finding of the research vindicated that real estate investment has a significant role in sharpening the economy of the region, and also the findings revealed that real estate investment opportunity is huge. And again for suggested that housing provision cannot be realized only by private individual excerpts through government intervention. The study concludes that real estate investment, if explore it will create a reliable return to the investment owners, the benefits that can be derived from real estate investment, has been revealed by this study. The study also highlighted that private developers are key important for real estate investment in Nigeria. The conclusion drawn by this research shows that real estate investment has a capacity of transforming economic hardship in the country.
Social Sciences, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, P.M.B. 5363 Ekiti. State, Nigeria ... Nigeria, towards epilepsy and mental illness in terms of work opportunities .... have a negative impact in the management of epilepsy (Nbuko et al, 2003).
Analysis of dried fish marketing in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... This study was carried out to examine marketing of dried fish in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study used a combination of information ... Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Karniliyus, J.; Egieya, J.
Nigeria uranium exploration started in 1973. Uranium was found in seven states of the country; Cross River, Adamawa, Taraba, Plateau, Bauchi, Kogi and Kano. Three government agencies were involved. At the end of the various exploration campaigns in 2001, the uranium reserve was estimated at about 200 t U. The Grade ranges from 0.63% - 0-9% at a vertical depth between 130 – 200 m. Currently, the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission activated in 2006 is charged with the responsibility among others to prospect for and mine radioactive minerals. The main aim of this poster presentation is to review the development of uranium in Nigeria with a view to encourage local and international investors to develop and exploit these deposits. Nigeria is located on latitude 100 N and longitude 80 E surrounded in the north by Niger and Chad, in the east by Cameroun and in the west by the Benin Republic. Available data indicated the viability of mineral investment in the Nigerian uranium resources. With the current economic reforms and investment incentives in Nigeria, interested investors are highly welcome to take advantage of developing these mineral resources. (author)
The natural foods of Ctenopoma pethereci from River Oluwa in Ondo State, South-west Nigeria, were ... constituted 0.83% of the body weight while food in the intestine formed 1.54%, thus, giving ... South East Asian countries, where the group.
In Nigeria however, young infants may not benefit from such a practice as a ... The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. ... Only 20 per cent practiced exclusive breastfeeding.
1. Hospital, Bauchi state Nigeria Bauchi . 2. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bauchi state Nigeria . .... gold standard . .... use of posterior pituitary extracts ... Misoprostol for cervical ripening at near.
Nigeria. 2Ofijidalillah Environmental Services, Ado Karu, Nasarawa State Nigeria ... were analysed using statistical method such as random sampling techniques and simple descriptive ... weekend, a long queue of cars is usually formed, all.
wake of Abacha’s death, army general Abdulsalami Abu - bakar assumed the role of head of state. He immediately freed one past leader, General Obasanjo...Iraqi Freedom, he served as vi the deputy chief of interdiction in the Combined Air Operations Center, Prince Sultan Air Base, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...November 2007. Bah, Abu Bakarr. “Approaches to Nation Building in Post-Colonial Nigeria.” Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Summer 2004, 45–56
Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.
The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…
This paper compares and contrast counsellor-training programs in two institutions from different cultures. The University of Ilorin, Nigeria and The Pennsylvania State University. While the United States is. an industrialized western nation, Nigeria is a developing African nation. A comparative inquiry of this nature is likely to ...
Studies on floridiversity of Kebbi state, north western Nigeria, tropical West Africa. D Singh, BK Misra, A Abubakar. Abstract. This paper enumerated the outcome of floristic studies made into varied localities of the Kebbi State, Northwestern Nigeria, between October 2008 and March 2010. The collections were found to ...
Geoelectric study of the groundwater potential of Ilara-Mokin in Ondo State Southwestern Nigeria was carried out using electrical resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding) method with the view to providing adequate information on the different sub-surface geoelectric layers, structural configuration of the concealed basement ...
Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria. ... on marketing income in Anambra State, this study utilized descriptive statistic, Sherpherd-futrel model of determining marketing efficiency ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...
Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and poverty reduction. This study examined the growth in food crop productivity in Imo State in Nigeria with emphasis on the decomposition of total factor productivity (TFP) into technical progress, changes in technical ...
About 70% of the total population in Nigeria lives in the rural areas, while half of this population is without proper-formal education (World Bank 2005). Data for this study which is on the Determinants of rural Development in Edo State, Nigeria were collected through the primary and secondary sources. Primary data were ...
... for Nigeria and a multi-host parasite. We suspect Hyperolius concolor to be a paratenic rather than a definitive host for the immature Camallanus sp. recovered from the frog. Other parasites using anurans as paratenic hosts were also encountered. Keywords: Anurans, parasites, ecological biotopes, Rivers State, Nigeria ...
PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU
Sep 1, 2013 ... The aim of this study was fitting the modified generalized burr density function to total rainfall and temperature data obtained from the meteorological unit in the Department of. Environmental Modelling and Management of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. (FRIN) in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Full Text Available Kalada G McFubara,1 Elizabeth R Edoni,2 Rose E Ezonbodor-Akwagbe21Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Community Health Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, NigeriaBackground: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower.Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted.Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital.Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state's common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources.Keywords: health manpower, development, health care education
Gender differentiation in Daily Farm Wage Rates in Abuja, Nigeria. Ajah Julius. Department of Agricultural Economics/Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, Nigeria ... both men and women, that is, both genders provide labour in form of hired or ..... recognized as an approach to restore gender equity. Results ...
Emergency distress call system for automobiles in Lagos state, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... and communications technology capabilities to transportation and the medical care system in order to save lives, ...
Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria using geoinformatics, with focus on impact of climate ... Also the impacts of climate change on transportation were highlighted. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Economics of yam marketing in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria. ... N C Ehirim, C S Onyemauwa, E Ikheloa, I E Umezurumba ... with cost of changing form, place and adding time utilities accounting for about 76.8% variations in marketing margin.
Homestead fish farming in the Nigeria is carried out by small scale operators in small fresh water ponds. ... fish farmers in Osun state is also characterized by a high level of use of improved fish farming techniques and improved technologies.
Gender issues in human trafficking in Edo State, Nigeria. ... in order to capture family dynamics and power relations and women status in ... The paper concluded that efforts targeted towards eradicating existing gender inequality in the region ...
Social change and traditional gender roles in Lagos State, Nigeria. ... twenty seven respondents consisted of 135 Females (59.5%) and 92 Males (40.5%) participated in the survey. The study adopted descriptive method of research design.
The phytoplankton diversity indices of Osse River, Edo State, Nigeria, were investigated monthly from January ... In terms of abundance, Bacillariophyceae had the highest distribution of phytoplankton (79.00%), ...... erosion beach in Lagos.
The Economic Potentials of Pineapple Marketing in Edo State, Nigeria. ... Agricultural marketing involves numerous lines of activities, which if well developed can sustain livelihood. It is in line with this ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Efficiency of bitter kola marketing in Abia State, Nigeria. ... The goal of marketing of agricultural products is to ensure that consumers get satisfaction from the entire process of production, as well as ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
... affecting oil palm production in predominantly oil palm producing areas of Ondo state of Nigeria. ... This was because the mangrove swamp zone does not .... Research stations e.g. NIFOR. Radio .... palm production management practices.
Economic Value Of Garcinia kola Marketing In Enugu State, Nigeria. ... returns and identifying and determining the Socio-economic variables that affect the marketers net returns. Three markets, one ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Economics of palm oil marketing in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. ... Data on trades socio economic factors, marketing cost and marketing margin were collected from 80 traders randomly selected from the ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Ekwealor, Chito Clare; Oyeka, Christie Amechi
Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples col...
E. (Eshiobo) Irekpita
May 3, 2017 ... b Dept. of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria c Dept. of Medicine .... the hospital as the treatment facility, while, the others either did .... pros and cons of reporting and creating an appropriate environment.
copper and lead were always highest in the suspended materials which indicate the dominant role played by ... essential. However, at high concentrations, these trace metals become toxic (Nurnberg, 1982). Heavy metals in .... mobilization of cobalt minerals into the dam. .... Interaction between sediments and fresh water ...
Johnson O. Olaniyi
Full Text Available Many state governments have not been allowing their State Independent Electoral Commissions (SIECs to conduct elections as at when due but rather settle for ‘caretaker committees’. Where elections have been conducted, the party in control of a state apparatus has been known to have cleared the polls. The general objective of this study is to assess the impact of electoral contest at the local government level on the political development of Nigeria. Specific objectives include (1 assessing the role of the political executives of a state in the determination of representation at the local government level in Nigeria; and (2 assessing the activities of SIECs in the management of local government polls. This study adopts comparative cum case study approach to analysing local government polls in Nigeria. This is discussed on a geopolitical basis. Some of the findings of the study include: (1 local government election in Nigeria is not given premium position by many state governments in the political landscape of their state because of the fear of playing into the hands of their political rivals; and (2 SIECs are only independent in name and not in practice. The study recommends, among others, that (1 the country should adopt the arrangement in the aborted Third Republic where the country’s EMB was empowered to conduct all elections at all levels of government and (2 local government elections in Nigeria should key into the electoral process of the country in all ramifications.
In this study, we investigated three common lottery strategies: random, low and high frequency strategies, usually employed by lottery players. The Oyo State Lottery, a type of lottery in Oyo State, Nigeria was used as a case study. For the three strategies, we considered whether the selection of numbers in Oyo State lottery ...
This is a report oi' an involtigatlon into an outbreak of meningitis in three communities oi' Baruten Local. Government Area (Min) of Kwara Btate, Nigeria. is total of 41 cases of eerebroapinal meningitis (6838) were reported. There wee a preponderance of males (78%). Thirty-'eight (92.7%) did not receive CS!' vaccine while ...
Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K
Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Antibodies against FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3 were detected across the states using solid-phase competitive ELISA. FMDV genome was detected in 99% (73 of 74) of the samples from FMD-affected animals using rRT-PCR, and cytopathic effect was found in cell culture by 59% (44 of 74) of these samples. Three FMDV serotypes O, A and SAT2 were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that two topotypes of FMDV serotype O, East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains. While the serotype O (EA-3) strains from Nigeria were most closely related to a 1999 virus strain from Sudan, the WA strain in Nigeria shares genetic relationship with three 1988 viruses in Niger. The FMDV serotype A strains were closely related to a known virus from Cameroon, and the SAT2 strains were most closely related to virus subtypes in Libya. This study provides evidence of co-occurrence of FMDV serotypes and topotypes in West, Central, East and North Africa, and this has implication for control. The findings help filling the knowledge gap of FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and West Africa subregion to support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
The Clinico-epidemological characteristics of two confirmed cases of poliomyelitis detected by Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Osun State of Nigeria after almost 6 years of the last confirmed case in the State was reported to provide information for formulating possible aetiological hypothesis and to adequately ...
Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.
In this paper we employed the use of locational quotient, which is a measure of spatial pattern of services, to examine the distribution pattern of healthcare facilities in the thirty local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve indices, representing the totality of healthcare delivery by State and local governments in the ...
Objective: To determine the prevalence of onchocerciasis in endemic areas in Edo State,Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 658 respondents residing in onchocerciasis endemic areas of Edo State using a pre-tested interviewers' administered questionnaire and examination of ...
The analysis, which examines the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (ICD 9: 390-459) in Lagos State of Nigeria, was based on records obtained from the register of deaths in four Local Government Areas of the State. The result shows that there is general increase in death rates due to cardiovascular diseases over the ...
Ibrahim, Yaro; Arshad, Rozita; Salleh, Dani
Purpose: This study aims to obtain stakeholder perceptions of secondary education quality in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research approach was used by conducting interviews. Data were purposively collected from a sample of 15 education stakeholders in Sokoto State, and analyzed to extract major themes using…
The National (level 1), State (L2), and Local government vaccine cold stores (L3) as well as some vaccination centres (L4) were physically inspected in Lagos State, Nigeria and the potency of the live-attenuated measles vaccine was tested. Both the L1 and L2 storage facilities were formally adequately equipped and ...
The study examined the trends in the prevalence of breast cancer in Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 1000 subjects was taken from a population consisting of women between the ages of 15 and 60 years spread across the 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State. Fifty questionnaires were distributed in each LGA.
Rural dweller in the State should also be discouraged from increasing their consumption arbitrarily so that they can channel these excess consumption funds into savings that will yield returns. To realize this, the State government should partner with the Central Bank Nigeria to persuade commercial banks in the country to ...
existing spatial pattern of distribution of healthcare facilities play very prominent role in gauging the level of efficiency or ... distribution pattern of healthcare facilities in the thirty local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve indices ... (Federal, State and Local) always budget huge .... This, we believe, will help policy.
The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...
This study was carried out to estimate the effects of this new WHO policy on the prevalence of malaria parasite infection in children from selected communities in Anambra State, Nigeria. This study was conducted in thirteen communities purposively selected from thirteen local government areas in Anambra State using ...
The inaccessibility of the arthropod vector to humans could be advanced for the low prevalence of the disease in the state. The socio-cultural and economic factors, which predisposed to infection, were discussed as part of control measures. Keywords: Loaisis, Prevalence, Loa Loa, Edo State Nigeria Journal of Medicine ...
This paper surveyed the herp species traded in secret bush meat markets of Cross River State, with the view of assessing their conservation status and uses they are put to. The study mainly focused on six selected communities in Akamkpa Local Government Area (LGA) of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria – the host LGA of ...
This study was conducted in Imo State in the southeastern agricultural zone of Nigeria, to determine socio-economic characteristics of farmers; cost and return of farmers and factors that determine the marketable surplus of farmers. Among the farm enterprises in the state, yam has high- income elasticity of demand by ...
This paper tries to discover factors that are responsible for the poor development of recreational tourism in Lagos State of Nigeria, so as to be able to suggest improvement measures. The results show that the overall satisfaction of the business tourists is generally similar to that of the recreational group, and that Lagos State ...
This study determined the prevalence of malaria in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was cross-sectional, and lasted one year. Children of school ages participated in the study. Detection of malaria parasites was through thick blood film with Giemsa stain. There was a predilection for infection for children less than ten years.
May 2, 2016 ... Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ... The study aimed to determine the profitability of cucumber production in two local government .... more amenable to risk taking and change than non- ..... improve cucumber value chain, attract better prices ... management practices.
A survey of vesical schistosomiasis in 17 Local government areas of Abia State, South Eastern Nigeria was carried out between March 2001 and August 2002 to determine the disease prevalence both by standard parasitological method and rapid assessment using school children as tracers. A total of 10,180 school ...
Objectives: The study was undertaken to describe the eating habits of literate elderly in Asaba, urban city in Delta State of Nigeria. Methods: A total of 176 elderly male (62.5%) and female (37.5%) aged 50years and above who attended Medical Lectures of the Ebreme foundation for the elderly were enrolled in this study.
Research shows that life time risk of this disease nearly tripled within 50 years as 1 in ... Unites States of America. is 85 % while it is a dismal 10% in Nigeria. Olopade ... seen, however, that breast cancer deaths rates higher than other types of .... bad economy and other social factors are responsible for prevalence diseases.
This study was designed to measure the level of technical efficiency and its determinants in pig production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 pig farms from which input-output data were collected in 2004. The estimated ...
State governments in Nigeria are saddled with a lot of responsibilities that are geared towards the development of their areas. To do this, they engage in expenditure profiles that are at times overwhelming, especially when compared with their limited financial resources. This problem of insufficient funding sources and ...
The quality of groundwater of Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated between February and July 2008. Water samples were collected from functional bore holes from five locations (stations 1 – 5) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including heavy metals. Data obtained were compared with World ...
Infection with Schistosoma haematobium was investigated in the riverine area of Yauri Metropolis in Kebbi State, north-western Nigeria between April-June 2013, using sedimentation technique. Out of 206 persons examined (106 males and 100 females), 87 (42.2%) were infected with Schistosoma haematobium.
Objective(s): The objective of this discourse is to review the state of diabetes care in Nigeria with focus on the needs, priorities and recommendations, which should guide our clinicians. It will discuss the definition, pattern, landmark Nigerian studies on diabetes care, matters arising, morbidity/mortality and proposed ...
The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle faeces in Ogun state, Nigeria was determined by a commercially produced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Out of a total of 200 samples, 37.5% were positive for Cryptosporidium coproantigens. The highest rate of infection (78.1%) was observed in calves up to 3 ...
The Economic Importance of Forest Products in Enugu State, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... The regression results, showed that access to modern forest products harvesting/processing technology (Te) and relative contribution of forest output in total household economy (Ro) ...
The major objective of this research is to examine the variation patterns of road traffic accident in Lagos State. The study used mostly secondary data; accident records and vehicular situation were obtained from the Nigeria police force and Federal Road Safety Commission. The data were obtained for a period of thirty two ...
This study examined the profitability of catfish production in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the costs and returns in catfish production and thus the profit. Data for the study were collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire. A total of 60 catfish farmers were randomly selected from four ...
The study examined profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue State of Nigeria using a stochastic profit frontier approach. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 143 catfish farmers through a well structured questionnaire. The study used a Cobb-Douglas stochastic profit frontier function to ...
The study empirically investigate salient social and demographic characteristics as determinants of kidnapping in the South-eastern States of contemporary Nigeria using inmates detained on the grounds of kidnapping in Abakaliki and Umuahia Prisons as a unit of analysis. The study adopted a cross-sectional research ...
Abubakar Sanni Aliyu
Full Text Available Nigeria has absolutely no privacy and personal information laws. This lacuna is even more material in an internet world where information published on the web is open to a global audience. It is in this regard that the Data Protection Bill was sponsored by Hon. Yakubu Dogara, member of the Federal House of Representatives, representing Bogoro/Dass/Tafawa Balewa Bauchi State, Nigeria. This paper has two key aims, firstly to find out the major issues address by the proposed Data Protection Bill 2010, secondly, to determine the significance and the challenges of the Bill to Nigeria environment. The study utilized secondary source of data from the Data Protection Bill, 2010 and other documentary sources for analysis. The study finds out that the Bill protect parties in regard to publication of market survey details and information, ensure that unauthorised processing of personal information is reduce, and use of personal data and information without the prior consent of the data is subjected to scrutiny. The paper recommends that the Federal Government of Nigeria and the policy makers should hasten the process of passing the Bill into law in order to strengthen the activities of ecommerce in Nigeria through the following benefits: Improved customer relations; Improved ability to market lawfully; Improved data quality; Improved data security among others.
Department of Community Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. .... Even a place for the dead has its benefits! ... tourism. This can be seen at Westminster Abbey and the 9/11 ground zero respectively.
Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.
Background: Rotaviruses are associated with ~ 611,000 deaths worldwide and with 33,000 deaths in Nigeria in children < 5 years of age annually. However, limited data exit on rotavirus (RV) infection in North-western Nigeria. This study surveyed RV infection in four states in Northwestern Nigeria. Methods: During July ...
... efficient and equitable primary health care in two states: Bauchi and Cross River. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018. An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives at the ...
care, it is essential to base plans on evidence of what is ... For six years, the Nigerian Evidence- based Health ... best to respond to findings they participated in generating. Nigeria .... It also uses this data in evaluating ... Decision-makers work with researchers to plan the implementation ... of Nursing Services from Bauchi.
nigrodigitatus and other environmental segments were collected from five sites along Taylor Creek, southern Nigeria, and some ... The ecological distribution of the log (BCF) values was, for all the heavy metals, ..... Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.
been recognized as one of the most serious threats to the estuarine ... rainforest belt of South-Eastern Nigeria is also the ..... The Cross River Basin: Soil characteristics, Geology, Climate, Hydrology ... intertidal fauna of South Atlantic coastline,.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria continues to have high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. This is partly associated with lack of adequate obstetric care, partly with high risks in pregnancy, including heavy work. We examined actionable risk factors and underlying determinants at community level in Bauchi and Cross River States of Nigeria, including several related to male responsibility in pregnancy. Method In 2009, field teams visited a stratified (urban/rural last stage random sample of 180 enumeration areas drawn from the most recent censuses in each of Bauchi and Cross River states. A structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with women aged 15-49 years documented education, income, recent birth history, knowledge and attitudes related to safe birth, and deliveries in the last three years. Closed questions covered female genital mutilation, intimate partner violence (IPV in the last year, IPV during the last pregnancy, work during the last pregnancy, and support during pregnancy. The outcome was complications in pregnancy and delivery (eclampsia, sepsis, bleeding among survivors of childbirth in the last three years. We adjusted bivariate and multivariate analysis for clustering. Findings The most consistent and prominent of 28 candidate risk factors and underlying determinants for non-fatal maternal morbidity was intimate partner violence (IPV during pregnancy (ORa 2.15, 95%CIca 1.43-3.24 in Bauchi and ORa 1.5, 95%CI 1.20-2.03 in Cross River. Other spouse-related factors in the multivariate model included not discussing pregnancy with the spouse and, independently, IPV in the last year. Shortage of food in the last week was a factor in both Bauchi (ORa 1.66, 95%CIca 1.22-2.26 and Cross River (ORa 1.32, 95%CIca 1.15-1.53. Female genital mutilation was a factor among less well to do Bauchi women (ORa 2.1, 95%CIca 1.39-3.17 and all Cross River women (ORa 1.23, 95%CIca 1.1-1.5. Interpretation Enhancing clinical
Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel
Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.
Socio Economics and Extension Services Division, National Institute for. Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), P.M.B 6006, New Bussa. Niger State. .... fisheries, women are mainly involved in processing and marketing (Uchola 2000.
Edu, Chukwuma Nwofe; Ogba, Ernest Ituma
The study identifies technical training skills needs of youth for sustainable job security in rice production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study was carried out in secondary schools in three educational zones in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Ebonyi state is one of the states in the southeast geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was…
northern Hausa- Fulani, the southwestern Yoruba , and the southeastern Ibo have traditionally been the most politically active and dominant. Almost...Obasanjo, a Yoruba from southwestern Nigeria. The APP and AD nominated Chief Olu Falae, a Yoruba , as their joint candidate for President. A former...country’s development will be hindered until it can reverse its perceived “ culture of impunity for political and economic crimes.”64 Upon taking office
The purpose was to establish simple statistics of the effects of lassa fever in northern part of Edo State, Nigeria. Lassa fever activity in the northern part of Edo state, Nigeria, was confirmed in 2004 by laboratory analysis of samples sent to Bernhard–Nocht Institute (BNI) for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, Germany.
Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe
The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…
The paper investigates effect of mulching on growth of ginger in ishiagu, ebonyi state, Nigeria. The experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria, during the 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons, using ginger as test crop. In 2009, there was less ...
Full Text Available Adedayo O Adio,1 Alfred A Onua21University Of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, 2Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaBackground: Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease.Methods: Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00 per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review.Results: We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%. All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40 per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810 was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3% were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310. Eighty of the patients (66.7% visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma.Conclusion: Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low
In 2012 AVERT'S HIV/AIDS statistics records Nigeria as the second largest number ... state, Nigeria with 8.7% above the national prevalence average rate of 4.5 per cent. ... Results revealed among others that: biological issues, poverty, female ... false religious assurances against HIV/AIDS, and traditional birth practices are ...
Consumer influence on retail prices of rice in Imo state of Nigeria. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... The study aimed at estimating consumers bargaining power and its effect on price flexibility of rice in the area. ... to retailers by educating consumers on technicality involved in marketing. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
This scenario prompted the researchers to examine the situation of ICTs provision in public libraries in North Central States of Nigeria. Public libraries were del iberately selected for this study because of their importance to the general public (the peoples' university) in Nigeria. The study is predominantly qualitative as most ...
Ugochukwu, E I; Nnadozie, C C
An investigation into ectoparasitic infestation of different breeds of dogs presented to four veterinary clinics in Benin, Sapele and Auchi in Bendel State of Nigeria during the period January 1983 to December 1983 is presented. Of a total of 820 dogs examined for ectoparasites 246 (30.00%) were infected by ticks, 226 (27.56%) by lice, 212 (25.85%) by fleas and 109 (13.29%) by mites. The species of ectoparasites identified and their prevalence rates were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.5%), Otobius megnini (10.48%), Ctenocephalides canis (25.85%), Demodex canis (13.29%). Common clinical symptoms evinced in this species include scratching, licking, irritation, restlessness, alopecia, otitis externa and dermatitis. Some aspects of epidemiology of canine ectoparasitic infestation are discussed.
Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A.; Oladele, A.T.
Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various
Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A., E-mail: email@example.com [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Facully of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria)
Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various
Ado, J Mohammed; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Johnson, Ticha; Dieng, Boubacar; Corkum, Melissa; Enemaku, Ogu; Mataruse, Noah; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Baig, Shahzad; Galway, Michael; Seaman, Vincent; Wiesen, Eric; Vertefeuille, John; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Armstrong, Gregory; Mahoney, Frank J
Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. Since 2003, infections with WPV of Nigerian origin have been detected in 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government created an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized (1) improving the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), (2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, (3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, (4) improving outbreak response, (5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and (6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes implementation of these activities during a period of unprecedented insecurity and violence, including the killing of health workers and the onset of a state of emergency in the northeast zone. This report reviews management strategies, innovations, trends in case counts, vaccination and social mobilization activities, and surveillance and monitoring data to assess progress in polio eradication in Nigeria. Nigeria has made significant improvements in the management of polio eradication initiative (pei) activities with marked improvement in the quality of SIAs, as measured by lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). Comparing results from February 2012 with results from December 2013, the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) conducting LQAS in the 11 high-risk states at the ≥90% pass/fail threshold increased from 7% to 42%, and the proportion at the 80%-89% threshold increased from 9% to 30%. During January-December 2013, 53 polio cases were reported from 26 LGAs in 9 states in Nigeria, compared with 122 cases reported from 13 states in 2012. No cases of WPV type 3 infection have been reported since November 2012. In 2013, no polio cases due to any poliovirus type were detected in the northwest sanctuaries of Nigeria. In
Impact of Cataract Surgery on Quality of Life in Plateau State, Nigeria. ... The study instrument was the standardized Visual Function (VF-14) and Quality of ... Outcome Research Team (PORT), and designed to measure the impact of impaired ...
Economic Analysis of the Marketing of Fruit in Lagos State of Nigeria (A case study of Oyingbo, Oshodi and Ikotun ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This implies a wide gap in prices between wholesalers and retailers.
Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria. ... tends towards pure competition. Keywords: Benue, citrus, gini coefficient, Kano, marketing, pure competition, traders. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Factors influencing the marketing of fresh fish in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... The market prices of Clarias spp. ranged between □250 □400/Kg and the farmers were mostly patronized by retailers. Fish farm ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Full Text Available This paper addresses the statutory financial relations and financial autonomy of local government in Nigeria, and the freedom of local government to generate revenue from its assigned sources without external interference. It focuses particularly on a financial instrument called the State Joint Local Government Account (SJLGA and how its operations have positively or negatively affected the financial autonomy of local government councils and the inter-relations between state and local government in Nigeria.
Full Text Available Many irrigation projects, especially in the developing tropical regions, are embarked upon without any land capability assessment, resulting in avoidable and undesirable ecological consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the irrigation capability potentials of the soils of a rice growing Illushi/Ega community in Edo State of Nigeria. Soils of Illushi/Ega (200 ha were studied to establish their irrigation capabilities. Water samples were collected from the rivers within and near the sites at the proposed points of intake structures and analyzed for salinity (ECw, permeability (SAR and ion toxicity [Chlorine (Cl and Boron (B]. Gravity irrigation suitability assessment was carried out following the guidelines of the United States Bureau for Land Reclamation (USBR, 1953 and FAO (1979. Results showed that about 5.5 % of the land was non-irrigable, 11.5 % was marginally irrigable, 30.5% was moderately irrigable and 52.5 % highly irrigable.Thus about 83 % of the total land area was found to be irrigable. The results of analyses of irrigation water [ECw, SAR and Cl and B (ion toxicity problems in water sources were 0.1 – 0.7 dS m-1, 1.2 – 1.7, 0.6 – 1.8 cmol kg-1 and 0.5 – 0.7 mg kg-1] also show that there is no indication of salinity or ion toxicity problem.
Oluyemi, Aderemi; Odeghe, Emuobor
The upsurge in the reported cases of diverticular disease (DD) has led to a re-appraisal of the earlier held views that it was a rare entity in Nigeria. The advent of colonoscopy has contributed in no small way to this change. We sought to determine the clinical characteristics, indications for colonoscopy, and intra-procedural findings among these patients. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out on the colonoscopy records from four private endoscopy units based in Lagos State, Nigeria. The records were drawn from a 5-year period (August 2010 to July 2015). The endoscopy logs and reports were reviewed, and the bio data, indications, and colonoscopy findings were gleaned. A total of 265 colonoscopies were carried out in the stated period. Of these, 28 (10.6%) had DD. Of the patients with DD, 5 (17.9%) were females while 23 (82.1%) were males. Their ages ranged from 46 to 94 years (mean = 68.2 ± 11 years). Fifteen patients had been referred for the procedure on account of hematochezia alone (15 = 53.6%). Other reasons for referral included abdominal pain alone (2 = 7%), hematochezia plus abdominal pain (5 = 17.9%), and change in bowel habits (3 = 10.8%). Ten (35%) patients had pan-colonic involvement. Regional disease involved the right side alone in only one case (3.5%) while the other combinations of sites are as follows; 6 (21.4%) in the sigmoid colon alone, 2 (7%) in the descending colon alone, 5 (17.9%) in the sigmoid-descending colon, 4 (14.3%) in the sigmoid-descending-transverse colon, thus the sigmoid colon was involved in 25 (89.3%) cases. Five cases (17.9%) had endoscopic features suggestive of diverticulitis. DD should no longer be regarded as a rare problem in the Nigerian patient. The study findings support the notion of higher prevalence among the elderly, in males, and of sigmoid colon involvement.
Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Oyekale, Tolulope Olayemi
Adequate management of healthcare waste (HCW) is a prerequisite for efficient delivery of healthcare services. In Nigeria, there are several constraints militating against proper management of HCW. This is raising some environmental concerns among stakeholders in the health sector. In this study, we analyzed the practices of HCW management and determinants of risky/safe indices of HCW disposal. The study used the 2013/2014 Service Delivery Indicator (SDI) data that were collected from 2480 healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 52.20% and 38.21% of the sampled healthcare facilities from Cross River and Bauchi states possessed guidelines for HCW management, respectively. Trainings on management of HCW were attended by 67.18% and 53.19% of the healthcare facilities from Cross River and Imo states, respectively. Also, 32.32% and 29.50% of healthcare facilities from rural and urban areas previously sent some of their staff members for trainings on HCW management, respectively. Sharp and non-sharp HCW were burnt in protected pits in 45.40% and 45.36% of all the sampled healthcare facilities, respectively. Incinerators were reported to be functional in only 2.06% of the total healthcare facilities. In Bauchi and Kebbi states, 23.58% and 21.05% of the healthcare facilities respectively burnt sharp HCW without any protection. Using PCA, computed risky indices for disposal of sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.3070) and Kebbi state (0.2172), while indices of risky disposal of non-sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.2868) and Osun state (0.2652). The OLS results showed that at 5% level of significance, possession of medical waste disposal guidelines, staff trainings on HCW management, traveling hours from the facilities to local headquarters and being located in rural areas significantly influenced indices of
Abayomi Samuel Oyekale
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate management of healthcare waste (HCW is a prerequisite for efficient delivery of healthcare services. In Nigeria, there are several constraints militating against proper management of HCW. This is raising some environmental concerns among stakeholders in the health sector. In this study, we analyzed the practices of HCW management and determinants of risky/safe indices of HCW disposal. Methods The study used the 2013/2014 Service Delivery Indicator (SDI data that were collected from 2480 healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression were used to analyze the data. Results The results showed that 52.20% and 38.21% of the sampled healthcare facilities from Cross River and Bauchi states possessed guidelines for HCW management, respectively. Trainings on management of HCW were attended by 67.18% and 53.19% of the healthcare facilities from Cross River and Imo states, respectively. Also, 32.32% and 29.50% of healthcare facilities from rural and urban areas previously sent some of their staff members for trainings on HCW management, respectively. Sharp and non-sharp HCW were burnt in protected pits in 45.40% and 45.36% of all the sampled healthcare facilities, respectively. Incinerators were reported to be functional in only 2.06% of the total healthcare facilities. In Bauchi and Kebbi states, 23.58% and 21.05% of the healthcare facilities respectively burnt sharp HCW without any protection. Using PCA, computed risky indices for disposal of sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.3070 and Kebbi state (0.2172, while indices of risky disposal of non-sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.2868 and Osun state (0.2652. The OLS results showed that at 5% level of significance, possession of medical waste disposal guidelines, staff trainings on HCW management, traveling hours from the facilities to local headquarters and being located in
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and ... Key Words: Productivity decomposition, scale effect, allocative efficiency ... and subsidies in the form of cheap credit was.
Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Wilson, Goddey .... of public affairs, contest elections, campaign freely, and are freely elected to hold public office for the good of the ..... Lagos: ADLA Communication Ltd. Adler institute on ...
Real opportunities for a boom in the production and processing of ... emptive management of the cassava mosaic disease. (CMD), the ... Others are planting method, fertilizer application, weed control ..... Handbook, Ibadan, Nigeria. Nweke, F.T ...
these deaths occurred in just five countries namely, India, Nigeria, the. Democratic Republic of .... the impact health has on economic growth. It was observed that .... poverty shows a positive relationship with child mortality. The result however ...
Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify management practices associated with ostrich farming in Kano, Kaduna and Plateau States of Nigeria. Seven farms were purposively selected as units of analysis. Primary data were generated by means of a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, administered to the sampled respondents. A simple inductive statistics was applied to the primary data. The result reveals a commercial production of ostrich by 86 % with all the farms engaged in production of other livestock species. Similarly, all the farms had shelter for chicks and breeders which were all erected using wire mesh and poles at above 5 feet fencing level. More over, 100 % of the farms were densely stocked (below 500 m2 for a pair of ostrich with facilities below recommended levels. The result also showed that 100 % of the farms compound feed locally using premix without no providing grit and low (14 % usage of succulent feed. About 29 % of the farms use endoparasitic and anthelminthic drugs as health management practices. On the reproductive practices, only trio (29 % and colony (71 % configurations were practiced. The prominent biosecurity measures include division of farm into disease control unit (100 % and employee enlightenment (86 %. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 64-67
Full Text Available "nBackground: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact between humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sectional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area."nMethods: During the survey, 160 gastrointestinal tracts of dogs killed for meat selected by simple sampling technique were collected and examined for helminths in Kaduna metropolis, latitude 100 50I N and longitude 70 50I E."nResults: Of the helminths found, Dipylidium caninum (75.0%, Taenia hydatigena (43.8%, Diphyllobothrium latum (6.3%, Ancylostoma caninum (6.3% and Toxocara canis (6.3% were the most common. Female dogs were more likely of contacting intestinal helminths than male dogs (RR = 1.125. Higher mean worm burden was recorded for dogs infected by T. hydatigena and D. caninum than dogs infected by T. canis, D. latum or A. caninum."nConclusion: The presence of these parasites in dogs examined indicates a potential public health problem in Kaduna metropolis. Mass enlightenment of dog keepers on the need for periodic veterinary care and restriction of stray dogs through legislation formulation and enforcement are recommended as possible control measures.
Igbinosa I. B.
Full Text Available Land snails are sources of protein to man and are hosts to a number of parasites. It is imperative that the roles of the snail hosts and parasites are clearly defined. Before then however, the parasites of the different land snails collected in any locality should be identified. Land snails were collected in the wild in both dry and wet seasons. The internal organs and the faeces were examined for the presence of parasite. In the rainy season of 2015, a total of 272 snails were collected across four major towns (Benin, Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi in Edo State, Nigeria, while in the dry season, fewer snails (n=91 were handpicked. The snail species seen are: Achatina achatina (Linnaeus, 1758, Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821, Acharchatina marginata (Swainson, 1982, Limicolaria aurora (Jay, 1839, L. flammea (Müller, 1774 and Limicolariopsis spp. The larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were isolated from the various snail species with overall prevalence of 54.04 %. Snails positive with Alaria mesocercariae were L. aurora, L. flammea and Limicolariopsis spp. Additionally, few L. flammea were positive of the cercariae of Drocoelium dedriticum. Meanwhile, some samples of A. fulica harboured larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonesis, sporocysts of Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma mansoni. Therefore, these edible snails could pose serious health hazard to man and animals by serving as a possible alternative parasite transmission route.
Salisu, U S; Kudi, C A; Bale, J O O; Babashani, M; Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Asambe, A; Baba, A Y
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the status of Brucella infection in one-humped (Dromedary) camels in the North and Central senatorial districts of Katsina State, Nigeria. Nine hundred and eighty serum samples from live and slaughtered camels were tested. Modified Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, (EDTA) were used as screening and standard tests, respectively. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies were 110 (11.2%) and 103 (10.5%) for RBPT and SAT, respectively. Of the 472 and 508 serum samples tested from the herds and abattoirs, respectively, 63 (13.3%) and 47 (9.3%) were positive by RBPT while 62 (13.1%) and 41 (8.1%) were positive by SAT, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that Brucella antibodies were present in camels in the study area. Poor management practices and mixing of camels with other species of livestock as well as unrestricted movement of camels were proposed to be the reasons for the prevalence of the disease in the study area. In view of the public health importance of the disease, it is recommended that there is the need to develop a strategic plan to decrease spread of brucellosis in the study area.
Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim
Full Text Available The study was conducted to analyze energy use for in rice production in Nasarawa state Nigeria using a sample of 120 randomly selected rice farmers. Energy productivity, energy efficiency and specific energy were computed and simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. The energy use pattern shows that, rice production consumed an average total energy of 12906.8 MJha-1, with herbicide energy input contributing the largest share (53.55 %. Human labour had the least share (0.74 % of the total energy input used. The energy productivity, Specific energy and energy efficiency were 0.3 MJ-1, 3.6 MJ-1 and 4.1 respectively. A total of 10925.0 MJ of energy was used in the form of indirect energy and 1981.8MJ was in the direct form of energy. Non-renewable energy forms contributed the largest share (80.63 % of the total energy input used for rice production in the study area. Rice production in the study area was observed to be mainly dependent on non-renewable and indirect energy input especially herbicide. Thus, the study recommends the introduction of integrated weed management system in order to reduce cost and dependence on a non-renewable input for weed control.
Allen Hai Xiao
"The burgeoning interstate relation between China and Nigeria is in fact hiding the vulnerable condition of transnational Chinese petty entrepreneurship. Small-scale Chinese entrepreneurs in Nigeria are faced with everyday corruption practised by both Nigerian authorities and ordinary Nigerian people, the dominance of self-interest over cohesion and mutual support among the Chinese compatriots, and variations in state policies due to dynamic and changing interstate relations. To overcome thei...
Oluwatosin Olu-Abiodun; Olumide Abiodun
Introduction: Effective nursing leadership engenders staff retention, job satisfaction, commitment, work unit climate and client satisfaction with nursing services. This study assessed the perception of transformational leadership among nurses working in general hospitals in Nigeria. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 176 nurses in Ogun State, Nigeria. The independent student t-test was used to test the relationship between respondents’ characteristics and l...
Palka, Jessica; Wessollek, Christine; Karrasch, Pierre
The value of remote sensing data is particularly evident where an areal monitoring is needed to provide information on the earth's surface development. The use of temporal high resolution time series data allows for detecting short-term changes. In Kogi State in Nigeria different vegetation types can be found. As the major population in this region is living in rural communities with crop farming the existing vegetation is slowly being altered. The expansion of agricultural land causes loss of natural vegetation, especially in the regions close to the rivers which are suitable for crop production. With regard to these facts, two questions can be dealt with covering different aspects of the development of vegetation in the Kogi state, the determination and evaluation of the general development of the vegetation in the study area (trend estimation) and analyses on a short-term behavior of vegetation conditions, which can provide information about seasonal effects in vegetation development. For this purpose, the GIMMS-NDVI data set, provided by the NOAA, provides information on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a geometric resolution of approx. 8 km. The temporal resolution of 15 days allows the already described analyses. For the presented analysis data for the period 1981-2012 (31 years) were used. The implemented workflow mainly applies methods of time series analysis. The results show that in addition to the classical seasonal development, artefacts of different vegetation periods (several NDVI maxima) can be found in the data. The trend component of the time series shows a consistently positive development in the entire study area considering the full investigation period of 31 years. However, the results also show that this development has not been continuous and a simple linear modeling of the NDVI increase is only possible to a limited extent. For this reason, the trend modeling was extended by procedures for detecting structural breaks in
Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites
For any nation to attain development in all aspects of its life there is need for it to have cohesion, which is a state of unity and orderliness. The absence of cohesion especially in the face of insurgency and insecurity spells doom. Hence this paper attempts to state the need why Nigeria, in the present state of the nation's ...
Fika, Ibrahim Baba; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Abdulrahman, Aishatu
The study determines the relationship between staff utilization and staff commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine: the level of staff utilization in Borno State Colleges of Education, the level of staff commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education and the relationship between staff…
J. I. Awu
Full Text Available The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM, Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated data was further subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA on difference between means of parameters and graphical method to determine the spatial variation of the water quality characteristics. The time variations of the water quality characteristics as compared with the spatial variations showed that for some variables, there was statistical difference between the means of parameters with respect to time and space at various levels of significance. These include Phosphorus (5%, Copper (1%, Iron (5%, Nickel (5%, Cadmium (1%, Salinity (1%, Bacteria (1% for time variation; and Sulphate (1%, Chemical Oxygen (5%,Nickel (1%, Arsenic (1%, Zinc (1%, Cadmium (1%, Bacteria (1% for spatial variations during dry season and Chemical Oxygen (5%, Nickel (1%, for spatial variation during rainy season. Based on the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria guidelines for drinking water, the results of microbial analysis also indicated that the selected river waters were polluted with disease causing microorganisms, such as E.Coliform, Salmonella, Bacillus Subtilis. Therefore, the river waters are not good for drinking. The consumers of water obtained from the three rivers are likely to suffer the following: typhoid, fever, intestinal problem, diarrhea, skin rash, cholera. Necessary recommendations such as treating the water with bio-sand filter before use, amongst others, were made.
Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.
Gari is creamy-white, partially gelatinized roasted free flowing granular flour made from cassava roots. It is a major staple consumed in both urban and rural areas due to its convenience. Quality of Gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos, Nigeria was investigated. Gari samples were collected at random from different ...
Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and most deaths occur in the northern part of the country. Concerns about the persistence of the problem prompted some Nigerian academics to partner with their American colleagues to establish a postgraduate fellowship programme that builds the ...
Background: Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide. Estimating the prevalence of disease in populations of Nigeria would be useful in developing intervention programs to control it and prevent its consequences. Objective: This survey was carried out to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, ...
Frogs are among the most threatened species of wildlife in IUCN red list. Its utilisation in Ibadan, a major depot in western Nigeria was therefore conducted with the aim of assessing the forms and trend of use; and amongst others, reasons for frog meat consumption. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire, ...
Background: Uniocular blindness causes loss of binocular single vision. People with uniocular blindness are potentially at risk of developing binocular blindness. Aim: To determine the prevalence rate, causes and risk factors for uniocular blindness in a teaching hospital in southern Nigeria over a one-year period. Methods: ...
Although climate change is global threat, developing countries have been identified as most vulnerable owing to their low adaptive capacities. In Nigeria, while the impacts of climate cut across diverse sectors, agriculture remains the most susceptible due to the predominance of rainfed agriculture. This paper examines ...
Okewusi, Peter Agboola
Reviews the establishment of the Western Regional Ministry of Justice in Nigeria and the subsequent development of law libraries to aid that agency. The functions of the ministry, staffing, and services of the law libraries, and the establishment of a printing office for government publications are described. (5 references) (CLB)
This study employed the total number of public schools in Ondo, Nigeria which gives information on the name of the school, males and females in each school from JSS1 to SS3 in the eighteen local government areas. Systematic sampling was used to select forty eight schools from the two hundred and eighty eight public ...
Feb 22, 2016 ... the need for comprehensive evaluation of the prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases in Nigeria. ..... psychological serenity, and consequently impact adversely on BP. .... Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Whelton PK, He J. Worldwide ... BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2012;12:114. 17.
Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A
Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma
Lamidi, Esther O
According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.
Afor Ajala abattoir in Imo State is an important economic centre in Nigeria. It is funded by Afor Ajala Meat Butchers Association (AMBA) and serves meat sellers and consumers within and outside Imo State. The safety and health of these consumers could be endangered if the meat processed in the abattoir is unwholesome.
Adeyemi, T. O.
This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…
Esther O Lamidi
Full Text Available According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country.I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria.Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910, I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models.The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use.Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.
The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to understand the relationship between a balanced scorecard, professors' job characteristics, and the leadership styles of higher education leaders at Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti State, Nigeria, which was the site of the study. The problem statement addressed whether or not a…
Corruption, the State and the Challenge of Social Stability in Nigeria. ... that there is high incidence of corruption and more likelihood of social instability. ... of the State as the socio-political structure for organizing society and the nature of the ...
Background: Over the years Rivers State of Nigeria has witnessed a rising trend in HIV/AIDS infection. In 2006, the State Action Committee on AIDS commenced the implementation of a Strategic Response Plan to prevent and mitigate the effect of HIV/AIDS by 2009. Aim : To verify the extent of achievement of the Strategic ...
Adeyemi, T. O.
This paper examined principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a descriptive survey, the study population comprised all the 281 public secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 80 schools was drawn while 340 respondents (80 principals and 260 teachers) were selected through…
Full Text Available Plants with both male and female antifertility potential were surveyed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria. A total of 35 medicinal plant species representing 33 genera and 26 families were employed by the traditional birth attendants and elders for contraception, labour induction and abortion among the people of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Among these, only three plant species were mentioned for male contraception purpose. A few animal inclusion was also documented. [J Complement Med Res 2018; 7(1.000: 25-44
Akeeb O. Bola Oyefolu
Full Text Available Objective: This hospital-based retrospective cohort study was undertaken with a view to determine the epidemiological trend of measles in Lagos State, Nigeria Methods: Medical records of clinically diagnosed measles patients from nine referral public hospitals in Lagos State between 1998 and 2007 were retrieved, transcribed and reviewed. Data were analyzed using standard methods. Results: A total of 35,500 clinically confirmed cases and 835 deaths (case fatality rate = 2.35%/10 years were recorded. The mean incidence was estimated at 19 cases per 100,000 population/year. A consistent seasonality pattern of measles was observed for the study period. The under-fives accounted for the highest reported cases (76.30% while, the under-1 year recorded highest mortality (53.8%. Notable shift of measles vulnerability from under-1year to under-fives was observed. Although there was significant difference between cases and deaths among the age groups (p0.05. Conclusion: This study recorded high incidence and case fatality of measles, which poses serious public health threat. Poor demographic data collection and storage were revealed thus, computerization of medical records for collection, storage and retrieval of data is imperative for adequate planning and control of measles imperil in Nigeria. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1:12-18
Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma
Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS.
Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony
Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179
Charyeva, Zulfiya; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Orobaton, Nosa; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Inuwa, Fatima; Alalade, Olubisi; Abegunde, Dele; Danladi, Saba'atu
Contraceptive use remains low in Nigeria, with only 11% of women reporting use of any modern method. Access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is constrained by a severe shortage of human resources. To assess feasibility of task shifting provision of implants, we trained community health extension workers (CHEWs) to insert and remove contraceptive implants in rural communities of Bauchi and Sokoto states in northern Nigeria. We conducted 2- to 3-week training sessions for 166 selected CHEWs from 82 facilities in Sokoto state (September 2013) and 84 health facilities in Bauchi state (December 2013). To assess feasibility of the task shifting approach, we conducted operations research using a pretest-posttest design using multiple sources of information, including surveys with 151 trained CHEWs (9% were lost to follow-up) and with 150 family planning clients; facility observations using supply checklists (N = 149); direct observation of counseling provided by CHEWs (N = 144) and of their clinical (N = 113) skills; as well as a review of service statistics (N = 151 health facilities). The endline assessment was conducted 6 months after the training in each state. CHEWs inserted a total of 3,588 implants in 151 health facilities over a period of 6 months, generating 10,088 couple-years of protection (CYP). After practicing on anatomic arm models, most CHEWs achieved competency in implant insertions after insertions with 4-5 actual clients. Clinical observations revealed that CHEWs performed implant insertion tasks correctly 90% of the time or more for nearly all checklist items. The amount of information that CHEWs provided clients increased between baseline and endline, and over 95% of surveyed clients reported being satisfied with CHEWs' services in both surveys. The study found that supervisors not only observed and corrected insertion skills, as needed, during supervisory visits but also encouraged CHEWs to conduct more community
Anselm A. Enete
Full Text Available This study analyzed the profitability level of waterleaf production in three selected agricultural zones of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data obtained from a random sample of 60 waterleaf farmers and analyzed using descriptive statistics, profitability ratios and regression analysis. The result of the analysis shows that the majority (90% of the farmers had some level of formal education. Labour had the highest percentage (58% of total cost of production, suggesting that waterleaf production was labour intensive in the area. The average net income per hectare per waterleaf production cycle was N322,413 while the average total cost was N89,307.18. Labour cost constituted the highest percentage of total variable cost. The profitability index (0.78, rate of returns on investment (361%, rate of returns on variable cost (482%, and operating ratio (0.21 suggest that waterleaf production was profitable in the study area. The identified major factors that enhance the output of waterleaf were the application of poultry manure, bigger household size (cheap labour, level of education of the farmer and level of capital. These observations underscore the need for the provision of credit facilities and some kind of adult education programme for the farmers. These will respectively ensure that they apply the right quantity of purchased inputs (like fertilizers, hired labour and capital in their production process and improve their human capital.Cette étude a porté sur l’analyse du taux de rentabilité de la production de grassé dans trois régions agricoles de l’état d’Akwa Ibom, au Nigeria. Des données primaires obtenues à partir d’un échantillon aléatoire de 60 cultivateurs de grassé ont été analysées à l’aide de statistiques descriptives, de ratios de rentabilité et d’une analyse de régression. Les résultats montrent que la majorité (90 % des cultivateurs a un certain degré d’éducation formelle
Water and sanitation have been recognized as critical to ensure good quality of life. This paper examines the existing water supply and sanitation in Ondo State, Nigeria with a view to determine the extent of deficiency and what will be required to meet the Millennium Development Goals that seeks to halve the Population of ...
The existence of snail in the wild has become threatened, and information on the efficiency and effectiveness of ex - situ management of snails in many areas is urgently needed for consistent supply of snails. This work, therefore surveyed the practice and adoption of snail farming technology in Cross River State, Nigeria.
Bello, Suleiman; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama
The study determined the relationship between principals' administrative styles and students' academic performance in Taraba State secondary schools, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between initiative structure of leadership styles, consideration structure of leadership styles, participatory structure of…
Akinnubi, Caroline Funmbi
This study examined the day caring methods among the civil servants of reproductive age with children between three months to four years in Lagos State Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was a descriptive research design. A total number of 212 teachers and 128 ministry workers making a total of 340 reproductive age mothers were…
Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu
This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…
Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…
The study assessed the perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara state, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed in selecting 80 poultry farmers used in the study. Analytical tools used include frequency counts, charts, mean, percentage and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed ...
Animasahun, R. A.; Ogunniran, J. O.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlates of examination malpractice among secondary school students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The instrument used for the study was tagged Predisposing Factors towards Examination Malpractice Questionnaire (PFTEMQ). The instrument was administered to 300 students randomly selected from 20 multi staged…
Osagie, Roseline O.
The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…
Iyunade, Olufunmilayo T.
The study examined the correlates of teachers' continuing professional development on universal basic education in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Using descriptive survey, a sample of 500 teachers was randomly selected from twenty (20) Basic Junior Secondary Schools and Primary Schools used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a…
The study focused on the marketing of plantain in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to determine the rural- urban price ratio (farmers share) of plantain marketing in the study area. Data were collected from 60 traders from four markets in Owerri area namely: Eke Ukwu Owerri, ...
Full Text Available Ensuring local community support for national parks is viewed as a paramount ingredient for conservation and sustainability. This is advocated for the park to meet its conservation goals. The Okomu National Park (ONP, Edo State, Nigeria, is one of such protected areas of lush green rain forest requiring conservation.
Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed
This paper examined principals' quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. "Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance…
Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.
The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…
Chidi-Ehiem, Ugochi Ijeoma
This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the conditions handicapping the teaching of major Nigerian languages in secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A random sample of 953 students and 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 1555 copies of questionnaire…
Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi
The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…
This study was designed to analyze profitability and viability of catfish farming in Abia State of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 50 catfish farmers that provided the data used for the study. The primary data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire, administered through ...
Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.
The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…
This paper explores power relations in clinical interactions in Nigeria. It seeks to investigate the use of power between doctors and patients during consultations on patient-centred approach to medicine in selected public and private hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective is to establish how doctors' projection of power, using the…
Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…
Emmanuella N. Akange
Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67
Global Journal of Environmental Sciences ... The average concentrations of iron, manganese, nickel, zinc, cobalt, chromium and cadmium were generally highest in filtrate water, whereas the concentrations of copper and lead were always highest in the suspended materials which indicate the dominant role played by ...
Sumaye Fadimatu Hamza
Full Text Available Contextualisation This paper presents a brief overview of the educational system in Nigeria with an emphasis on the pre-primary education level. It addresses the international literature on early childhood pedagogy and assesses to what extent pre-primary education policy in Nigeria is inspired by this literature. The paper will pay special attention to the shortcomings and obstacles encountered in trying to implement the pre-primary education policy of Plateau State in Nigeria Abstract: The current study is an evaluation of the pre-primary education policy in Plateau State in Nigeria. It was inspired by my own experience as a school teacher/principal who has seen the effects on primary schools and the results of a lack of government investment in the sector, itself leading to a proliferation of ‘private owners’. Because of these circumstances the implementation of central policy is highly dependent on the varying understanding of these owners. The study will employ both qualitative and quantitative techniques in data collection through the use of questionnaire, interviews, classroom observation and use of documents. The data will be analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results will hopefully be used, not only to add to existing literature, but also to improve the system serving as a basis for further research in the area.
Full Text Available The prevalence and significance of hemoparasites of cattle from north-central Nigeria was determined using diagnostic records from Parasitology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI Vom, from May 2006 to April 2008. A total of 637 blood samples from cattle from four states (Plateau, Bauchi, Nasarawa and Kaduna of Nigeria in anticoagulant were submitted to the laboratory for parasitological diagnosis. Giemsa stained thin blood smears were examined for hemoparasites. Packed cell volume (PCV for each sample was determined and Hematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT was used to determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 25.7% was recorded for all samples examined. Babesia bigemina and B.bovis accounted for 16.0%, followed by Theileria mutans (3.1%, Trypanosoma spp (T.vivax and T. congolense (2.8%, Anaplasma marginale (1.9%, Microfilaria (1.4%. The hemoparasites identified alone or in combination with others had a significant (P<0.05 effect on the mean PCV of infected animals. Similarly, hemoparasites infection in young animals as well as during the dry season resulted in significant (P<0.05 reduction of PCV values. The result of this study shows these hemoparasites are endemic in cattle in the study area which may result in serious disease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 445-448
The objective of this work is to identify and examine major factors constraining pawpaw production and marketing in Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Questionnaire schedule and personal interviews were used to collect data from ten Local Government Areas in the state. A total of 76 pawpaw farmers were randomly interviewed for this study. The study identified poor patronage in the market, poor marketing system, inadequate capital, poor price, inadequate extension services, poor transportation...
Adinya, I.B; Odey S.O.; Oniah M.O; Umeh G.N; Agiopu, B.F; Ogbonna ,K.I.
A study was undertaken to determine the role of agricultural co-operative societies as institutional source of finance to processing mills in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 150 respondents in the study area by means of structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of fifteen local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State. This was followed by random selection of one village in each of the fifteen l...
Rashidi Akanji Okunola; Adediran Daniel Ikuomola
Festivals and ceremonies are part and parcel of African culture, usually in all its pump, merriment and pageantry. However, with the increasing wave of criminal activities in Nigeria especially in Edo state, festivals and ceremonies are being redefined and conceptualized in practice. Only recently a new festival ‘Festival of Curses’ was brought to the fore in combating crime in Edo state. The study therefore seeks to explain the festival as a traditional mechanism in crime control, the nature...
Abdussalam, Onagun Isiaka
Full Text Available Kwara State is one of the Muslim-dominated states in Nigeria, where Islamic economic instrument of zakah is expected to play vital role in alleviating the problem of poverty in the society. One of the objectives of zakah is to economically circulate the wealth and resources from the rich to the poor and eventually realize fair distribution of those wealth and resources in a Muslim society. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of zakah in the poverty reduction of the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria, particularly, the poor Muslim women. The study employs mixed method of data collection whereby the primary data are explored using the questionnaire and interview designed for the potential respondents during the on-going academic research programme 2013/2014 academic session of 360 sample size. Similarly, verses from Holy Qu’ran and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh are used in the study. For the secondary data, existing literature and studies on zakah are also used. Data gathered are analysed using frequencies, percentages and inferential statistics via SPSS 20.0. The findings show that zakah and its institution are not significantly related to and effective in reducing poverty among the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria. However, recommendations are made towards introduction of standard institution of zakah in the State in order to assist in poverty reduction among the poor Muslims.
Full Text Available Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,1 Olayinka Oluwatoyin Kukoyi,2 Samuel Sunday Taiwo,1 Olusola Ojurongbe,1 Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye,1 Oloyede Samuel Bolaji,1 Abiodun Adebimpe Adegoke,1 Olufunmilola Bamidele Makanjuola,1 David Olusoga Ogbolu,3 Oyebode Terry Alli31Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; 2Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Lautech, Osogbo, NigeriaIntroduction: The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction.Materials and methods: A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 µg, oxacillin (1 µg, and cefoxitin (30 µg was carried out using the modified Kirby–Bauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene.Results: Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7% and tetracycline
Moses Ikebe Odo
This study takes on the issue of sustaining occupational information for career choice and development in students of technical colleges in Enugu State, Nigeria. The method adopted for this study was the survey design and the population included were all final year students of the three government technical colleges in Enugu State of Nigeria. The technical colleges were sampled as follows: Government Technical College, Enugu (156 students); Government Technical College, Nsukka (148 students);...
T. O. Ogunbode; I. P. Ifabiyi
Investigation into water utilization and its determinants in the rural areas is salient to a result-oriented management of this resource. Thus, a research was conducted to assess the pattern of domestic water uses and its determinant in the rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was applied to select 124 villages from 25 out of the 33 LGAs in Oyo State, Nigeria with 5 villages from each. Ten structured questionnaire were administered in each of the selected village...
Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE
Full Text Available The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries. Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output, while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.
Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I
The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption.
Saifullahi Kasim Tafida; Che Kum Clement; Md. Abu Raihan
The objective of this study is to identify the strategies for retaining highly qualified & experienced technical teachers of technical and vocational educational institutions in Katsina State of Nigeria. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study. A 26 items survey questionnaire was developed and used to elicit responses from technical education administrators, technical education principals/vice principals and technical teachers in technical and vocational education institutio...
Mohammed, , D; Bukar , U; Umar , J; Abdulsalam , B; Dahiru , B
International audience; The study assessed food security situation among smallholder farming househ Borno State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting 200 household respondents. Data were collected with the use of interview scheduled and structured questionnaires. Result revealed that 91% of the respondents were male, 59% were full time farmers and 33% of the households had farming experience of 11 household respondents were food secure. Logit result indicates that the...
Among inputs/resources often needed for erosion risk assessment of a region is the iso-erodent map of the region. This is a map showing areas of equal erosion potentials in the region. As Imo and Abia states of Nigeria lie in a high erosion region of the country, it was decided in this work to produce an iso-erodent map of ...
Adebayo, K.; Sangosina, M.A.
The current drive towards higher levels of commercialisation of cassava processing under the Presidential Initiative on Cassava requires that the scale of cassava processing be increased in Nigeria. Primary data obtained from 112 respondents selected from the 4 extension zones of Ogun State was used to examine the perception of effectiveness of innovations by cassava processors and the factors responsible for adoption of these innovations. The processors’ perception of effectiveness of cassav...
C.P.O. Obinne; M.A. Yahaya; O.J. Okwu
The study analyzed the information needs and accessibility of artisanal fisher folk in Benue State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select two fishing communities from each of the three agroecological zones in the study area. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from 222 respondents. Descriptive statistics showed that artisanal fisher folk were mostly married male adults with low level of formal education, low income, and low use of modern technologie...
S.B. Mustapha; P.M. Bzugu; I.M. Ali; A. Abdullahi
The study examined the determinants of adaptation to deforestation among farmers in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule were used to obtain information from 200 respondents selected through simple random sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages) and inferential (chi-square test) statistics. The result indicated that majority (84%) of the respondents were male with 21-40 years of age...
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran
Full Text Available Background: Belonging to a social network group may influence a person′s decisions to engage in desired behavior. Aim: The objective of our study was to determine factors associated with utilization of psychosocial group services among people living with human immunodeficiency virus acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHAs in a Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. Settings and Design: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. All consenting PLHAs who attended the anti-retroviral clinic (ART clinic during the study period were recruited into the study. Materials and Methods: A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant information and a total of 205 PLWHAs were interviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: The data analysis focused on univariate frequency table and bivariate cross tabulations that identify important relationships between the variables. Odds ratio (OR at 95% confidence level (CI and Chi-squared and t-tests were also computed. Results: The overall point utilization of psychosocial services among the PLWHAs was 23.4%. Utilization of psychosocial services was statistically significantly associated with religion (χ2 = 11.74, P = 0.003, disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus status (χ2 = 9.18, P = 0.01 and satisfactory self-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL (χ2 = 5.67, P = 0.017 while sex (χ2 = 0.02, P = 0.96, education (χ2 = 4.67, P = 0.32 tribe (χ2 = 1.46, P = 0.48 adherence to ART drugs (χ2 = 0.44, P = 0.51, mental health status (χ2 = 0.64, P = 0.42 and occupation (χ2 = 3.61, P = 0.61 were not. The only predictor of utilization of psychosocial group services was religion (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.23-0.84. Conclusion: This study shows the effectiveness of the psychosocial networks group in improving the overall HRQOL of the PLWHAs.
federal structure; the demands for the creation of additional states and localities to the ... The second part dwelt on local government creations, using the 1991 population ..... While big states can threaten the corporate existence and stability of ...
Taylor, Sebastian; Khan, Mahmud; Muhammad, Ado; Akpala, Okey; van Strien, Marit; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Ogden, Ellyn
Vaccine hesitancy constitutes a major threat to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), and to further expansion of routine immunisation. Understanding hesitancy, leading in some cases to refusal, is vital to the success of GPEI. Re-emergence of circulating wild poliovirus in northern Nigeria in mid-2016, after 24months polio-free, gives urgency to this. But it is equally important to protect and sustain the global gains available through routine immunisation in a time of rising scepticism and potential rejection of specific vaccines or immunisation more generally. This study is based on a purposive sampling survey of 1653 households in high- and low-performing rural, semiurban and urban areas of three high-risk states of northern Nigeria in 2013-14 (Sokoto, Kano and Bauchi). The survey sought to understand factors at household and community level associated with propensity to refuse polio vaccine. Wealth, female education and knowledge of vaccines were associated with lower propensity to refuse oral polio vaccine (OPV) among rural households. But higher risk of refusal among wealthier, more literate urban household rendered these findings ambiguous. Ethnic and religious identity did not appear to be associated with risk of OPV refusal. Risk of vaccine refusal was highly clustered among households within a small sub-group of sampled settlements. Contrary to expectations, households in these settlements reported higher levels of expectation of government as service provider, but at the same time lesser confidence in the efficacy of their relations with government. Results suggest that strategies to address the micro-political dimension of vaccination - expanding community-level engagement, strengthening the role of local government in public health, and enhancing public participation of women - should be effective in reducing non-compliance, asan important set of strategies complementary to conventional didactic/educational approaches and working through
EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991
The study determined the features and profitability of snail farming in Osun State. To achieve the study objectives, 20 snail farmers each were randomly selected from Osogbo, Iwo and Ife-Ijesa townships, where majority of snail farmers in the State were located. Data collected from the farmers were analysed using ...
Background: Motorcycle accidents are very common and cause major injuries. The Abia State government banned commercial motorcyclists from operating in the major cities of the state in July, 2009. Objectives: To determine the influence of this ban on the cause and pattern of injuries due to road traffic accidents. Design: ...
This research work was carried out to analyze the economics of honey production in Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the demographic characteristics of honey production, assess the profitability of honey bee and the problems facing honey production .The list of honey farmers in the state was ...
This paper attempts an assessment of the road transport situation in the state based on the road network, road quality, vehicular movement and other infrastructures. It was found that there are many problems facing road transportation in the State. These problems are multi-faceted and range from high traffic, bad condition ...
Inadequate animal protein intake is widely orchestrated among Nigerians especially Ogun State indigenes. This led to investigating other sources of animal protein in the rural and suburban areas of the state that could bridge inadequate supply from the conventional sources of animal protein. Structured questionnaires ...
Pressure is on governments all over the world to increase revenue through taxation in order to provide better services within their jurisdictions. This study attempts to access the Lagos state's revenue performance under the internally generated revenue scheme. Lagos state total revenue data was collected from 2009 to ...
The major objective of this research is to examine the variation patterns of road traffic .... situation in Lagos state is bad because of the absence of effective transport ... environment as judged by the investigating officers. Also .... pattern of road traffic accident occurrence over that part of Lagos State. For ... Ph.D Thesis.
Saleh Mohammed Jajere
Full Text Available Aim. This survey study was conducted from April 2014 through March 2015 in Bauchi, Yobe, and Gombe states, northeastern Nigeria, to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminthosis among indigenous donkeys (Equus asinus. Materials and Methods. A total of six hundred fresh faecal samples were randomly collected from indigenous donkeys of varying age, sex, and settlements. Simple flotation and sedimentation techniques were used for the detection of helminths eggs. Results. Three gastrointestinal nematode parasites were encountered including Strongyle, Parascaris equorum, and Oxyuris equi. An overall prevalence of 98.3% was obtained, of which 78.3%, 40.3%, and 17.5% were, respectively, from Strongyle, Parascaris equorum, and Oxyuris equi. Age, sex, and season were not statistically associated with the risk of helminth infection as were the different study areas (p>0.05. However, body condition score, settlement, anthelminthic medication history, and management practices were significantly associated with the risk of gastrointestinal helminthosis. Statistically high prevalence of helminthic infections was observed in donkeys, with poor (thin body condition, from rural settlements, that were not dewormed and raised under poor management systems (p<0.001. Conclusion. It is concluded from the study that gastrointestinal helminths particularly Strongyle were endemic among the indigenous donkeys in northeastern Nigeria. Further control and preventive measures were discussed.
Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Eteng, Glory; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon
The role of health communication in vaccination programmes cannot be overemphasized: it has contributed significantly to creating and sustaining demand for vaccination services and improving vaccination coverage. In Nigeria, numerous communication approaches have been deployed but these interventions are not without challenges. We therefore aimed to explore factors affecting the delivery of vaccination communication in Nigeria. We used a qualitative approach and conducted the study in two states: Bauchi and Cross River States in northern and southern Nigeria respectively. We identified factors affecting the implementation of communication interventions through interviews with relevant stakeholders involved in vaccination communication in the health services. We also reviewed relevant documents. Data generated were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. We used the SURE framework to organise the identified factors (barriers and facilitators) affecting vaccination communication delivery. We then grouped these into health systems and community level factors. Some of the commonly reported health system barriers amongst stakeholders interviewed included: funding constraints, human resource factors (health worker shortages, training deficiencies, poor attitude of health workers and vaccination teams), inadequate infrastructure and equipment and weak political will. Community level factors included the attitudes of community stakeholders and of parents and caregivers. We also identified factors that appeared to facilitate communication activities. These included political support, engagement of traditional and religious institutions and the use of organised communication committees. Communication activities are a crucial element of immunization programmes. It is therefore important for policy makers and programme managers to understand the barriers and facilitators affecting the delivery of vaccination communication so as to be able to implement
Vocational staff perceived their knowledge level and skill level as medium ... Many state forest reserves in the country were originally set up in recognition of the .... officers are not expected to know anything in marketing of timber( = 3.225) .
Oct 26, 2017 ... State. The predictors of condom use are level of wealth, being unmarried, and primary level of .... barriers. However, condom cost, gender inequality, ..... Kamal and Huda in India, using the 2006 Indian DHS, found that ...
McCarthy, John M
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the continent of Africa has regained its importance to the United States and other developed nations, primarily due to its vast amounts of untapped resources...
... a significant degree of national pride and belief in Nigeria as a state. After 16 years of military rule, Nigeria made a transition to civilian governance in 1999, when Olusegun Obasanjo, a former general, was elected president...
1Department of Community Medicine, Delta State University Teaching ... Therapy Short-course (DOTS), DOTS plus, and the Stop TB Strategy. ... Methods: In this descriptive records review of years 2011-2015, existing data ... Treatment success rate improved from 68.3% in ..... exploration and social interventions to curb it.
The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM), Gravimetric ...
Pérouse, de Montclos M.-A.
This book is the first attempt to understand Boko Haram in a comprehensive and consistent way. It examines the early history of the sect and its transformation into a radical armed group. It analyses the causes of the uprising against the Nigerian state and evaluates the consequences of the on-going
The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...
To determine the pattern of medico legal autopsies performed between January 2001 to December 2005 so as to highlight any differences or similarities to the observation of workers in other parts of the country and/or world. A hospital based retrospective analysis of coroner's autopsies in Abia State University Teaching ...
Using documentary analysis, face-to-face interaction with school health desk officers and the author's work among schools the paper examines the concept of health promoting school (HPS) and discusses its way forward for Bayelsa State. The paper observes that despite the HPS concept signifying a school that constantly ...
This study exploratorily surveyed the process of marketing of rice in Anambra State with particular reference to rice processing, storage and pricing. The results of the analysis show that old people who are mostly illiterate but highly experienced engaged in rice marketing business. Furthermore, there is a significant ...
This study was to assess the percent sample population size of people involved in selected human economic activities and the impact on ecosystem in Rivers State. The data for this study was obtained from a sample size of 1000 respondents who were purposively selected from the study area. Purposive sample was used ...
Cyber cafés' provide important public services. They provide access to wide range of information through the internet via the computer. The study is centered on the use of cyber cafés by households in Delta State. Services provided by the cyber café's were identified. The study revealed that Household with children under ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the social benefits of school farms in secondary schools in Rivers State. The study used two research questions and simple random sampling technique for data collection with a total of 560 questionnaires administered to teachers and students. The results showed that 75% of ...
The state is naturally endowed with both savannah and tropical rainforest vegetations. There are ...... Non-medical ethno-botanical uses of plant (e.g. food, fiber, ritual and spiritual uses: * Local Plant Name(s) .....  WHO web sites. Links for an ...
This paper analysed the major content of the CRA as it relates to Juvenile delinquency, from arrest to committal procedures. This paper revealed that the important first step of legislative reform has been successfully achieved and some machinery has also been put in place at the Federal level and in a few States of ...
Aim: This study aims at ascertaining the current healthcare waste management practices in Anambra State. It highlights the sources of healthcare waste, its classification, the hazards associated with it and the gold standard in its management. The specific objectives are: to determine current practice of healthcare waste ...
The rise in mobile telephony has continued to bridge the wide disparity between urban and rural dwellers, although there are suggestions that mobile phones have not been optimally utilized by rural dwellers. In view of this, the main aim of this study was to examine mobile phone usage in rural communities of Kwara State, ...
The study examined the economic potential of taungya system in Edo state, using of data obtained from both primary and secondary sources with the aid of well structured questionnaires administered to 230 respondents in eight the Local Government Areas practicing taungya farming in government reserved forests.
The data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that there are natural features, historical and religious monuments. Monuments identified during the study include Oke Ewo War Center, Kosegbe stone, Ero Shrine, Orinlasa god's shrine among others. Ekiti State ...
The performance of the marketing system of benniseed in Nasarawa State was determined by using marketing margin models, Analysis of Variance and Duncan multiple range test. Primary data used for analysis were generated through random sampling of 90 farmers and 270 regular middlemen. The results showed that ...
Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson
Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005-2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011 in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different.
Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and milk products, with the highest percentage coming from respondents who consume goat milk only on certain occasions. In general, the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known ...
Full Text Available Bolaji Fapohunda,1 Nosakhare Orobaton1,21International Division, John Snow Inc, Rosslyn, VA, USA; 2Targeted States High Impact Project (TSHIP, Bauchi, NigeriaAbstract: This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women's autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother's socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1 the use of cash subsidies to augment women's incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2 a structural improvement that will increase women's economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation.Keywords: Sokoto State, delivery attendance, maternal mortality rate, maternal health, reproductive health, demographic and health surveys, poverty
Rashidi Akanji Okunola
Full Text Available Festivals and ceremonies are part and parcel of African culture, usually in all its pump, merriment and pageantry. However, with the increasing wave of criminal activities in Nigeria especially in Edo state, festivals and ceremonies are being redefined and conceptualized in practice. Only recently a new festival ‘Festival of Curses’ was brought to the fore in combating crime in Edo state. The study therefore seeks to explain the festival as a traditional mechanism in crime control, the nature of the festival, the factors that led to its emergence in the 21st century, the level of acceptance and its impact in reducing criminal activities in the State. The study employed principally secondary literature and in-depth interviews among a cross section of the Bini. Major findings revealed that immediately after the festival of curses, a lot of criminals in the state besieged the Bini Monarch’s Palace to confess their atrocities; and pleaded for forgiveness. There was an overwhelming acceptance of the festival irrespective of the people’s religious affiliations to Christianity and Islam as a result of the potency and sudden drop in crime during the period. The study concludes that the festival should be taken as a mechanism of crime control and policing in Nigeria.
The paper examines household dynamics as variables for bio-resource or biomass resource potentials and utilisation. Information was collected from 250 randomly selected households in five villages of the State, mainly using questionnaire administered on household heads, and a direct measurement/observation about what households have, do or say concerning the study problem. It was shown that insignificant quantity were utilised for various purposes like cooking and heating, but the bio-resources generated met both domestic and income needs of the households. It was concluded that beneficial use (compost, biogas or generation of electricity) should be found for the largely unused bio-resources and household dynamics should be integrated into bio-resource energy planning
A. I. Olanrewaju; G. O. Avwiri
The assessment of the radiation hazard indices of solid minerals and sand in mining sites of Benue State, Nigeria was carried out using well calibrated radalert-50 and 100 meters and a Global Positioning System (Garmin 765). The sites investigated are Lessle (Barite), Gboko (Limestone), Owukpa (Coal) and Akuana (Salt) deposits fields. The mean background radiation ionization exposure rate of 0.019±0.004, 0.019±0.004, 0.014±0.002 and 0.023±0.005 mRh-1 were obtained respectively. The mean of ab...
Gofama, Mustapha Modu; Verma, Harish; Abdullahi, Hamisu; Molodecky, Natalie A; Craig, Kehinde T; Urua, Utibe-Abasi; Garba, Mohammed Ashir; Alhaji, Mohammed Arab; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Braka, Fiona; Muhammad, Ado J G; Sutter, Roland W
Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) on antibody seroprevalence. We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6-9 and 36-47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child's health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74-87%), 86% (79-91%), and 72% (65-79%) in Borno State, and 75% (67-81%), 74% (66-81%) and 69% (61-76%) in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36-47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80-91%)]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a significant determinant of seropositivity and anti
Mustapha Modu Gofama
Full Text Available Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV on antibody seroprevalence.We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6-9 and 36-47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child's health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74-87%, 86% (79-91%, and 72% (65-79% in Borno State, and 75% (67-81%, 74% (66-81% and 69% (61-76% in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36-47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80-91%]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a significant determinant of seropositivity and
Dilichukwu A. Omemma
Full Text Available The study has as its main thrust the evaluation of the implementation of the national poverty reduction programme in Enugu State of Nigeria. Using cross-sectional and exploratory methods of data collection and analysis, the study discovered that, compared to most states in other parts of the country, Enugu State has a low poverty profile owing to the relative positive impact of the implementation of poverty alleviation programme. Nevertheless, policy inconsistency and mismanagement deny the programme from becoming a total success; hence the existence of a larger number of citizens that are in absolute poverty. It is therefore suggested that the way out of the ineffective poverty reduction programme in Enugu State is the effective monitoring mechanism and the creation of an enabling environment for wealth creation and employment generation.
Mohammed, Balarabe R; Simon, Malang K; Agbede, Rowland IS; Arzai, Auwalu H
Pigeon coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria spp., a protozoan parasite which limits productivity by causing severe illness. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the coccidiosis of pigeons in some parts of Nigeria, there is no published data from Kano State. The intestinal contents of 144 pigeons (72 females and 72 males) were analysed for Eimeria oocysts in 2007 from 12 Local Government Areas of Kano State over the period of six months including the dry (February–April) and wet (June–August) seasons. The pigeons were divided into three groups according to age: squabs (0–4 weeks), squeakers (5–8 weeks) and youngsters (9+ weeks); each group including 48 pigeons. The results of these studies revealed an overall prevalence of 19.44%. The prevalence was higher in females (20.83%) than males (18.06%) (p<0.05). Furthermore, squabs had the highest prevalence (27.08%) followed by squeakers (20.83%), and youngsters (10.42%) (p<0.05). Infection with Eimeria spp. oocysts was higher during the wet season (8.96%) than dry season (5.98%) (p<0.05). This study provides basic information on the first detection of coccidiosis of pigeons in Kano State, Nigeria which has an implication on the sustainable pigeon production for human protein reguirement.
Effiong Ekong Akpan
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hypertension in rural communities compared to that of the urban communities. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors (if any in both urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Subjects and Method. This was a cross-sectional study of urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State for the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors. Two urban cities and two rural communities were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts of the state. Hypertension was defined based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension. Results. Nine hundred and seventy-eight (978 participants were recruited from rural areas and five hundred and ninety (590 from urban centers. The rural populace had higher systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure than the urban populace (P<0.001, < 0.002, < 0.001, resp.. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in the rural populace than in the urban populace [44.3% (95% CI 41.1–47.4% versus 28.6% (95% CI 24.9–32.3%]. Age, BMI, and proteinuria were independent predictors of hypertension occurrence. Conclusion. There is an epidemiologic change in the prevalence of hypertension in the rural communities of Nigeria.
Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon
Effective communication is a critical component in ensuring that children are fully vaccinated. Although numerous communication interventions have been proposed and implemented in various parts of Nigeria, the range of communication strategies used has not yet been mapped systematically. This study forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, an initiative aimed at building research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to: 1) identify the communication strategies used in two states in Nigeria; 2) map these strategies against the existing COMMVAC taxonomy, a global taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions; 3) create a specific Nigerian country map of interventions organised by purpose and target; and 4) analyse gaps between the COMMVAC taxonomy and the Nigerian map. We conducted the study in two Nigerian states: Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria and Cross River State in Southern Nigeria. We identified vaccination communication interventions through interviews carried out among purposively selected stakeholders in the health services and relevant agencies involved in vaccination information delivery; through observations and through relevant documents. We used the COMMVAC taxonomy to organise the interventions we identified based on the intended purpose of the communication and the group to which the intervention was targeted. The Nigerian map revealed that most of the communication strategies identified aimed to inform and educate and remind or recall. Few aimed to teach skills, enhance community ownership, and enable communication. We did not identify any intervention that aimed to provide support or facilitate decision-making. Many interventions had more than one purpose. The main targets for most interventions were caregivers and community members, with few interventions directed at health workers. Most interventions
Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon
Background Effective communication is a critical component in ensuring that children are fully vaccinated. Although numerous communication interventions have been proposed and implemented in various parts of Nigeria, the range of communication strategies used has not yet been mapped systematically. This study forms part of the ‘Communicate to vaccinate’ (COMMVAC) project, an initiative aimed at building research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study aims to: 1) identify the communication strategies used in two states in Nigeria; 2) map these strategies against the existing COMMVAC taxonomy, a global taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions; 3) create a specific Nigerian country map of interventions organised by purpose and target; and 4) analyse gaps between the COMMVAC taxonomy and the Nigerian map. Design We conducted the study in two Nigerian states: Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria and Cross River State in Southern Nigeria. We identified vaccination communication interventions through interviews carried out among purposively selected stakeholders in the health services and relevant agencies involved in vaccination information delivery; through observations and through relevant documents. We used the COMMVAC taxonomy to organise the interventions we identified based on the intended purpose of the communication and the group to which the intervention was targeted. Results The Nigerian map revealed that most of the communication strategies identified aimed to inform and educate and remind or recall. Few aimed to teach skills, enhance community ownership, and enable communication. We did not identify any intervention that aimed to provide support or facilitate decision-making. Many interventions had more than one purpose. The main targets for most interventions were caregivers and community members, with few interventions directed at
Full Text Available Background: Effective communication is a critical component in ensuring that children are fully vaccinated. Although numerous communication interventions have been proposed and implemented in various parts of Nigeria, the range of communication strategies used has not yet been mapped systematically. This study forms part of the ‘Communicate to vaccinate’ (COMMVAC project, an initiative aimed at building research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: This study aims to: 1 identify the communication strategies used in two states in Nigeria; 2 map these strategies against the existing COMMVAC taxonomy, a global taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions; 3 create a specific Nigerian country map of interventions organised by purpose and target; and 4 analyse gaps between the COMMVAC taxonomy and the Nigerian map. Design: We conducted the study in two Nigerian states: Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria and Cross River State in Southern Nigeria. We identified vaccination communication interventions through interviews carried out among purposively selected stakeholders in the health services and relevant agencies involved in vaccination information delivery; through observations and through relevant documents. We used the COMMVAC taxonomy to organise the interventions we identified based on the intended purpose of the communication and the group to which the intervention was targeted. Results: The Nigerian map revealed that most of the communication strategies identified aimed to inform and educate and remind or recall. Few aimed to teach skills, enhance community ownership, and enable communication. We did not identify any intervention that aimed to provide support or facilitate decision-making. Many interventions had more than one purpose. The main targets for most interventions were caregivers and community members, with few
Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah
This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…
Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma
This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…
Amogechukwu, Eze Thecla; Unoma, Chidobi Roseline
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent Head teachers utilize innovative sources of funding primary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed to examine the extent head teachers utilize innovative sources of funding primary schools in Enugu State. Data were collected through a 14-item questionnaire…
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of counselling on gender issues in entrepreneurial development in Benue State (Nigeria. Feminine or women constitute about 50 % of the population in Nigeria, and they make up 45% of the 70% unemployed population. In Benue State, there is low industrial and entrepreneurial skills development, so poverty and under-employment of the feminine gender is endemic. Hence, gender issues as relates to "the forgotten 50% of the world’s population" or as the forgotten factor in economic development was studied using a random sample of fifty working class women. The study examines how this problem can be addressed through counselling. The descriptive survey design was used with one main research question guiding the study. The data was analysed using percentages. The re-sults of the study revealed that forty (80% of the respondents with entrepreneurship development were influenced through education and counseling. Change in attitude of women as a result of education and their role in national development was investigated, and recommendations made on how to help women to fulfil their role by bridging the gender gap.
Tobin-West, Charles Ibiene; Isodje, Anastasia
Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. Yet evidence continues to indicate poor treatment outcomes which have been attributed to poor quality of care. This study aims to identify some of the systemic problems in order to inform policy decisions for improved quality of services and treatment outcomes in Nigeria. A comparative assessment of the quality of TB care in rural and urban health facilities was carried out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0. The level of significance was set at p facility infrastructures were more constrained in the urban than rural settings. Both the urban and rural facilities lacked adequate facilities for infection control such as, running water, air filter respirators, hand gloves and extractor fans. Health education and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) were limited in rural facilities compared to urban facilities. Although anti-TB drugs were generally available in both settings, the DOTS strategy in patient care was completely ignored. Finally, laboratory support for diagnosis and patient monitoring was limited in the rural facilities. The study highlights suboptimal quality of TB care in Rivers State with limitations in health education and HCT of patients for HIV as well as laboratory support for TB care in rural health facilities. We, therefore, recommend that adequate infection control measures, strict observance of the DOTS strategy and sufficient laboratory support be provided to TB clinics in the State.
Iboh Cletus I
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1% were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P 0.05. The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 μl. There was a significant variation (P Conclusions The National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme should intervene by expanding the distribution of albendazole and ivermectin to all endemic areas including Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria.
Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi
Full Text Available Background The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4% households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9% and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6% households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9% of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5% in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004. The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI: 4.7 (1.3–16.8, P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE.
Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Owoaje, Eme; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon
Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings. We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40), in-depth interviews (n = 14) and focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 12) amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach. Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics); media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets). Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance. Communication about vaccination involves more than the message but is
Full Text Available Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings.We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40, in-depth interviews (n = 14 and focus group discussions (FGDs (n = 12 amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach.Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics; media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets. Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance.Communication about vaccination involves more than the
Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.
Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.
Chigozie Jesse Uneke
Full Text Available In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP. The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health.
Samuel Olu Adeyoyin
Full Text Available Young adults bear a higher risk of reproductive health problems than adults. Cases of unwanted pregnancies and their attendant complications reportedly rank among the highest in Africa. This study therefore investigates reproductive health and use of health information among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Correlational research design was adopted using descriptive survey method. Questionnaire was designed and used as survey instrument. The study used 25% of 6,978 undergraduate students from government and private universities in Abeokuta, Ogun State between 16-24 years old from each of the 35 departments that made up 8 colleges in the two universities. A total number of 1,745 copies of questionnaire were administered to the respondents out of which 1,500 copies were filled completely and retrieved making the response rate to be 86.95%. The findings of this study show that friends, parents and relatives were the closest sources of health information the respondents have used for reproductive health purposes. Utilisation of health information through information resources was effective. The study also concludes that cultural value, level of education and unfriendly attitude of health officials were parts of the major problems confronting effective utilization of reproductive health information among young adults in Nigeria.
Temaugee, S.T.; Daniel, T.A.; Oladejo, K.O.; Daniel, S.
This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.
Osemwenkha, Sylvia Osayi
While traditional contraception is widely used, in southern Nigerian modern contraception is a relatively recent phenomenon. Modern contraception is more wide spread among the educated and sexually active youth in Nigeria. Few studies have been done on contraception among educated women in Nigeria. This study was carried out in December 2000 to determine factors that influence the choice of contraceptives among female undergraduates at the University of Benin and Edo State University Ekpoma. Data was collected from a sample of 800 female undergraduates matched ethnic group, socio economic status, religion and rural urban residence. Subjects were selected by proportional representation and the instrument used was closed ended questionnaire. The responses obtained were analysed using Spearman Rank Correlation co-efficient and regression analysis. Findings revealed the highest correlation for availability (r =.96) vis a vis the use of various types of artificial contraceptive and cost (r =.96), next was safety (r =.95) and effectiveness (r =.95). Others were peer group influence (r =.80) and convenience (r =.77). An important step in improving women's reproductive health is the involvement of men. Health programmes should conduct campaigns to educate men about reproductive health and the role they can assume in family planning.
Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M
Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (pfactors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.
Osakwe, Chijioke; Otte, Willem M; Alo, Chimhurumnanya
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in Nigeria. Many individuals are affected in rural areas, although prevalence data is not available. In this study we aimed to establish the prevalence of epilepsy in a rural community in south-east Nigeria, a community suspected for having a high number of people living with epilepsy. We compared this with the prevalence in a nearby semi-urban community in north-central Nigeria. In both communities we identified potential causes of epilepsy and obtained information on the social beliefs regarding epilepsy. We used door-to-door surveys and focus group discussions. The epilepsy prevalence in the rural community was 20.8/1000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.7-27.4]. The prevalence in the semi-rural community was lower, namely 4.7/1000 [CI: 3.2-6.9]. The difference in prevalence was highly significant (χ(2)-test, pepilepsy were in the age range of 7-24 years. Causes that might be contributory to the prevalence of epilepsy in both communities included poor obstetric practices, frequent febrile convulsions, head trauma, meningitis and neurocysticercosis. In both communities we found stigma of people with epilepsy. In conclusion, the epilepsy prevalence in the semi-urban community is similar to that in industrialized countries. In contrast, the rural community has a much higher prevalence. This may require the establishment of specific community-based epilepsy control programs. Community interventions should focus on treatment of acute epilepsy and on stigma reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.
The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…
Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.
This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…
Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Ogunlade, O. Olufunmilola; Osunlade, Olourotimi Rufus
This study investigated the effectiveness of blended learning and E-learning modes of instruction on the performance of undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria. It also determined if the student performance would vary with gender. Quasi experimental that employs pretest, posttest, control group design was adopted for this study. This involves three…
Chukwu, Leo C.; Eze, Thecla A. Y.; Agada, Fidelia Chinyelugo
The study examined the availability of instructional materials at the basic education level in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The research question was answered using mean and grand mean ratings, while the hypothesis was tested using t-test statistics at 0.05 level of…
Ojukwu, M. O.
The major aim of this study was to examine influence of psychosocial factors on aging among the aged in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto or casual comparative research design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) old people were selected through random sampling for the study.…
Udim, Davies Kelvin; Etim, Eyo Akon
This paper examines the use of multimedia in teaching and learning of political science in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A survey research was adopted and the tool employed for this research study was a questionnaire titled "Use of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning of Political Science in University of Uyo" (UMTLPSUU).…
Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.
The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…
Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo
Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…
Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…
Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan
This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…
Agboola, Omowunmi Sola; Emmanuel, Michael
This study investigated awareness of climate change and sustainable development among undergraduates in two universities: University of Ibadan, Ibadan and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso in Oyo State of Nigeria. This was aimed at increasing the knowledge of undergraduates on climate change and sustainable development. The study…
Clara, Okoroafor Nnenna
The present study focuses on nursery school head teacher leadership behaviour as it correlates to nursery school teacher's job satisfaction. Data were collected through a scale and returned by sample of two hundred and fifty nursery school teacher's in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria.Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation…
This study investigated the influence of bio-social variables - educational status, age and family socio-economic background on teacher union leaders' adherence to democratic principles in Ogun State of Nigeria. The study employed the ex-post-facto research design. Five hypotheses were generated and tested using an instrument titled "union…
Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.
This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…
Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Edet, Aniefiok Oswald
This paper explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on career intentions among 500 students drawn from two universities in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire titled…
Olufemi Ernest Ojo; Olajoju Jokotola Awoyomi; Eniola Fabusoro; Morenike Atinuke Dipeolu
Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overal...
Dauda, Bala; Jambo, Hyelni Emmanuel; Umar, Muhammad Amin
This study examined students' perception of factors influencing teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolis of Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which students perceived: qualification, method of teaching, instructional materials and attitude of both…
Charity, Dimlong; Ozoji, Bernadette Ebele; Osasebor, Florence Osaze; Ibn Umar, Suleiman
This study investigated the effects of teaching gardening on science students' attitudes toward entrepreneurial skills acquisition in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria. The study employed the non-randomized pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group design. A sample of 75 senior secondary school students from two intact classes, randomly…
Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at
Adewale, Akinsinde Kehinde; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Abiodun, Iwalokun Bamidele; Afolabi, Oluwadun; Kolawole, Olukoya Daniel; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Ramamurthy, Thanadarayan
The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1, which is responsible for several cholera epidemics in Nigeria, are not reported in detail since 2007. In this study, we screened V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype isolates from cholera cases and water samples from different states to investigate their phenotypic and genetic attributes with special reference to their clonality. All the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolates isolated during 2007-2013 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, the drugs currently used in the treatment of cholera cases in Nigeria. Emergence of CT genotype 7 (Haitian type of ctxB allele) was predominantly seen among Ogawa serotype and the CT genotype 1 (classical ctxB allele) was mostly found in Inaba serotype. Overall, V. cholerae O1 from clinical and water samples were found to be closely related as determined by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. V. cholerae isolates from Abia, Kano and Bauchi were found to be genetically distinct from the other states of Nigeria. Fecal contamination of the water sources may be the possible source of the cholera infection. Combined prevalence of Haitian and classical ctxB alleles were detected in Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively. This study further demonstrated that V. cholerae O1 with the ctxB has been emerged similar to the isolates reported in Haiti. Our findings suggest that the use of fluoroquinolones or tetracycline/doxycycline may help in the effective management of acute cholera in the affected Nigerian states. In addition, strengthening the existing surveillance in the hospitals of all the states and supply of clean drinking water may control cholera outbreaks in the future.
Abubakar Sadiq Umar, MBBS, MPH, MHPM, FWACP
Full Text Available Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey with records from 33,385 women between 15-49 years who had given birth between January 2003 and December 2008 in Yobe State. Bivariate Pearson’s Chi square test and two stages of Multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Results: Women with at least primary level education (adjusted OR (AOR = 2.40; CI 1.24 – 4.67, belonging to professional employment category (AOR = 12.07; CI 0.19 – 75.74 and those who had access to skilled health workers (AOR = 5.13; CI 2.50 – 10.52 are more likely to make the required number of ANC visits compared to those who are illiterates, unemployed and had no access to skilled health workers. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: This study demonstrated that educational level, family wealth income, and availability of skilled health worker were consistently associated with the number of ANC visits even after controlling for covariates. These three covariates are in tandem with the Millenium Development Goals (MDG 1 – eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 2 – universal basic education; MDG 3 – gender equality; and MDG 4 – maternal mortality. There is the need for inter-sectoral holistic intervention approach.
Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N
As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4 : 1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6 : 1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2 ± 11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state.
Abass, Bada Tayo
This paper focused on the use of computer technology in the teaching and learning of graphic arts in Nigeria colleges of Education. Osun State Colleges of Education Ila-Orangun was used as a case study. The population of the study consisted of all Graphic students in Nigeria colleges of Education. 50 subjects were used for the study while…
Nkono, N.A.; Asubiojo, O.I.
The levels of some trace elements; Co, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg, Se, As, Ni and minor elements; Na, K, Ca and Mg were determined in public drinking water supplies (public taps and groundwaters) in three states in Southeastern Nigeria using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The mean levels of most of the trace elements in the groundwater samples were below the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water quality limits, the only exception being Hg whose mean value of 3.69 μg/l exceeded the WHO limit of 1.0 μg/l. Violations of the WHO limits were also observed for Fe, Zn, Se and Pb in some of the groundwater samples. In the public tap samples only Hg violated the WHO limit. (author)
Ojo, T.J.; Ojo, O.C.
Measurement of the average radioactivity concentration in brackish and fresh water food samples in Lagos and Ondo States of Nigeria was carried out using a very sensitive gamma spectroscopic system consisting of a 76 mm x 76 mm Nal (TI) scintillation detector coupled to a computerized ACCUSPEC installation. All the radionuclide detected are traceable to the naturally occurring 4 ''0K and ''2''3''2Th. The average concentrations of ''2''3''8U and ''2''3''2Th were found to be higher in brackish water food samples, 50.92±7.04 Bq/kg and 24.60± 6.47 Bq/kg respectively. The average concentration of ''4''0K was found to be higher in food samples got from freshwater, 738.94±84.81Bq/kg
Meka, Ijeoma Angela; Okwara, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Meka, Anthony Obiamaka
Contraception means procedures employed to interfere at one stage or the other with the normal sequence of events in the process of reproduction leading to a failure in conception. It means voluntary techniques adopted to achieve birth control. Its use remains sensitive worldwide. Within the same society, contraception varies amongst people of different socio-cultural, educational, religious, or occupational affiliations. It also varies between urban and rural settlements. Some contraceptive techniques also prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of STIs also varies with these same factors. There is very limited literature on contraception exclusively amongst bankers. We sought to investigate the level of awareness and practice of contraception amongst bankers in an urban society in Lagos State, Nigeria. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 200 self-administered structured questionnaires were retrieved from bankers from 5 banks selected by simple random sampling in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data was subsequently statistically analyzed using SPSS. The age range was 21-45 years, mean 28.8±1.4 years, 51.7% were males (72% single, 27% married, 1% separated) and 48.3% were females (52.4% single, 47.6% married). All (100%) respondents were aware of contraception, 93.3% males and 91.7% females were sexually active, 88.9% males and 84.5% females believe contraception is useful. Most (71.4%) respondents practice contraception, males (81%) being more than females (61.1%), p males believe that contraception prevents pregnancy but not STIs, 28.6% of females and 46.6% of males believe it prevents both pregnancy and STIs, whereas 14% of males and no female believe contraception prevents STIs but not pregnancy. The awareness of and practice of contraception was very high among the bankers but more male bankers practice contraception whereas more female bankers perceive contraceptives to be for the married only.
Full Text Available The Leprosy Mission Nigeria conducted a disability survey in Kogi and Niger States of Nigeria in 2005, investigating the demographic characteristics of people with disabilities, including gender, age, religion, marital, educational, occupational, employment and economic status, understanding of disability and health-seeking behaviour. Information was gathered from a convenience sample of participants, across 30 randomly selected towns and villages in the two states. Twelve trained bilingual research assistants were used, to translate the English language questionnaire verbally into the local language of each participant. From the 1093 respondents studied, the most common disabilities involved vision (37%, mobility (32% or hearing (15%. A third of these were less than 21 years of age and had no occupation, and 72% were Muslim. Over half of them had no education, 20% had primary, 8% secondary, 2% tertiary and 18% had Islamic education. Common occupations were begging (16%, studying (14%, farming (11% and trading (8%.The majority were unemployed (61% due to their disability. Over 70% were not able to access disability specific health services and 37% had an assistive device. Services accessed included health - mainstream (90%, traditional (61% and counselling (58%; and other - rehabilitation (30%, assistive device provision (24%, welfare (22%, special education (15%, vocational training (10% and economic empowerment (4%. These results are comparable with findings in other studies. Disability affects a person’s ability to participate in education, work, family life and religion, influences health-seeking behaviour and contributes to poverty.See supplementary file for Survey Questionnaire.DOI 10.5463/DCID.v1i22.11
Nnanna Mba Agwu
Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to determine the factors that influenced youth participation in agricultural labour in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to; identify the types and composition of farm labour engaged by the respondents in the study area, determine the factors that influence participation of the youths in agricultural labour; and make recommendations based on the findings. This study employed a multi-stage sampling technique in the selection of the respondents; where 4 local government areas (LGAs were selected from each of the agricultural zone, 10 communities randomly selected from each of these local government areas and finally, 10 youth farmers were chosen from the 10 communities. In all, a total number of 100 farmers were used for the study. The source of data was primary and so used questionnaire to solicit information from the respondents. Descriptive statistics and probit model were employed in the analysis of the data. Apart from bush clearing and mound making where males participated majorly, female’s percentage in the participation of all other farm operations outnumbered those of men. Estimates of the determinants of agricultural labour participation among youths in the study area showed that the coefficients of education of the respondents, income from nonagricultural sources, occupation of the parents, education of the father, farm size and the rate of mechanization influenced agricultural labour participation among the youths in Abia State, Nigeria. Apart from the coefficient of farm size that had a positive sign, the other variables had negative relationship. The study recommended that the cost of mechanization should be made affordable amongst other things to attract youths in agricultural participation.
Jonathan Ojo Oke
Full Text Available Creativity is a natural endowment which can easily be displayed by children athome. Children are often seen playing with objects and drawings because of their natural quest and inward disposition to explore and come out with creative ideas or products. It is therefore imperative for parents to encourage and develop children at home to achieve this to greater heights. The aim of this study, therefore was to determine the influence of parents in development andvocational interest of children in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study was carried outusing 400 Junior Secondary School students of age eleven to thirteen as samples. Specifically, the study sought to identify the types of creative activity the students normally engage in; their vocational interests and the influence their parents had in their creativity development and vocational interest. A Child-Creative Inventory Form (CCIF was used as an instrument for quantitative data collection. Data collected was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study reveal that children in Ekiti State, Nigeria love to engage in creative activities mostly in technical and vocational skills, and that they are motivated by their parents to do so. The study also found that even though the students do engage in creative activities in vocational activities, yet their vocational interest is much more on other disciplines order than vocational subjects as influenced by their parents. It is therefore recommended that parents and teachers should encourage children whenever they are engaged in creative activities at home and in schools and help those to develop their career based on the children’s areas of interest.
Solarin Adewale RT
Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST (B = 0.308, p = 0.013. While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035, rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005, ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274, dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769 and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008 soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs
Iliyasu, Zubairu; Verma, Harish; Craig, Kehinde T; Nwaze, Eric; Ahmad-Shehu, Amina; Jibir, Binta Wudil; Gwarzo, Garba Dayyabu; Gajida, Auwalu U; Weldon, William C; Steven Oberste, M; Takane, Marina; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Sutter, Roland W
In September 2015, Nigeria was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries after more than 12months had passed since the detection of last wild poliovirus case in the country on 24 July 2014. We are presenting here a report of two polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in September 2013 and October 2014, respectively, in the Kano state of northern Nigeria. Health facility based seroprevalence surveys were undertaken at Murtala Mohammad Specialist Hospital, Kano. Parents or guardians of children aged 6-9months, 36-47months, 5-9years and 10-14years in 2013 and 6-9months and 19-22months (corresponding to 6-9months range at the time of 2013 survey) in 2014 presenting to the outpatient department, were approached for participation, screened for eligibility and asked to provide informed consent. A questionnaire was administered and a blood sample collected for polio neutralization assay. Among subjects aged 6-9months in the 2013 survey, seroprevalence was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51-66%) to poliovirus type 1, 42% (95% CI 34-50%) to poliovirus type 2, and 52% (95% CI 44-60%) to poliovirus type 3. Among children 36-47months and older, seroprevalence was 85% or higher for all three serotypes. In 2014, seroprevalence in 6-9month infants was 72% (95% CI 65-79%) for type 1, 59% (95% CI 52-66%) for type 2, and 65% (95% CI 57-72%) for type 3 and in 19-22months, 80% (95% CI 74-85%), 57% (49-63%) and 78% (71-83%) respectively. Seroprevalence was positively associated with history of increasing oral poliovirus vaccine doses. There was significant improvement in seroprevalence in 2014 over the 2013 levels indicating a positive impact of recent programmatic interventions. However the continued low seroprevalence in 6-9month age is a concern and calls for improved immunization efforts to sustain the polio-free Nigeria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F
Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more
Uzoma Heman Ononye
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Facebook has made it possible for organisation to embrace social and network centric knowledge processes by creating opportunities to connect, interact, and collaborate with stakeholders. We have witnessed a significant increase in the popularity and use of this tool in many organisations, especially in the private sector. But the utilisation of Facebook in public organisations is at its infancy, with many also believing that the use of Facebook is not a common practice in many public organisations in Nigeria. In spite of this fact, our discernment on the implications of Facebook usage in public organisations in Nigeria, especially organisations at the local level, seem to be remarkably limited. This paper specifically sought to ascertain if Facebook usage influenced inward and outward knowledge sharing in the selected local government councils in Delta State, Nigeria Methodology: The qualitative method was adopted. The study used interview as the primary means of data gathering. The study purposively sampled thirty-six employees as interviewees, twenty from Oshimili South and sixteen from Oshimili North local government councils respectively. The thematic content analysis method was used to analyse interview transcripts. Contribution: This research made distinct contributions to the available literature in social knowledge management, specifically bringing to the fore the intricacies surrounding the use of Facebook for knowledge sharing purposes in the public sector. Findings: The local government councils were yet to appreciate and utilise the interactive and collaborative nature of Facebook in improving stakeholders’ engagement, feedback, and cooperation. Facebook was used for outward knowledge sharing but not for inward knowledge sharing. Recommendations for Practitioners: Local government councils should encourage interaction via Facebook, show willingness to capture knowledge from identifiable sources, and effectively manage
Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua; Adelabu, Modupe A.
The current study examines the state of learning environment and infrastructure, together with their effects on teaching and learning activities and the extent to which they are being maintained. The study uses a descriptive survey design paradigm. Respondents consist of 60 principals and 540 teachers that were randomly selected using the multi-stage sampling technique from a pool of 599 public secondary schools in the Ondo State, South-West, Nigeria. Data were collected using the Learning En...
Ekenna, O; Chikwem, J O; Mohammed, I; Durojaiye, S O
In 1990, an outbreak of a febrile illness with high mortality was reported in border villages, later spreading to other areas of Borno State of Nigeria. To present a report of the investigation of that outbreak, with emphasis on the characterisation of hospitalised patients. Selected centres reporting cases of acute febrile illness during the months of August to December, 1990 were visited, to establish surveillance. Case investigation forms were used to obtain clinical and demographic data; and blood samples were obtained from patients for analyses. Only hospitalised patients with adequate clinical information from three centres were included in the analysis. The outbreak, which involved five of the six health zones in the state, and spread into adjoining Gongola state and the Cameroun Republic, was caused by the yellow fever virus. Fever, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, jaundice and haemorrhage were the most common clinical manifestations of 102 hospitalised patients. Eighty -three (81%) of hospitalised patients died and most within two days of admission. CNS manifestations were more common in dying patients than in survivors. The reasons for this rare outbreak of yellow fever in the dry Savannah belt of Borno State remain unclear. Improved surveillance and more effective prevention strategies are needed to avert the recurrence of such outbreaks.
Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Elger, Bernice Simone
A woman's lack of or limited reproductive autonomy could lead to adverse health effects, feeling of being inferior, and above all being unable to adequately care for her children. Little is known about the reproductive autonomy of married Ikwerre women of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study demonstrates how Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages. The collected data was analysed qualitatively with MAXQDA 11 using open and axial coding. The interviews and focus group responses reveal a low level of awareness of autonomy and reproductive rights amongst the Ikwerre women in Nigeria. While some educated women were aware of their reproductive rights, cultural practices were reported to limit the exercise of these rights. Participants reported that Ikwerre culture is a patriarchal one where married women are expected to submit and obey their husbands in all matters; and a good married woman according to Ikwerre standard is one who complies with this culture. Women's refusal of sexual advances from their husbands is described as not being acceptable in this culture; and hence rape in marriage is not recognized in Ikwerre culture. Education and awareness creation on the importance of women's reproductive autonomy could improve their reproductive rights and autonomy in marital settings. Overcoming the patriarchal aspects of Ikwerre culture-for example, the greater value placed on male children than female children and treating women as incompetent individuals-is necessary to promote gender equality as well as help improve women's reproductive autonomy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.
Full Text Available The following article considers the extent to which the Nigerian jihadi group, Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JAS, also known as Boko Haram, is transforming its model of governance from domination by violence and force to governance through civil administration and public support. Drawing on over four years of research and programming in north-east Nigeria, the authors consider three aspects of such a transformation: the development of institutions, the propagation of an ideology and programmes to win over the hearts and minds of the wider population, and the role assigned to women and girls. The article finds that JAS has established little in the way of a civilian administration in the areas that have come under its control. Likewise, the movement has apparently made no concerted effort to project a vision of a future society or concrete benefits of the envisaged caliphate that would generate a level of public support. Moreover, the brutal treatment of women and girls belies any attempt by the movement to promote a positive vision of the role of women, even as wives and mothers. In this, JAS is seen to differ from a number of other jihadi movements that have relatively sophisticated approaches to generating popular support and recruiting members. The article goes on to suggest a number of reasons for JAS’s failure to move towards a polity that is more consensual and less dependent on violence, as well as its implications for those who would seek to restrain the expansion and ideological reach of jihadist groups. It concludes by offering suggestions of how the government can seize the opportunity presented by this lack of a state-building strategy, in order to show the people of north-east Nigeria that it can offer a better alternative.
The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.
Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O
Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67+/-3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24+/-3.24, 10.76+/-3.50 and 9.01+/-3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p=0.000), domain 3 (p=0.029), domain 4 (p=0.000) and total score (p=0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p=0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r=0.319, p=0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r=0.372, p=0
Ayoade, Modupe Alake
Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.
Aweda, M A; Ajekigbe, A T; Ibitoye, A Z; Evwhierhurhoma, B O; Eletu, O B
The global system mobile telecommunications system (GSM) which was recently introduced in Nigeria is now being used by over 40 million people in Nigeria. The use of GSM is accompanied with exposure of the users to radiofrequency radiation (RFR), which if significant, may produce health hazards. This is the reason why many relevant national and international organizations recommended exposure limits to RFR and why it is made compulsory for GSM handsets to indicate the maximum power output as a guide to potential consumers. This study was conducted to measure the RFR output power densities (S) from the most commonly used GSM handsets used in Lagos State and compare with the limit recommended for safety assessment. Over 1100 most commonly used handsets of different makes and models as well as wireless phones were sampled and studied in all over the local government areas of the State. An RFR meter, Electrosmog from LESSEMF USA was used for the measurements. The handsets were assessed for health risks using the reference value of 9 Wm(-2) as recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The range of the S-values obtained varied from a minimum of 1.294 0.101 Wm(-2) with Siemens model R228 to a maximum of 16.813 +/- 0.094 Wm(-2) with Samsung model C140*. The results from wireless telephones showed very low S-values ranging from a minimum of 0.024 +/- 0.001 Wm(-2) with HUAWEI and ST CDMA 1 to a maximum of 0.093 +/- 0.002 Wm(-2) with HISENSE. The results showed that the population in Lagos State may be at risk due to significant RFR exposures resulting principally from the use of GSM. Quite a number of handsets emit power above the ICNIRP recommended value. Measured RFR power close to Radio and Television masts and transmitters are within tolerable limits in most cases, only that the public should not reside or work close to RFR installations. Phone calls with GSM should be restricted to essential ones while youths and children
Ebie, J C
The paper discusses the present machinery for the administration of health care facilities in the Midwestern State of Nigeria and makes suggestions for improvement. The multiplicity of autonomous authorities involved in the running of health care facilities and the compartmentalization of health care into 'preventive' aspects (managed by the State Ministry of Health and Local Authorities) and 'curative' aspects (managed by the State Hospitals Management Board) are seen as the main disadvantages of the present system. A new administrative set-up is suggested, the highlights of which include the creation of a number of Area Health Boards that will have responsibility for all State Government and Local Authority health care facilities in their respective geographically defined areas of jurisdiction (this will abolish the artificial division between the administrations of 'preventive' and 'curative' aspects of health care), more professional divisions in the state Ministry of Health (which will retain responsibility on behalf of government for policy matters and the provision of health care facilities) than at the moment, a State Health Service Commission and A State Health Advisory Committee. It is important for doctors and other personnel in the health care field to know something about the administrative machinery of the health care delivery system in which they work. Apart from doctors who are trained in certain postgraduate fields, most other doctors do not appear to have any formal training in or early exposure to medical administration and yet, some of them get called upon during their career to undertake administrative duties at a very high level. This paper describes the present system of administration of health care facilities in the Midwestern State and offers suggestions for consideration for improvement. It is a well known fact that the administration of health care facilities in the Midwestern State has improved considerably in recent years. The
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.
Onyeonoro, U U; Aguocha, G U; Madukwe, S O; Nwokeukwu, H I; Nwamoh, U N; Aguocha, B U
Early case detection and prompt treatment have been identified as key strategies for effective control and elimination of leprosy disease. Hence, control efforts should include among others treatment of the disease and disability prevention. This study is aimed at determining prevalence and pattern of disability among leprosy patients treated in a Leprosy Center in Abia State, Nigeria. Records of 287 leprosy patients treated in Uzoakoli Leprosy Center, Abia State between 2002 and 2006 were reviewed and analysed. Findings showed 23 (9.9%) with childhood leprosy, 206 (83.7%) multi-bacillary type and 64 (28.4%) with grade 2 disability among the leprosy cases.Four children (15.4%) presented with grade 2 disability at diagnosis. Prior to treatment 80 (27.9%) had grade 2 disability, while 11 (6.6%) at the end of the treatment.,Based on EHF score 85 patients (50.9%) out 167 patients who completed treatment had impairment before treatment; on completion of treatment 133 (89.9%) of them improved, while 5 (3.4%) deteriorated. The lower limb (92.6%) was the most affected site in the leprosy patients,, while the eye (3.4%) was the leastaffected. The current leprosy control efforts should be intensified to ensure early case detection and prompt treatment in order to reduce the leprosy burden, including disabilities in individuals and community at large.
Rasheed Kola Ojikutu
Full Text Available This study examines the effect of neighborhood deprivation on the perception of the individuals about their own health in Lagos State, Nigeria. Respondents were required to rate their own health as "excellent, very good, good, fair, poor and very poor". The questionnaire contained questions on various aspect of the respondents neighborhood and their perception about them. It was found that most neighborhoods in Lagos State are deprived of basic essentials of life such as electricity, water, good roads and security. Over 43% of the respondents claimed to have visited a hospital two or more times and 43.7% had lost at least two neighbors in the past one year. Over half (57.8% of the respondents rated their own health as good, 36.6% ranked their own health as fair while only 5.6% claimed to have poor health. A fitted regression model ( r2 = 0.644 showed that variables such as number of dependants, income, occupation, type of residential accommodation, ownership of house, number of rooms occupied, mode and convenience of transportation, accessibility to water, electricity and good roads and security jointly determine the perception of an individual about his own health status.Key Words: Neighborhood, Deprivation, Self Rated Health, Security, ResidenceDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1364Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.193-210
Grace Oluwabukunmi Akinsola
Full Text Available In a bid to strengthen the agricultural sector in Nigeria, the Kwara State Government invited thirteen Zimbabwean farmers to participate in agricultural production in Kwara State in 2004. The main objective of this study therefore was to examine the effect of the activities of these foreign farmers on local farmers’ poverty status. A questionnaire was administered on the heads of farming households. A total of 240 respondents were used for the study, which was comprised of 120 contact and 120 non-contact heads of farming households. The analytical tools employed included descriptive statistics and the Foster, Greer and Thorbecke method. The result indicated that the non-contact farming households are poorer than the contact farming households. Using the disaggregated poverty profile, poverty is most severe among the age group of above 60 years. The intensity of poverty is also higher among the married group than the singles. Based on the education level, poverty seems to be most severe among those without any formal education. It is therefore recommended that a minimum of secondary school education should be encouraged among the farming households to prevent higher incidence of poverty in the study area.
Adediran Daniel Ikuomola
Full Text Available Research emphasising effects of migration on left behind families often focus on implications of absent fathers, particularly in Africa and areas with historic male migration. Yet, information on the experiences of left behind wives in a patriarchal and familial setting is scanty. This Study explore the socio-cultural challenges facing wives of migrants (Bini women, in Edo State, Nigeria. Specifically it examines the stigmatised experiences and the effect of cultural constrains on women adjustment to life in the absence of their husbands. Drawing on qualitative data collected from in-depth interviews with twenty-one (21 left-behind wives in Benin, Edo State. The study shows how women are confronted with traditions and the need to readjust their lives amidst cultural and familial cooperations and constrains. Narratives buttressed on the excessive surveillance through significant others and the renegotiation of living arrangements based on patriarchal values and expectations. Life adjustment was described as stigmatic, hectic and demanding in maintaining the home front.
Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu
Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common
Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2
Ojiyi, Ec; Anolue, Fc; Ejekunle, Sd; Nzewuihe, Ac; Okeudo, C; Dike, Ei; Ejikem, Ce
Limited knowledge and practice of contraception is a global public health problem. Unintended pregnancies are the primary cause of induced abortion. When safe abortions are not available, as in Nigeria with restricted abortion laws, abortion can contribute significantly to maternal mortality and morbidity. Adequate information on the awareness and the use of emergency contraception is necessary for planning interventions in groups vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy. The aim of the following study is to access the awareness, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in Imo State University, South Eastern Nigeria. A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey using female undergraduates selected randomly from Imo State University, Owerri. A total of 700 students participated in the study. Awareness of emergency contraception was very high (85.1%) (596/700). The awareness was significantly higher amongst students in health related faculties than in the non-health related faculties (P = 0.01). The main sources of information were through friends (43.1%) (317/700) and lectures (22.1%) (192/700). High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was the most commonly known type of emergency contraception (70.8%) (422/596). Only 58.1% (346/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception approved of their use. The major reasons given by the 41.9% (250/596) who disapproved of their use were religious reasons (50.4%) (126/250) and that they were harmful to health (49.2%) (123/250). Two-third (67%) (46 9/700) of the students were sexually active and only 39.9% (187/469) of them used emergency contraception. High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was again the most commonly used method (70.8%) (422/596). The most common situation in which emergency contraception was used was following unprotected sexual intercourse (45.5%) (85/144). Only 34.6% (206/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception identified correctly the appropriate time interval
Okoli IC; Ndujihe GE; Ogbuewu IP
This study was conducted to determine the frequency of isolation of salmonella and their microbial resistance profiles across different commercial poultry feeds sold in Imo State, Nigeria. Thirty-six bulk feed samples were colleted from 154 bag across different feed types and brands which included Guinea (GF), Top (TF), Vital (VF), Extra (EF), Animal care (AF) and livestock (LF) feeds. The salmonella isolated were tested against 14 anti-microbial drugs using the disc diffusion method. Bacteri...
Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPC)varietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM) and Low Population High Market (LPHM) on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this stud...
AYENI, Adeolu Joshua
Abstract. The study assessed teachers’ classroom management strategies, the level of teachers' classroom instructional tasks and determined the effect on students’ academic performance, and further examined the constraints in classroom management in secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey and ex post facto research designs were adopted. Five research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The sample consisted ...
Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH; Etomchi Maria-stella, NJOKU
Competition is necessary for enhanced customer welfare and efficiency. This study focused on marketing efficiency of packaged water in Imo state Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic profile of the respondents; levels of marketing efficiency of packaged water and its determinants. The study employed purposive and multistage sampling technique in the selection of location and respondents respectively from whom information were elicited. Analytically, descriptive statistics, sche...
Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve
Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeed...
Ezeonwumelu, Adanna Ngozi; Eunice, Akinloye Bolanle; Ezenugu, Isaac A.
In this paper, the development of Sales and Inventory Workflow Management Information System (SIWfMS) web portal for Petrospan Integrated Services, Eket, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria was presented. Rapid Application Development (RAP) methodology is used in the web application development. Three-tier architecture based on WAMP server configuration was adopted. The WAMP server was made up of Windows Operating system; Apache web server, MySQL database system and PHP server-side scripting langue. The...
Emiri; Ogochukwu T.
Abstract Libraries all over the world have been faced with the evolving technological advancement globalization and digitization of information. These have led to library automation digital and virtual libraries. This paper discussed the contemporary digital literacy skills DLS among librarians in university libraries the 21st century in Edo and Delta States of Southern Nigeria. The study was guided by six objectives and research questions and one hypothesis. The design of the study is descri...
Jemikalajah, Johnson D.; Okogun, Godwin Ray A.
To assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the study population in Delta State of Nigeria. Two hundred and five patients suspected of HIV and TB were prospectively studied in Kwale, Agbor and Eku in Delta State of Nigeria from February 2006 to February 2008. Human immunodeficiency virus status was determined using World Health Organization systems II, and Zeihl Nelson staining technique was used for TB screening. A health point prevalence rate of 53.2%, was obtained for HIV, 49.3% for TB, and 16.6% for HIV/TB. The population of HIV positive (p=0.890, p=0.011, p=0.006) and TB positive (p=0.135, p=0.0003, p=0.0001) subjects were statistically significant among the suspected subjects while the HIV/TB positive cases were not statistically significant (p=0.987, p=0.685, p=0.731). Our study showed that HIV and PTB infections remains high in parts of Delta State in Nigeria. (author)
Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel
Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
Machiadikwe N. Benjamin Agbarevo Nwogu
Full Text Available Motivation is known to affect effectiveness of workers but the level of extension agents motivation and how this has affected their effectiveness in Abia state is apparently unknown. A study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of motivation on effectiveness of extension agents in Abia State Nigeria. Two blocks were selected from each of the three zones in the state at the first stage giving total of 6 blocks. The second stage involved the selection of two sub-circles from each of the 6 blocks selected giving a total of 12 extension sub-circles. At the third stage 10 extension agents from each of the sub-circles were randomly selected giving a sample size of 120 extension agents. The data for the study was collected with use of a structured questionnaire. The extension agents level of motivation and effectiveness were measured with the aid of a 5 point Likert rating scale. Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics used were the mean frequencies and the Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient which was used to determine the coefficient of correlation r . The inferential statistic used was the t-test of significance of relationship. The study found a significant relationship between the level of motivation and effectiveness of extension agents. Hence the null hypothesis which stated that there is no significant relationship between the level of motivation and effectiveness of extension agents was rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted at 95 confidence level and 119 degrees of freedom.
Uwaezuoke, Stanley Chibuzo; Udoye, Ezenwa Patrick
There has been no previous study to classify benign breast lesions in details based on histopathologically confirmed diagnosis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study therefore aims to review all cases of benign breast lesions seen in all the three centres in Bayelsa State with histopathology services over a five year period for a comprehensive baseline data in our community for management, research and education. This is a multicentre retrospective descriptive study based on histopathological diagnosed benign breast lesions from January 2009 to December 2013. Archival results and slides on benign breast lesions were retrieved and analysed using simple statistical methods. A total of 228 benign breast lesions (68.3%) were seen among 334 histopathologically diagnosed breast diseases. The male to female ratio was 19.7:1. Peak age incidence was the third decade (43%) with a mean age of 29.1years. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for 45.6% of all the cases followed by fibrocystic change (23.1%). The mean ages of fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change were 23.1years and 31.1years respectively. Inflammatory breast lesions constituted 8.3%. We recorded only 2 cases (0.9%) of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) with no case of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) within the study period. Gynaecomastia (4%) was the main male breast lesion in the study. Benign breast diseases are the most common breast lesions in Bayelsa State. Fibroadenoma is the most common lesion followed by fibrocystic change. The incidence of atypical hyperplasia recorded was rather low in the state.
for the control of lassa fever in Nigeria. [Afr J Health Sci. 2010 ... by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta,. USA, in 1969 ... malaria, typhoid, yellow fever, upper respiratory tract infection and other ..... Health Policy Plan. 2006; 21: 411.
By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.
Tukur, J; Ahonsi, B; Salisu, I; Oginni, A B; Okereke, E
Nigeria has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world. Eclampsia is a major contributor to the deaths especially in Northern Nigeria where the culture of teenage marriage is common. Kano is the state with the highest population in Nigeria. Despite its effectiveness, magnesium sulphate was been used to treat eclampsia and severe preclampsia in only one of 35 general hospitals inthe state as at 2007. In 2008, magnesium sulphate was introduced in 10 General Hospitals in Kano state of Northern Nigeria in a Population Council project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The aim of the study was to determine if the maternal outcomes improved. Doctors and midwives from the 10 hospitals were trained on the use of magnesium sulphate. The trained health workers later conducted step down trainings at their health facilities. Magnesium sulphate, treatment protocol, patella hammer and calcium gluconate were then supplied to the hospitals. Data was collected through structured data forms. The data was analysed using SPSS. Within a year of the project, 1045 patients with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia were treated. The case fatality rate for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia fell from 20.9% (95% CI 18.7-23.2) recorded before the project to 2.3% (95%CI 1.5-3.5) after the project. The perinatal mortality rate in those that received magnesium sulphate was 12.3% (CI 10.4-14.5) while the 5min APGAR score for 72.9% of the babies was 7 or more. Training of health workers on updated evidence based interventions and providing an enabling environment for their practice are key components to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 WO Adebimpe,1 JO Bamidele,2 OO Odu,2 IO Asekun-Olarinmoye,3 EO Ojofeitimi41Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Health, School of Public and Allied Health, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaObjectives: To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo.Materials and methods: Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents' self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0.Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3% of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP, 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%, ignorance (32.6%, misinformation (25.1%, superstition (22.0%, and culture (20.3%. Some reasons were proffered for respondents' nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents' approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and
OLANIYI ALABA OLOPADE
Full Text Available Olopade OA, Rufai OP. 2014. Composition, abundance and diversity of the Family Cichlidae in Oyan Dam, Ogun State, Nigeria. Biodiversitas 15: 195-199.This study was conducted to determine status of the family Cichlidae in Oyan Dam, Nigeria, during the wet and dry seasons of 2011. Samples were collected using multi-mesh gillnets ranging between 30 mm to 80 mm. Simpson's Diversity Index was used to determine the species richness, while dominance and evenness were given by Shannon's index. A total of 547 individuals were caught from Imala (S1 and Ibaro (S2 sites of the dam. Species collected include Sarotherodon galilaeus (42.60%, Oreochromis niloticus (17.92%, Tilapia zillii (25.41%, Hemichromis fasciatus (10.61% and Tilapia mariae (3.48%. Juveniles and sub-adults and adults were among the catch, the sizes were as big as 12.85±0.29cm SL, 109.22±6.00g BW in Tilapia zillii and small as 6.09±0.05cm SL and 8.07±0.15g BW in Hemichromis fasciatus. The diversity indexes showed that the diversity of Cichlids was lower in the two sites observed in Oyan Dam. The estimates of diversity indexes showed lower value for site 1 (0.284 than for site 2 (0.294; Simpson's diversity index was 0.716 for site 1 and 0.703 for site 2 while reciprocal indexes for site 1(3.521 was slightly lower than site 2 (3.367. Shannon-Wiener’s Index recorded in the site 1 (1.36 was slightly lower than site 2 (1.37. Pielou’s Index value recorded for site 1 was 0.845 and 0.852 for site 2. Sarotherodon galilaeus, Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii and Tilapia mariae exhibited a positive allometric growth pattern while only Hemichromis fasciatus showed a negative allometric growth.
Oluyomi F. Bamiselu
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria case management remains a vital component of malaria control strategies. Despite the introduction of national malaria treatment guidelines and scale-up of malaria control interventions in Nigeria, anecdotal evidence shows some deviations from the guidelines in malaria case management. This study assessed factors influencing adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in public and private sectors in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 432 (216 public and 216 private healthcare workers selected from nine Local Government Areas using a multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on availability and use of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT, for management of uncomplicated malaria. Adherence was defined as when choice of antimalarials for parasitological confirmed malaria cases was restricted to recommended antimalarial medicines. Association between adherence and independent variables were tested using Chi-square at 5 % level of significance. Results Malaria RDT was available in 81.9 % of the public health facilities and 19.4 % of the private health facilities (p = 0.001. Its use was higher among public healthcare workers (85.2 % compared to 32.9 % in private facilities (p = 0.000. Presumptive diagnosis of malaria was higher among private healthcare workers (94.9 % compared to 22.7 % public facilities (p = <0.0001. The main reason for non-usage of mRDT among private healthcare workers was its perceived unreliability of mRDT (40.9 %. Monotherapy including artesunate (58.3 % vs 12.5 %, amodiaquine (38.9 % vs 8.3 % and chloroquine (26.4 % vs 4.2 % were significantly more available in private than public health facilities, respectively. Adherence to guidelines was significantly higher among public
Ijarotimi, O S; Ijadunola, K T
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 402 children (10-15 years) randomly selected from twelve public and private primary schools in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on children's demographic features and parent's socio-economic characteristics. The subject's weight, height, height-for-age and weight-for-height z-score were measured and determined respectively. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices consisted of 60 questions was administered in a quiet classroom within 60 minutes to assess intelligence quotient (IQ) of the children. The means of measured parameters were: age, 11.5 +/- 0.08 years; weight, 33.3 +/- 0.35 kg; height, 1.4 +/- 0.0 m; height-for-age z-score, -0.003 +/- 0.04; weight-for-height z-score -7.2E-7 +/- 0.1 and IQ, 20.9 +/- 0.56 (34.8%). The occupations of the children's parents were civil service (43.3%), petty business (21.9%), farming (15.8%), vocational jobs (16.0%) and none (3.2%). The majority of the parents (31.8%) had secondary school education. Parents with no formal education, primary education, tertiary education and higher degrees accounted for 7.2%, 30.6%, 22.9% and 7.4%, respectively. Monthly incomes ranged between $38.5 and 230.8. Weight-for-height z-score of the children showed that 49.8% were normal, 40% mildly wasted, 9.7% moderately wasted and 0.5% severely wasted. Height-for-age z-score was 50% normal, 35.1% mildly stunted, 13.4% moderately stunted and 1.5% severely stunted. IQ scores were 5% superior 11.2% above average, 11.4% average, 8.2% below average and 64.2% intellectual deficit. The interrelationship between height-for-age, IQ and socio-demographic characteristics showed that there were insignificant differences between the age groups, gender and socio-economic status of the pupils. Conclusively, this study showed that the proportion of malnourished and intellectual deficit among the studied population were high. However, it is not clear whether
Full Text Available Higher education institutions face immediate pressure to preserve existing building facilities within the campuses and enhance the capacity of their higher education system to address growing demands of an increasing influx of students and academic activities. There is no doubt that dilapidated and unhealthy buildings in a decaying environment depresses the quality of life and contributes in some measure to antisocial behaviours. The buildings of higher education institutions in Nigeria only receive top management attention when there is a problem. Hence, the paper assessed the building maintenance management practices of 6 higher institutions available (2 universities, 2 polytechnics and 2 colleges of education in Niger State. This was done by interviewing the Directors of Works of the 6 institutions using a structured interview method. The study revealed that there was no maintenance manual in any of the Works Department of the higher education institution, no user satisfaction survey has ever been conducted and none of the institutions had a computerised maintenance management system (CMMS in place. In addition to these, corrective maintenance was mostly adopted and there was inadequate staffing of the field operatives. All these shortcomings might be responsible for the backlog of maintenance work experienced in the institutions studied. A proactive maintenance system should be put in place, CMMS should be adopted to enhance effective maintenance work, and top management should be enlightened on the imperative of maintenance among other issues competing for funds within the institutions and be more flexible in allocation of resources to enhance maintenance works.
Eyitayo Olufunmilayo Akinyemi
Full Text Available This paper examined the motivational factors for entrepreneurial empowerment of people with special needs, and determined the level of knowledge, skills, attitudes and competences that are necessary to become self-employed and contribute to individual growth and societal development rather than living in poverty, liabilities as beggars along the roads in Ondo and Osun states, Nigeria. Exploratory survey was adopted, using interviews and focus group discussion. The study revealed that most deaf and dumb in the societies who are involved in entrepreneurial skills development are cobblers, dry cleaners, tailors, bricklayers, carpenters, and hair dressers; while some disabled are into music, typing, teaching and trading. At the same time many are still depending on members of the society for survival. Many disabled are not motivated into engaging in entrepreneurial activities as the attitude of the society towards them does not indicate these people could be useful in different entrepreneurial activities of their abilities, while some families use their disabilities as sources of income. It is therefore recommended that parents should understand that no matter the nature of their children’s disability, individual is useful in one area or the other; people with special needs should be encouraged to engage themselves in entrepreneurial skills development and establish them after graduation. Members of the society and the government in particular should create avenues to identify areas where each disabled is gifted, develop them to be useful for themselves and the development of the society.
Full Text Available The study examined the value addition practices and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enugu State of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting a total of seventy-two (72 respondents used for the study. Results revealed that all (100% of the respondents processed African yam bean through sun drying, husking/hulling and preservation/storage while about 88.9% of the respondents processed the crop through frying/baking while 87.5% and 70.8% of the respondents indicated they were involved in winnowing and grinding. Lack of basic physical infrastructure (M=2.39, lack/poor technology on processing, preservation etc (2.35, difficulty in accessing loan (M=2.28 and lack of technology/innovation on production of the crop (M=2.28 were among the constraining factors to value addition in African yam bean. It is recommended that policy makers should work towards providing the necessary technology and basic infrastructure to farmers in order to increase their productivity, income and commercialization of this underutilized but important crop. Research efforts are also required to improve its agronomic characteristics and promote its cultivation.
Full Text Available Abstract The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis PFA and hierarchical cluster analysis CA was employed to evaluate and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data 77.305 of the variance. Out of nine parameters examined the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters borehole depth borehole casing static water level and dynamic water level loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.
Zacharias Ternenge Nyiatagher
Full Text Available The paper presents profi tability and marketing effi - ciency of maize in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Stratifi ed random sampling was used to select three hundred (300 maize marketers comprising producers (210, wholesalers (32 and retailers (58 in eight (8 major markets in the study area. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, marketing margin and marketing effi ciency. It was found that maize marketing in the study area was dominated by males (64.7% and young people (55.0% who are energetic enough to withstand the stress involved in the business. The marketing margin of an average maize marketer in the study area was N2,012.00 per 100kg and the percentage marketing margin was 37.2%. This showed that maize marketing in the study area was profi table and 100% retail price paid by the fi nal consumer resulted in farm-to-retail price spread or marketing margin of 37.2%. The marketing effi ciency (0.28 of mai ze in the study area indicated that the marketers were ineffi cient in maize business. It was recommended that government, non-governmental organizations and the rural populace should strive hard to improve the transportation network and the marketers should belong to marketing associations so that they can collectively access loans from rural banking institutions
Full Text Available The traditional palm fruit processing method is basically manual, but is currently undergoing changes. This study identifies the stages that have been mechanised in traditional processing methods and the socio-economic implications of the technical change to assist decision-making on the superiority or otherwise of the mechanised (modern method over the traditional method used by processors in Osun State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected during the 2004 production season with the aid of a structured questionnaire on the production resources and outputs of the two methods. These were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, budgetary technique dominance and sensitivity analyses, and attitudinal measure. Results indicate that only two (pounding to form paste and cracking of the stages identified in the traditional method were mechanised in the modern method. This resulted in greater efficiency of palm oil extraction, higher labour productivity, more income to stakeholders, greater market orientation, increased volume of operation and unchanged product types and quality. Other consequences are the creation of one additional group of stakeholders (machine owners, dominance, resilience to adverse yield and machine charges by 27 per cent and 150 per cent, respectively; more favourable attitude, less drudgery and health hazards, less labour requirements (female and lower processing time in the modern method than the traditional method. This made the modern method a better choice, which could boost palm oil production at the aggregate level.
Nnanna M. AGWU
Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.
Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE
Full Text Available This Study on cassava entrepreneurship and gender participation was carried out in Udi local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Quarterly data from a panel of thirty male-headed and thirty female-headed cassava-based farm households randomly selected followings a multistage sampling of ten out of 24 autonomous communities of the study area was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Both male and female entrepreneurs engaged more on three of cassava products namely Garri, Fufu and Tapioca on account of relatively better profits from them. Segregating male from female entrepreneurs, participation of males in cassava enterprise was negatively influenced by adult number of males, time spent on housework, and daily non-farm wage while participation of females in the enterprise was influenced by adult number of females in household, daily non-farm wage, time spent on housework and frequency of contact with extension agency with challenges of high operational costs, and poor packaging on the enterprise in the area. To bring male and female entrepreneurs at par in terms of resource needs, all social and cultural constraints on female access to arable land and credit should be addressed by law such that that there will be prohibition against any discrimination on women. We recommended provision of financial credit and grants for SMEs development to enable entrepreneurs (especially women purchase fertilizers and automated machines for processing, and packaging of the products to attract better prices.
Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor
Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.
Full Text Available Although commercial motorcyclists are gaining acceptance by all and sundry as a means of public transport which are adapted to the contemporary Nigerian society. However, expose to all hazards including accidents are further worsened by the lack of proper knowledge on road safety measures of the commercial motorcycle riders. Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of a commercial motorcycle on health and traffic safety in Gombe metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in Gombe Metropolis with using the random sampling technique to select 500 motorcyclists sample size. The data generated were analyzed using simple percentages. The study finds that most of the motorcycles accidents were caused by reckless riding, drug abuse and disregard to traffic rules. Similarly, the study finds that Tricycles are the most important factor causing motorcycle accidents in Gombe metropolis. Furthermore, the study finds that most of the respondents suffer from at least one health challenge as a result of their continuous use of the motorcycle. The study therefore recommends that government and other relevant agencies should be equipped with materials and human resources to embark on regular and massive breath testing of motorcyclists to detect riders who ride under the influence of drugs. This can be achieved through identifying the Drunken riders and make them face the wrath of the law.
Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F
Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 ± 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 ± 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 ± 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed.
Asaolu S. S.
Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of enhanced phytoextraction on the accumulation of heavy metals by Alocasia microrrhiza cultivated on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The application of 1g/kg EDTA decreased the heights of plants relative to control, but significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in various tissues of the plant. Notably, concentration of Pb and Cu were greater than the threshold value of 100mg/kg, indicative of the fact that Alocasia microrrhiza could be a good candidate for Pb and Cuphytoextraction. BF, TF and RR values (1.1–1.6, (4.3-4.8 and (1.4–2.3 revealed the effectiveness of the plant to translocate Pb and Cu to their harvestable portion. RRs values greater than one also indicated the efficiency of plant under chelate-induced phytoextraction. However, the concentration of heavy metals did not vary significantly at p < 0.05 (LSD test in all dumpsites investigated.
Adisa, R.S.; Balogun, K.S.
The study examined the impact of improved technologies on the lives of small-scale soybean farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Findings revealed that 35.6% of the respondents were between 31 and 40 years old, 40.6% had household size of between 6 and 10 members. Majority of the respondents were male, married, and had secondary school education. Tobit analysis revealed that farmers socioeconomic characteristics which include gender, educational status and farming experience; and farmers knowledge on soybean innovations were significant factors determining the adoption of improved soybean production technologies. These factors were statistically significant at p=0.05. The adoption of improved soybean technologies has had a clear positive impact on farmers belief on soybean innovations. The major problems facing farmers in the adoption of improved soybean production technologies according to Kruskal-Wallis ranking were high cost of inputs, problem of labour availability and lack of credit/loan. The results of this study provide a strong case for the promotion of soybean as a solution for malnutrition and a means of poverty alleviation for poor people. (author)
Victoria I. Audu
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the welfare effects of improved maize technology in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study also examined the determinants of the adoption of improved maize technology. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting the primary data for the study. A multi-stage random technique was used in selecting 125 farm households for the study. The Logit and ordinary least square (OLS models were used in analyzing the data. The OLS results show that adoption of improved maize varieties is positively and significantly related to household welfare and thus has contributed to moving farm households out of poverty. Other variables found to be statistically significant in explaining household welfare are education, household size, and landholding. The Logit results show that age, household size, off-farm income, and education were found to be significant in influencing farmers’ adoption decisions. Some robustness checks were performed with different specifications of the Logit and OLS models as well as re-estimation with propensity matching score approach. Overall, the results are robust to different specifications.
Fatuase, A. I.
This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.
Talaat M. Ramadan
Full Text Available Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria is part of the Neoproterozoic to Early Phanerozoic terrane separating the west African and Congo Cratons. Three main gold-bearing shear zones were detected in the study area from the processed Landsat ETM+ images and extensive ground investigation. Field and petrographical studies indicate that the Neoproterozoic rocks are represented by a highly folded and faulted belt constituted of hornblende, muscovite and graphite schist. They are intruded by granondiorites and late to post granitic dykes. Extensive alteration zones were identified using high resolution QuickBird image along Garin Hawal shear zone. The alteration zones and associated quartz veins are generally concordant with the main NE–SW regional structural trend and are dipping to the NW. Geochemical studies indicate that the gold content reaches 8 g/t in the alteration zones, while it reaches up to 35 g/t in the quartz veins. Mineralogical studies indicate that the alterations are strongly potassium-enriched. Pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite, gypsum and quartz also occur. The main ore minerals are gold, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, galena and iron oxides. This study indicates that the alteration zones and the associated quartz veins in the muscovite schist are promising and need more detailed exploration for Au and Ag mineralization to evaluate their potential.
Osadebe, Lynda U; MacNeil, Adam; Elmousaad, Hashim; Davis, Lora; Idris, Jibrin M; Haladu, Suleiman A; Adeoye, Olorunsogo B; Nguku, Patrick; Aliu-Mamudu, Uneratu; Hassan, Elizabeth; Vertefeuille, John; Bloland, Peter
Kano State, Nigeria, introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in March 2015 and was the pilot site for an RI data module for the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS). We determined factors impacting IPV introduction and the value of the RI module on monitoring new vaccine introduction. Two assessment approaches were used: (1) analysis of IPV vaccinations reported in NHMIS, and (2) survey of 20 local government areas (LGAs) and 60 associated health facilities (HF). By April 2015, 66% of LGAs had at least 20% of HFs administering IPV, by June all LGAs had HFs administering IPV and by July, 91% of the HFs in Kano reported administering IPV. Among surveyed staff, most rated training and implementation as successful. Among HFs, 97% had updated RI reporting tools, although only 50% had updated microplans. Challenges among HFs included: IPV shortages (20%), hesitancy to administer 2 injectable vaccines (28%), lack of knowledge on multi-dose vial policy (30%) and age of IPV administration (8%). The introduction of IPV was largely successful in Kano and the RI module was effective in monitoring progress, although certain gaps were noted, which should be used to inform plans for future vaccine introductions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Full Text Available Background: Respiratory problem is one of the major health hazards in dust-exposed workers; it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Objective: To determine the prevalence of respiratory problems and lung function impairment among quarry workers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Methods: Respiratory problems and lung function were studied in 403 quarry workers aged 10–60 years. Respiratory problems were investigated with a questionnaire based on international models adapted for the study population. Lung function was assessed by spirometry and chest roentgenography. Results: The respiratory problems found were chest pain (47.6%, occasional cough (40.7%, occasional shortness of breath (6.5% and wheezing (5.2%. The mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values were significantly decreased with length of exposure—respectively, 3.52±0.77 and 3.91±0.72 L for 10 years of exposure. Moreover, the mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values of smoker (3.37±0.81 and 3.56±1.02 L, respectively were significantly (p<0.05 lower than that of non-smokers (3.68±1.02 and 3.89±0.99 L, respectively working in the quarry site. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to dust due to stone quarrying may increase the risk of respiratory problems and impaired lung function—cigarette smokers are at higher risk.
Full Text Available Many households in developing countries experience low energy consumption and this make them depend upon wood fuels for their energy. This study examined socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas were selected based on the accessibility and the availability of charcoal farmers among ten Local Government Areas. Results show that 74% of the respondents were male while 26% were female that are into production of charcoal in the study area. 37.5% of the age range (41–50 of respondent produces more charcoal than other age range. The respondent did not go beyond primary school educationally and they are all married. However, respondents with over 11–20 years of experience in the production of charcoal have higher percentage of frequency. Some of the problem faced by the producers of charcoal in Oke Ogun area are scarcity of trees, wildfire, government disturbance and transportation. Trees commonly used for production are from inherited farms and most of the trees used are Butyrosopermum paradoxium, Dialium guineense, Terminalia glaucencens, Khaya ivorensis. Production is once in a month and later exported. Energy provision is a basic human need and consumption is closely related to the level of a country’s development.
Oct 16, 2012 ... aimed at churches, mosques, banks and police stations. ..... exported to the United States, which makes Nigeria the fourth largest oil supplier to .... state structure of Nigeria and the provinces within the federal states.
Adenike O. Omosun
Full Text Available Background: Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in teaching hospitals in Lagos State and to determine the factors that influence their attitude and practice towards it. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire which was interviewer-administered. The study was conducted in the two teaching hospitals in Lagos State (LUTH [Lagos University Teaching Hospital] and LASUTH [Lagos State University Teaching Hospital] from amongst 350 women attending the gynaecological clinics. All the patients under management for infertility at the gynaecology clinics during the period of the study were interviewed. Results: Many respondents (85.7% had heard of child adoption and 59.3% of them knew the correct meaning of the term. More than half of the respondents (68.3% said that they could love an adopted child but less than half of them (33.7% were willing to consider adoption. Only 13.9% has ever adopted a child. The major reason given for their unwillingness to adopt was their desire to have their own biological child. Factors that were favourable towards child adoption were Igbo tribe identity, an age above 40 years, duration of infertility above 15 years, and knowing the correct meaning of child adoption. Conclusion: There is a poor attitude to adoption even amongst infertile couples. Interventions need to be implemented to educate the public on child adoption, to improve their attitude towards adoption and to make it more acceptable.
FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (II
Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect data from primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the study areas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.
Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect datafrom primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the studyareas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.
Oluwayemisi Abidemi Onasanya
Full Text Available Nigeria is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with insufficient food and high food import bill, which have debilitating effects on the productive capacity of the citizens. Maize is the most important cereal after rice and its production contributes immensely to food availability on the tables of many Nigerians. This study examined the contribution of maize production to household food security status of rural maize-farming households in the southern guinea savannah of Oyo state, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 200 farm households and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, recommended daily calorie requirement (RDCR approach, Logit model. Results showed that about three-quarters of the households were food secure and were able to meet the recommended calorie intake of 2260Kcal per capita per day. The shortfall index (P which measures the extent of deviation from the food security line, indicated that the food secure households exceeded the RDCR by 65%, while the food insecure households fell short of the RDCR by 31%. The logit model showed that maize output, gender, primary occupation of the farmer, farm size and farming experience had a positive influence on food security status while age had a negative influence on the food security status of maize-based farming households in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Oyo State, Nigeria. This suggests need for specific support to improve maize production
Asambe, A; Sackey, A K B; Tekdek, L B
This study investigated the prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from a total of 460 pigs, including 416 from 74 piggeries and 44 from Makurdi slaughter slab. The samples were analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit to detect the presence of ASFV antibodies, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to detect antibodies to CSFV. Our findings showed a total ASF prevalence of 13 (2.8%), while prevalences of 7 (1.7%) and 6 (13.6%) were observed in piggeries and in Makurdi slaughter slab, respectively. However, no CSFV antibody sera were detected in this study. Relatively higher ASFV antibody-positive pigs were detected in the slaughter slab than in piggeries. The difference in prevalence of ASF between the two locations was significantly associated (p = 0.017). These findings suggest the presence of ASFV antibody-positive pig in Benue State, Nigeria. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of these diseases among pigs in Nigeria to prevent any fulminating outbreak are recommended.
Sunday Brownson Akpan
Full Text Available The study examined the price transmission and market integration of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Average monthly prices (measured in naira per kilogram of Maize and Cowpea in rural and urban markets were used in the analysis. The data was obtained from the quarterly publications of the Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP. The data covered the period; January 2005 to June 2013. The trend analysis showed that, prices of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets had exponential growth rates that were less than unity, which suggested a possible co-movement of these prices in the study area. Also, the Pearson correlation coefficient generated for the pair of rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans revealed significant linear symmetric relationships. The result implies the existence of symmetric market information flows between the rural and urban markets for Maize and Beans in the state. The Granger causality test revealed bi-directional relationships between the rural and urban price of Maize and Beans in the study area. The co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans. The coefficients of the price variables in the co-integration equations for Maize and Beans markets converged to unity or law of one price which implied perfect market integration in the long run. The results of the error correction model (ECM also confirm the existence of the short run market integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans in the study area. In addition, it was discovered that, the rural price of Maize adjusted faster to the stable state in the long run than the urban price. Likewise, the urban price of Beans adjusted faster than its corresponding rural price. The index of market connection (IMC supported the high short run market integration for prices of Maize and Beans in rural and urban markets. Based
Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F
The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.
Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J
Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria.
Okuonghae, E O P; Onyenekwe, C C; Ahaneku, J E; Ukibe, N R; Nwani, P O; Asomugha, A L; Osakue, N O; Aidomeh, F; Awalu, C C
Diabetes mellitus has become an onerous disease to developing countries such as Nigeria. Rapid acceptance of urbanisation and sedentary life styles pose an encumbrance to its prevention and management. Increased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus has been implicated as a culprit in perpetuating antioxidant depletion and diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus individuals. This study aims to evaluate the level of antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) female participants visiting the out-patient diabetic clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 86 participants aged 51±10 years were recruited for this study. The test group consists of 43 already confirmed type 2 diabetes mellitus females, while the control group consists of 43 apparently healthy females. The test subjects were further subgrouped into good and poor glycaemic control groups, using a cut-off of 0.05). This study concludes that there is antioxidant depletion in females with type 2 diabetes.
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively.The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population.Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants' knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis
Full Text Available Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV is a highly contagious, fatal and economically important viral disease of small ruminants that is still endemic and militates against the production of sheep and goats in endemic areas of the world. The aim of this study was to describe the viral strains within the country. This was carried out by collecting tissue and swab samples from sheep and goats in various agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The phylogeny of archived PPRV strains or isolates and those circulating and causing recent outbreaks was determined by sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N-gene. Twenty tissue and swab samples from apparently healthy and sick sheep and goats were collected randomly from 18 states, namely 3 states in each of the 6 agro-ecological zones visited. A total of 360 samples were collected. A total of 35 samples of 360 (9.7% tested positive by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, of which 25 were from oculo-nasal swabs and 10 were from tissue samples. Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis using Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP identified four different lineages, that is, lineages I, II, III and IV. Interestingly, the Nigerian strains described in this study grouped in two separate major lineages, that is, lineages II and IV. Strains from Sokoto, Oyo, Plateau and Ondo states grouped according to the historical distribution of PPRV together with the Nigerian 75/1 strain of lineage II, while other strains from Sokoto, Oyo, Plateau, Akwa-Ibom, Adamawa, Kaduna, Lagos, Bauchi, Niger and Kano states grouped together with the East African and Asian strains of lineage IV. This finding confirms that both lineage II and IV strains of PPRV are circulating in Nigeria. Previously, only strains of lineage II were found to be present in the country.
Jan 24, 2012 ... Nigeria, project financing can be secured in Central bank of Nigeria, state ... governments also finance projects for different sectors of the economy ... International Monetary Fund (I.M.F) is a similar body of World Bank that is.
Sonubi, O.K.; Ogunjimi, A. A.; Adeyemo, A. I.
Hotel accommodation in Nigeria is comparatively more expensive than its neighbours in the sub region of West Africa. It is one of the most expensive globally. This is attributable to its operating environment. Any sustainable means of reducing running costs would be most welcome. A study on adoption of renewable energy technologies (RET) was conducted in Osogbo and Olorunda Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from registered hotels in the two local government are...
Saleh Mohammed Jajere
Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14, sex (males - 19 and females - 181, and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120 were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, and microtiter agglutination test (MAT. Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%, 10 (5.0% and 18 (9.0% were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05. Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.
Ukegbu, A U; Ebenebe, E U; Ukegbu, P O; Onyeonoro, U U
The practice of optimal breastfeeding including exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life is still rare among nursing mothers despite numerous benefits of breastfeeding. This study was aimed at identifying the factors influencing breastfeeding pattern among nursing mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out in three comprehensive health centres of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) located at Neni, Ukpo and Nnewi communities of Anambra State. A semi structured questionnaire was interviewer administered on 228 nursing mothers consecutively selected by a systematic random sampling method as they visited the maternal and child welfare clinics. In addition, four sessions of focus group discussions (one in each centre) involving 8-10 nursing mothers were held. Most mothers 190 (83.3%) were aged between 20 and 34 years. About 152 (66.6%) had attended or completed secondary education and were mainly traders 86 (37.7%) and full time house wives 66 (29.0%). Majority 208 (91.2%) had at least good knowledge of breastfeeding. Their main source of breastfeeding education was government health facilities (80.85%). Only 85 (37.3%) breastfed exclusively. Exclusively breastfeeding was significantly associated with maternal older age, parity, delivery at government facility, positive family attitude towards exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding education from government health facility (p < 0.05). Focus group discussion showed that mothers believed that adequate nutrition, physical, financial and emotional support to them would increase exclusive breastfeeding practice. Exclusive breastfeeding rate was low among the mothers and the factors identified to influence its practice have important implications to breastfeeding intervention programmes. Activities to promote exclusive breastfeeding should be focused on the group of women and location in which it was poorly practiced. In addition, support to the mothers would
A prevalence study was carried out to determine the gastrointestinal parasites among trade donkeys brought to the three major donkey markets of Alkaleri, Bauchi and Soro in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 116 donkeys comprising of 69 Idabari, 24 Duni and 23 Auraki breeds were randomly selected and examined for ...
Items 1 - 50 of 490 ... ... Absence of mecA gene in methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus isolated ... their effect on farmers living standard in Bauchi local government area, Bauchi state, Nigeria, Abstract. EF Fabiyi, S Kushwaha ... Vol 4, No 1 (2008), Analysis of some operations of a modern transport service system, Abstract.
Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect on farmers living standard in Bauchi local government area, Bauchi state, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of 82 rice growers from these villages. The data ...
Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Igweonu, Obianuju U
Anaemia during pregnancy continues to constitute significant challenge to maternal health in Nigeria and contributes substantially to the worsening maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Nigeria despite a global reduction in MMR in response to effort to improve safe motherhood. The incidence of anaemia during pregnancy is still high (>40 %) in Nigeria, and attitudes and management practices are yet unclear as the peoples' understanding of the phenomenon remains unclear. This study explored the perceptions/attitudes on anaemia during pregnancy and practices to prevent and/or manage it in Anambra State. In-depth interview and focus group discussion data were collected from health workers and mothers who delivered within 6 months preceding the study and from mothers and husbands of women who delivered within 6 months preceding the study, respectively. The people expressed some knowledge of anaemia, being common in pregnancies. However, some expressed the view that anaemia being a typical sign of pregnancy cannot be prevented. Some mothers expressed desire for focused antenatal care services to control anaemia but lamented the attitude of the health workers, who make access to these interventions difficult. Control of anaemia in pregnancy should start with providing health education to pregnant women and their partners, who reinforce what the women are told during antenatal care, and with training health workers for friendlier attitudes to clients.
Full Text Available Abstract The study inter-annual variability of rainfall in some states in Southern Nigeria focuses on analyzing the trends and fluctuations in annual rainfall over six states in Southern Nigeria covering a period of 1972 2012. In order to ascertain the variabilitys and to model the annual rainfall for future prediction to enhance policy implementation the quantitative and descriptive analysis techniques was employed. The rainfall series were analyzed for fluctuations using Standardized Anomaly Index SAI whereas the trends were examined using Statistical Package for Social Science Software SPSS 17.0. At 95 percent confidence level observations in the stations may be signals that the wetter period dominates the drier periods in this study. Each of the series contains two distinct periods when the rainfall anomalies negative and positive of a particular type were most significant. The period where the annual rainfall is above one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Wet and the period below one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Dry for each station. The results of the linear trend lines revealed an increase in rainfall supply over the period of study especially of recent. The annual rate of increase in rainfall over the period of investigation 1972 - 2012 were 15.21mmyear for Calabar 2.18mmyear for Port Harcourt 22.23mmyear for Owerri 3.25mmyear for Benin City 5.08mmyear for Enugu and 16.29mmyear for Uyo respectively. The variability in amount of annual rainfall revealed that in 2012 Calabar received the highest amount of rainfall of about 4062.70mm and the least value of 2099.4mm in 1973. In Porthacourt the highest amount of rainfall occurred in 1993 with a value of 3911.70mm and the least value in 1983 with a value of 1816.4mm. Owerri recorded the highest amount of rainfall of about 3064.0mm in 2011 and the least value occurred in 1986 with a value of 1228.4mm. In 1976 Benin received the
Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya
Awareness of the State Regulation of smoking law was low however ,many of the workers support many aspects of the law. They however, believed the law would negatively impact revenue. Mechanisms to educate these workers and deal with their misconceptions of the perceived negative effects of the law should be implemented. Monitoring the awareness and support of these workers for smoke-free legislation is essential, in line with the guidelines for Article 8 of the WHO FCTC.
Ofomola, M. O.; Iserhien-Emekeme, R. E.; Okocha, F. O.; Adeoye, T. O.
An integrated geophysical and geotechnical investigation has been carried out at site III of the Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. This took place in a bid to generate information on the competence of the soil in withstanding stress and strain emanating from overburden or pore pressure, swelling, cracking and other anthropogenic activity in relation to civil engineering and building structures. An electromagnetic method employing the very low frequency (VLF) technique, and electrical resistivity employing the Wenner and the vertical electrical sounding techniques were used for this study. Soil samples were also collected at depth for geotechnical analysis. Isoresistivity slices generated from the data of 33 VES stations at 1 m showed generally low resistivity values of subsurface earth materials, classified as clayey sand, sandy clay or clay, and ranging from 60-300 Ωm. However, at depths of 3 and 5 m, the result showed a generally high resistivity distribution with values ranging from 500-6000 Ωm, which is an indication of competent Earth materials of fine to coarse grain sand. The results of the liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, cohesion, angle of internal friction and clay content of the soil samples vary from 10%-17%, 18%-29%, 3%-15%, 45-95 KN m-2, 31°-35° and 14%-22% respectively. The low cohesion, low clay content and high angle of internal friction of the soil at the encountered depth makes it competent for engineering foundation. It is concluded that the subsoil in the area, starting at a depth of 3 m, is a competent material for hosting engineering structures.
Full Text Available Farmer perception of their environment is a factor of climate change. Adaptation to climate change requires farmers to realize that the climate has changed and they must identify useful adaptations and implement them. This study analyzed the per-ception of climate change among rural farmers in central agri-cultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Climate change studies often assume certain adaptations and minimal examination of how, when, why, and conditions under which adaptations usually take place in any economic and social systems. The study was conducted by survey method on 131 respondents using struc-tured interview schedule and questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model to test that education, gender, and farming experience influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results showed that the farmers were aware of climate change. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from intensified agriculture, population explosion, increased use of fossil fuel, loss of in-digenous know practice to gas flaring. The effects of climate change on crops and livestocks were also identified by the rural farmers. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates, using different crop varieties, installing fans in livestock pens, and applying irrigation. Almost half of them did not adapt to climate change. The linear regression analysis revealed that education, gender, and farming experience influ-enced farmers’ perception of climate change. The major barriers to adaptation to climate change included lack of information, lack of money, and inadequate land.
Omaka Ndukaku Omaka
Full Text Available This study evaluated the hydrogeochemical attributes and quality of groundwater resources in Ngbo, Ohaukwu Area Council of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in order to determine whether boreholes in the area were suitable for potable uses. Eleven groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug boreholes between February and March, 2013. The physiochemical parameters of the samples were then analyzed to determine electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. The quality of these characteristics was evaluated by comparing them to the Nigerian Institute of Standards, the Bureau of Indian Standards and the World Health Organization standards for drinking water quality. Mass abundance of the major ions was in the order of Mg2+ > Ca2+ for cations, Cl- > SO4 2 - > NO3 - > PO4 3 - for anions and Fe > As > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for trace metals. Correlation analysis revealed both positive and negative correlations among the parameters. Also, one-way ANOVA tests revealed that no significant differences existed between physiochemical parameters (F = 1.004 < Fcrit =1.977, major cations and anions (F =0.547 < Fcrit =2.008 and trace metals (F = 0.772 < Fcrit = 1.940 regardless of the sampling location. Groundwater in the area was generally hard, alkaline and highly mineralized, making it unsuitable for drinking in some places due to high total hardness and TDS; but it was generally suitable for irrigation purposes. It is recommended that boreholes be flushed regularly to aid in the removal of mineralized deposits, and that regular hydrogeochemical studies be conducted in order to detect future deterioration of water quality
Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy
Lawan H. Adamu
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine sexual dimorphism as well as to predict sex using facial linear dimensions and angles among Hausas of Kano state Nigeria. A total of 283 subjects comprising 147 males and 136 females age range 18–25 years participated. Photographs methods were used to capture the face. Independent sample t-test was used to test for sex differences in the variables. Binary logistic regression was applied to obtain a predicting equation (BLR model for sex. The predicted probabilities of BLR were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curve. The results showed that all the facial linear dimensions showed significance sexual dimorphism except interocular distance, upper facial width, philtrum length, lower vermilion width, left and right orbital width. With regards to sex prediction, upper facial height was the single best predictor of sex with an accuracy of 76.2% and 24–33% contribution to the prediction. However, the percentage accuracy increased to 91% when six variables were pooled together in the equations. For facial angles, only nasion and aperture modified angle did not show significant gender differences. However, in the variables with significant sexual dimorphism only nasomental angle showed a significant level of sex prediction with an accuracy of 70.3%. In conclusion, sex discrimination using facial linear dimensions and angles was well established in this study. The sex of an individual of Hausa ethnic group can be determined using facial linear dimensions. Dispite sexual dimorphsm shown by facial angles, only nasomental angle was good discriminator of sex.
Jones A. Akangbe
Full Text Available Objective. The study examines the personal health practices of small scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Primary data were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire which was distributed to 120 small scale farmers. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages were used, as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation and analysis for empirical analysis. Results. Results revealed that more than half (55% smoke cigarettes, about 48% drink alcohol to a very great extent, while the majority (64.5% indicated they have not been screened to know their HIV status. On a positive note, the results further show that the majority 70%, 53.3%, 80% and 73.3% indicated that they eat a balance diet, engage in physical activity, practice safer sex, and regularly visit a health care centre, respectively. It also revealed that 77% have not attended any training on healthy living. The results of PPMC showed that the health knowledge of respondents had significant (p<0.01 influence on practices like cigarette smoking, eating a balance diet and regular visits to a health care centre. Conclusion. It was concluded that health threatening practices such as cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol among the majority of the respondents, coupled with their lack of health knowledge from health professionals, contributes to the poor health status of respondents which eventually negatively influences the labour efficiency of farmers. It is recommended that farmers should endeavour to make use of health literacy programmes introduced to them at local government level, and that the government should provide more of these health literacy programmes.
Babatunde Michael Matanmi
Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of the Fadama III program on dry-season vegetable growers in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study emanated from the need to know how well agricultural programs have achieved their targets. Data collected from 200 beneficiaries selected through a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques were used for the study. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive statistics, a five-point Likert scale, and a t test. The results showed that the beneficiaries were mainly female, married, and relatively old, with farming as their primary occupation. The benefits accrued from the program by the farmers were a knapsack sprayer, training on record keeping, agro-chemicals, fertilizer, improved seeds, a watering can, pest and disease management, conflict resolution, and the construction of a well, borehole, cooling shed and market stall. The mean farm size of the farmers before and after participating in the program was 1.15 and 2.15 ha, respectively, with a corresponding average monthly income of NGN 6,833.75 and NGN 16,137.50, respectively (USD 1 = NGN 165. The study further revealed a positive effect of the program on the farmers' livelihoods. The major problems faced by the farmers were inadequate credit, conflict with herdsmen, land ownership problems, inadequate labor, and poor market linkage. Therefore, the study recommends the provision of credit facilities by relevant stakeholders, putting lasting conflict resolution measures in place, encouraging youths to practice agriculture, and training farmers on market linkage.
Enwereji, Ezinne Ezinna; Ahuizi, Eke Reginald; Iheanocho, Okereke Chukwunenye; Enwereji, Kelechi Okechukwu
To examine the extent to which medical coverage is available to discharged leprosy patients in communities. Evidence has shown that after care services, follow-up visits and national disease prevention programs are important components of medical rehabilitation to leprosy patients discharged home after treatment. Denying them accessibility to these services could expose them to multiple disabilities as well as several disease conditions including HIV/AIDS. These adverse health conditions could be averted if health workers extend healthcare services to discharged leprosy patients. This study was conducted to examine the extent to which discharged leprosy patients have access to healthcare services in the communities. All 33 leprosy patients who were fully treated with multi-drug therapy (MDT) and discharged home in the two leprosy settlements in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria were included in this study. The list of discharged leprosy patients studied and their addresses were provided by the leprosy settlements where they were treated. Also, snowball-sampling method was used to identify some of the leprosy patients whose addresses were difficult to locate in the communities. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire, interview guide and checklist. These were administered because respondents were essentially those with no formal education. Analysis of data was done quantitatively and qualitatively. Findings showed that 20 (60.6%) of discharged patients did not receive health programs like HIV/AIDS prevention or family planning. Also, follow-up visits and after-care services were poor. About 14 (42.4%) of the patients live in dirty and overcrowded houses. On the whole, discharged patients were poorly medically rehabilitated (mean score: 4.7±1.1 out of total score of 7). Denying discharged leprosy patients opportunity of accessing health care services could increase prevalence of infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS among them. There is need to extend
Chidozie Onyedikachi ANYIRO
Full Text Available The study examined the effect of local institutions’ micro credit delivery on rural farm household poverty status in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204 rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, poverty indices, and paired t-test. The study revealed reveals that the religious association granted the highest amount of credit (N91,950.0 to their members more than any other local institutions in the study area, while the mean amount demanded was N 128,491.3. The average annual contribution of members in different local association was N36357.35 with a low percentage cash contribution index of 10.59%. The result of the poverty indicators of the rural farm households in local institutions showed that the poverty line (mean monthly household expenditure of the farm households was N16 N20648.94 per month or N 247787.28 per annum. The incidence of poverty otherwise called the head count ratio was 0.4863 while the coefficient of poverty gap (poverty depth was 0.2458. The result of the paired t-test showed that the local institutions’ micro credits impacted significantly on the mean annual farm income and monthly expenditures of the rural farm households in the study area. It was however, recommended that the autonomous local institutions should be integrated into the current poverty alleviation programme of the government and making them channels for loan delivery with a view to strengthening the financial capacity of its members as well as achieving the Millennium development goals of reducing poverty by half.
Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu
Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area.
Enwereji, E E
In developing countries, culture favours males for economic ventures more than females. There is evidence that allowing HIV positive women inheritance rights will mitigate negative economic consequences of HIV/AIDS and other related risks. This study aimed to examine the extent to which HIV positive women have access to family resources in Abia State, Nigeria. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview guides using 98 HIV positive women in network of people living with HIV/AIDS. Five key informants were also interviewed to authenticate women's responses. Results showed that 85 (86.7%) of the women were denied rights to family resources. Thirty-eight (64.4%) of them had negative relationship with their family members for demanding their husbands' property. Because of limited financial assistance, the women took two types of risks in order to survive in the communities. Twenty-five women (25.5%) earned their livelihood by acting as hired labourers to others in the farm. More that half (55.1%) of the HIV positive women were practicing unprotected sex. Although as high as 79.6% of women were aware of risks of unprotected sex, 54 (55%) of them practised it. The commonest reason for taking the risk was sex partners' dislike for condom use. The high proportion of HIV positive women who were denied access to family resources, could suggest lack of care and support. If this denial continues, Government's efforts to reduce HIV prevalence would yield no significant result. There is therefore need for organized community education programme that emphasizes the benefits of empowering women living positively with HIV/AIDS economically.
Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula
Pregnancies among teenagers and problems associated with premarital births have raised concerns in many countries. It is important to explore unintended pregnancy from the viewpoints of local stakeholders such as students, schools/teachers, and community members. This study assessed reported cases of unintended pregnancy among students and perceptions of these pregnancies by members of the community. This study took place in a rural community in Anambra state, southeastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 1,234 students and 46 teachers in five secondary schools was carried out using self-administered questionnaires. In addition, focus group discussions (FGD) involving 10 parents and in-depth interview (IDI) with a student who became pregnant were conducted. Reports of pregnancy were more common during second and third years of junior secondary school than other school years or level. According to teachers, ignorance was the main reason given by students who became pregnant. Students who became pregnant were reported to have performed poorly academically and lived with both parents, who were either subsistence farmers or petty traders. In the IDI, the ex-student opined that pregnant students faced shame, marital limitations and lack of respect from community members. Participants in the FGD suggested that teenagers should be provided with sex education in schools and in churches; parents should communicate with teenagers about sexual matters and make adequate financial provision; and the male partners should be held more accountable for the pregnancies. Poor sexual knowledge and poor socioeconomic conditions play important roles in teenage pregnancy. Male participation may enhance effectiveness of prevention programmes.
Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka
Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the presence and prevalence of chloramphenicol (CAP, a drug which was banned for use in food-producing animals due to many side effects residue in commercial birds slaughtered at Ikpa abattoir and its awareness and usage in farms at Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done with the use of a questionnaire on usage and awareness of CAP and screening for its presence in commercial poultry in the study area. The questionnaire was supplied to 35 commercial farms, and liver samples from 300 commercial broilers were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique; the prevalence was then determined. Results: Of the 35 farms evaluated, 33 (94% responded. In the management practice, 57.6% of the farms use intensive deep litter, 18.2% intensive battery cage, and 24.2% extensive farming system. 19 (69.7% farms rear only broilers, 12.1% layers, and 15.1% both. The feeding management showed that 21.1% of farmers produce their own feed with inclusion of antibiotics while 78.8% use commercial feed, of which 11.5% incorporate antibiotics. The findings also showed that 54.4% of the respondents use CAP and only 30.3% are aware of the consequences of antimicrobial residue in food and have knowledge of the legislation on the prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Of the 300 samples screened for CAP residue, 18.7% were positive with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 6.2 parts per billion. Conclusion: CAP is still very much in use in the study area, despite the ban, and it is present in the tissues of commercial birds meant for human consumption.
Full Text Available This study was designed to estimate the economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data was used and purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents used for the study. A total number of 60 respondents were interviewed. The data collected were analyzed using inferential statistical tool such as regression analysis. Budgetary analysis technique was also used to analyze the profitability of locust bean processing and marketing in the study area. Majority of the processors and marketers are making profits; 68.3% operate above breakeven point while 26.7% operate at breakeven point and the rest 5% was below the breakeven point, this indicates that they neither profit nor lost. The regression analysis result shows that quantity processed, family size and years of experience in processing are significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while education level and stall rent is negative and significant at 1% and 5% respectively. F- Test also explained that independent variables are jointly significant at 1% probability level with an adjusted R2 of 78.9%. The overall rate of return on investment indicates that average rate of return is 0.5 (50%, which is positive. It is therefore concluded that profit made by the processors and marketers can be improved on by increasing the quantity of locust bean being processed through adoption of newly discovered method of processing and improved method of preservation, packaging and marketing of the product to international standard by reducing the odour of the product without the loss of essential nutrients and palability in order to generate foreign exchange. Also, rules and regulations against cutting of economic trees for alternative uses should be enforced to maximize their values.
Full Text Available The study was assessed to determine the effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria during November 2014 to June 2015. Interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. Results indicate that majority (76.3% of the respondents were males, middle aged and married. Major causes of rural-urban youth migration indicated by the respondents include inadequate employment opportunities in rural areas (M=3.6, search for better education (M=3.5, inadequate social infrastructure such as schools (M=3.4, poor medical care services in rural areas (M=3.4, looking for money through labour (M=3.4, apprenticeship programme (M=3.2, etc. Findings of the study also indicate that reduction of agricultural labour force (M=3.5, low agricultural productivity (M=3.3, high cost of labour (M= 3.3, reduction on demand for locally grown foods (M=2.9, decrease in dependency ratio in the rural areas (M=2.7, reduction on number of mouths to feed (M=2.7, among others were major effects of rural-urban youth migration among farm families. The study recommends that Nigerian government should provide adequate physical and social infrastructure in rural areas in order to encourage youths to remain in agriculture, reduce rural-urban youth migration as well as sustain agriculture for enhanced food security.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods: Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30 was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results: A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%. The majority of the study sample (79.5% had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001, monthly income (p<0.001 and duration of diabetes (p=0.008. Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013. Conclusion: Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level.
Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of adaptation to deforestation among farmers in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule were used to obtain information from 200 respondents selected through simple random sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (chi-square test statistics. The result indicated that majority (84% of the respondents were male with 21-40 years of age representing 58.50%. The study also showed that most (45% of the respondents had attained post primary education with majority (80% having 6 and above years of farming experience. The respondents perceived fuel wood extraction as the major (42% cause of deforestation in the study area. The result showed that the most (30.50% frequently employed adaptation strategy against deforestation was reducing quantity of fire wood consumption. The study further showed that the factors which significantly influenced adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were age, farming experience and educational status with X2=9.216, 8.697 and 11.238 at P<0.05 respectively. While those factors which did not influence adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were gender, access to agricultural credit and access to extension services with X2=1.286, 7.923 and 5.862 at P<0.05 respectively. The major constraints faced by respondents in adaptation to deforestation were lack of capital and lack of accessible alternative energy. The study recommends that awareness campaign should be mounted to increase the level of knowledge of respondents on the significance of adaptation to deforestation. Respondents should also be encouraged towards establishment of adaptation cooperative societies in order to take advantage of some government policies and programmes.
Oraneli, Boniface U; Okeke, Ogochukwu C; Ubachukwu, Patience O
In malaria-endemic countries, one adverse consequence of placental malaria on infants is low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth retardation and pre-term delivery. The effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies was investigated in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Placental blood was collected from 364 women who gave birth in NAUTH. Thin and thick placental blood smears were made and checked for the presence of malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum antigen rapid kit was used to confirm the presence of P. falciparum. New-borns were weighed and classified as normal birth weight (≥2500 g) or LBW (<2500 g). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t and Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare means and percentages. Risk factors for LBW were also determined. Placental malaria was found in 55.2% (n = 201) of the women. Placental malaria was associated with gravidity while age was not. In all the age groups, primigravidae and secundigravidae were mostly infected. Women with placental malaria delivered more LBW babies (32.1%) than their uninfected counterparts (5.5%), with primigravidae having more LBW babies. Similarly, weight of babies born by infected women was significantly different from that of uninfected women (p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis, placental malaria was associated with LBW (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.17, p <0.0001). The result suggests a high prevalence of placental malaria and its close association with LBW in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in NAUTH. It was also found that the percentage of LBW was highest in primigravidae.
Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.
Gotep, J. G.
Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves growing in Vom, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria was carried out to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal properties. We tested the extract for activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes (G-. The extract exhibited activity against the organisms in varying degrees. In the agar diffusion test, Y. enterocolitica showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the highest concentration of extract tested (20 mg/mL while E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 17, 16, 15, 14 and 16 mm respectively. At extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, Y. enterocolitica and P. aeruginosa did not show any zones of inhibition while E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 7, 6, 6 and 7 mm respectively. Below extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, there was no zone of inhibition observed with any organism. The MIC of the extract against the organisms was 5 mg/mL except on S. aureus where the MIC was 2.5 mg/mL. The MBC of the extract was 10 mg/mL against Y. enterocolitica, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes, 5 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus. Preliminary phytochemical testing revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides while saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones were not present. The result gives scientific backing to the use of the leaves by the local people in the treatment of conditions usually associated with the organisms tested.
Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.
Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736
Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between teacher retention and job security in private secondary schools in Ogun state, Nigeria. The study assessed ade-quacy in teaching and learning infrastructure, evaluated mode of recruitment of teachers, the factors responsible for high teacher turnover and teachers retention strategies employed in private secondary schools. Descriptive research of the survey design was employed in this study. Data were collected using questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used for data collection among 200 teachers including the school principals. Data collected were analyzed with a mixture of descriptive and inferential statistics. Percentages, mean and frequency counts were used to answer the research questions raised while Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient and t-test analysis were used to test the formulated hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from this study revealed that teaching and learning infrastructure were inadequate in most of the schools. It was observed that books, classroom and teachers were very adequate in some of the schools. However, few of the schools had internet facility for knowledge transfer and student exposure to the worldwide web. The study also showed that the proprietors were primarily responsible for staff recruitment although there were instances where formal advertisement for recruitment was made. The study further revealed a significant relationship between teacher retention strategies and job security in private secondary schools in Osun state. The study also showed a significant relationship between teacher turnover and job security in the schools. In addition, the findings showed a significant relationship between teacher turnover and job security in private secondary schools in Osun state. Lastly, the study revealed a significant difference in the mean rate and female teachers' turnover in the selected private secondary schools. Based on the
NIGERIA. 2 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPT., FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA ... Thermodynamic analysis of food production industries ..... 7th International Conference on Fluid and.
Prevalence of fish disease in fish farms in Nigeria was investigated using data from structured questionnaire obtained during farm visits, and analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. Findings from the study revealed that majority of the farm manager's (45.7) have less than 3 years of experience in ...
Ground-magnetic survey of Ijapo area in Akure township which is situated in the western part of Nigeria and falls within the Precambrian basement complex terrain of the country was carried out with the intention of determining and establishing the geologic structures, its potential for groundwater accumulation and ...
Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka
Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…
expertise that are required, and is useful for planning and increasing access to healthcare in general and improved dermatology care.4 Capacity building and training of community health care workers will ultimately result in earlier identification of skin diseases and prompt referrals where necessary. In Nigeria, most studies ...
Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…
Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo
Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…
Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.
In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and
The present work attempts to measure ionizing radiation level in an high attitude town of lmesi-Ile, Osun State, South-western, Nigeria. The measurements were carried out in 20 locations within the town using portable Digilert 50 nuclear radiation monitor. The absorbed dose rates obtained ranges from 26.6 to 48.6nGyh -1 with a mean value of 32.0nGyh -1 and deviation of about 25%. The estimated annual effective dose is 0.46mSv. This value is less than the 1mSv/year recommended for normal environment by UNSCEAR.
Firewood as a source of energy plays a vital role in house hold energy requirements. Due to increasing economic hardship in Nigeria, many people are finding it increasingly difficult to afford conventional fuels. Hence, profit-energy supply pattern compels firewood suppliers to cut trees indiscriminately from marginal forests, ...
Sawyer, W; Ordinioha, B; Abuwa, Pnc
The prevalence of malnutrition is high in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, in spite of the region's oil wealth and nutrition intervention programs have been found to be effective in similar circumstance. This study is to assess the nutrition intervention program, implemented by UNICEF in some rural communities of Bayelsa State, one of the six States in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out in 2009 in Toruorua and Gbaranbiri, two rural riverine communities, in Baylesa State. Toruorua benefited from the nutrition intervention program of UNICEF between 1999 and 2008, while Gbaranbiri did not benefit. A comparative, cross-sectional study design was used, with the data collected using anthropometry and semi-structured questionnaire, administered on 105 respondents, chosen with the cluster sampling technique, popularized by UNICEF, from each of the study communities. Data were analyzed using EPI-INFO version 2002, Microsoft Excel software, and manually. Differences between the study communities were tested using the student's t-test for means, and Chi-square test for proportions. Significant values were set at P childhood malnutrition.
Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Ebhuoma, Eromose
Shifts in the timing of phenological events in plants and animals are cited as one of the most robust bioindicators of climate change. Much effort has thus been placed on the collection of phenological datasets, the quantification of the rates of phenological shifts and the association of these shifts with recorded meteorological data. These outputs are of value both in tracking the severity of climate change and in facilitating more robust management approaches in forestry and agriculture to changing climatic conditions. However, such an approach requires meteorological and phenological records spanning multiple decades. For communities in the Delta State of Nigeria, small-scale farming communities do not have access to meteorological records, and the dissemination of government issued daily to seasonal forecasts has only taken place in recent years. Their ability to survive inter-annual to inter-decadal climatic variability and longer-term climatic change has thus relied on well-entrenched indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). An analysis of the environmental cues that are used to infer the timing and amount of rainfall by farmers from three communities in the Delta State reveals a reliance on phenological events, including the croaking of frogs, the appearance of red millipedes and the emergence of fresh rubber tree and cassava leaves. These represent the first recorded awareness of phenology within the Delta State of Nigeria, and a potentially valuable source of phenological data. However, the reliance of these indicators is of concern given the rapid phenological shifts occurring in response to climate change.
Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F
Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents' attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward
Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel
Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…
Full Text Available The study assesses the effects of climate change on poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Eighty three (83 poultry farmers were interviewed to elicit relevant information in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that majority (93.3% of the respondents are aware of climate change, 78%, 98.8% and 86.7% of the respondents agreed that temperature fluctuation, increased in sunshine intensity and global warming has a negative effects on poultry production, 72.4% of the respondents agreed that prices of feed grains are usually high in hot and dry seasons which may affect cost of production and number of birds to raise for egg and meat production in the farm, 73.5% of the respondents agreed that climate change has effect on feed grain availability, this implies that high temperature and low rainfall are climatic factors that affect general grain harvest, their supply to the market and ultimately cost of poultry production. the findings further revealed that 94% of the respondents agreed that climate change affects egg and meat production pattern and 95.2% of the respondents agreed that moist climatic conditions encouraged the distribution and development of diseases. Infrential statistics shows that there is a significant relationship between respondents' socio-economic characteristics and perception of poultry farmers on effects of climate change on poultry production since p > 0.05 (r = 0.454, p= 0.001, the findings also shows that there is a significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of respondents and their level of awareness of climate change since the p > 0.05 (r = 0.652, p = 0.001. it is recomended extension agents and other development agencies need to educate the poultry farmers more about the effects posed by climate change on poultry production and intensify awareness campaign to poultry farmers on how to reduce
Full Text Available Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Swamp contact rice farmers. Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD. The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD. Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated
Uwem Friday Ekpo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. METHODS AND FINDINGS: THREE PRIMARY SCHOOLS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4-15 y, of whom 146 (56.8% were boys and 111 (43.2% were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (chi(2 = 18.85, df = 2, p<0.0005. A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage
Madubuike Umunna ANYANWU
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey utilizing structured questionnaires was used to study the veterinarians’ perception, knowledge and practices of antibiotic stewardship (ABS in Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria. Data obtained were analyzed using chi-square on SPSS (Version 15.0 at a significance level of P < 0.05 to determine possible associations between variables and perceptions/knowledge about ABS. Out of 280 respondents, 41 (17.1% had heard about ABS. Minority of the respondents perceived/knew that using antibiotics only when necessary (6.4%, 18, administering antibiotics at the appropriate dose (6.4%, 18 and administering antibiotics for appropriate duration in every case (4.3%, 12 were among the principles of ABS. The study also showed that age, gender, qualification, years of practice and locations did not exert any influence (P > 0.05 on the awareness of respondents about ABS. More than one-third of the respondents wrongly perceived that increasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (35.4%, 99 is one of the goals of ABS, whereas the minority of the respondents rightly perceived/knew that minimizing toxicity and other adverse effects (16.8%, 47 and reducing antibiotic resistance (ABR (43.2%, 121 are also goals of ABS. Only 21.4% (60 had overall knowledge of ABS. Prescribing antibiotics without seeing/examining the patient, prescribing antibiotics for any case suspected to be infectious, prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics despite availability of narrow-spectrum antibiotics, prescribing different classes/types of antibiotics concurrently to ensure therapeutic efficacy, prescribing overdose of antibiotics to ensure efficacy and non-consultation of the veterinary formulary/other resources when in doubt during prescription, are some of inappropriate/untoward ABS practices/behaviors/attitudes amongst the respondents. No significant association (P > 0.05 was found between practices of ABS and age, gender, qualification, years of practice and
Jeffrey J. Brooks; John Neary; Blessing E. Asuquo
Nigeria has abundant natural resources, and the nation, working with its partners over the years, has made large strides toward conservation of this natural wealth, but the future of Nigeria's natural resources remains uncertain.
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing problem in Nigeria, presenting challenges to the nation’s health and economy. This study evaluates the accessibility to healthcare in Edo State of CKD patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2009. Using cost analysis techniques within a geographical information system, an estimated travel time to the hospital was used to examine the spatial accessibility of diagnosed patients to available CKD healthcare in the state. The results from the study indicated that although there was an annual rise in the number of diagnosed cases, there were no significant changes in the proportion of patients that were diagnosed at the last stage of CKD. However, there were indications that the travel time to the hospital for CKD treatment might be a contributing factor to the number of diagnosed CKD cases. This implies that the current structure for CKD management within the state might not be adequate.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the frequency of isolation of salmonella and their microbial resistance profiles across different commercial poultry feeds sold in Imo State, Nigeria. Thirty-six bulk feed samples were colleted from 154 bag across different feed types and brands which included Guinea (GF, Top (TF, Vital (VF, Extra (EF, Animal care (AF and livestock (LF feeds. The salmonella isolated were tested against 14 anti-microbial drugs using the disc diffusion method. Bacterial load enumeration of the samples indicated a range of <30 colony forming unit (CFU to overgrowth at 104 serial dilutions. Eight feed samples (22.2% which cuts across the entire feed brands expect EF were positive for salmonella. The highest prevalence of 28.8% and 25.0% were recorded for LF and TF respectively, while VF, GF and AF had 11.1 and 10.0% respectively. Salmonella isolates showed high rates of resistance (51-100% against nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, tetracycline and ceftriazole, while moderate rates (31-50% were recorded for chloramphenicol, oxfloxacin and cotrimoxazole. Low resistance rates (1-30% were on the other hand recorded against ciprofloxacin and amoxycillin clavulanate (Augumentine, whereas zero resistance was demonstrated against pefloxacin, gentamycin, streptomycin and nalidixic. Commercial feeds form important channels for the dissemination of multi-drug resistant salmonella in Imo State, Nigeria.
Full Text Available The study is set out to examine the private cost of National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend and also to provide data for the state chapters of the institute on how to ease the burden of the students undergoing the course. The study made use of cross-sectional data retrieval format to collect the necessary information needed for the three circles contact period. The data was analyzed using arithmetic mean and percentages. It was found out that tuition fees accounted for the percentages of students’ expenditure, followed by examination fees, and mid-day meal. Library, sports and development levy are not relevant for this type of student. The federal Government of Nigeria could subsidize the tuition fees for the prospective grade II teachers so as to ease their problem because majority of them are unemployed.
Bakare, Muideen O; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A; Munir, Kerim M; Ogun, Oluwayemi C; Eaton, Julian
Late diagnosis and interventions characterize childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa. This has negatively impacted on the prognosis of the children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental delays among children under the age of 3 years attending immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria and also affords opportunity of early follow-up and interventions, which had been documented to improve prognosis. The study involved two stage assessments; which consisted of first phase screening of the children for neurodevelopmental delays in immunization clinics at primary healthcare centers Lagos State, Nigeria and second phase which consists of definitive clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions for children screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays. Twenty seven (0.9%) of a total of 3,011 children under the age of 3 years were screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays and subsequently undergoing clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions. Preliminary working diagnoses among these children include cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder trait, nutritional deficiency, Down syndrome and Non-specific neurodevelopmental delay with co-morbid seizure disorder accounting for 33.3%, 14.8%, 18.5%, 7.4% and 25.9% respectively. This is a preliminary report that would be followed up with information on medium and long term intervention phase.
Full Text Available Abstract Libraries all over the world have been faced with the evolving technological advancement globalization and digitization of information. These have led to library automation digital and virtual libraries. This paper discussed the contemporary digital literacy skills DLS among librarians in university libraries the 21st century in Edo and Delta States of Southern Nigeria. The study was guided by six objectives and research questions and one hypothesis. The design of the study is descriptive survey and the population consists of all librarians from university libraries in the aforementioned states in Nigeria. The instrument used to generate data is the questionnaire and the date generated was analyzed using simple percentages and frequency count for research questions and SPSS version 14.0. The findings show that electronic mailing social networking use of PDAs mobile phones and internet surfing are the major DLS amongst librarians. It was also discovered that librarians acquired DLS through colleagues assistance trial and error IT programmes and formal education while librarians level of use of DLS is low amongst other findings. Researcher recommends that management of university libraries should provide training for librarians so as to help update their knowledge in application of digital skills and digital skill competence should be giving more attention during recruitment of librarians amongst others.
Gana, Godwin Jiya; Oche, Mansur O; Ango, Jessica Timane; Kaoje, Aminu Umar; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Raji, Ismail A
Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis. Respondents' knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better (P<0.0001) at post-intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group for every variable measured. However, there was only a (Fisher's exact, P=0.621) compared to the control group. This study showed an increase in knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice.
Full Text Available Studies have shown that the quality of outcome in Nigerian secondary schools is declining at an alarming rate due to shortage of required resources as well as leadership challenges. The challenges have been observed to be as a result of lack of mentoring which is not a common practice in school management in Nigeria. Consequently, this study investigated the extent to which mentoring as a strategy for administrators' succession plan impacts on the performance of their duties in public and private secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design and administered a 25-item self-constructed questionnaire on participants. A total of 530 participants were randomly selected from the population of 4,350 senior teachers. The Participants were drawn from 145 secondary schools (91 public and 54 registered private in Education District IV of Lagos State. The findings showed that mentoring has significant impact on administrators' succession planning and that succession planning does not significantly differ in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State. The study concluded that leadership development is a critical factor in secondary school effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, serving administrators as well as prospective administrators should be regularly evaluated to determine their training needs at different career stages. There should also be mentoring related policies to enhance the managerial skills, sense of competence and effectiveness of the prospective administrators.
up procedures. Pan African ... In the past six decades, various levels of endemicity of filariasis have been documented in different parts of Nigeria including Benue, Plateau,. Taraba, Oyo, and Bauchi states [2-4]. One out of ...
Processing and utilization of soyabean in Toro local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... from the farmers on their socio-economic characteristics, information sources and adoption of soybean ...
Olusola L. Ajayi
Full Text Available There is paucity of information on the prevalence of leptospirosis in wildlife in Nigeria. This study investigated the prevalence and renal pathology of leptospirosis in wild animals in Southwest Nigeria. One hundred and five kidney samples were examined from 10 different wildlife species (antelope greater cane rat (GCR, hare, African giant rat (AGR, tree hyrax, civet cat, monitor lizard, python, bushbuck and partridge using a combination of Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH medium, microscopic agglutination test (MAT, Warthin– Starry silver stain (WSss and immunohistochemistry. Chi-square test was used with confidence level set at 0.05 to ascertain associations between positive cases and sex and species. Eightytwo (78.1% samples were culturally positive, while 67.7% (63/93, 57.0% (16/28 and 66.7% (8/12 were WSss, MAT and immunohistochemically positive, respectively. Interstitial nephritis (41.0% and tubular nephrosis (81.0% were the most prominent histopathological changes. Pathogenic Leptospira organisms were highest in GCR (32.1% and antelope (14.3%. Serovars hardjo (11.54%, bratislava (3.9%, canicola (3.9%, icterohaemorrhagiae (15.4%, pomona (7.14% gripptotyphosa (19.2% and undetermined isolates were also detected in other animals. The result showed high prevalence of Leptospira infection in the wild and the possibility of domestic animals and humans contracting the disease. This study is the first documentation of evidence of pathogenic Leptospira species in wildlife in Nigeria.
Esen Nsikan U
Full Text Available Introduction High doses of ionizing radiation can lead to adverse health outcomes such as cancer induction in humans. Although the consequences are less evident at very low radiation doses, the associated risks are of societal importance. This study aimed at assessing entrance skin doses (ESDs in patients undergoing selected diagnostic X-ray examinations at public hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods In total, six examinations were performed on 720 patients in this study. CALDose_X5 software program was used in estimating ESDs based on patients’ information and technical exposure parameters. Results The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.59 to 0.61 mGy for PA and RLAT projections of the thorax, respectively. ESDs for the AP and RLAT projections of the cranium were 1.65 and 1.48 mGy, respectively. Also, ESD values for the AP view of the abdomen and pelvis were 1.89 and 1.88 mGy, respectively. The mean effective dose was within the range of 0.021-0.075 mGy for the thorax (mean= 0.037, 0.008-0.045 mGy for the cranium (mean= 0.016, 0.215-0.225 mGy for the abdomen (mean= 0.219 and 0.101-0.119 mGy for the pelvis (mean= 0.112. Conclusion The obtained results were comparable to the international reference dose levels, except for the PA projection of the thorax. Therefore, quality assurance programs are required in diagnostic X-ray units of Nigeria hospitals. The obtained findings add to the available data and can help authorities establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiography in Nigeria.
Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend
Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B
The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.
Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.
Samuel Adejare Awolola
Full Text Available One dominant factor on how well students learn mathematics is the quality of teaching. Studies have shown that typical mathematics classroom is frosted with teaching technique that centered on explain – practice – memorize. There is a paucity particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the effect of brain-based learning strategy on the achievement regarding the learning of Mathematics of 522 Senior Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The moderator effect of cognitive style was also examined on independent variable (instructional strategy and dependent variable (mathematics achievement. The study adopted a pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design in a quasi – experimental setting. The ANCOVA statistic was used to analyzed the data collected fro the study. The result revealed significant main effect of treatment, (F(1,510 = 75.0; P < 0.05, cognitive style (F(1,510 = 23.78; P < 0.05 and significant interaction effect of treatment and cognitive style (F(1,510 = 5.027; P < 0.05 on achievement in mathematics. The result showed that brain-based instructional strategy enhanced students’ achievement in mathematics more than the conventional lecture method. It is therefore recommended that Teachers of mathematics should adopt the strategy in teaching mathematics in senior secondary school.
Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Alele, Faith Osaretin
Hand washing with soap and water is one of the cheapest, most effective ways of limiting the spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Despite its importance the prevalence of hand washing was low before the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with improved hand washing practices following the EVD outbreak. A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free. Systematic random sampling was used. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Data was analysed with epi info version 7, descriptive statistics were done, Chi square test was used for the assessment of significant associations between proportions. Determinants of good hand washing practices was identified using logistics regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Of 440 respondents, mean age was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Only 4.6% have never heard of Ebola Virus Disease.Level of hand washing with soap and water improved by62.6%. Significant improvement in hand washing was in 75.8% of those who heard through social media (p Newspaper readers(p schools.
Chijioke Mmadueke Okeke
Full Text Available Hallux Abducto Valgus is characterized by lateral deviation of the proximal phalanx of the hallux, medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone, and subluxation of the first metartasophalangeal joint. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hallux abducto valgus among residents of Anambra State of Nigeria. The study was a cross sectional descriptive study, using a structured questionnaire. It was conducted among male and female subjects in the following occupational groups: Farmers, Traders, Medical student, Nursing student, Road Safety Corps, Police and the Military. A total of 1033 subjects within the age range of 15 to 74 years were studied. Hallux abducto valgus was identified by inspection of the foot. Prevalence of hallux abducto valgus in the study population was 12.9%. Hallux abducto valgus was more prevalent in males (14.3% than in females (11.2%. Bilateral affectation of hallux abducto valgus (5.5% was more prevalent than unilateral affectation (Right – 2.6%, left – 4.7%. Prevalence of hallux abducto valgus increased with increment in age. The prevalence of hallux abducto valgus among various occupational groups include: Police (18.0%, Road Safety Corps (16.7%, Nursing students (10%, Military (20%, Medical students (9.9%, Traders (8.3% and farmers (17.0%. The prevalence of hallux abducto valgus in our study was 12.9%. The prevalence increased with increasing age and hallux abducto valgus was more prevalent in males than in females. Hallux Abducto Valgus es caracterizado por la desviación lateral del falange próximo del hallux, la desviación intermedia del primer hueso metatarsal, y el subluxation del primer empalme metartasophalangeal. El objetivo de este estudio era determinar el predominio del valgus del abducto del hallux entre residentes del estado de Anambra de Nigeria. El estudio era un estudio descriptivo representativo, usando un cuestionario estructurado. Fue conducido entre los temas masculinos
Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design: We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs. The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results: None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions: Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care
Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem
Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012-2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a priority, for intensive program scale-up to
TEMITOPE D. TIMOTHY OYEDOTUN
Full Text Available Modifications du littoral décennales dans le l ittoral boueux de l'Etat d'Ondo , Nigeria . Les changements dans les positions du rivage à proximité du littoral boueux de l'Etat d'Ondo (sud - ouest du Nigeria sont étudiés, entre 1972 et 2014. Les mouvements de l'eau (HW rivage haut ont été étudiés en utilisant le système n umérique Shoreline Analyse (DSAS, une extension ArcGIS développé par l'USGS. Les ensembles de données comprend plusieurs éditions de photographie de Landsat et le Nigeria Imageries satellite. le Shoreline délimitées les unes des images année inclus les po sitions de HW, qui ont été calculées à partir du rivage Mouvement net (NSM et End Point Noter (EPR, le taux annuel de mouvement. Les résultats préliminaires montrent que les rivages de Ondo côte État ont connu un mouvement vers la terre constante au cour s des quatre décennies. Ces changements sont attribués à des attaques d'onde, l'augmentation des niveaux des marées dans le golfe de l'Atlantique du Bénin, la récente hausse du niveau de la mer, canalisation de la rivière qui réduisent le transport de sédi ments dans la zone côtière, l'extraction historique probable de sable et d'autres activités anthropiques dans la zone côtière.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria is the number one public health problem in Nigeria, responsible for about 30% of deaths in under-fives and 25% of deaths in infants and 11% maternal mortality. This study estimated the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria using the cost of illness approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two malaria holo-endemic communities in Nigeria, involving both community and hospital based surveys. A random sample of 500 households was interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire. In addition, 125 exit interviews for inpatient department stays (IPD and outpatient department visits (OPD were conducted and these were complemented with data abstraction from 125 patient records. RESULTS: From the household survey, over half of the households (57.6% had an episode of malaria within one month to the date of the interview. The average household expenditure per case was 12.57US$ and 23.20US$ for OPD and IPD respectively. Indirect consumer costs of treatment were higher than direct consumer medical costs. From a health system perspective, the recurrent provider costs per case was 30.42 US$ and 48.02 US$ for OPD and IPD while non recurrent provider costs were 133.07US$ and 1857.15US$ for OPD and IPD. The mode of payment was mainly through out-of-pocket spending (OOPS. CONCLUSION: Private expenditure on treatment of malaria constitutes a high economic burden to households and to the health system. Removal of user fees and interventions that will decrease the use of OOPS for treatment of malaria will significantly decrease the economic burden of malaria to both households and the health system.
Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.
Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964
Chinwe, Udoh Victoria; Mag, Ikezu Uju Joy
The issue of cultism has in spite of many efforts at reducing it, soared up in the Nigeria's tertiary institutions. Cultism has cast gloom over the educational sector. It is repeatedly said that the youths are the future leaders but it is a little wonder what the future holds for the youth of this country which has a good proportion of her youth…
Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.
The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…
Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri
The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…
Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi
This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…
Ajuwon, Paul M.; Oyinlade, A. Olu
In this project, the authors used the Essential Behavioral Leadership Qualities (EBLQ) method of measuring leadership effectiveness to assess and compare the effectiveness of principals (leaders) of residential schools for children with blindness or low vision in the United States (U.S.) and Nigeria. A total of 248 teachers (subordinates) in 25…
Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid
This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…
Fejoh, Johnson; Faniran, Victoria Loveth
This study investigated the impact of in-service training and staff development on workers' job performance and optimal productivity in public secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study used the ex-post-facto research design. Three research questions and three hypotheses were generated and tested using questionnaire items adapted from…
Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave
This study investigated the impact of cloud services on mathematics education students' mathematics confidence, affective engagement, and behavioral engagement in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study was the researcher-developed Cloud Services Mathematics…
Yusuf, Hanna Onyi; Maina, Bashir; Dare, Michael Omotayo
The study investigated the availability, utilization and management of ICT facilities in teaching English language in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A questionnaire titled "Availability, Utilization and Management of Information and Communication Technology in teaching…
Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria
Enato, E. F. O.; Mens, P. F.; Okhamafe, A. O.; Okpere, E. E.; Pogoson, E.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.
SUMMARY: This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20% by microscopy and
Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi
Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed
Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.
This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics
Ilesanmi, Olayinka; Alele, Faith Osaretin
The first case of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Nigeria was imported on 20th July 2014, by an air traveller. On 8th August, 2014, WHO declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). This study aimed at assessing the knowledge, perception and attitude of secondary school students towards EVD and adopting disease preventive behaviour. A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a mixed secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free.Simple random sampling was used to select the school while Systematic random sampling was used in the selection of participants. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were done, level of statistical significant was 5%. Mean age of respondents was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Most of the respondents had heard of Ebola Virus Disease (95.4%). Female respondents (51.3%), those who were 15 years and above (51.1%) and in the senior class (54.1%), and had good general knowledge of EVD and across all domains. Being in the senior secondary class and seeking for health care in the hospital were positively associated with good general knowledge (p-value: 0.029, and <0.001 respectively). Three commonest modes of spread of EVD mentioned were contact between infected animals and men (74.8%), touching body fluids of a person who is sick of EVD (57.0%), and contact (55.2%). The top three signs of EVD mentioned were abnormal bleeding from any part of the body (56.10%), vomiting (47.0%) and fever (42.3%). Our results revealed suboptimal EVD-related knowledge, attitude and practice among the students. Promotion of health messages and training of students on prevention of EVD to effectively control past and future outbreaks of EVD in Nigeria was immediately initiated in schools in
Full Text Available This study investigates the sources and effects of work-related stress among employees in foreign owned manufacturing companies in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study used cross sectional descriptive design and a total of three hundred and two (302 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique from five randomly selected foreign-owned manufacturing companies. Data were collected using questionnaire and statistically analysed using frequencies, percentages and weighted means. The study reveals factors such as unfavourable physical working conditions, job insecurity, poor career development, and long working hours fostering stress on employees in the sampled companies. The study further reveals that respondents suffered consequences such as restlessness, anxiety and nervous indigestion, headache, neck ache, and inability to concentrate. This study however has implication for management of foreign-owned manufacturing organization. Based on this, appropriate recommendations were made application of which will help to ensure enabling workplace environment and thus reduce the effects of stress on employees.
Full Text Available Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were determined in plant organs (bud, flowers, fruit, seed, leaves, stems, roots, cobs, styles, shaft, grains and efflorescences of three Fadama farms located in Ifaki-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti and Ikere-Ekiti of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The highest levels of Mg, K, Na and Ca were obtained in the bud of Hibiscus esculentus with respective values (ppm dry weight, ppm DW of 4397, 2983, 3928 and 1622; this was closely followed by their levels in Lycopersicon esculentum root: Mg (2734, K (1079, Na (2111 and Ca (678. The levels of all the elements were highly varied in the anatomical parts of each plant and between the various plants. The index of bioaccumulation (ratio in plants/soil was recorded for all the elements with all values falling within 1-101 showing that the degree of accumulation was intensive. The overall levels of the elements were Mg > Na > K > Ca.
N. J. George
Full Text Available A resistivity study by vertical electrical sounding (VES employing the Schlumberger electrode configuration has been used to delineate shallow aquifers in some villages in Southern Ukanafun Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. The information realized from the resistivity data and nearby logged boreholes show that the depths penetrated by currents were all sandy formations with various thicknesses. However, the main aquifers comprise within the maximum current penetration, very coarse – grained (gravelly sand and fine sand with resistivity in the ranges of 4680-30700 Ωm and 207-2530 Ωm and thickness in the ranges of 43-63 m and 18-40 m respectively. The aquifers with minor hydraulic gradient are separated by thin beds of clay according to lithology logs and these beds were masked in the sounding data due to the principle of suppression.
Omaka, O.N.; Offor, I.F.; Igwe, D. O.; Ugochukwu, E.
Groundwater quality in study areas was evaluated by measuring the physicochemical parameters including selected ions in water samples collected from 12 boreholes in Akaeze, Okposi and Uburu towns of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in April, 2013 and analysed using standard methods. Results obtained showed that, except for AS/sup 5+/ content, all other parameters investigated fall within WHO standards for potable water. Regression analysis showed that conductivity, SO/sub 4/ /sup 2-/ and As/sup 5+/ levels are important variables in predicting the TDS values of the samples while NO/sub 3/ /sup -/, Cl/sup -/, PO/sub 4//sup 3-/ and TDS are important in predicting the As/sup 5+/ content of the water samples. One-way ANOVA at P < 0.05 showed Fcal (1.862) > Ftab (0.619), implying a significant difference between the parameters for all locations. (author)
Lambert H.B. Asemota
Full Text Available Nigeria operates a tripartite legal system comprising customary law, Sharia law and the English common law regime. While the former two non-state legal systems predated the coming of the British to that region of Africa, English common law tradition was introduced with colonisation. Consequently, the Nigerian legal system has become submersed with legal pluralism which tends to put critical legal thinkers in two minds. This paper revisits the theories and practices of the established three-tier system within the context of the topical challenges that trickle down from attempting to reconcile the reliance by certain ethnic groups on the concept of self-determination (under the guise of freedom of religion and culture and the opposing provisions of the Nigerian constitution and international treaties and conventions.
Ogah, Okechukwu S; Madukwe, Okechukwu O; Chukwuonye, Innocent I; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Ukegbu, Andrew U; Akhimien, Moses O; Onwubere, Basden J C; Okpechi, Ikechi G
Hypertension is the most common non-communicable disease and risk factor for heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria and, in Abia State, no previous study has been conducted on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension among the populace. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure in Abia State, southeastern Nigeria. We hypothesise that high blood pressure burden is high in Abia State. The study was a community based cross-sectional house-to-house survey aimed at ascertaining the burden/prevalence of hypertension in the state as well as identifying related risk factors associated with them. The study was conducted in rural and urban communities in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were men and women aged > or =15 years and were recruited from the three senatorial zones in the state. A total of 2,999 respondents were selected for the survey and, 2,983 consented to be interviewed giving a response rate of 99.5%. The data for 2,928 participants were suitable for analysis. Of these, 1,399 (47.8%) were men. The mean age of the population was 41.7 +/- 18.5 years (range 18-96 years). About 54% of the population were < or =40 years. Ninety percent had at least primary education with about 47% having completed secondary education. Expectedly, 96% of the respondents were Ibos, the predominant tribe in the southeastern part of the country. Women had significantly higher BMI than the men. Similarly, waist circumference was also larger in women but waist-to-hip ratio was only significantly higher in women in the urban areas compared to those in rural areas. Thirty-one percent of all participants had systolic hypertension (33.5% in men and 30.5% in women). This sex difference was statistically different in the urban area. On the other hand, diastolic hypertension was 22
Chidozie Onyedikachi Anyiro
Full Text Available Production of yam is a labour intensive set of activities especially in the Tropics. In Eastern Nigeria this is done by small farmers at subsistent level due to inadequate and short supply of labour. This study examined labour-use efficiency by smallholder yam farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. A two-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 smallholder yam farmers from Ikwuano and Umuahia North Local Government Areas of the state. Data were collected during a survey with a wellstructured questionnaire administered by personal interview method with the farmers. The result revealed that farm households provided an average of 336 man-days used in yam production activities, with 36.66% using hired labour while family labour, share croppers, and exchange labour provided the balance labour (63.34% required. The Cobb-Douglas functional form of labour-use frontier estimates shows that the quantity of harvested yam, size of cleared farm land and quantity of fertilizer applied significantly affected the amount of labour used in yam production at 10.0%, 5.0% and 1.0% level of significance respectively. The socio-economic determinants of labour use efficiency were age, education, farm size, gender, labour wage and household size which were statistically significant at 1.0% risk level except the coefficient of age which was significant at 5.0% risk level. The result showed that the estimated farm labour-use efficiency ranged from 0.20 to 0.97 with a mean labour-use efficiency value of 0.76. Policies aimed at increasing yam farmers’ scale of operation through improved access to production inputs like fertilizer, agrochemical and capital are required for increasing labour use efficiency in the area.
Samson Ayo Deji
Full Text Available The specific objectives are: i to determine the level of awareness of pesticide residue in locally available food among food sellers in Ile Ife area of Osun state, Nigeria; ii to identify the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of food sellers who use pesticides, natural means in preserving their foodstuff from getting spoilt; iii to determine the level of understanding of food sellers who use pesticides about the likely health implications that could result. The design of the study is cross sectional. Structured open-ended questionnaires were administered to 98 randomly selected food sellers in Ile Ife area Osun state, Nigeria. This includes males and female. The inference from the study shows that majority of the food sellers were between ages 21 and 30 years, suggesting that more of the young people are involved in the selling of foodstuff in the area of study. Most of the food sellers used phostozin, an organophosphate compound as preservatives for cereals. The majority of those that were aware of the health hazards associated with the usage of pesticides as preservative were literate school leavers. Among respondents to the questionnaire, it was expected that many of those food sellers likely to demonstrate caution in the usage of pesticide would be the literate school leavers. This is because they are more aware of the possible associated health hazards than their fellow food sellers who are not literate. The level of awareness of health implications associated with use of pesticides on consumable food items is higher among school certificate holders who are food sellers. Phostozin, an organophosphate, is a common preservative pesticide used on cereals foodstuff (e.g., bean, rice, maize in the area of study, especially among the age group between 21 and 30 years.
Onyeneho, Nkechi G.; Igweonu, Obianuju U.
Background: Anaemia during pregnancy continues to constitute significant challenge to maternal health in Nigeria and contributes substantially to the worsening maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Nigeria despite a global reduction in MMR in response to effort to improve safe motherhood. The incidence of anaemia during pregnancy is still high (>40 %) in Nigeria, and attitudes and management practices are yet unclear as the peoples’ understanding of the phenomenon remains unclear. This study expl...
Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S
In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment.
Ogunniyi Titi Laudia
Full Text Available The issues of gender in smallholder farmers in Nigeria have been widely debated in terms of marginalization in main input leaving out the efficient use of these resources. In this paper, an empirical assessment of smallholder cost efficiency and its determinants using stochastic cost frontier function was conducted. In addition, regression and paired sample t-test were used to examine the determinants of efficiency. The results indicates that labour is an important factor of production for both male and female farmers and that female are more cost inefficient than their male counterparts The study concluded that there should be a review of the agricultural policy that will address the existing gender bias in assessing agricultural inputs.
Akokuwebe, M E; Daini, B; Falayi, E O; Oyebade, O
Globally, sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a public health problem. In Nigeria, adolescents form a substantial proportion (22%) of the population and are particularly prone to STDs because of the influence of peer pressure and urge to experiment sexual activity. The study examined the knowledge and attitude of adolescents towards the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The survey study was descriptive cross- sectional and carried out among consenting secondary school students aged 10-24 years completing a self- administered questionnaire on knowledge and attitude in relation to sexually transmitted diseases in Ikeji- Arakeji, Oriade Local government, Osun State, Nigeria. The proportionate sampling technique was used to recruit 341 participants into the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Male-Female distributions were 46.3% and 53.7% respectively. Mean age at first sex (sex initiation) was 16.8 years (approximately 17years) and about 97% of the respondents knew about STDs. The media/ magazine was the major source of information about STDs, accounting for more than half (57%) of the responses on sources of STD information followed closely from that from friends with 31%. Parent's source of information was about 11%. Knowledge of STDs centred mainly on HIV/AIDS with 83% and there was a poor knowledge (78%) of its symptoms. About 40% of all respondents had initiated sex at the time of the study and 46% of the adolescents, as against 54%, thought it was bad to initiate sex before marriage. There was a significant association between perception about initiating sex before marriage and ever having sex using bivariate analysis x(2)=268.4, Psex initiation (F=318.47 and P=0.000). Post-hoc analysis showed that each of the different groups (sources of information) was distinct. Adolescents' knowledge of STDs generally limited to HIV/AIDS and perception about sex significantly influenced the decision to initiate sex. There is
Grace Modupe ADEBO
This study assesses the effectiveness of the usages of mobile phone-based innovations to reaching small scale farmers in Nigeria using Kwara State growth enhancement support scheme as a case study. Two hundred farmers were randomly selected from four local government areas in the state. A structured interview schedule was used for eliciting information from them. The study revealed that 53.5, 51.0 & 87.2 percents of the respondents’ respectively benefited from improved seeds o...
Fatimah Mohammed Palmer
Full Text Available Body tattooing in traditional Nigerian culture was basically believed to be used for identification as well as aesthetic purposes. In some cultures, such as seen amongst the traditional ethnic Hausa and Fulani people, permanent facial marks were used to identify slaves within a community and also used to enhance the beauty and appearance of the women folk especially. In the southern part of Nigeria, amongst the Yorubas, it is used as a tribal identification symbol that provides information about the individual, as well as some culturally-related beliefs. The use of tattoos among the Esan ethnic people transcends the purposes of identification and enhancement of physical appearance as discovered. Thus this study examines the use of tattoo as a curative process for the illness called Udeh among the Esan ethnic people of Edo state Nigeria. Udeh is an illness associated with infection of the spleen. Data was collected through visitation of traditional healing venues, oral interview of some traditional doctors and elders as well as direct observation of the treatment processes. Findings indicated that the practice of Uvinmi has been in existence from time immemorial and it is a familial profession inherited from generation to generation as the most effective medium for treating spleen related diseases among the Esan people. It was also discovered contemporarily modern medical anaesthesia is employed to help reduce the agony felt in the process of blade incision as practiced by one of the traditional doctors. Recommendation made include an indebt study of the herbs used during and after treatment to gauge its efficacy on Western medicinal practices as well as proper sterilisization processes on incision equipments and procedures amongst others.
Geraldine U. Ndukwu
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia, though a common problem in Nigeria, has not been adequatelystudied amongst pregnant women in primary health care facilities.Objective: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia and sociodemographicfactors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre inRivers State, Nigeria.Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health centre. Associationbetween variables was analysed using the Chi-square test.Results: Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women whose ages ranged from 16 to40 years with a mean age of 26.8 ± 4.3 years were recruited for the study. The haemoglobinconcentration ranged from 6 g/dL – 15 g/dL with a mean of 10.10 ± 1.27g/dL. A total of142 (62.6% participants were anaemic. Anaemia was observed to be least prevalent inwomen within the extremes of reproductive age (≤ 20 years and 36–40 years. There was nostatistically significant association between age, educational level and marital status (p > 0.05.The association of anaemia with social class was statistically significant (p = 0.000. Severeanaemia was not a common finding amongst the patients but it was significantly associatedwith educational status (p = 0.02 and socio-economic status (p = 0.03.Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia amongst the pregnant participants in the primaryhealth centre was high. Out of all the socio-demographic characteristics, only socio-economicstatus was significantly associated with anaemia. It is recommended that the socio-economicstatus of women should be enhanced in line with the Millennium Development Goals toprevent anaemia and to enhance pregnancy outcomes.
Geraldine U. Ndukwu
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia, though a common problem in Nigeria, has not been adequately studied amongst pregnant women in primary health care facilities. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia and sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health centre. Association between variables was analysed using the Chi-square test. Results: Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women whose ages ranged from 16 to 40 years with a mean age of 26.8 ± 4.3 years were recruited for the study. The haemoglobin concentration ranged from 6 g/dL – 15 g/dL with a mean of 10.10 ± 1.27g/dL. A total of 142 (62.6% participants were anaemic. Anaemia was observed to be least prevalent in women within the extremes of reproductive age (≤ 20 years and 36–40 years. There was no statistically significant association between age, educational level and marital status (p > 0.05. The association of anaemia with social class was statistically significant (p = 0.000. Severe anaemia was not a common finding amongst the patients but it was significantly associated with educational status (p = 0.02 and socio-economic status (p = 0.03. Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia amongst the pregnant participants in the primary health centre was high. Out of all the socio-demographic characteristics, only socio-economic status was significantly associated with anaemia. It is recommended that the socio-economic status of women should be enhanced in line with the Millennium Development Goals to prevent anaemia and to enhance pregnancy outcomes.
Fakomogbon, Micheal Ayodele; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke Kofo
This paper investigated the awareness and utilization of instructional media (IM) based on gender of the lecturers of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was a descriptive type of survey research. All lecturers of Colleges of Education in Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria formed the population. Some 621 lecturers were randomly selected.…
Ayodele Ibukun A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps (16 and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56 in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a
Joseph Ikechukwu Onunkwo
Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is an important bacterial zoonosis devastating both animal and human populations in many parts of the world. A seroepidemiological study of avian Brucella infection was conducted to determine the disease prevalence, risk factors, and hence the role of chicken in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Rose Bengal plate test was used to test for Brucella antibody in sera samples collected from 410 chickens surveyed. The interview schedule was used to elicit information on the socioeconomic status, awareness of brucellosis and predisposing practices of poultry farmers, live bird sellers, and poultry carcass processors in the study area. Results: An overall seroprevalence of 3% was recorded. Sex (female, free-range management system, breed (indigenous breed, and mix farming were the determinants of avian brucellosis in the state. Risk factors that may enhance human Brucella infection at the animal-human interface are non-use of personal protective clothing; poor awareness on brucellosis and methods of the disease spread or control, cohabitation with animals, and eating while on duty. Conclusion: Chicken may be among the reservoirs of Brucella infection in Anambra State. There is an urgent need for an effective control program against brucellosis in the study area, using a coordinated One Health approach bearing in mind the public health and economic consequences of brucellosis.
Ezeanolue, Echezona Edozie; Gbadamosi, Semiu Olatunde; Olawepo, John Olajide; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Sarpong, Daniel; Eze, Chuka; Ogidi, Amaka; Patel, Dina; Onoka, Chima
The unprecedented coverage of mobile technology across the globe has led to an increase in the use of mobile health apps and related strategies to make health information available at the point of care. These strategies have the potential to improve birth outcomes, but are limited by the availability of Internet services, especially in resource-limited settings such as Nigeria. Our primary objective is to determine the feasibility of developing an integrated mobile health platform that is able to collect data from community-based programs, embed collected data into a smart card, and read the smart card using a mobile phone-based app without the need for Internet access. Our secondary objectives are to determine (1) the acceptability of the smart card among pregnant women and (2) the usability of the smart card by pregnant women and health facilities in rural Nigeria. We will leverage existing technology to develop a platform that integrates a database, smart card technology, and a mobile phone-based app to read the smart cards. We will recruit 300 pregnant women with one of the three conditions-HIV, hepatitis B virus infection, and sickle cell trait or disease-and four health facilities in their community. We will use Glasgow's Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework as a guide to assess the implementation, acceptability, and usability of the mHealth platform. We have recruited four health facilities and 300 pregnant women with at least one of the eligible conditions. Over the course of 3 months, we will complete the development of the mobile health platform and each participant will be offered a smart card; staff in each health facility will receive training on the use of the mobile health platform. Findings from this study could offer a new approach to making health data from pregnant women available at the point of delivery without the need for an Internet connection. This would allow clinicians to implement evidence
Noland, Gregory S; Graves, Patricia M; Sallau, Adamu; Eigege, Abel; Emukah, Emmanuel; Patterson, Amy E; Ajiji, Joseph; Okorofor, Iheanyichi; Oji, Oji Uka; Umar, Mary; Alphonsus, Kal; Damen, James; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ozaki, Masayo; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Obiezu, Josephine; Eneiramo, Solomon; Okoro, Chinyere; McClintic-Doyle, Renn; Oresanya, Olusola; Miri, Emmanuel; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O
Nigeria suffers the world's largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country's aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%-40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%-42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%-81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%-63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%-13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%-3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%-20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use-especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden.
Ezekiel Olukayode Idowu
Full Text Available Food farming in Oyo North, Nigeria is characterised by an increasing use of Intermediary Mode of Transportation (IMT to ease inputs and outputs mobility and farm access. To assess the influence on food farmer’s productivity, a random sample of 230 respondents was selected and data collected on their socio-economic and farm specific characteristics. Descriptive statistics, Herfindhal Index and Technical Efficiency Approach were used to analyse the data. The results indicate that majority of food farmers were in their middle age with mean age of 50 years and most of them used one plot at a location between 5 and 10km to their village of residence. They acquired land by inheritance and practiced intensive crop diversification as risk management strategy. The transportation modes used in addition to walking include bicycle, motorcycle, and car with increasing trend in the use of motorcycle. The mean Technical Efficiency (TE of food farmers was 0.82 with significant inefficiency effects. The inefficiency analysis indicates positive effect of distance, crop diversification and un-tarred type of road on farmer’s productivity, while poor level of education among farmers, use of bicycle; trekking and weekly working time negatively affect farmer’s efficiency. The negative effect of trekking and use of bicycle and the excess working time suggest the adoption of more IMT of motorized type to optimize farming time and increase farmer’s productivity.
Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.
Craig W. Hedberg
Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.
Full Text Available We present a method that utilizes multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW, which was used to measure shear wave velocities, with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some local government areas in Lagos, Nigeria. MASW data were acquired using a 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into a two-dimensional (2-D structure reflective of the depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15 m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/ borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrate the accuracy and consistency of MASW-derived shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/ very low velocity data are reflective of organic clay/ peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failure, subsidence and weakening of structures within the study areas.
E. E. Eseigbe
Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with serious implications in childhood. There is a significant gap in the identification and provision of health and social services for autism in Africa. The knowledge of autism among health care providers and identifying challenges associated with its management could facilitate bridging the gap and ensuring better outcomes. A self-administered tool, the Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW questionnaire, was used in assessing knowledge of autism among 175 medical doctors (participants attending an annual scientific meeting in northwest Nigeria. Other parameters assessed were sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the participants and challenges encountered in the management of autism. Out of 175 questionnaires distributed, 167 (95.4% were returned. Good knowledge (KCAHW score ≥15 was significantly associated with being a paediatrician or psychiatrist and practicing in a tertiary health facility (P<0.05, while poor knowledge (KCAHW score <15 was significant among general practitioners (P<0.05. The highest knowledge gap was associated with onset of autism and its comorbidities (KCAHW Domain 4 while the least was concerning communication impairments (KCAHW Domain 2. Major challenges encountered in autism management were dearth of specialist services, cost of evaluation, and poor caregiver perspectives of autism.
Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G
Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.
Grace O. Kolawole
Full Text Available Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of “trade-offs.” Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the “family-like atmosphere” found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received.
Kabir Adekunle Durowade
Full Text Available AIM: Glaucoma is becoming an increasingly important public health problem and presents a greater public health challenge because the blindness it causes is irreversible. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in Oke-ose community, Kwara State in North-Cental Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study which assessed the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in a rural community of Kwara State. The respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. RESULTS: Less than half 94(47.0% respondents were aware of glaucoma. Only 11(5.5% respondents had some knowledge of symptoms and 18(9.0% had knowledge of the risk factors. Socio-economic status, age of respondents and educational status and family history of glaucoma among the respondents significantly influenced the awareness and knowledge of the disease (p<0.05. Among the respondents, a total of 22(11.0% and 37(18.5% were diabetic and hypertensive respectively. Only five (2.5% of respondents had high risk perception of glaucoma. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk factors for glaucoma coupled with the poor risk perception and poor knowledge of the disease require urgent community directed eye care interventions to reduce the devastating effects of glaucoma. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 375-380
Anthonia Adenike Adeniji
Full Text Available This study investigates academic employees' perceptions and experiences of work–life balance (WLB in private Universities in Ogun State. A descriptive research design involves in-depth interviews among 129 academic employees in private Universities in Ogun State. Specifically, the main objectives are to critically examine the practices of work-life balance in the Universities. The study assesses the types of WLB policies and practices within the Universities and factors which influence the employee’s perception of work-life balance within the framework of employment relationship in the various Universities in Nigeria. Using spill-over theory, the findings reveal various dimensions in the academic employees' concept of WLB and show that academic employee experience the strain of work intensification and long hours of work. There is a wide gap between corporate WLB practices and the academic employee understanding of WLB. The paper suggests policy implications which would aid the implementation of WLB policies within Private Universities and suggests directions for future research.
Full Text Available The study examined institutional provisions in the implementation of Fadama 111 Development Project in Taraba State, Nigeria during 2008-2013. All the staff of the project (57 from eight out of 16 local government areas participated in the programme was used in the study. Data were collected with questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics. The results showed strong linkages of the state Fadama coordinating office with government parastaltals and organizations at different levels of the project implementation. There were strong adherence to rules and regulations guiding staff recruitment, financial management, preparation of local development plan, environmental compliance and friendliness, and group formation. The project was constrained by several institutional factors namely delay in the payment of counterpart fund by the government (M=3.39, lack of transport and other logistic supports (M=3.06, lack of payment of counterpart fund by the government (M=3.04 and others. The study recommends that policy makers and development planner should ensure functional mechanisms that could foster and enhance linkages, and support adherence to rules and regulations prescribed for implementation of development programmes.
Esan, Oluwaseun T; Fatusi, Adesegun O
The study aimed to determine performance and compare gaps in maternal and newborn health (MNH) services in urban and rural areas of Osun State, Nigeria, to inform decisions for improved services. This study involved 14 urban and 10 rural-based randomly selected PHC facilities. Using a Performance Needs Assessment framework, desired performances were determined by key stakeholders and actual performances measured by conducting facility survey. Questionnaire interview of 143 health workers and 153 antenatal clients were done. Performance gaps were determined for the urban and rural areas and compared using Chi-square tests with SPSS version 17. PHC facilities and health workers in Osun State, Nigeria, were found to have significant gaps in MNH service performance and this was worse in the rural areas. Root cause of most of the performance gaps was poor political will of local government authorities. Improved government commitment to MNH is needful to address most of the gaps.
Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience from Borno State. ... The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
I. O. Nwankwo
Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in the live birds markets, humans on admission and at outpatient clinics in the randomly selected hospitals in Sokoto State. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter species were performed using standard culture isolation techniques and biochemical characterization. A total of 798 (506 cloacal and 292 fecal swabs from poultry and humans, respectively, were collected and analyzed. The viability of 307 isolates stored in 15% glycerol and 85% tryptone broth at −20°C was determined after 7-13 months. Results: A total of 312 (39% were positive for Campylobacter species which comprises 119 (30%, 20 (30%, 3 (14%, 9 (56%, 1 (50%, and 160 (55% in chicken, guinea fowls, pigeons, ducks, turkey, and humans, respectively. The total of 38 (24%, 63 (39%, and 59 (37% humans and 29 (19%, 79 (52%, and 44 (29% poultry isolates were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter Coli, and Campylobacter Lari, respectively. A total of 261 (85% of the stored isolates were still viable on re-isolation with the viability rates of 41 (95%, 67 (85%, and 17 (59% at 7, 9, and 13 months of storage, respectively. There was a negative correlation between months of storage and viability rates. However, there was no significant statistical association (p>0.05 between prevalence rate and species of poultry. Conclusion: Campylobacter species have been detected with varying degree of prevalence in both poultry and humans and their ability to survive freezing at −20°C (95% for up to 7 months has been revealed in the study. This is not only a concern to food and livestock industries but also a concern to the public health at large, especially, in view of the study area being considered one of the largest livestock producers in Nigeria
Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities. Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%; oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%; rashes (3.4% and body weakness (2.4%. Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en
Okoli I, Dr. Charles
Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. O...
Ogunyemi, S A; Muibi, K H; Eguaroje, O E; Halilu, A S; Fabiyi, O O
The study therefore examined the spatial distribution of secondary school and the accessibility levels to students in Yewa South local Government area of Nigeria and the factors that give rise to them with a view to providing a framework for effective placement of students. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. Primary data was collected using questionnaire and a hand-held GPS receiver used to capture the coordinate points of schools and other relevant data. Secondary data include administrative map, population figures of both students and Teachers, Names and addresses of the secondary schools in the study area, the school placement sheet and list of schools. The data analysis was carried out using network analysis. School location, number of secondary schools in each ward and the total area were used to determine the pattern of distribution of secondary schools in the study area. Settlements, roads, schools location, number of secondary schools, ward and school enrolments were used to generate both school accessibility and effective placement measure using network analysis. Network analyses were also performed to evaluate nearest school to student and a set of origin-destination (OD) matrix. However, the whole of 25 secondary schools in Yewa south were considered for network analysis ward by ward, and the results of the distance students travel from their settlements to their various schools were shown for all the secondary schools in each ward. Out of 415 Students, 210 students travel below 2 km to their schools which constitute 50.60% total number of students in the local government area while 205 students travel above 2 km to their schools which constitute 49.40%