WorldWideScience

Sample records for battery system quarterly

  1. Battery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Mounika* , M.Anil Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The project of BMS (Battery Monitoring System gives online and offline status of batteries which are monitored by the bank so that we can prevent the batteries prior to failure However, Battery Monitoring System specifically measure, record and analyze the individual cell and battery module parameters in detail.Continuous monitoring and analysis of these parameters can be used to identify battery or cell deterioration, hence prompting action to avoid unplanned power interruption.Battery Monitoring System (BMS is a microprocessor based intelligent system capable of monitoring the health of battery bank. BMS calculates the battery’s capacity, deterioration of batteries in battery bank during the charge / discharge cycles and actual efficiency of the batteries.It continuously monitors each cell in the battery bank to identify deterioration in the cell prior to failure,identifies the net charge in the battery bank by monitoring charging and discharging currents.

  2. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  3. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  4. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  5. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  6. Batteries in PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohedano Martínez, Javier Bernabé

    2011-01-01

    This report presents fundamentals of battery technology and charge control strategies commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) Systems,with an introduction on the PV Systems itself. This project is a compilation of information from several sources, including research reports and data from component manufacturers. Comparisons are given for various battery technologies, and considerations for battery subsystem design, auxiliary systems, maintenance and safety are discussed. Daily operatio...

  7. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  8. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  9. Intelligent battery charging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  10. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  11. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Joeri Van Mierlo; Peter Van den Bossche; Noshin Omar; Mailier Antoine; Mohamed Daowd

    2013-01-01

    Battery management systems (BMS) are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, ...

  12. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  13. Intelligent Battery Management System Analyzing & Optimizing of Multicell Battery Voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Deepthi, C; P.M.Sarma; M. Chakravarthy

    2013-01-01

    The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a batt...

  14. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  15. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  16. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  17. High power battery systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Donald W.

    Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery management are discussed. The importance of good thermal management is underlined.

  18. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013,...

  19. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  20. Testing batteries for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, A. E.; Butler, P. C.; Bush, D. M.; Miller, D. W.

    A battery evaluation laboratory was established to investigate the application of various battery technologies for energy storage in a photovoltaic power system. The evaluation laboratory provides a controlled test environment in which batteries can be exposed to any one or all of the following: (1) long term performance testing; (2) accelerated life testing; (3) simulated photovoltaic power system operational testing. Several battery systems are being tested. A description is presented of the laboratory and the tests currently being conducted and a brief description of the battery systems under test.

  1. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  2. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  3. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  4. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  5. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  6. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  7. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  8. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Wu; Guifang Qiao; Jian Ge; Hongtao Sun; Guangming Song

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap stati...

  9. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  10. quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Are there many words combining both space and time? A quarter is one of such rare words: it means both a part of the city space and a period of the year. A regular city has parts bordered by four streets. For example, Chita is a city with an absolutely orthogonal historical center. This Utopian city was designed by Decembrists in the depth of Siberian ore-mines (120. The 130 Quarter in Irkutsk is irregular from its inception because of its triangular form. Located between two roads, the forked quarter was initially bordered by flows along the west-east axis – the main direction of the country. That is why it appreciated the gift for the 350 anniversary of its transit existence – a promenade for an unhurried flow of pedestrians. The quarter manages this flow quite well, while overcoming the difficulties of new existence and gathering myths (102. Arousing many expectations, the “Irkutsk’s Quarters” project continues the theme that was begun by the 130 Quarter and involved regeneration, revival and search for Genius Loci and the key to each single quarter (74. Beaded on the trading axis, these shabby and unfriendly quarters full of rubbish should be transformed for the good of inhabitants, guests and the small business. The triptych by Lidin, Rappaport and Nevlyutov is about happiness of urbanship and cities for people, too (58. The City Community Forum was also devoted to the urban theme (114. Going through the last quarter of the year, we hope that Irkutsk will keep to the right policy, so that in the near future the wooden downtown quarters will become its pride, and the design, construction and investment complexes will join in desire to increase the number of comfortable and lively quarters in our city. The Baikal Beam will get one more landmark: the Smart School (22 for Irkutsk’s children, including orphans, will be built in several years on the bank of Chertugeevsky Bay.

  11. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  12. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  13. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  14. RTDS modelling of battery energy storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Lova

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a simplified model of a battery energy storage. The battery energy storage is part of the ABB energy storage system DynaPeaQ®. The model has been built to be run in RTDS, a real time digital simulator. Batteries can be represented by equivalent electric circuits, built up of e.g voltage sources and resistances. The magnitude of the components in an equivalent circuit varies with a number of parameters, e.g. state of charge of the battery and current fl...

  15. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: battery state-of-charge model using ampere-hour counting method and battery charge voltage model. For the battery state-of-charge model, the SOC is estimated by integrating the charge/discharge current over time while the battery charge voltage characteristic response is modelled by using the equation-fit method which expresses the battery charge voltage variations by a 5th order polynomial in terms of the state-of-charge and current. These models are realized using the MATLAB program. The battery charge voltage model is corrected for errors which may result from reduced charge voltage due to variation of solar radiation using the battery state-of-charge model. Moreover, the starting SOC needed in the state-of-charge model is estimated using the charge voltage model. The accuracies of the models are verified using various laboratory experiments.

  16. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  17. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  18. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  19. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  20. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  1. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri van Mierlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery management systems (BMS are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, such as shunt resistor, shuttling capacitor, inductor/transformer based and DC energy converters. The shuttling capacitor balancing systems in particular have not been subject to much research efforts however, due to their perceived low balancing speed and high cost. This paper tries to fill this gap by briefly discussing the shuttling capacitor cell balancing topologies, focusing on the single switched capacitor (SSC cell balancing and proposing a novel procedure to improve the SSC balancing system performance. This leads to a new control strategy for the SSC system that can decrease the balancing system size, cost, balancing time and that can improve the SSC balancing system efficiency.

  2. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Babatunde; M. B. Shitta

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC) is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: batter...

  3. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  4. The sol-ion system. A stationary PV battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiegel, A.U.; Knaup, P.; Meissner, A. [voltwerk electronics GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Jehoulet, C.; Schuh, H. [Saft Batteries, Bordeaux (France); Landau, M.; Braun, M. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Sauer, D.U.; Magnor, D. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). ISEA; Mohring, H.D. [ZSW, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Stationary PV battery systems will play a more important role in future PV applications. They are able to support the grid by providing active and reactive power that can be stored and they can be used to increase the self-consumption of solar energy. The Sol-ion system is a PV battery system that utilises two different approaches for self-consumption - either disconnected from or connected to the grid. Instead of traditional lead-acid batteries, this system uses lithium-ion batteries to store solar power more efficiently. (orig.)

  5. Ageing study of a supercapacitor-battery storage system

    OpenAIRE

    VULTURESCU, B; BUTTERBACH, S; Coquery, G.; FORGEZ, C; Friedrich, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study about a battery ageing methodology of a storage system formed by supercapacitors and lead-acid battery. The design of the hybrid system, based on a simple power flow management – the battery current clipping – is briefly summarized in order to outline the main benefit of the hybridization: the reduction of losses within the battery. The experimental setup will allow quantifying the impact of the hybridization on the battery lifetime by means...

  6. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  7. Efficient and powerful batteries for driverless transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    In driverless transportation systems batteries are playing an essential role. The capacitive operation or cycling of driverless systems require the use of different battery systems. Energy supply concepts have to be based on the perspective functional descriptions. The required data comprise full details on discharging processes (temporal current flows), intermediate and complete charging, ambient temperature ranges (which determine the type of battery to be used), and the minimum discharge voltage. Data on the exchange of batteries as well as on the maximum weight and volume of batteries complete the list of data. Any systems evaluation of the batteries to be used has to take account of the operating conditions.

  8. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  9. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the battery SoC, and even more important the remaining time of use, becomes more and more important. Therefore, many leading semiconductor companies, e.g. NXP Semiconductors, Texas Instruments, Microch...

  10. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  11. Progress in electrochemical storage for battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, F. E.; Hennigan, T. J.; Palandati, C. F.; Cohn, E.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to improve electrochemical systems for space use relate to: (1) improvement of conventional systems; (2) development of fuel cells to practical power systems; and (3) a search for new systems that provide gains in energy density but offer comparable life and performance as conventional systems. Improvements in sealed conventional systems resulted in the areas of materials, charge control methods, cell operations and battery control, and specific process controls required during cell manufacture. Fuel-cell systems have been developed for spacecraft but the use of these power plants is limited. For present and planned flights, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, and silver-cadmium systems will be used. Improvements in nickel-cadmium batteries have been applied in medical and commercial areas.

  12. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  13. Battery management system for electric racing cars

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Joaquim Alexandre da Silva

    2013-01-01

    With the introduction of the electrics cars into the market new technologies regarding the battery are being developed and new problems to be solved, one of them the battery management system because each type of cell requires a specific way of handling. This research is done using the active research method to find out the actual problem on this subject and features a BMS should have, understand how they work and how to develop them applied to the purpose on this work. Once the features the ...

  14. Hybrid Battery Ultracapacitor System For Human Robotic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a hybrid battery-ultra capacitor storage system that powers human-robotic systems in space missions. Space missions...

  15. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Chang; Yaqiong Yang; Xiaowei Wang; Minxia Li; Zhengwen Fu; Yuping Wu; Rudolf Holze

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent...

  16. Environmental consequences of the use of batteries in low carbon systems: The impact of battery production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Lithium based batteries show the most significant GHG and metal depletion impacts. ► Nickel metal hydride batteries perform worst in terms of cumulative energy demand. ► Charge and discharge cycles will have significant effect on the environmental impact. ► Limited data on the life cycle impacts of some types of batteries is available. - Abstract: Adoption of small scale micro-generation is sometimes coupled with the use of batteries in order to overcome daily variability in the supply and demand of energy. For example, photovoltaic cells and small wind turbines can be coupled with energy storage systems such as batteries. When used effectively with renewable energy production, batteries can increase the versatility of an energy system by providing energy storage that enables the systems to satisfy the highly variable electrical load of an individual dwelling, therefore changing usage patterns on the national grid. A significant shift towards electric or hybrid cars would also increase the number of batteries required. However, batteries can be inefficient and comprise of materials that have high environmental and energy impacts. In addition, some materials, such as lithium, are scarce natural resources. As a result, the overall impact of increasing our reliance on such “sustainable or “low carbon” systems may in fact have an additional detrimental impact. This paper reviews the currently available data and calculated and highlights the impact of the production of several types of battery in terms of energy, raw materials and greenhouse gases. The impact of the production of batteries is examined and presented in order that future studies may be able to include the impact of batteries more easily within any system. It is shown that lithium based batteries have the most significant impact in many environmental areas in terms of production. As the use phases of batteries are extremely variable within different situations this has not been

  17. Battery-powered transport systems. Possible methods of automatically charging drive batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    In modern driverless transport systems, not only easy maintenance of the drive battery is important but also automatic charging during times of standstill. Some systems are presented; one system is pointed out in particular in which 100 batteries can be charged at the same time.

  18. 76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise...

  19. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  20. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  1. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  2. Diagnosing battery behavior with an expert system in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power for the Hubble Space Telescope comes from a system of 20 solar panel assemblies (SPAs) and six nickel-cadmium batteries. The HST battery system is simulated by the HST Electrical Power System (EPS) testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is being used to diagnose faults of the testbed system, evaluate battery status and provide decision support for the engineer. Extensive telemetry of system operating conditions is relayed through a DEC LSI-11, and sent on to an IBM PC-AT. A BASIC program running on the PC monitors the flow of data, figures cell divergence and recharge ratio and stores these values, along with other selected data, for use by the expert system. The expert system is implemented in the logic programming language Prolog. It has three modes of operation: fault diagnosis, status and advice, and decision support. An alert or failure of the system will trigger a diagnosis by the system to assist the operator. The operator can also request battery status information as well as a number of plots and histograms of recent battery behavior. Trends in EOC and EOD voltage, recharge ratio and divergence are used by the expert system in its analysis of battery status. A future enhancement to the system includes the statistical prediction of battery life. Incorporating learning into the expert system is another possible enhancement; This is a difficult task, but one which could promise great rewards in improved battery performance

  3. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Do Yang; Lee, Baek Haeng; Kim, Sun Wook

    Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of charge and discharge of the batteries as well as monitoring the battery status. In this study, a BMS has been developed for maximizing the use of Ni-MH batteries in electric vehicles. This system performs several tasks: the control of charging and discharging, overcharge and over-discharge protection, the calculation and display of state-of-charge (SOC), safety, and thermal management. The BMS is installed in and tested in a DEV5-5 electric vehicle developed by Daewoo Motor Co. and the Institute for Advanced Engineering in Korea. Eighteen modules of a Panasonic nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, 12 V, 95 A h, are used in the DEV5-5. High accuracy within a range of 3% and good reliability are obtained. The BMS can also improve the performance and cycle-life of the Ni-MH battery peak, as well as the reliability and the safety of the electric vehicles.

  4. Program status 3. quarter -- FY 1990: Confinement systems programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-24

    Highlights of the DIII-D Research Operations task are: completed five weeks tokamak operations; initiated summer vent; achievement of 10.7% beta; carried out first dimensionless transport scaling experiment; completed IBW program; demonstrated divertor heat reduction with gas puffing; field task proposals presented to OFE; presentation of DIII-D program to FPAC; made presentation to Admiral Watkins; and SAN safety review. Summaries are given on research programs, operations, program development, hardware development, operations support and collaborative efforts. Brief summaries of progress on the International Cooperation task include: TORE SUPRA, ASDEX, JFT-2M, and JET. Funding for work on CIT physics was received this quarter. Several physics R and D planning tasks were initiated. Earlier in FY90, a poloidal field coil shaping system (PFC) was found for DIGNITOR. This quarter more detailed analysis has been done to optimize the design of the PFC system.

  5. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Battery Management System (BMS) for Grid-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawder, M. T.; Suthar, B.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Hoff, C. M.; Leitermann, O.; Crow, M. L.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Subramanian, V. R.

    2014-05-07

    The current electric grid is an inefficient system that wastes significant amounts of the electricity it produces because there is a disconnect between the amount of energy consumers require and the amount of energy produced from generation sources. Power plants typically produce more power than necessary to ensure adequate power quality. By taking advantage of energy storage within the grid, many of these inefficiencies can be removed. Advanced modeling is required when using battery energy storage systems (BESS) for grid storage in order to accurately monitor and control the storage system. Battery management systems (BMS) control how the storage system will be used and a BMS that utilizes advanced physics-based models will offer for much more robust operation of the storage system. The paper outlines the current state of the art for modeling in BMS and the advanced models required to fully utilize BMS for both lithium-ion batteries and vanadium redox-flow batteries. In addition, system architecture and how it can be useful in monitoring and control is discussed. A pathway for advancing BMS to better utilize BESS for grid-scale applications is outlined.

  6. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  7. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  8. Research on Battery Charging-Discharging in New Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Che Yanbo; Zhou Yan; Sun Yue; Hu Bo

    2013-01-01

    As an energy storage component, the battery plays increasingly important role in new energy industry. Charging and discharging system is the vital part of the application of the battery, but the charge and discharge are always designed separately and carried by different part in the traditional application. Additionally, most battery discharge mode and method are always simplified which cannot ensure to meet the demand of power utilization. In the actual energy storage system, the design of t...

  9. Battery-Aware Scheduling of Mixed Criticality Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    hybrid system and study its performance under battery-aware scheduling strategies. We believe that this evaluation does not scale with current verification techniques for stochastic hybrid systems. Instead statistical model checking provides a viable alternative with statistical guarantees. Based on our...... model we also calculate an upper bound on the attainable number of task instances from a battery, and we provide a battery-aware scheduler that wastes no energy on instances that are not guaranteed to make their deadlines....

  10. A systems approach to lithium-ion battery management

    CERN Document Server

    Weicker, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The advent of lithium ion batteries has brought a significant shift in the area of large format battery systems. Previously limited to heavy and bulky lead-acid storage batteries, large format batteries were used only where absolutely necessary as a means of energy storage. The improved energy density, cycle life, power capability, and durability of lithium ion cells has given us electric and hybrid vehicles with meaningful driving range and performance, grid-tied energy storage systems for integration of renewable energy and load leveling, backup power systems and other applications.This book

  11. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  12. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  13. Performance of redox flow battery systems in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shibata Toshikazu; Kumamoto Takahiro; Nagaoko Yoshiyuki; Kawase Kazunori; Yano Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energies, such as solar and wind power, are increasingly being introduced as alternative energy sources on a glosbal scale toward a low-carbon society. For the next generation power network, which uses a large number of these distributed power generation sources, energy storage technologies will be indispensable. Among these technologies, battery energy storage technology is considered to be most viable. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a redox flow battery system suitable for large scale energy storage, and carried out several demonstration projects on the stabilization of renewable energy output using the redox flow battery system. This paper describes the advantages of the redox flow battery and reviews the demonstration projects.

  14. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  15. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  16. Design of the Storage Battery Online Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Cheng Wang; Xixue Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Storage battery is the integrant back power supply in the communication system, and its using life and security reliability are specially concerned by users. To avoid the accidents induced by the individual battery failure in the long-term using process, the running status of the storage battery must be maintained and monitored periodically. A new and advanced capacity measurement technology, i.e. the whole-online discharge monitoring technology is proposed in this article. Comparing with oth...

  17. State of Health Estimation System for Lead-Acid Car Batteries Through Cranking Voltage Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The work in this thesis is focused on the development and validation of an automotive battery monitoring system that estimates the health of a lead-acid battery during engine cranking and provides a low state of health (SOH) warning of potential battery failure. A reliable SOH estimation should assist users in preventing a sudden battery failure and planning for battery replacement in a timely manner. Most commercial battery health estimation systems use the impedance of a battery to est...

  18. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pecht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The battery management system (BMS is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

  19. Automatic combustion control system for coke oven battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasaoka, S.; Terazono, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Matsuda, H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines an automatic coke battery temperature control system. The temperature sensors used, their number and location are described. There are three control systems: the combustion control system, temperature detection and heat control system, and the air volume and excess air-ratio control. The system for setting the battery temperature is also described. The overall system has achieved substantial reduction in coking heat consumption. 3 references.

  20. A Novel Approach to Materials Development for Advanced Reactor Systems. Quarterly Progress Report, Year 1; Quarter 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, G.S.; Atzmon, M.; Wang, L.

    2000-09-28

    OAK B188 A Novel Approach to Materials Development for Advanced Reactor Systems. Quarterly Progress Report, Year 1; Quarter 4. Year one of this project had three major goals. First, to specify, order and install a new high current ion source for more rapid and stable proton irradiation. Second, to assess the use of chromium pre-enrichment and hardening by combining cold-work and irradiation in an effort to isolate a radiation damage microstructure in stainless steel without the effects of RIS. Third, to initiate irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steel and Zircaloy. In year 1 quarter 4, the project goal was to begin characterization of the microstructure of model alloys of RPV steels irradiated over a range of doses. We also planned to prepare samples for microstructure isolation in stainless steels, and to receive and characterize Zircaloy samples for subsequent irradiation.

  1. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  2. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  3. Quarterly overviews of thermal solar energy systems 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title overviews were compiled to support the market introduction campaign for solar water heaters in the Netherlands. Use has been made of the data-banks of the Dutch subsidy administrator 'Senter'. 88% of the 1,883 systems, that were installed in 1993, are solar water heaters. Considering the solar collector surface the largest contribution is from the use of mainly uncovered collectors in swimming pools: 51% (37% for the collector surface of solar water heaters). Energy utilities are involved in the installation of 70% of the solar heating systems (even 77% for the solar water heaters). Next to the quarterly overviews, the subsidy data for the period 1988 up to and including 1993 are analyzed. 70% of the installed systems has been purchased and 30% was rented. At the end of 1993 preparations were made to install more than 3,000 solar boilers in 1994 and 1995. 3 figs., 21 tabs

  4. Research on Battery Charging-Discharging in New Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Yanbo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an energy storage component, the battery plays increasingly important role in new energy industry. Charging and discharging system is the vital part of the application of the battery, but the charge and discharge are always designed separately and carried by different part in the traditional application. Additionally, most battery discharge mode and method are always simplified which cannot ensure to meet the demand of power utilization. In the actual energy storage system, the design of the energy converter, which make the power storage and supply as a whole and the design of the charge and discharge method, will play an important role in efficient utilization of the battery system. As a part of the new energy system, the study makes battery and the charging and discharging system as a whole to store energy, which can store and release electric energy high efficiently according to the system state and control the bidirectional flow of energy precisely. Using TMS320F2812 as the control core, the system which integrates charging and discharging with battery monitoring can achieve the bidirectional Buck/Boost power control. It can achieve three-stage charging and selective discharging of the battery. Due to the influence of the diode reverse recovery time, current oscillation will appear. In order to eliminate the oscillation, we can set the circuit to work in critical conduction mode. The experimental result shows that the system can achieve the charging and discharging control of lead-acid battery and increase the battery life time further.

  5. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  6. Development Status of 3 Battery Systems for the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the development status of three battery systems for the X-38 crew return vehicle. Details are given on the design features, the lithium battery module, PCM composite heat sinks, carbon fibercore blocks for Qual battery, battery module base housing, heat sink characteristics, and battery qualifications.

  7. Performance requirements of automotive batteries for future car electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, R.; Richter, G.

    The further increase in the number of power-consuming functions which has been announced for future vehicle electrical systems, and in particular the effects of new starting systems on battery performance, requires a further optimization of the lead acid system coupled with effective energy management, and enhanced battery operating conditions. In the face of these increased requirements, there are proven benefits to splitting the functions of a single SLI battery between two separate, special-purpose batteries, each of which are optimized, for high power output and for high energy throughput, respectively. This will bring about a marked improvement in weight, reliability, and state of charge (SOC). The development of special design starter and service batteries is almost completed and will lead to new products with a high standard of reliability. The design of the power-optimized lead acid accumulator is particularly suitable for further development as the battery for a 42/36 V electrical system. This is intended to improve the efficiency of the generator and the various power-consuming functions and to improve start/stop operation thereby bringing about a marked reduction in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. This improvement can also be assisted by a charge management system used in conjunction with battery status monitoring.

  8. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  9. Battery Management System Design and Implementation in Electric Raceabout - Electric Sportscar

    OpenAIRE

    Sainio, Joonas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor´s study was to design and implement a new user-configurable battery management system into Electric Raceabout – electric sports car. This new improved system design would replace the old battery management system in the vehicle. The thesis begins by characterizing a professional battery management system and representing the benefits of the new system. Following the objectives of professional battery management systems, the new battery management system was de...

  10. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  11. Generic modelling framework for economic analysis of battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    Deregulated electricity markets provide opportunities for Battery Systems (BS) to participate in energy arbitrage and ancillary services (regulation, operating reserves, contingency reserves, voltage regulation, power quality etc.). To evaluate the economic viability of BS with different business...... battery cycle life estimation, since the cycle life plays a central role in the economic analysis of BS. To illustrate the modelling framework, a case study using a Sodium Sulfur Battery (NAS) system with 5-minute regulating service is performed. The economic performances of two dispatch scenarios, a so...

  12. The Electric Vehicle Lithium Battery Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lin; Yuankai Liu; Wang Ping; Fang Hong

    2013-01-01

    With the global increase in the number of vehicles, environmental protection and energy issues had become increasingly prominent. People paid more and more attention to the electric vehicle as the future direction of the vehicle, but because the battery technology was relatively backward, it had become the bottleneck in the development of electric vehicles. So in the existing conditions, a perfect battery Monitoring technology had become more and more important. This paper firstly analyzed th...

  13. Ocean energy systems. Quarterly report, October-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Research progress is reported on developing Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual design activity of the two industry teams that are designing offshore OTEC pilot plants that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway in which tests of a different kind of ocean-energy device, a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber, are being planned. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1982.

  14. Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongcheol Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS model, are connected together like in the target real battery system. Comparison results between the real battery system hardware and the battery system model show a similar tendency and values. Furthermore, the fault injection test of the model shows that the proposed battery system model can simulate a failure situation consistent with a real system. It is possible for the model to emulate the battery characteristics and fault situation if it is used in the development process of a BMS or for supervisory control strategies for electric propulsion systems.

  15. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  16. Review on Ultracapacitor- Battery Interface for Energy Management System

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saravana Kumar; S.Mallika,

    2011-01-01

    Electrical energy storage is a central element to any electric-drive train technology, whether hybrid-electric, fuel-cell, or all-electric. A particularly cost-sensitive issue with energy storage is the high replacement cost of depleted battery banks. One possibility to ease the power burden on batteries and fuel cells is to use ultra-capacitors as load-leveling devices. In this overview the technology and difficulties of ultracapacitor-Battery interface for energy management system is analyz...

  17. Review on Ultracapacitor- Battery Interface for Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Saravana Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy storage is a central element to any electric-drive train technology, whether hybrid-electric, fuel-cell, or all-electric. A particularly cost-sensitive issue with energy storage is the high replacement cost of depleted battery banks. One possibility to ease the power burden on batteries and fuel cells is to use ultra-capacitors as load-leveling devices. In this overview the technology and difficulties of ultracapacitor-Battery interface for energy management system is analyzed and the related research work is made.

  18. Handbook of secondary storage batteries and charge regulators in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    Solar photovoltaic systems often require battery subsystems to store reserve electrical energy for times of zero insolation. This handbook is designed to help the system designer make optimum choices of battery type, battery size and charge control circuits. Typical battery performance characteristics are summarized for four types of lead-acid batteries: pure lead, lead-calcium and lead-antimony pasted flat plate and lead-antimony tubular positive types. Similar data is also provided for pocket plate nickel cadmium batteries. Economics play a significant role in battery selection. Relative costs of each battery type are summarized under a variety of operating regimes expected for solar PV installations.

  19. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staack, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gaillard, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coughlin, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Neikirk, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fisher, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  20. Dynamic analysis of a photovoltaic power system with battery storage capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, W. C.; Blaha, R. J.; Pickrell, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A photovolataic power system with a battery storage capability is analyzed. A dual battery current control concept is proposed, which enables the battery to either supply or accept power depending upon system environment and load conditions. A simulation of the power system, including the battery current control, is developed and evaluated. The evaulation demonstrate the visbility of the battery control concept of switch the battery from a charge to discharge mode and back as required by load and environmental conditions. An acceptable system operation is demonstrated over the entire insolation range. Additionally, system sensitivity, bandwidth, and damping characteristics of the battery control are shown to be acceptable for a projected hardware implementation.

  1. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  2. Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeongcheol Lee; Kyuhong Han; Hyeongjin Ham

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS) model, are connected together like in the target r...

  3. Li-Ion Battery Charging with a Buck-Boost Power Converter for a Solar Powered Battery Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wei Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and simulates the Li-ion battery charging process for a solar powered battery management system. The battery is charged using a non-inverting synchronous buck-boost DC/DC power converter. The system operates in buck, buck-boost, or boost mode, according to the supply voltage conditions from the solar panels. Rapid changes in atmospheric conditions or sunlight incident angle cause supply voltage variations. This study develops an electrochemical-based equivalent circuit model for a Li-ion battery. A dynamic model for the battery charging process is then constructed based on the Li-ion battery electrochemical model and the buck-boost power converter dynamic model. The battery charging process forms a system with multiple interconnections. Characteristics, including battery charging system stability margins for each individual operating mode, are analyzed and discussed. Because of supply voltage variation, the system can switch between buck, buck-boost, and boost modes. The system is modeled as a Markov jump system to evaluate the mean square stability of the system. The MATLAB based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the battery charging model.

  4. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  5. Li-Ion Battery Charging with a Buck-Boost Power Converter for a Solar Powered Battery Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Wei Ma; Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes and simulates the Li-ion battery charging process for a solar powered battery management system. The battery is charged using a non-inverting synchronous buck-boost DC/DC power converter. The system operates in buck, buck-boost, or boost mode, according to the supply voltage conditions from the solar panels. Rapid changes in atmospheric conditions or sunlight incident angle cause supply voltage variations. This study develops an electrochemical-based equivalent circuit mod...

  6. Space Vehicle Power System Comprised of Battery/Capacitor Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarotte, C.; Lancaster, G. S.; Eichenberg, D.; Butler, S. M.; Miller, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent improvements in energy densities of batteries open the possibility of using electric rather that hydraulic actuators in space vehicle systems. However, the systems usually require short-duration, high-power pulses. This power profile requires the battery system to be sized to meet the power requirements rather than stored energy requirements, often resulting in a large and inefficient energy storage system. Similar transient power applications have used a combination of two or more disparate energy storage technologies. For instance, placing a capacitor and a battery side-by-side combines the high energy density of a battery with the high power performance of a capacitor and thus can create a lighter and more compact system. A parametric study was performed to identify favorable scenarios for using capacitors. System designs were then carried out using equivalent circuit models developed for five commercial electrochemical capacitor products. Capacitors were sized to satisfy peak power levels and consequently "leveled" the power requirement of the battery, which can then be sized to meet system energy requirements. Simulation results clearly differentiate the performance offered by available capacitor products for the space vehicle applications.

  7. California community water systems quarterly indicators dataset, 1999-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains quarterly measures of arsenic and nitrates in public drinking water supplies. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW)...

  8. Numerical Analysis and Design of Thermal Management System for Lithium Ion Battery Pack Using Thermoelectric Coolers

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Shichun Yang; Bin Guo; Cheng Deng

    2014-01-01

    A new design of thermal management system for lithium ion battery pack using thermoelectric coolers (TECs) is proposed. Firstly, the 3D thermal model of a high power lithium ion battery and the TEC is elaborated. Then the model is calibrated with experiment results. Finally, the calibrated model is applied to investigate the performance of a thermal management system for a lithium ion battery pack. The results show that battery thermal management system (BTMS) with TEC can cool the battery in...

  9. Peculiar Operational Features of Quarter-Wave Power Supply in Electric System

    OpenAIRE

    G. E. Pospelov

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the operational conditions of a quarter-wave power supply in an electric system. Its applicability for the operation in electric mains and electric power transportation is shown in the paper. 

  10. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyes, John D.; De Anda, Mindi Farber; Torres, Wenceslao

    1999-08-11

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The Puerto Rico facility is presently the largest operating battery storage system in the world and has successfully provided frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reseme to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. However, the facility has suffered accelerated cell failures in the past year and PREPA is committed to restoring the plant to full capacity. This represents the first repowering of a large utility battery facility. PREPA and its vendors and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation, which are summarized in this paper.

  11. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  12. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell-Balancing Algorithm for Battery Management System Based on Real-Time Outlier Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Changhao Piao; Zhaoguang Wang; Ju Cao; Wei Zhang; Sheng Lu

    2015-01-01

    A novel cell-balancing algorithm which was used for cell balancing of battery management system (BMS) was proposed in this paper. Cell balancing algorithm is a key technology for lithium-ion battery pack in the electric vehicle field. The distance-based outlier detection algorithm adopted two characteristic parameters (voltage and state of charge) to calculate each cell’s abnormal value and then identified the unbalanced cells. The abnormal and normal type of battery cells were acquired by on...

  13. Hybrid Energy Storage System With A Special Battery Charger For Wind Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Dipu Varghese; Stany E George

    2014-01-01

    Generation systems including wind turbine generators, photovoltaic panels and storage batteries are used to build hybrid stand-alone generation systems that are reliable, economic and efficient. Battery energy storage is the current and typical means of smoothing wind or solar power generation fluctuations and improving the power quality. A new battery charger which is a buck-type power converter specially for the wind power system is developed. The converter provides pulsating charging curre...

  14. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  15. Comparison of Biology Student Performance in Quarter and Semester Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Brian; Williams, Mary A.; Strain, Anna K.; Hoff, Courtney D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Curricula at most colleges and universities in the United States are scheduled according to quarters or semesters. While each schedule has several potential advantages over the other, it is unclear what effect each has on student performance. This study compares biology student performance during the two and a half years before and after the 1999…

  16. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, B K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  17. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject the...... power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  18. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be used to increase the profit margins of wind farm owners and even provide arbitrage. This paper...... discusses the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the......The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve...

  19. Progressive systems of waste collections (recovery) with batteries and accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the contribution is to describe the claim of environmental friendly act with dangerous waste C especially batteries and accumulators) in Slovakia. The article is concerned on the systems with act on dangerous waste and the choice of recovery technologies. Present situation of Slovakia is documented by the example of the situation in Banska Bystrica. (authors)

  20. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de-Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.;

    2015-01-01

    must be explored especially that large battery energy storage systems are still expensive solutions. Thus, in order to make battery investment economic viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method for determining firstly, the optimal rating...... of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from...

  1. Evaluating the value of batteries in microgrid electricity systems using an improved Energy Systems Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Energy System Model (ESM), an engineering-economic microgrid model, is developed. • ESM was designed to improve on HOMER by including more realistic battery modeling. • ESM was used to compare lead-acid and Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI) battery technologies. • In examined microgrid scenarios, systems using AHI had slightly lower levelized cost. • Scenarios where batteries are lightly cycled favor lead-acid batteries. - Abstract: A high-resolution model allowing for the comparison of different energy storage technologies in a variety of realistic microgrid settings has been developed. The Energy Systems Model (ESM) is similar to the popular microgrid software HOMER, but improves upon the battery models used in that program. ESM adds several important aspects of battery modeling, including temperature effects, rate-based variable efficiency, and operational modeling of capacity fade and we demonstrate that addition of these factors can significantly alter optimal system design, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), and other factors. ESM is then used to compare the Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI) battery chemistry to lead acid (PbA) batteries in standalone microgrids. The model suggests that AHI-based diesel generator/photovoltaic (PV)/battery systems are often more cost-effective than PbA-based systems by an average of around 10%, even though the capital cost of AHI technology is higher. The difference in LCOE is greatest in scenarios that have lower discount rates, increased PV utilization, higher temperature, and more expensive diesel fuel. AHI appears to be a better complement to solar PV, and scenarios that favor the use of solar PV (low PV prices, low discount rates, and high diesel prices) tend to improve the LCOE advantage of AHI. However, scenarios that do not require constant cycling of the batteries strongly favor PbA. AHI is not a drop-in replacement for PbA. To minimize LCOE, microgrids using AHI batteries should be designed and operated

  2. Individual Battery-Power Control for a Battery Energy Storage System Using a Modular Multilevel Cascade Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Tsukasa; Maharjan, Laxman; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper focuses on a battery energy storage system that can be installed in a 6.6-kV power distribution system. This system comprises a combination of a modular multilevel cascade converter based on single-star bridge-cells (MMCC-SSBC) and multiple battery modules. Each battery module is connected to the dc side of each bridge-cell, where the battery modules are galvanically isolated from each other. Three-phase multilevel line-to-line voltages with extremely low voltage steps on the ac side of the converter help in solving problems related to line harmonic currents and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. This paper proposes a control method that allows each bridge-cell to independently adjust the battery power flowing into or out of each battery module. A three-phase energy storage system using nine nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) battery modules, each rated at 72V and 5.5Ah, is designed, constructed, and tested to verify the viability and effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  3. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid...... hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage...... ratings can enhance the overall system eciency. This work is divided in two parts, "Control of DC-AC Grid Converters" and "Medium Voltage Grid Converters for Energy Storage". The rst part starts with a brief review of control strategies applied to grid connected DC-AC converters. A control implementation...

  4. Methods and systems for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2014-12-02

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  5. Optimizations of Battery-Based Intrusion Protection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Theresa Michelle

    2008-01-01

    As time progresses, small mobile devices become more prevalent for both personal and industrial use, providing malicious network users with new and exciting venues for security exploits. Standard security applications, such as Norton Antivirus and MacAfee, require computing power, memory space, and operating system complexity that are not present in small mobile devices. Recently, the Battery-Sensing Intrusion Protection System (B-SIPS) was devised as a means to correct the inability of small...

  6. Pre-Study for a Battery Storage for a Kinetic Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis investigates what kind of battery system that is suitable for an electric driveline equipped with a mechanical fly wheel, focusing on a battery with high specific energy capacity. Basic battery theory such as the principle of an electrochemical cell, limitations and C-rate is explained as well as the different major battery systems that are available. Primary and secondary cells are discussed, including the major secondary chemistries such as lead acid, nickel cadmium (Ni...

  7. State of health detection for Lithium ion batteries in photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DC resistances of batteries. ► Fuzzy logic inference. ► SOH detection for battery. - Abstract: In many photovoltaic systems, rechargeable batteries are required to even out irregularities in solar irradiation. However, the health conditions of the batteries are crucial for the reliability of the overall system. In this paper, the equivalent DC resistances of Lithium ion battery cells of various health conditions during charging under different temperatures have been collected and the relationships between equivalent DC resistance, health condition and working temperature have been identified. The equivalent DC resistance can easily be obtained during the charging period of a battery by switching off the charging current periodically for a very short duration of time. A simple and effective battery charger with state of health (SOH) detection for Lithium ion battery cell has been developed based on the identified equivalent DC resistance. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SOH determination scheme.

  8. Optimal charge control strategies for stationary photovoltaic battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahao; Danzer, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    Battery systems coupled to photovoltaic (PV) modules for example fulfill one major function: they locally decouple PV generation and consumption of electrical power leading to two major effects. First, they reduce the grid load, especially at peak times and therewith reduce the necessity of a network expansion. And second, they increase the self-consumption in households and therewith help to reduce energy expenses. For the management of PV batteries charge control strategies need to be developed to reach the goals of both the distribution system operators and the local power producer. In this work optimal control strategies regarding various optimization goals are developed on the basis of the predicted household loads and PV generation profiles using the method of dynamic programming. The resulting charge curves are compared and essential differences discussed. Finally, a multi-objective optimization shows that charge control strategies can be derived that take all optimization goals into account.

  9. Safety characteristics of non-lithium battery systems. Final report for period ending FY84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.M.; Bis, R.F.

    1984-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the safety characteristics for both primary and secondary non-lithium battery systems. Of particular interest was the behavior of these battery systems when subjected to the electrical and thermal-abuse testing procedures of NAVSEAINST 9310.1A (i.e., short circuit, forced overdischarge, and incineration). Also included are the safety/hazard characteristics associated with charging primary batteries and overcharging secondary batteries. This report also summarizes the manufacture, electrical performance, failure mechanisms, self-discharge, and applications for twenty-two primary and nineteen secondary battery systems.

  10. Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems with Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; Castro, Ricardo; Schaltz, Erik; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Araujo, Rui Esteves

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the influence of different aggregated electrical circuit battery models in the sizing process of a hybrid energy storage system (ESS), composed by Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The aim is to find the number of cells required to propel a certain vehicle over a predefined driving cycle. During this process, three battery models will be considered. The first consists in a linear static zeroeth order battery model over a restricted operatin...

  11. Design and implementation of battery statistics monitoring & analysis for android based system

    OpenAIRE

    Suruchi Kitey; Karmore, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    Battery Monitoring System which provides sensing andmonitoring capability to indicate the Battery conditions inany number of standby powers. Availability of BatteryCapability is to monitor any number of cells utilizing afrequency-shift-keyed signal to sequentially interrogateeach individual cell and using modulated tone responsesto transmit data back to the monitoring module. Advancesin battery technology not accomplish the rapidly growingenergy demands. Thus energy consumption has moreimport...

  12. Numerical and analytical modelling of battery thermal management using passive cooling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the battery thermal management systems (BTMS) modelling of Li-ions batteries and investigates the design and modelling of different passive cooling management solutions from single battery to module level. A simplified one-dimensional transient computational model of a prismatic lithium-ion battery cell is developed using thermal circuit approach in conjunction with the thermal model of the heat pipe. The proposed model is compared to an analytical solution based on varia...

  13. Maintenance-free lead acid battery for inertial navigation systems aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Vutetakis, David G.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS) Batteries have utilized vented nickel-cadmium batteries for emergency DC power. The United States Navy and Air Force developed separate systems during their respective INS developments. The Navy contracted with Litton Industries to produce the LTN-72 and Air Force contracted with Delco to produce the Carousel IV INS for the large cargo and specialty aircraft applications. Over the years, a total of eight different battery national stock numbers (NSNs) have entered the stock system along with 75 battery spare part NSNs. The Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program is working with the Aircraft Battery Group at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 536), Wright Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Concorde Battery Corporation to produce a standard INS battery. This paper discusses the approach taken to determine whether the battery should be replaced and to select the replacement chemistry. The paper also discusses the battery requirements, aircraft that the battery is compatible with, and status of Navy flight evaluation. Projected savings in avoided maintenance in Navy and Air Force INS Systems is projected to be $14.7 million per year with a manpower reduction of 153 maintenance personnel. The new INS battery is compatible with commercially sold INS systems which represents 66 percent of the systems sold.

  14. Battery management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2016-02-23

    A system for monitoring parameters of an energy storage system having a multiplicity of individual energy storage cells. A radio frequency identification and sensor unit is connected to each of the individual energy storage cells. The radio frequency identification and sensor unit operates to sense the parameter of each individual energy storage cell and provides radio frequency transmission of the parameters of each individual energy storage cell. A management system monitors the radio frequency transmissions from the radio frequency identification and sensor units for monitoring the parameters of the energy storage system.

  15. Quarter Car Active Suspension System Control Using PID Controller tuned by PSO

    OpenAIRE

    Wissam H. Al-Mutar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to design an efficient control scheme for car suspension system. The purpose of suspension system in vehicles is to get more comfortable riding and good handling with road vibrations. A nonlinear hydraulic actuator is connected to passive suspension system in parallel with damper. The Particles Swarm Optimization is used to tune a PID controller for active suspension system. The designed controller is applied for quarter car suspension system and result is compa...

  16. Modeling and verification of a lithium iron phosphate battery pack system for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin

    In recent years, Lithium chemistry based batteries have gained popularity with all automotive manufacturers. Thousands of battery cells are put into a battery pack to satisfy the need of power consumption of vehicles using electric traction. Managing the battery pack for hybrid and electric vehicles is a challenging problem. Despite the advantage of power density and charge retaining capabilities, Lithium ion batteries do not handle over-charge and over-discharge very well compared to other battery chemistries. Therefore, creating an accurate model to predict the battery pack behavior is essential in research and development for battery management systems. This work presents a general technique to extend accepted modeling methodologies for single cells to models for large packs. The theoretical framework is accompanied by parameter identification process based on the circuit model, and experimental verification procedures supporting the validity of this approach.

  17. Polymeric membrane systems of potential use for battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Two membrane systems were investigated that may have potential use as alkaline battery separators. One system comprises two miscible polymers: a support polymer (e.g., polyvinyl formal) and an ion conductor such as polyacrylic acid. The other system involves a film composed of two immiscible polymers: a conducting polymer (e.g., calcium polyacrylate) suspended in an inert polymer support matrix, polyphenylene oxide. Resistivities in 45-percent potassium hydroxide and qualitative mechanical properties are presented for films comprising various proportions of conducting and support polymers. In terms of these parameters, the results are encouraging for optimum ratios of conducting to support polymers.

  18. Reliability systems for implantable cardiac defibrillator batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, E.S. [Wilson Greatbatch Ltd., Clarence, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The reliability of the power sources used in implantable cardiac defibrillators is critical due to the life-saving nature of the device. Achieving a high reliability power source depends on several systems functioning together. Appropriate cell design is the first step in assuring a reliable product. Qualification of critical components and of the cells using those components is done prior to their designation as implantable grade. Product consistency is assured by control of manufacturing practices and verified by sampling plans using both accelerated and real-time testing. Results to date show that lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells used for implantable cardiac defibrillators have a calculated maximum random failure rate of 0.005% per test month. (orig.)

  19. Reliability systems for implantable cardiac defibrillator batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Esther S.

    The reliability of the power sources used in implantable cardiac defibrillators is critical due to the life-saving nature of the device. Achieving a high reliability power source depends on several systems functioning together. Appropriate cell design is the first step in assuring a reliable product. Qualification of critical components and of the cells using those components is done prior to their designation as implantable grade. Product consistency is assured by control of manufacturing practices and verified by sampling plans using both accelerated and real-time testing. Results to date show that lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells used for implantable cardiac defibrillators have a calculated maximum random failure rate of 0.005% per test month.

  20. Automotive Lead-Acid Battery State-of-Health Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Kerley, Ross Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a system to continuously monitor the battery in a car and warn the user of an upcoming battery failure. An automotive battery endures enormous strain when it starts the engine, and when it supplies loads without the engine running. Note that the current during a cranking event often exceeds 500 Amperes. Despite the strains, a car battery still typically lasts 4-6 years before requiring replacement. There is often no warning of when a battery should be ...

  1. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  2. Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commercialization of Li-ion batteries is the design of reliable battery management systems (BMSs. An efficient BMS ensures electrical safety during operation, while increasing battery lifetime, capacity and thermal stability. Despite the need for extensive research in this field, the majority of research conducted on Li-ion battery packs and BMS are proprietary works conducted by manufacturers. The available literature, however, provides either general descriptions or detailed analysis of individual components of the battery system, and ignores addressing details of the overall system development. This paper addresses the development of an experimental research testbed for studying Li-ion batteries and their BMS design. The testbed can be configured in a variety of cell and pack architectures, allowing for a wide range of BMS monitoring, diagnostics, and control technologies to be tested and analyzed. General considerations that should be taken into account while designing Li-ion battery systems are reviewed and different technologies and challenges commonly encountered in Li-ion battery systems are investigated. This testbed facilitates future development of more practical and improved BMS technologies with the aim of increasing the safety, reliability, and efficiency of existing Li-ion battery systems. Experimental results of initial tests performed on the system are used to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the developed research testbed. To the authors

  3. Life cycle assessment of primary control provision by battery storage systems and fossil power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koj, Jan Christian; Stenzel, Peter; Schreiber, Andrea; Hennings, Wilfried; Zapp, Petra; Wrede, Gunnar; Hahndorf, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing renewable energy generation influences the reliability of electric power grids. Thus, there is a demand for new technical units providing ancillary grid services. Intermittent renewable energy sources can be balanced by energy storage devices, especially battery storage systems. By battery systems grid efficiency and reliability as well as power quality can be increased. A further characteristic of battery systems is the ability to respond rapidly and precisely to frequency deviati...

  4. Battery Energy Storage System for PV Output Power Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV output power reduces the reliability in power system when there is a massive penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter for PV output power leveling. This paper proposes two controllers: a current controller using the d-q synchronous reference and a phase-shift controller. The main function of the current controller is to regulate the voltage at the high-side dc, so that the voltage ratio of the high-voltage side (HVS with low-voltage side (LVS is equal to the transformer turns ratio. The phase-shift controller is employed to manage the charging and discharging modes of the battery based on PV output power and battery voltage. With the proposed system, unity power factor and efficient active power injection are achieved. The feasibility of the proposed control system is investigated using PSCAD simulation.

  5. Ensure the electric power system's durability through battery monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Battery monitoring is used to acquire information about battery conditions. It’s a regular technology that most of us uses on daily bases. The charge gauge in a cellphone, consisting of bars which indicate the degree of charge left in the battery is an example. Battery monitoring gives the cellphone user information about the battery. The background to the thesis work is that this technology is requested for vehicles because empty or broken batteries are one of the most common causes for invo...

  6. A High-Efficiency Grid-Tie Battery Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion based battery energy storage system has become one of the most popular forms of energy storage system for its high charge and discharge efficiency and high energy density. This dissertation proposes a high-efficiency grid-tie lithium-ion battery based energy storage system, which consists of a LiFePO4 battery based energy storage and associated battery management system (BMS), a high-efficiency bidirectional ac-dc converter and the central control unit which controls the operation...

  7. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  8. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    OpenAIRE

    Salar Chamanian; Sajjad Baghaee; Hasan Ulusan; Özge Zorlu; Haluk Külah; Elif Uysal-Biyikoglu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN) system where an electromagnetic (EM) energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different opera...

  9. Analysis of Environmental Conditions for NPP Krsko DC Battery and Battery Charger Rooms Following SG Blowdown Processing System Line Break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes analysis of thermal-hydraulic conditions in NEK DC Battery and Battery Charger rooms after a postulated break of the SG Blowdown Processing System (SGBD) line. The calculation was performed in frame of Equipment Qualification Parameters determination for NPP Krsko. Such break can result in release of the SG water in NEK Intermediate Building which can endanger the safety related electrical equipment. Since this break cannot happen in the mentioned rooms the presence of HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) ducts must be taken into account, i.e., the HVAC duct can potentially be damaged under the pressure conditions in the rooms where the SGBD break can occur leaving the free path to the DC Battery and Battery Charger rooms. This analysis covers mass and energy release calculation (MER) due to SG blowdown line break (A), calculation of ventilation duct structural integrity (B), and the pressure and temperature response of selected IB rooms (C). A. The SGBD break is postulated in the Intermediate Building downstream the Containment Isolation valves and upstream of the Blowdown Heat Exchanger to conservatively predict the mass and energy release. This calculation was performed with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 computer code. B. FEM (Finite Element Method) stress calculation using NISA II and ALGOR computer programs was performed for representative section of the HVAC duct in order to estimate pressure difference which can open the duct and connect battery rooms with the rooms where SG blowdown break was simulated. C. In order to take into account influence of possible damage of HVAC duct on TH conditions in IB rooms 011, 012, 014 and 015 (DC Battery and Battery Charger rooms) the GOTHIC code was used considering SGBD break in rooms IB009 and IB010. (author)

  10. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  11. Advanced Turbine Systems Program -- Conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. A secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS. This quarterly report, addresses only Task 4, conversion of a gas turbine to a coal-fired gas turbine, which was completed during the quarter and the nine subtasks included in Task 8, design and test of critical components. These nine subtasks address six ATS technologies as follows: catalytic combustion; recuperator; autothermal fuel reformer; high temperature turbine disc; advanced control system (MMI); and ceramic materials.

  12. [Geothermal system temperature-depth database and model for data analysis]. 5. quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, D.D.

    1998-04-25

    During this first quarter of the second year of the contract activity has involved several different tasks. The author has continued to work on three tasks most intensively during this quarter: the task of implementing the data base for geothermal system temperature-depth, the maintenance of the WWW site with the heat flow and gradient data base, and finally the development of a modeling capability for analysis of the geothermal system exploration data. The author has completed the task of developing a data base template for geothermal system temperature-depth data that can be used in conjunction with the regional data base that he had already developed and is now implementing it. Progress is described.

  13. Program maintenance manual for nickel cadmium battery expert system, version 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is an expert system for fault diagnosis and advice of the nickel-cadmium batteries found in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The system application and security, equipment environment, and the program maintenance procedures are examined.

  14. Quarter Car Active Suspension System Control Using PID Controller tuned by PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam H. Al-Mutar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to design an efficient control scheme for car suspension system. The purpose of suspension system in vehicles is to get more comfortable riding and good handling with road vibrations. A nonlinear hydraulic actuator is connected to passive suspension system in parallel with damper. The Particles Swarm Optimization is used to tune a PID controller for active suspension system. The designed controller is applied for quarter car suspension system and result is compared with passive suspension system model and input road profile. Simulation results show good performance for the designed controller

  15. Cell-balancing currents in parallel strings of a battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Devie, Arnaud; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are attractive for vehicle electrification or grid modernization applications. In these applications, battery packs are required to have multiple-cell configurations and battery management system to operate properly and safely. Here, a useful equivalent circuit model was developed to simulate the spontaneous transient balancing currents among parallel strings in a battery system. The simulation results were validated with experimental data to illustrate the accuracy and validity of the model predictions. Understanding the transient behavior of such cell and string balancing in a parallel circuit configuration is very important to assess the impacts of current fluctuation and cell variability on a battery system's performance, regarding durability, reliability, safety, abuse tolerance and failure prevention, including possible short circuit or open circuit conditions. Additional features and advantages, including the ability to assessing impacts on the performance of the string assemblies from string swapping or cell/module replacement in the strings, could be realized to aid battery management, maintenance and repair.

  16. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part I: Performance and energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical performance and energy requirements for production and transportation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system at different operating conditions are presented. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (Li-ion), sodium-sulphur (NaS), nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lead-acid (PbA), vanadium-redox (VRB), zinc-bromine (ZnBr) and polysulfide-bromide (PSB). In the reference case, the energy requirements for production and transport of PV-battery systems that use the different battery technologies differ by up to a factor of three. Production and transport of batteries contribute 24-70% to the energy requirements, and the PV array contributes 26-68%. The contribution from other system components is less than 10%. The contribution of transport to energy requirements is 1-9% for transportation by truck, but may be up to 73% for air transportation. The energy requirement for battery production and transport is dominant for systems based on NiCd, NiMH and PbA batteries. The energy requirements for these systems are, therefore, sensitive to changes in battery service life and gravimetric energy density. For systems with batteries with relatively low energy requirement for production and transportation (Li-ion, NaS, VRB, ZnBr, PSB), the battery charge-discharge efficiency has a larger impact. In Part II, the data presented here are used to calculate energy payback times and overall battery efficiencies of the PV-battery systems

  17. High-accuracy magnetic power sensor for battery management systems; Hochgenauer magnetischer Stromsensor fuer Batterie-Management-Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ralf; Preusse, Norbert; Kapoor, Jivan [VAC, Hanau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a magnetic current sensor with the classical benefits of magnetic sensors such as potential free measurement without any voltage drop in the power circuit and excellent accuracy over a wide dynamic range. A sensor design based on the well known flux balance technology is presented for medium current ranges (I<100A) and its potential high current range capabilities (I>1000A) are discussed in detail. Finally, a comparison between different sensor types for battery management systems will be discussed also. (orig.)

  18. Kalman filtering state of charge estimation for battery management system based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network battery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel extended Kalman Filtering SOC estimation method based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) battery model is proposed. ► The SFNN which has filtering effect on noisy input can model the battery nonlinear dynamic with high accuracy. ► A robust parameter learning algorithm for SFNN is studied so that the parameters can converge to its true value with noisy data. ► The maximum SOC estimation error based on the proposed method is 0.6%. - Abstract: Extended Kalman filtering is an intelligent and optimal means for estimating the state of a dynamic system. In order to use extended Kalman filtering to estimate the state of charge (SOC), we require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of battery pack. In this paper, we propose a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) instead of the traditional neural network that has filtering effect on noisy input to model the battery nonlinear dynamic. Then, the paper studies the extended Kalman filtering SOC estimation method based on a SFNN model. The modeling test is realized on an 80 Ah Ni/MH battery pack and the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle is used to verify the SOC estimation method. The maximum SOC estimation error is 0.6% compared with the real SOC obtained from the discharging test.

  19. A new battery capacity indicator for lithium-ion battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this model is to adopt newly both the discharged/regenerative capacity distributions and the temperature distributions as the inputs and the state of available capacity (SOAC) as the output, which represents the BRC. Moreover, realistic EV discharge current profiles are newly used to formulate the proposed model. The accuracy of the estimated SOAC obtained from the model is verified by experiments under various EV discharge current profiles

  20. A new battery capacity indicator for lithium-ion battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, K.T.; Wu, K.C.; Chan, C.C. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a new adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this model is to adopt newly both the discharged/regenerative capacity distributions and the temperature distributions as the inputs and the state of available capacity (SOAC) as the output, which represents the BRC. Moreover, realistic EV discharge current profiles are newly used to formulate the proposed model. The accuracy of the estimated SOAC obtained from the model is verified by experiments under various EV discharge current profiles. (author)

  1. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the U.S. Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 titled {open_quotes}Decontamination Systems Information and Research programs{close_quotes} (DOE Instrument No. DE-FC21-92MC29467) This report contains the efforts of the research projects comprising the Agreement for the 4th calendar quarter of 1995, and is the final quarterly report deliverable required for the period ending 31 December 1995. The projects reported for the WVU Cooperative Agreement are categorized into the following three areas: 1.0 In Situ Remediation Process Development, 2.0 Advanced Product Applications Testing, and 3.0 Information Systems, Public Policy, Community Outreach, and Economics. Summaries of the significant accomplishments for the projects reported during the period 1 October 95 through 31 December 95 are presented in the following discussions.

  2. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the last quarter of the Second Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1994, entitled {open_quotes}Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.{close_quotes} The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particulate control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size.

  3. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  4. Central receiver solar thermal system. Phase 1, CDRL item 10. Second quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1976-04-01

    Results of analysis and design efforts are summarized. This is the second quarterly technical progress report published on the Phase 1 Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System contract. The dominant activities during the reporting period have involved the detailed definition of the subsystem research experiments and the design of the test articles and test facilities. Summaries of these activities are presented. Design changes to the 10-MWe pilot plant preliminary design baseline which have occurred during the report period are also described.

  5. Air quality in quarters and system of personal security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article climatic systems are considered as systems of personal security. Roles of State, building proprietors, inhabitants in the formation of climate favorable for health are analysed. Regulated heat and air conditioning systems are considered particularly, because they can give personal security in temperature.

  6. Optimal management of stationary lithium-ion battery system in electricity distribution grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvins, Arturs; Sumner, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The present article proposes an optimal battery system management model in distribution grids for stationary applications. The main purpose of the management model is to maximise the utilisation of distributed renewable energy resources in distribution grids, preventing situations of reverse power flow in the distribution transformer. Secondly, battery management ensures efficient battery utilisation: charging at off-peak prices and discharging at peak prices when possible. This gives the battery system a shorter payback time. Management of the system requires predictions of residual distribution grid demand (i.e. demand minus renewable energy generation) and electricity price curves (e.g. for 24 h in advance). Results of a hypothetical study in Great Britain in 2020 show that the battery can contribute significantly to storing renewable energy surplus in distribution grids while being highly utilised. In a distribution grid with 25 households and an installed 8.9 kW wind turbine, a battery system with rated power of 8.9 kW and battery capacity of 100 kWh can store 7 MWh of 8 MWh wind energy surplus annually. Annual battery utilisation reaches 235 cycles in per unit values, where one unit is a full charge-depleting cycle depth of a new battery (80% of 100 kWh).

  7. PSOC test of battery for photovoltaic systems; Taiyoko hatsuden yo chikudenchi no PSOC shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, I.; Kato, K.; Takano, K.; Nozaki, K.; Sakuta, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-12-05

    Batteries at PV systems are ordinarily used under the PSOC (partial state of charge) condition. The use of to batteries under the PSOC condition influences the lifetime of the batteries. In order to clarify the influence of the PSOC, the PSOC test are carried out under the 3 stage temperature and 3 stage SOC (state of charge) conditions. In this paper is described the fast cycle results. (author)

  8. Impact analysis of different operation strategies for battery energy storage systems (BESS) providing primary control reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Fleer, Johannes; Stenzel, Peter; Linssen, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a techno-economic analysis of stationary battery systems providing primary control for grid stabilisation is conducted. The effects of battery design and operation strategies adapted for primary control supply are investigated with regard to costs and parameters relevant for battery aging. Primary control is required to balance the feed-in and use of electricity to/from the grid, thereby ensuring safe and stable grid operation. In Germany, primary control is traded on a separate...

  9. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Josep M. Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme which minimizes the operating cost of a grid connected micro-grid supplemented by battery energy storage system (BESS). What distinguishes approach presented here from conventional strategies is that not only the price of electricity is considered in the formulation of the total operating cost but an additional item that takes into account inevitable battery degradation. The speed of degradation depends on battery technology and its mission profile and thi...

  10. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    OpenAIRE

    Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin; Saez-de Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Connecting renewable power plants to the grid must comply with certain codes and requirements. One requirement is the ramp rate constraint, which must be fulfilled in order to avoid penalties. As this service becomes compulsory with an increased grid penetration of renewable, all possible solutions must be explored especially that large battery energy storage systems are still expensive solutions. Thus, in order to make battery investment economic viable, the use of second life batteries is i...

  11. Sea-water battery for subsea control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasvold, Oe. [FFI, Kjeller (Norway); Henriksen, H. [FFI, Kjeller (Norway); Melvaer, E. [FFI, Kjeller (Norway); Citi, G. [AGIP S.p.A., Milan (Italy); Johansen, B.Oe. [SIMRAD AS, Horten (Norway); Kjoenigsen, T. [SIMRAD AS, Horten (Norway); Galetti, R. [Tecnomare, Venice (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a power source for the autonomous control system of a subsea well (SWACS) in the Ionian sea. The unit was deployed in Jan. 1996 at a depth of 180 m. The 650 kWh sea-water battery uses anodes made from commercial magnesium alloys, sea-water as the electrolyte and oxygen dissolved in the sea-water as oxidant. The inert cathodes are made from carbon fibers. The system is composed of six, two-metre high sea-water cells integrated in a steel structure, a d.c./d.c. converter and a valve regulated lead-acid accumulator enclosed in a titanium container together with a monitoring unit which transfers data to the surface via an acoustic link. (orig.)

  12. Battery Systems for X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) and Deorbit Propulsion Stage (DPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    1998-01-01

    A 28V 32 Ah cell Li/MnO2 and a 28V NiMH battery systems for the Deorbit Propulsion Stage (DPS) and the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) are developed in Friwo-Silforkraft, Germany with the following objectives and approach: Provide safe battery designs for lowest volume and cost, and within schedule; Take advantage of less complex requests for V201 vs OPS CRV to simplify design and reduce cost; Use only existing commercial cell designs as building blocks for larger battery; Derive battery designs from the ASTRO-SPAS design which is the largest lithium battery design with Shuttle flight experience; Place maximum amount of battery energy on DPS; DPS battery is non rechargeable; and CRV batteries are rechargeable. This paper contains the following sections: a brief introduction on CRV requirements, CRV advantages over Soyuz, and X-38 programs; Battery objectives and approach; Battery requirements and groundrules (performance, on-orbit operation, etc); Design trades, solutions, redundancy plan, and margins; Envelope, size, and mass; Interfaces (structural, electrical & thermal); and Deviation from OPS CRV.

  13. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, January 1996--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement in August 1992 titled {open_quotes}Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs{close_quotes} (DOE Instrument No.: DE-FC21-92MC29467). Requirements stipulated by the Agreement require WVU to submit quarterly Technical Progress reports. This report contains the efforts of the research projects comprising the Agreement for the 1st calendar quarter of 1996. For the period January 1 through December 31, 1996 twelve projects have been selected for funding, and the Kanawha Valley will continue under a no-cost extension. Three new projects have also been added to the program. This document describes these projects involving decontamination, decommissioning and remedial action issues and technologies.

  14. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program: Quarterly report, July--September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ''Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs'' (DOE Instrument No.: DE-FC21-92MC29467). Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Reports on a quarterly basis. This report comprises the eighth Quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the 16 technical projects encompassed by the Agreement for the period of July 1 through September 30, 1994. These projects focus on the following: Bio-remediation of organic compounds, heavy metals, and radionuclides; miscellaneous remediation technologies; instrumentation; and technology assessments

  15. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, January 1996--March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement in August 1992 titled open-quotes Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programsclose quotes (DOE Instrument No.: DE-FC21-92MC29467). Requirements stipulated by the Agreement require WVU to submit quarterly Technical Progress reports. This report contains the efforts of the research projects comprising the Agreement for the 1st calendar quarter of 1996. For the period January 1 through December 31, 1996 twelve projects have been selected for funding, and the Kanawha Valley will continue under a no-cost extension. Three new projects have also been added to the program. This document describes these projects involving decontamination, decommissioning and remedial action issues and technologies

  16. Rechargeable MnO/sub 2/ battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty years after Volta used for the first time (1800) zinc as an electrode, Leclanche patented a MnO/sub 2/NH/sub 4/Cl/Zn cell with a zinc rod negative, which was then shortly replaced by the amalgamated zinc can. Although the original patents for wet and dry alkaline systems were filed already towards the end of 19th and during the first two decades of the 20th century, the first alkaline commercial battery (Herbert's crown cell), appeared only in the early fifties. Since then the introduction of large area zinc electrodes and voluminous work leading to the development of positive electrodes with highest possible reactivity, i.e., capable of releasing a maximum charge at a maximum voltage difference between terminals over longest periods of time, coupled with growing demands of the electronic industries led to the emergence of a several billion dollar primary cell market of which alkaline MnO/sub 2//Zn cells are capturing a rapidly increasing share and are expected to fully dominate the dry cell market. Their better performance/cost ratio compensates for a cost higher than that of their Leclanche type counterparts. The prospects of better utilization of this more expensive system, problems of energy wste4 and of waste disposal of the ever increasing numbers of throw-away batteries, prompted numerous attempts to produce a rechargeable MnO/sub 2//Zn system capable not only of high reactivity, i.e., high power drains, but also applicable for several commercial uses

  17. Waste heat conducting system for side burner regenerative coke oven batteries with divided heating system. [German Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiersch, F.; Strobel, M.; Schmitz, T.

    1980-08-21

    In the well known waste heat removal system for side burner regenerative coking over batteries with divided heating system both flues could be used simultaneously and equally. The flues in the longitudinal direction of the battery open into a common chimney foot connection at one end of the battery. They are individually connected via opposite groups of transverse flues to opposite groups of waste heat elbows of waste heat valves on the machine and on the coke side.

  18. Modular battery design for reliable, flexible and multi-technology energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Collection of existing battery topologies in electric vehicles. • Analysis of load profiles and the power consumption for electric vehicles. • Composition of battery packs and their passive components. • Modular, hybrid battery architecture with a dc-link. - Abstract: With large scale battery systems being more and more used in demanding applications regarding lifetime, performance and safety, it is of great importance to utilize not only cells with a high cyclic and calendric lifetime but also to optimize the whole system architecture. The aim of this work is therefore, to highlight the benefits of a modular system architecture allowing the use of hybrid battery systems combining high power and high energy cells in a multi-technology system. To achieve an optimized performance, efficiency and lifetime for an electric vehicle the complete drive train topology has to be taken into account instead of optimizing one of the components individually. Consequently, the topic will be analyzed from the system’s point of view, addressing in particular the modularization of the battery as well as the power electronics needed to do so. It will be shown that a highly flexible battery system can be realized by dc-to-dc converters between a modular, hybrid battery system and the drive inverter. By the dc-to-dc converters the battery output voltages and the inverter input voltages are decoupled. Hence, the battery’s topology can be chosen unrestrictedly within a wide range and easily be interconnected to a common dc-link of a different voltage. The benefits of this flexibility will be analyzed in detail showing especially how the lifetime of the battery system can be improved and the impact on system weight

  19. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn Remco

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is continuously discharged, a high current will cause it to provide less energy until the end of its lifetime than a lower current. This effect is termed the rate-capacity effect. On the other hand, duri...

  20. An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are to operate effectively in all climates, thermal management of the packs is essential. In this paper, we will review a systematic approach for designing and evaluating battery pack thermal management systems. A thermal management system using air as the heat transfer medium is less complicated than a system using liquid cooling/heating. Generally, for parallel HEVs, an air thermal management system is adequate, whereas for EVs and series HEVs, liquid-based systems may be required for optimum thermal performance. Further information on battery thermal management can be found on the Web site www.ctts.nrel.gov/BTM

  1. A comparative study and validation of state estimation algorithms for Li-ion batteries in battery management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Description of state observers for estimating the battery’s SOC. • Implementation of four estimation algorithms in a BMS. • Reliability and performance study of BMS regarding the estimation algorithms. • Analysis of the robustness and code properties of the estimation approaches. • Guide to evaluate estimation algorithms to improve the BMS performance. - Abstract: To increase lifetime, safety, and energy usage battery management systems (BMS) for Li-ion batteries have to be capable of estimating the state of charge (SOC) of the battery cells with a very low estimation error. The accurate SOC estimation and the real time reliability are critical issues for a BMS. In general an increasing complexity of the estimation methods leads to higher accuracy. On the other hand it also leads to a higher computational load and may exceed the BMS limitations or increase its costs. An approach to evaluate and verify estimation algorithms is presented as a requisite prior the release of the battery system. The approach consists of an analysis concerning the SOC estimation accuracy, the code properties, complexity, the computation time, and the memory usage. Furthermore, a study for estimation methods is proposed for their evaluation and validation with respect to convergence behavior, parameter sensitivity, initialization error, and performance. In this work, the introduced analysis is demonstrated with four of the most published model-based estimation algorithms including Luenberger observer, sliding-mode observer, Extended Kalman Filter and Sigma-point Kalman Filter. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are used to verify the real time functionality of the BMS. The results show that a simple estimation method like the sliding-mode observer can compete with the Kalman-based methods presenting less computational time and memory usage. Depending on the battery system’s application the estimation algorithm has to be selected to fulfill the

  2. State of Charge Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter for Battery Management Systems Based on the ARX Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is a critical factor to guarantee that a battery system is operating in a safe and reliable manner. Many uncertainties and noises, such as fluctuating current, sensor measurement accuracy and bias, temperature effects, calibration errors or even sensor failure, etc. pose a challenge to the accurate estimation of SOC in real applications. This paper adds two contributions to the existing literature. First, the auto regressive exogenous (ARX model is proposed here to simulate the battery nonlinear dynamics. Due to its discrete form and ease of implemention, this straightforward approach could be more suitable for real applications. Second, its order selection principle and parameter identification method is illustrated in detail in this paper. The hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC cycles are implemented on the 60AH LiFePO4 battery module for the model identification and validation. Based on the proposed ARX model, SOC estimation is pursued using the extended Kalman filter. Evaluation of the adaptability of the battery models and robustness of the SOC estimation algorithm are also verified. The results indicate that the SOC estimation method using the Kalman filter based on the ARX model shows great performance. It increases the model output voltage accuracy, thereby having the potential to be used in real applications, such as EVs and HEVs.

  3. Functional Analysis of Battery Management Systems using Multi-Cell HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Schaltz, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of Battery Management Systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller HW and SW, such as analog front-end (AFE) and performance of generated control code. In comparison with tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL...

  4. Novel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    Temperature excursions and non-uniformity of the temperature inside the battery systems are the main concern and drawback for any attempt to scale-up battery cells to the larger sizes as required for high power applications. The applications may include electric generating stations, substations, ...

  5. Model-Based Design and Integration of Large Li-ion Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Kim, Gi-Heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad; Mukherjee, Partha; Barai, Pallab; Maute, Kurt; Behrou, Reza; Patil, Chinmaya

    2015-11-17

    This presentation introduces physics-based models of batteries and software toolsets, including those developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries Program (CAEBAT). The presentation highlights achievements and gaps in model-based tools for materials-to-systems design, lifetime prediction and control.

  6. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...... storage....

  7. Experimental performances of a battery thermal management system using a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hémery, Charles-Victor; Pra, Franck; Robin, Jean-François; Marty, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Li-ion batteries are leading candidates for mobility because electric vehicles (EV) are an environmentally friendly mean of transport. With age, Li-ion cells show a more resistive behavior leading to extra heat generation. Another kind of problem called thermal runway arises when the cell is too hot, what happens in case of overcharge or short circuit. In order to evaluate the effect of these defects at the whole battery scale, an air-cooled battery module was built and tested, using electrical heaters instead of real cells for safety reasons. A battery thermal management system based on a phase change material is developed in that study. This passive system is coupled with an active liquid cooling system in order to initialize the battery temperature at the melting of the PCM. This initialization, or PCM solidification, can be performed during a charge for example, in other words when the energy from the network is available.

  8. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin;

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric vehi......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....... vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user...

  9. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2015-11-01

    Low-cost energy storage systems are required to support extensive deployment of intermittent renewable energy on the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the stringent cost target for grid applications as compared to more traditional batteries based on an enclosed architecture. However, the manufacturing process and therefore potential high-volume production price of redox flow batteries is largely unquantified. We present a comprehensive assessment of a prospective production process for aqueous all vanadium flow battery and nonaqueous lithium polysulfide flow battery. The estimated investment and variable costs are translated to fixed expenses, profit, and warranty as a function of production volume. When compared to lithium-ion batteries, redox flow batteries are estimated to exhibit lower costs of manufacture, here calculated as the unit price less materials costs, owing to their simpler reactor (cell) design, lower required area, and thus simpler manufacturing process. Redox flow batteries are also projected to achieve the majority of manufacturing scale benefits at lower production volumes as compared to lithium-ion. However, this advantage is offset due to the dramatically lower present production volume of flow batteries compared to competitive technologies such as lithium-ion.

  10. ACTIVE CONTROL OF QUARTER-CAR SUSPENSION SYSTEM USING LINEAR QUADRATIC REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Nandedkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The automobile is composed of many systems. One of these is the suspension system. The main functions of the automotive suspension system are to provide vehicle support, stability and directional control during handling manoeuvres and to provide effective isolation from road disturbances. The suspension system has to balance the tradeoff between ride comfort and handling performance. This paper analyses the passive suspension system and active suspension system using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR controller. A linear quarter-car model is used for the analysis and simulation. The performance of the LQR controller is compared with the passive suspension system. The simulation results show that the LQR controller improves vehicle ride comfort.

  11. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  12. Design and analysis of large lithium-ion battery systems

    CERN Document Server

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This new resource provides you with an introduction to battery design and test considerations for large-scale automotive, aerospace, and grid applications. It details the logistics of designing a professional, large, Lithium-ion battery pack, primarily for the automotive industry, but also for non-automotive applications. Topics such as thermal management for such high-energy and high-power units are covered extensively, including detailed design examples.Every aspect of battery design and analysis is presented from a hands-on perspective. The authors work extensively with engineers in the fie

  13. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 titled `Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs`. Requirements stipulated by the Agreement require WVU to submit Technical Progress reports on a quarterly basis. This report contains the efforts of the fourteen research projects comprising the Agreement for the period April 1 to June 30, 1995. During this period three new projects have been funded by the Agreement. These projects are: (1) WERC National Design Contest, (2) Graduate Interns to the Interagency Environmental Technology Office under the National Science and Technology Council, and (3) WV High Tech Consortium.

  14. Smart battery management systems: towards an efficient integration of electrical energy storage in smart regions

    OpenAIRE

    Gano, A. J.; Silva, Hugo M.; Correia, João Bernardino; Martins, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Electrical energy storage systems for electric vehicles or stationary applications will be important actors in Smart Region's energy scenarios, strongly contributing to increase the efficient and sustainable use of available resources. However, massive integration of such systems stillposes many problems, requiring enhancements in batteries's life time, autonomy, reliability and cost. The development of new smart and accurate battery management systems able to communicate with a broad range o...

  15. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Lin Lai; Li-Chih Chang; Tai-Hwa Liu; Yi-Chun Sung; Cheng-Lun Yin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs) of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs), coupling cable lines (CCLs), and small radiation patches (SRPs). The RFID sensing system ...

  16. Metal halogen battery system with multiple outlet nozzle for hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-06-21

    A metal halogen battery system, including at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode contacted by aqueous electrolyte containing the material of said metal and halogen, store means whereby halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell and to the store means, and conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate former whereby the hydrate is formed in association with the store means, said store means being constructed in the form of a container which includes a filter means, said filter means being inoperative to separate the hydrate formed from the electrolyte, said system having, a hydrate former pump means associated with the store means and being operative to intermix halogen gas with aqueous electrolyte to form halogen hydrate, said hydrate former means including, multiple outlet nozzle means connected with the outlet side of said pump means and being operative to minimize plugging, said nozzle means being comprised of at least one divider means which is generally perpendicular to the rotational axes of gears within the pump means, said divider means acting to divide the flow from the pump means into multiple outlet flow paths.

  17. Simplified performance models of photovoltaic/diesel generator/battery system considering typical control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed model for hybrid PV/DG system considering load following control method. • We developed model for hybrid PV/DG system considering cycle charging control method. • We validated these models using simulations and experiment. - Abstract: Simplified dynamic models of photovoltaic/diesel generator/battery system using MATLAB line code are presented in this paper. The main purpose of these models is to predict the performance of photovoltaic/diesel generator/battery system through a specific time period. A complex battery model as well as the most recommended control strategies such as load following and cycle-charging dispatch are considered in the proposed models. Finally, the proposed models are validated using simulation and experimental data. Such models are helpful in studies related to hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generator/battery system control, sizing and performance assessments

  18. New developments on valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for advanced automotive electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M. L.; Hernández, J. C.; Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.; Trinidad, F.

    The development of novel electrical systems for low emission vehicles demands batteries with specific cycling performance, especially under partial state of charge (PSOC) conditions. Moreover, according to the powertrain design, battery high power capability is demanded or this function can be assumed by a supercapacitor or a flywheel. This paper deals with the development of AGM and gel valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for advanced automotive applications. AGM VRLA battery development was based on previous work for short autonomy high power UPS applications and on active material formulations with specific additives to improve battery life under high rate partial state of charge cycling conditions. The 18 Ah batteries showed excellent high rate capability (9 kW 10 s discharge peaks and 4 kW 5 s regenerative charge acceptance at 60% state of charge) and 110,000 power assist microcycles at 60% SOC and 2.5% DOD were fulfilled. Moreover, as preliminary work in the development of a cost-effective and reliable gel battery to be used in combination of a supercapacitor in a 42 V mild-hybrid powertrain, VRLA batteries with conventional gel formulations have been tested according to novel automotive cycling profiles, mainly moderate cycling under partial state of charge conditions and simulating load management in a stop and start working profile.

  19. Applications technology satellites battery and power system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, F. E.; Bemis, B.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of the ATS battery design which is onboard the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) is provided. The 15 ampere hour nickel cadmium cells were manufactured by Gulton, 19 series connected cells per battery, and there are two batteries in each spacecraft. The operating design life was two years in a synchronous orbit, and a maximum depth of discharge of 50 percent. The design temperature for the batteries in the spacecraft was 0 to 25 C, and the charge control consisted of 1 volt versus temperature on a constant percentage voltage. Also, C/10 current limit, and a commandable trickle charge rate, using C/20 or C/60. The undervoltage was sent across a 9 cell and a 10 cell group, and it was set at one volt average per group on either group.

  20. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types. (author)

  1. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu; Mao, Xianxian; Zhao, Yanfang; Feng, Shaoli; Chen, Hongyu; Finlow, David

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types.

  2. Functional Observational Battery Testing for Nervous System Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has become standard practice in preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology. Behavior represents the integrated sum of activities mediated by the nervous system. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observat...

  3. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina; Teodorescu, Remus

    are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re......Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though there...

  4. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef;

    2015-01-01

    are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re......Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though there...

  5. Integrating STATCOM and Battery Energy Storage System for Power System Transient Stability: A Review and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Arindam Chakraborty; Musunuri, Shravana K.; Srivastava, Anurag K.; Kondabathini, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of STATCOM with energy storage devices plays an imperative role in improving the power system operation and control. Significant research has been done in this area for practical realization of benefits of the integration. This paper, however, pays particular importance to the performance improvement for the transients as is achievable by STATCOM with battery-powered storage systems. Application of STATCOM with storage in regard to intermittent renewable energy sources such as win...

  6. Naval application of battery optimized reactor integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past civilian N.S. Savanna (80 MWth), Otto-Hahn (38 MWth) and Mutsu (36 MWth) experienced stable operations under various sea conditions to prove that the reactors were stable and suitable for ship power source. Russian nuclear icebreakers such as Lenin (90 MWth x2), Arukuchika (150 MWth x2) showed stable operations under severe conditions during navigation on the Arctic Sea. These reactor systems, however, should be made even more efficient, compact, safe and long life, because adding support from the land may not be available on the sea. In order to meet these requirements, a compact, simple, safe and innovative integral system named Naval Application Vessel Integral System (NAVIS) is being designed with such novel concepts as a primary liquid metal coolant, a secondary supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) coolant, emergency reactor cooling system, safety containment and so on. NAVIS is powered by Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System (BORIS). An ultra-small, ultra-long-life, versatile-purpose, fast-spectrum reactor named BORIS is being developed for a multi-purpose application such as naval power source, electric power generation in remote areas, seawater desalination, and district heating. NAVIS aims to satisfy special environment on the sea with BORIS using the lead (Pb) coolant in the primary system. NAVIS improves the economical efficiency resorting to the SCO2 Brayton cycle for the secondary system. BORIS is operated by natural circulation of Pb without needing pumps. The reactor power is autonomously controlled by load-following operation without an active reactivity control system, whereas B4C based shutdown control rod is equipped for an emergency condition. SCO2 promises a high power conversion efficiency of the recompression Brayton cycle due to its excellent compressibility reducing the compression work at the bottom of the cycle and to a higher density than helium or steam decreasing the component size. Therefore, the SCO2 Brayton cycle efficiency

  7. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Passarella; Ahmad Fali Oklilas; Tarida Mathilda

    2014-01-01

    In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  8. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Passarella

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  9. The Tuning System for the HIE-ISOLDE High-Beta Quarter Wave Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Arnaudon, L; Artoos, K; Calatroni, S; Capatina, O; D'Elia, A; Kadi, Y; Mondino, I; Renaglia, T; Valuch, D; Delsolaro, W Venturini

    2014-01-01

    A new linac using superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWR) is under construction at CERN in the framework of the HIE-ISOLDE project. The QWRs are made of niobium sputtered on a bulk copper substrate. The working frequency at 4.5 K is 101.28 MHz and they will provide 6 MV/m accelerating gradient on the beam axis with a total maximum power dissipation of 10 W on cavity walls. A tuning system is required in order to both minimize the forward power variation in beam operation and to compensate the unavoidable uncertainties in the frequency shift during the cool-down process. The tuning system has to fulfil a complex combination of RF, structural and thermal requirements. The paper presents the functional specifications and details the tuning system RF and mechanical design and simulations. The results of the tests performed on a prototype system are discussed and the industrialization strategy is presented in view of final production.

  10. Investigation on a hydrogel based passive thermal management system for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An appropriate operating temperature range is critical for the overall performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries. Considering the excellent performance of water in heat dissipation in industrial applications, in this paper, a water based PAAS (sodium polyacrylate) hydrogel thermal management system has been proposed to handle the heat surge during the operation of a Li-ion battery pack. A thermal model with constant heat generation rate is employed to simulate the high current discharge process (i.e., 10 A) on a 4S1P battery pack, which shows a good consistence with the corresponding experimental results. Further experiments on 4S1P and 5S1P battery packs validate the effectiveness of the hydrogel thermal management system in lowering the temperature increase rate of battery packs at different discharge rates and minimizing the temperature difference inside battery packs during operation, thereby enhancing the stability and safety in continuous charge and discharge process and decreasing the capacity fading rate during life cycle tests. This novel hydrogel based cooling system also possesses the characteristics of high energy efficiency, easy manufacturing process, compactness, and low cost. - Highlights: • A hydrogel thermal management system (TMS) is proposed for Li-ion battery. • It is found that the heat from internal resistance predominates at high discharge rate. • Effectiveness of hydrogel in controlling cell temperature is proved. • Battery equipped with hydrogel TMS is safer at continuous high rate cycle test. • The capacity fading rate of battery pack decreases when hydrogel TMS is implemented

  11. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  12. A Novel Approach to Design an Integrated Antenna-Battery System

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an integrated antenna-battery was explored. Studying the systems separately allowed information to be obtained relating to the materials' performance and feasibility of an integrated system. Conducting polymers are promising in modern day lithium ion batteries. With high electrical conductivity as well as good ionic conductivity, they are now becoming more widely used. Here, we present a study of a co-block polymer (PEDOT-PEG) in which a polymer with high electrical conduct...

  13. Battery sizing for a stand alone passive wind system using statistical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Belouda, Malek; Belhadj, Jamel; Sareni, Bruno; Roboam, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an original optimization method to jointly determine a reduced study term and an optimum battery sizing is investigated. This storage device is used to connect a passive wind turbine system with a stand alone network. A Weibull probability density function is used to generate different wind speed data. The passive wind system is composed of a wind turbine, a permanent magnet synchronous generator feeding a diode rectifier associated with a very low voltage DC battery bus. This ...

  14. A Hybrid Spline Metamodel for Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zaibi, Malek; LAYADI, Toufik Madani; Champenois, Gérard; Roboam, Xavier; Sareni, Bruno; Belhadj, Jamel

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a metamodel design for a Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy System. The modeling of a hybrid PV/wind generator coupled with two kinds of storage i.e. electric (battery) and hydraulic (tanks) devices is investigated. A metamodel is carried out by hybrid spline interpolation to solve the relationships between several design variables i.e. the design parameters of different subsystems and their associate response variables i.e. system indicators performance. The developed model...

  15. Influence of Adhesive System on Performance of SiO/C Lithium-ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Teng Xin; Yang Yusheng; Liu Qi; Xu Hongliang; Wang Lei; Wu Borong; Wu Chuan; Wu Feng

    2015-01-01

    Silicon based anode material is turning into the research hot point of lithium-ion battery material field due to Si inside supporting higher capacity. Furthermore binder applied as major accessory material of anode system could bring anode material & current collector together, thus the influence given by binder system to battery performance becomes the key point. The paper describes the procedure of adopting commercial LiCoO2 SiO/C as composite material & electrolyte, with using styrene buta...

  16. The Research and Development of a Soluble Reactants and Products Secondary Battery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    A redox battery system which employs an aqueous dectrolyte is developed. Results are presented of the following experimental studies (1) measurement of the essential physical and chemical properties of the reactants and products; (2) evaluation of commerically available anion membranes as the cell separator, (3) determination of the composition and degradation mechanism of the anion membrane, and/or developing an anion membrane separator; and (4) evaluation of the performance of prototype secondary battery systems.

  17. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  18. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling

  19. Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis of Redox Flow Battery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Noack

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic model was developed to investigate the influence of components on the system costs of redox flow batteries. Sensitivity analyses were carried out based on an example of a 10 kW/120 kWh vanadium redox flow battery system, and the costs of the individual components were analyzed. Particular consideration was given to the influence of the material costs and resistances of bipolar plates and energy storage media as well as voltages and electric currents. Based on the developed model, it was possible to formulate statements about the targeted optimization of a developed non-commercial vanadium redox flow battery system and general aspects for future developments of redox flow batteries.

  20. Impact Safety Control Strategy for the Battery System of an Example Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-po Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a side impact safety control strategy for the battery system, aiming at defusing the hazards of unacceptable behaviors of the battery system such as high-voltage hazards. Based on some collision identification metrics, a side impact discrimination algorithm and a side impact severity algorithm are developed for electric buses. Based on the study on the time to break for power battery, the side impact discrimination algorithm response time is about 20 ms posing a great challenge to the side impact discrimination algorithm. At the same time, the reliability of the impact safety control strategy developed in this paper is evaluated for other plausible side impact signals generated by finite element analysis. The results verify that the impact safety control strategy exhibits robust performance and is able to trigger a breaking signal for power battery system promptly and accurately.

  1. Effects of imbalanced currents on large-format LiFePO4/graphite batteries systems connected in parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Hu, Xiaosong; Jin, Chao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Yanru; Yip, Tony

    2016-05-01

    With the development and popularization of electric vehicles, it is urgent and necessary to develop effective management and diagnosis technology for battery systems. In this work, we design a parallel battery model, according to equivalent circuits of parallel voltage and branch current, to study effects of imbalanced currents on parallel large-format LiFePO4/graphite battery systems. Taking a 60 Ah LiFePO4/graphite battery system manufactured by ATL (Amperex Technology Limited, China) as an example, causes of imbalanced currents in the parallel connection are analyzed using our model, and the associated effect mechanisms on long-term stability of each single battery are examined. Theoretical and experimental results show that continuously increasing imbalanced currents during cycling are mainly responsible for the capacity fade of LiFePO4/graphite parallel batteries. It is thus a good way to avoid fast performance fade of parallel battery systems by suppressing variations of branch currents.

  2. Computational analysis of battery optimized reactor integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is being developed as a multi-purpose fast spectrum reactor cooled by lead (Pb). BORIS is an integral optimized reactor with an ultra-long life core. BORIS aims to satisfy various energy demands maintaining inherent safety with the primary coolant Pb, and improving economics. BORIS is being designed to generate 23 MWth with 10 MWe for at least twenty consecutive years without refueling and to meet the Generation IV Nuclear Energy System goals of sustainability, safety, reliability, and economics. BORIS is conceptualized to be used as the main power and heat source for remote areas and barren lands, and also considered to be deployed for desalinisation purpose. BORIS, based on modular components to be viable for rapid construction and easy maintenance, adopts an integrated heat exchanger system operated by natural circulation of Pb without pumps to realize a small sized reactor. The BORIS primary system is designed through an optimization study. Thermal hydraulic characteristics during a reactor steady state with heat source and sink by core and heat exchanger, respectively, have been carried out by utilizing a computational fluid dynamics code and hand calculations based on first principles. This paper analyzes a transient condition of the BORIS primary system. The Pb coolant was selected for its lower chemical activity with air or water than sodium (Na) and good thermal characteristics. The reactor transient conditions such as core blockage, heat exchanger failure, and loss of heat sink, were selected for this study. Blockage in the core or its inlet structure causes localized flow starvation in one or several fuel assemblies. The coolant loop blockages cause a more or less uniform flow reduction across the core, which may trigger coolant temperature transient. General conservation equations were applied to model the primary system transients. Numerical approaches were adopted to discretized the governing equations

  3. Review of battery electric vehicle propulsion systems incorporating flywheel energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dhand, A.; Pullen, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    The development of battery electric vehicles (BEV) must continue since this can lead us towards a zero emission transport system. There has been an advent of the production BEVs in recent years; however their low range and high cost still remain the two important drawbacks. The battery is the element which strongly affects the cost and range of the BEV. The batteries offer either high specific power or high specific energy but not both. To provide the BEVs with the characteristic to compete w...

  4. An Electric taxi fleet charging system using second life electric car batteries simulation and economical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The industrial car manufacturers see in the high battery price an im-portant obstacle for an electric vehicle mass selling, thus mass production. There-fore, in order to find some cost relieves and better selling opportunities, they look and push forward to find profitable second battery uses. This study presents a sim-ulation and an economical approach for an electric taxi fleet charging system, us-ing these “old” electric car batteries, implemented in the city of Barcelona. The simulation w...

  5. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Reports on a quarterly basis. This report comprises the first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for Year 2 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the sixteen (16) technical projects encompassed by the Year 2 Agreement for the period of January 1 through March 31, 1994. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents; Microbial enrichment for enhancing in-situ biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes; Treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using biofilters; Drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; Chemical destruction of chlorinated organic compounds; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organics, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled polyion films for gas-phase chemical sensors; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; A systematic database of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Dust control methods for insitu nuclear and hazardous waste handling; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; and Socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration technologies.

  6. Structures of battery- and energy management systems using lead-acid batteries and ultracaps; Strukturen von Batterie- und Energiemanagementsystemen mit Bleibatterien und Ultracaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, D.

    2007-07-01

    The publication presents methods of damage-free operation of lead batteries in electric road vehicles. The original charging method used in the citySTROMer car was based on the total voltage, causing permanent overload and fast ageing of modules. The charge state of the vehicle is defined on the basis of the residual charge state, a charge balance, and an evaluation of the temperature-compensated minimum module voltage. The time when current limiting is necessary is recognized reliably, and the charge state indicator works reliably soon after starting. The vehicle has an integrated power-assist store. Ultracap modules of various capacities were characterized in the laboratory. A variant was constructed in which the battery is discharged permanently with average driving current while the ultracap is used for making up the difference to the load at a given moment. The load cases for power-assist were identified on the basis of real driving cycles. The system can be described as an onboard dual-voltage system. The higher voltage of the ultracap provides higher power for acceleration. The availability of the ultracap is ensured in 90 percent of all accelerations. The first battery set installed in the car is now in its fourth winter, with a mileage of nearly 7000 km. In March 2006, 63 Ah were recorded in battery driving cycle in urban traffic at temperatures below freezing point. After commissioning in May 2002, 71 Ah were recorded. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit entwickelt Verfahren zum schaedigungsfreien Betrieb von Bleibatterien in elektrischen Strassenfahrzeugen. Das urspruenglich im untersuchten citySTROMer eingesetzte Ladeverfahren war an der Gesamtspannung orientiert und hat Module hoeherer Spannungslage ueberladen. Die permanente Ueberladung fuehrt zu einem sehr schnellen Alterungsprozess. Die Ladezustandsbestimmung im Fahrzeug erfolgt ueber die Bestimmung des Restladegrades, eine Ladungsbilanzierung und die Auswertung der temperaturkompensierten

  7. How the systems approach is determining automotive battery design and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jean; Stephany, Jean-Marie; Sheppelman, Todd

    Today, the battery in a vehicle system is specific and designed as a single, stand-alone vehicle product. Traditionally, customer specifications were the driving force behind battery design and application requirements. This method is not able to comprehend the fluctuating requirements of real-time, vehicle systems. Growing competition in the automotive market is increasing customer needs and expectations in regards to cost, weight, size efficiency, time-to-market, and quality of the products and systems. System engineering is a service that Delco Remy, as an electrical power system supplier, offers to help their customers secure gains in the market place. System development and application engineering is essential for the development of performance-optimized components that meet the systems and total vehicle cost, reliability and timing objectives. The battery integration must be managed through the electrical power system during the complete vehicle development process in order to increase ultimately customer satisfaction.

  8. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Second Quarter of the Second Budget Period, July 1 through September 30, 1993, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scaleup of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; Combustion Gas Turbine; and Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility.

  9. Influence of Adhesive System on Performance of SiO/C Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon based anode material is turning into the research hot point of lithium-ion battery material field due to Si inside supporting higher capacity. Furthermore binder applied as major accessory material of anode system could bring anode material & current collector together, thus the influence given by binder system to battery performance becomes the key point. The paper describes the procedure of adopting commercial LiCoO2 SiO/C as composite material & electrolyte, with using styrene butadiene rubber and acrylic acid copolymer as binder to figure out lithium-ion battery with 2.5Ah, which is testified to present better performance on cold temperature & cycle life plus having a little bit swelling compared with the lithium-ion battery using only styrene butadiene rubber as binder.

  10. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be...

  11. Study and Implementation on Batteries Charging Method of Micro-Grid Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tiezhou Wu; Qing Xiao; Linzhang Wu; Jie Zhang; Mingyue Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the micro-grid photovoltaic systems, the random changes of solar radiation enable lead-acid batteries to experience low SOC (State of Charge) or overcharged for periods of time if directly charged with such traditional methods as decreased charging current, which will reduce lifetime of batteries. What’s more, it’s difficult to find a proper reduction coefficient in decreasing charging current. To adapt to the random changes of circumstance and avoid selecting the reduction coefficient, a ...

  12. Automatic Docking System with Recharging and Battery Replacement for Surveillance Robot

    OpenAIRE

    M. Meena; Mrs. P. Thilagavathi*

    2012-01-01

    Most of the applications like industrial automation, home automation, hospitals, space exploration, military, etc, the surveillance robot are widely used. For that, continuous functioning of surveillance robot is necessary. In this paper, the development of automatic docking system with recharging and battery replacement process for surveillance robot is proposed. The robot can return to the docking station for recharging operations when the battery is low. The charging duration of the batter...

  13. Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O' Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-10-29

    Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

  14. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternatives for the battery cage system: a comparison of economic, environmental and societal performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.; Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ban on the battery cage system in the European Union after 2012, mainly due to impaired hen welfare, forces farmers to change to alternative housing systems for laying hens. Large-scale introduction of more hen-friendly systems, however, requires a comparison of these systems on their economic,

  16. Feasibility Study and Techno-Economic Optimization Model for Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the feasibility of employing a battery thermal management system (BTMS) in different applications based on a techno economic analysis considering the battery lifetime and application profile, i.e. current requirement. The preliminary objective is to set the decision criteria...... lifetime. Hence, the objective of this paper is to develop and detail the method of the feasibility for commissioning BTMS called “The decision tool frame-work” (DTF) and to investigate its sensitivity to major factors (e.g. lifetime and application requirement) which are well-known to influence the...... battery pack thermal performance, battery pack performance and ultimately the performance as well as utility of the desired application. This DTF is designed to provide a common frame-work of a BTMS manufacturer and designer to evaluate the options of different BTMS applicable for different applications...

  17. Bidirectional Five-Level Power Processing Interface for Low Voltage Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jain-Yi; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Wu, Kuen-Der; Lin, You-Si; Wu, Jinn-Chang

    A bidirectional five-level power processing interface for low voltage battery energy storage system (BESS) is developed in this paper. This BESS consists of a bidirectional five-level DC-AC converter, a bidirectional dual boost/buck DC-DC converter and a battery set. This five-level DC-AC converter includes a bidirectional full-bridge converter and a bidirectional dual buck DC-DC converter. The five-level power processing interface can charge power to the battery set form the utility or discharge the power from the battery set to the utility depending on the demanded operation of user. A hardware prototype is developed to verify the performance of this BESS. Experimental results show the performance of the developed BESS is as expected.

  18. Implementation Of A Battery Storage System Of An Individual Active Power Control Based On A Cascaded Multilevel Pwm Converter

    OpenAIRE

    RAJASEKHARACHARI K, G.BALASUNDARAM, KUMAR K

    2013-01-01

    For The Smart Grid Arrangement A Battery Energy Storage System Is Important Equipment Of Renewable Energy Resources. In This Paper We Will Have A Discussion On Active Power Control In A Battery Storage System With A Topology Of Cascaded Multi Level Inverter With Pulse Width Modulation Switching Technique. Multilevel Inverters Have Been Attracting In Favor Of Academia As Well As Industry In The Recent Decade For High-Power And Medium-Voltage Energy Control. A Battery Energy Storage System (BES...

  19. Management of Power Consumption in Hybrid PV-Battery System in Rapid Variation of Temperature and Irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Nabizadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, load voltage stabilization system in PV system is presented. Considering that the solar array output power varies with temperature and radiation; so to stabilizing the voltage, feeding load and battery simultaneously, aboost converter is used to transfer extra power into the battery. Thus in the maximum power point tracking system, both power consumption and saving by the load and battery are done.

  20. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Chamanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN system where an electromagnetic (EM energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different operation conditions. The battery voltage and current were experimentally monitored during the operation of the MicaZ sensor node equipped with the EM vibration energy harvester. A compact (24.5 cm3 in-house EM energy harvester provides approximately 65 µA charging current to the batteries when excited by 0.4 g acceleration at 7.4 Hz. It has been shown that the current demand of the MicaZ mote can be compensated for by the energy harvester for a specific low-power operation scenario, with more than a 10-fold increase in the battery lifetime. The presented results demonstrate the autonomous operation of the WSN, with the utilization of a vibration-based energy harvester.

  1. H2-O2 fuel cell and advanced battery power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles: performance envelope comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autonomous underwater vehicles have traditionally been powered by low energy density lead-acid batteries. Recently, advanced battery technologies and H2-O2 fuel cells have become available, offering significant improvements in performance. This paper compares the solid polymer fuel cell to the lithium-thionyl chloride primary battery, sodium-sulfur battery, and lead acid battery for a variety of missions. The power system performance is simulated using computer modelling techniques. Performance envelopes are constructed, indicating domains of preference for competing power system technologies. For most mission scenarios, the solid polymer fuel cell using liquid reactant storage is the preferred system. Nevertheless, the advanced battery systems are competitive with the fuel cell systems using gaseous hydrogen storage, and they illustrate preferred performance for missions requiring high power density. 11 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  2. GA -based energy management optimization for grid-connected photovoltaic system without battery storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization of energy management for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems without battery storage. The major objective of this work is to minimize energy cost by maximizing objective function of GA considering both energy consumption and generation. In objective function calculation, PV module output power obtained by model of PV modules and previous power recordings from the PV system were employed. In the system, some electrical appliances and lights are in the energy consumption side and photovoltaic energy source connected to the grid is in the energy generation side. A simulation study was implemented to obtain energy cost savings using GA optimization in a commercial building. Due to the cost of the batteries, PV system is implemented without battery storage. Therefore, by adapting fluctuating PV energy generation with the time -flexible loads , an effort was aimed to develop a smart -grid strategy. Key words: energy management , PV system, genetic algorithms, optimization, load scheduling

  3. Power Management Strategy for Active Power Sharing in Hydro/PV/Battery Hybrid Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeka Meshram; Ganga Agnihotri; Sushma Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and modeling of standalone DC linked hydro/PV/battery hybrid energy system (HES) and power management strategy (PMS) for identifying the active power sharing have been done. The performance analysis of the proposed HES and its power management strategy has been done using the simulink toolboxes of MATLAB software. The proposed system consists of 10 kW PV system, 7.5 kW hydro system, battery, and power condition unit. In some remote/rural areas, it is very difficult to satisfy the d...

  4. Integrating STATCOM and Battery Energy Storage System for Power System Transient Stability: A Review and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of STATCOM with energy storage devices plays an imperative role in improving the power system operation and control. Significant research has been done in this area for practical realization of benefits of the integration. This paper, however, pays particular importance to the performance improvement for the transients as is achievable by STATCOM with battery-powered storage systems. Application of STATCOM with storage in regard to intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind power generation is also discussed in the paper. At the beginning of this paper, an overall review of the STATCOM and energy storage systems are elaborated. A brief overview of the advantages of using STATCOM in conjunction to energy storage systems in achieving power system stability is presented. In the second part of the paper, a typical transient stability model of a STATCOM is presented. The dynamics of real and reactive power responses of the integrated system to transients is studied. The study is aimed at showing that the combination of STATCOM and battery energy storage significantly improves the performance of the system. The final results show that the STATCOM reactive power/voltage control helps in transient stability enhancement.

  5. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  6. Kernel based model parametrization and adaptation with applications to battery management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Caihao

    With the wide spread use of energy storage systems, battery state of health (SOH) monitoring has become one of the most crucial challenges in power and energy research, as SOH significantly affects the performance and life cycle of batteries as well as the systems they are interacting with. Identifying the SOH and adapting of the battery energy/power management system accordingly are thus two important challenges for applications such as electric vehicles, smart buildings and hybrid power systems. This dissertation focuses on the identification of lithium ion battery capacity fading, and proposes an on-board implementable model parametrization and adaptation framework for SOH monitoring. Both parametric and non-parametric approaches that are based on kernel functions are explored for the modeling of battery charging data and aging signature extraction. A unified parametric open circuit voltage model is first developed to improve the accuracy of battery state estimation. Several analytical and numerical methods are then investigated for the non-parametric modeling of battery data, among which the support vector regression (SVR) algorithm is shown to be the most robust and consistent approach with respect to data sizes and ranges. For data collected on LiFePO 4 cells, it is shown that the model developed with the SVR approach is able to predict the battery capacity fading with less than 2% error. Moreover, motivated by the initial success of applying kernel based modeling methods for battery SOH monitoring, this dissertation further exploits the parametric SVR representation for real-time battery characterization supported by test data. Through the study of the invariant properties of the support vectors, a kernel based model parametrization and adaptation framework is developed. The high dimensional optimization problem in the learning algorithm could be reformulated as a parameter estimation problem, that can be solved by standard estimation algorithms such as the

  7. Charactrization of a Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Vishkasougheh, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.hamid2@gmail.com [Istanbul Sehir University, Kubakisi Caddesi, No: 27, Altunizade, Uskudar, Istanbul 34662 (Turkey); Tunaboylu, Bahadir [Istanbul Sehir University, Kubakisi Caddesi, No: 27, Altunizade, Uskudar, Istanbul 34662 (Turkey); Marmara Research Center, Materials Institute, PO Box 21, Gebze, Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • An Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si PV was designed. The system composed of three a-Si panels with an efficiency of 7% and 40 cells of LFP batteries. • Effects of solar radiation and environmental temperature for three cities, Istanbul, Ankara, and Adana, have been investigated on a-Si panels. • Using transition formulas BSPV outputs are predictable for any location out of standard test condition. - Abstract: The number of photovoltaic (PV) system installations is increasing rapidly. As more people learn about this versatile and often cost-effective power option, this trend will accelerate. This document presents a recommended design for a battery based stand-alone photovoltaic system (BSPV). BSPV system has the ability to be applied in different areas, including warning signals, lighting, refrigeration, communication, residential water pumping, remote sensing, and cathodic protection. The presented calculation method gives a proper idea for a system sizing technique. Based on application load, different scenarios are possible for designing a BSPV system. In this study, a battery based stand-alone system was designed. The electricity generation part is three a-Si panels, which are connected in parallel, and for the storage part LFP (lithium iron phosphate) battery was used. The high power LFP battery packs are 40 cells each 8S5P (configured 8 series 5 parallel). Each individual pack weighs 0.5 kg and is 25.6 V. In order to evaluate the efficiency of a-Si panels with respect to the temperature and the solar irradiation, cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Adana in Turkey were selected. Temperature and solar irradiation were gathered from reliable sources and by using translation equations, current and voltage output of panels were calculated. As a result of these calculations, current and energy outputs were computed by considering an average efficient solar irradiation time value per day in Turkey. The calculated power values were inserted to a

  8. Charactrization of a Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si PV was designed. The system composed of three a-Si panels with an efficiency of 7% and 40 cells of LFP batteries. • Effects of solar radiation and environmental temperature for three cities, Istanbul, Ankara, and Adana, have been investigated on a-Si panels. • Using transition formulas BSPV outputs are predictable for any location out of standard test condition. - Abstract: The number of photovoltaic (PV) system installations is increasing rapidly. As more people learn about this versatile and often cost-effective power option, this trend will accelerate. This document presents a recommended design for a battery based stand-alone photovoltaic system (BSPV). BSPV system has the ability to be applied in different areas, including warning signals, lighting, refrigeration, communication, residential water pumping, remote sensing, and cathodic protection. The presented calculation method gives a proper idea for a system sizing technique. Based on application load, different scenarios are possible for designing a BSPV system. In this study, a battery based stand-alone system was designed. The electricity generation part is three a-Si panels, which are connected in parallel, and for the storage part LFP (lithium iron phosphate) battery was used. The high power LFP battery packs are 40 cells each 8S5P (configured 8 series 5 parallel). Each individual pack weighs 0.5 kg and is 25.6 V. In order to evaluate the efficiency of a-Si panels with respect to the temperature and the solar irradiation, cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Adana in Turkey were selected. Temperature and solar irradiation were gathered from reliable sources and by using translation equations, current and voltage output of panels were calculated. As a result of these calculations, current and energy outputs were computed by considering an average efficient solar irradiation time value per day in Turkey. The calculated power values were inserted to a

  9. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  10. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  11. Technical examination and simulation of a photovoltaic system: Solar generator, battery, download

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Armin

    Examinations of each component behavior of a solar generator system are carried out. A solar tank station was supplied to an electric car on a low loss regulator. By using a large system battery, the vehicle battery could be fully loaded. Several loading processes were used for the electric car by using the system battery with an intelligent regulator. Examinations for range optimization were achieved with integration of a measure data acquisition system in the electric car. A measuring process was developed for recording the current-voltage curve of high power solar generators with low-loss load simulators. A state analysis of solar generator was obtained by comparison of data sets. A software tool was realized for analysis of operation state. By converting equivalent schemes into simulation programs, device optimization was carried out with parameter variation.

  12. NASA Engineering Safety Center NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group 2007 Proactive Task Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.

  13. Identification of lead acid battery parameters using kalman filtering in photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional methods of battery identification parameters consist in estimating the state of charge (SOC), and in establishing a command adapted to charge or to discharge the battery, based on electrical model developed with fixed parameters, These methods are inefficient. The causes of this ineffectiveness are different: In the first place model does not adapt itself with the battery (fixed parameters, lack of modulated parameters, a big non-linearity ...).Secondly, the impossibility for the developed algorithms, to adapt itself with the change of the battery's parameters. New models of identification are used by combining the conventional methods with adaptive and dynamic techniques. They already used in other domains where they have proved a good efficiency and a robustness. Taking into consideration the problems mentioned, and trying to resolve them, we have chosen among the various methods of estimation, Kalman filter (KF) known for its efficiency, in the field of tracking parameters. In this work we try tp represent new ideas, to identify battery parameters using KF method and make an experimental analysis of the performance of this method by using Lead Acid Battery, which is a part of a photovoltaic system (PV).(Author)

  14. Battery-Sensing Intrusion Protection System (B-SIPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Buennemeyer, Timothy Keith

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation investigates using instantaneous battery current sensing techniques as a means of detecting IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth and 802.11b (Wi-Fi) attacks and anomalous activity on small mobile wireless devices. This research explores alternative intrusion detection methods in an effort to better understand computer networking threats. This research applies to Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and smart phones, operating with sensing software in wireless network environments to relay ...

  15. Optimal Sizing ofStand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy Systems and Battery Storage Combination for Armidale NSW, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    Intermittency is an apparent characteristic of some renewable energy sources and this specifically applies to solar, wind and tidal renewable sources. Thus, battery storage is a real important element of any photo voltaic (PV) energy generation systems. As well, sizing of battery storage plays a vital role in achieving an optimal operation of such a system. Emphasis is greatly required to proper sizing of battery storage. In this context, daily global solar radiation data, for (14) years duri...

  16. Monitoring and control system of charging batteries connected to a photovoltaic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzkowski, Adam; Leoniuk, Katarzyna; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Budzynski, Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the off-grid photovoltaic system consisting of a PV panel, MMPT charge controller and battery is described. The realization of a laboratory stand for charging or discharging batteries is presented. Original monitoring and control system, which is based on LabVIEW software and LabJack DAQ device, has been built. Data acquisition part, arithmetic part and front panel of program created in LabVIEW are described. Some problems with implementation of this system, providing the monitoring of electrical parameters, are mentioned.

  17. Optimal control of battery for grid-connected wind-storage system

    OpenAIRE

    L. Liang; Zhong, J.

    2012-01-01

    The penetration level of large-scale wind farms is restricted by the output uncertainties of wind power generations. Energy storage systems with fast response time and high operation efficiencies, such as, flywheel and battery could be used as one of the solutions for large-scale wind power integration to power grid. To mitigate the power fluctuation of wind farm, an optimal control method of battery energy storage system is proposed for grid-connected wind system in this paper. Based on one-...

  18. Analysis of the economics of photovoltaic-diesel-battery energy systems for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations were conducted to analyze the performance and operating cost of a photovoltaic energy source combined with a diesel generator system and battery storage. The simulations were based on the load demand profiles used for the design of an all photovoltaic energy system installed in the remote Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli, Arizona. Twenty year simulations were run using solar insolation data from Phoenix SOLMET tapes. Total energy produced, energy consumed, operation and maintenance costs were calculated. The life cycle and levelized energy costs were determined for a variety of system configurations (i.e., varying amounts of photovoltaic array and battery storage).

  19. Developments of Electrolyte Systems for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries (2,600 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1, lithium-sulfur (Li-S batteries have been considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for the electrification of vehicles. However, both the polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and dendrite formation of the lithium anode are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in electrolyte systems. First we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with traditional liquid cells. We then introduce the most recent progresses in liquid systems, including ether-based, carbonate-based, and ionic liquid-based electrolytes. And then we move on to the advances in solid systems, including polymer and non-polymer electrolytes. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research in both the liquid and solid Li-S batteries are presented.

  20. Modeling, Design and Simulation of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power Systems with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Essalam BADOUD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand alone renewable energy based on photovoltaic systems accompanied with battery storage system are beginning to play an important role over the world to supply power to remote areas. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to elaborate and design a bond graphs model for sizing stand-alone domestic solar photovoltaic electricity systems and simulating the performance of the systems in a tropical climate. The systems modelled consist of an array of PV modules, a lead-acid battery, and a number of direct current appliances. This paper proposes the combination of lead acid battery system with a typical stand alone photovoltaic energy system under variable loads. The main activities of this work purpose to establish library graphical models for each individual component of standalone photovoltaic system. Control strategy has been considered to achieve permanent power supply to the load via photovoltaic/battery based on the power available from the sun. The complete model was simulated under two testing including sunny and cloudy conditions. Simulation of the system using Symbols software was performed and the results of simulation show the superior stable control system and high efficiency. These results have been contrasted with real measured data from a measurement campaign plant carried on electrical engineering laboratory of Grenoble using various interconnection schemes are presented.

  1. Aging of Class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study of aging effects on safety-related batteries in nuclear power plants. The purpose is to evaluate the aging effects caused by operation within a nuclear facility and to evaluate maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach and investigates the materials used in battery construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes battery-failure events reported in various data bases, and evaluates recommended maintenance practices. Data bases that were analyzed included the NRC's Licensee Event Report system, the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations' Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's In-Plant Reliability Data System, and The S.M. Stoller Corporation's Nuclear Power Experience data base

  2. Study on Battery Capacity for Grid-connection Power Planning with Forecasts in Clustered Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takae; Kawasaki, Norihiro; Ueda, Yuzuru; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Kurokawa, Kosuke

    This paper aims to clarify the battery capacity required by a residential area with densely grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper proposes a planning method of tomorrow's grid-connection power from/to the external electric power system by using demand power forecasting and insolation forecasting for PV power predictions, and defines a operation method of the electricity storage device to control the grid-connection power as planned. A residential area consisting of 389 houses consuming 2390 MWh/year of electricity with 2390kW PV systems is simulated based on measured data and actual forecasts. The simulation results show that 8.3MWh of battery capacity is required in the conditions of half-hour planning and 1% or less of planning error ratio and PV output limiting loss ratio. The results also show that existing technologies of forecasting reduce required battery capacity to 49%, and increase the allowable installing PV amount to 210%.

  3. Molecular ion battery: a rechargeable system without using any elemental ions as a charge carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Masaru; Sano, Hikaru; Ando, Hisanori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2015-06-01

    Is it possible to exceed the lithium redox potential in electrochemical systems? It seems impossible to exceed the lithium potential because the redox potential of the elemental lithium is the lowest among all the elements, which contributes to the high voltage characteristics of the widely used lithium ion battery. However, it should be possible when we use a molecule-based ion which is not reduced even at the lithium potential in principle. Here we propose a new model system using a molecular electrolyte salt with polymer-based active materials in order to verify whether a molecular ion species serves as a charge carrier. Although the potential of the negative-electrode is not yet lower than that of lithium at present, this study reveals that a molecular ion can work as a charge carrier in a battery and the system is certainly a molecular ion-based “rocking chair” type battery.

  4. Operating conditions of batteries in off-grid renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svoboda, V.; Wenzl, H.; Kaiser, R.;

    2007-01-01

    Operating conditions in off-grid renewable energy systems (RES) vary significantly in different applications and locations. To describe RES and the operating conditions of their components it is useful to define categories of similar operating conditions. Categories can also be used for lifetime...... considerations of RES components, for making recommendations and for analysing the properties and performance of a RES and its components. Categories support system designers and an economic analysis. This paper describes the process and the results of creating RES categories of similar operating conditions...... for batteries. Categories are defined in such a way that batteries belonging to the same category are subjected to similar operating conditions and a similar combination of stress factors. The results provide a comprehensive overview of battery operating conditions in existing off-grid renewable energy systems...

  5. The lithium/air battery: still an emerging system or a practical reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Hassoun, Jusef; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Yung-Jung; Sun, Yang-Kook; Passerini, Stefano; Scrosati, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Lithium/air is a fascinating energy storage system. The effective exploitation of air as a battery electrode has been the long-time dream of the battery community. Air is, in principle, a no-cost material characterized by a very high specific capacity value. In the particular case of the lithium/air system, energy levels approaching that of gasoline have been postulated. It is then not surprising that, in the course of the last decade, great attention has been devoted to this battery by various top academic and industrial laboratories worldwide. This intense investigation, however, has soon highlighted a series of issues that prevent a rapid development of the Li/air electrochemical system. Although several breakthroughs have been achieved recently, the question on whether this battery will have an effective economic and societal impact remains. In this review, a critical evaluation of the progress achieved so far is made, together with an attempt to propose future R&D trends. A forecast on whether Li/air may have a role in the next years' battery technology is also postulated. PMID:25645073

  6. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  7. A New Topology and Control Strategy for a Hybrid Battery-Ultracapacitor Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Changle Xiang; Yanzi Wang; Sideng Hu; Weida Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates a new hybrid energy storage system (HESS), which consists of a battery bank and an ultra-capacitor (UC) bank, and a control strategy for this system. The proposed topology uses a bi-directional DC-DC converter with a lower power rating than those used in the traditional HESS topology. The proposed HESS has four operating modes, and the proposed control strategy chooses the appropriate operating mode and regulates the distribution of power between the battery bank and t...

  8. Development of a combustion control system for Fukuyama No. 4A coke oven battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Inaba, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Hasebe, S.; Matsumoto, K.

    1985-01-01

    The simplification and improvement are reported for the combustion control system in use at the No. 5 battery and its application to the No. 4A oven battery at Nippon Kokan's Fukuyama Works. The improved control system includes the following features: new step-type control of O/sub 2/; enhanced temperature control in each oven; the use of CRTs as a man-machine interface (in place of conventional control and indicator boards); monitoring of termination of coking period and of coke pushing; and the preparation of temperature charts and gas component distribution diagrams.

  9. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Song Chen; Sheng-Miao Lin; Boe-Shong Hong

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investig...

  10. Control strategies and cycling demands for Li-ion storage batteries in residential micro-cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Canadian home energy system modeled with PV, ICE CHP, battery and power grid. • Battery function is modeled on fundamental electrochemical principles. • Techno-economics of control strategies assessed. • Impact of control strategies battery cycles is developed for wear analysis. • Non-monotonic nature of battery cycles with transient renewables is discussed. - Abstract: Energy storage units have become important components in residential micro-cogeneration (MCG) systems. As MCG systems are often connected to single residences or buildings in a wide variety of settings, they are frequently unique and highly customized. Lithium-ion batteries have recently gained some profile as energy storage units of choice, because of their good capacity, high efficiency, robustness and ability to meet the demands of typical residential electrical loads. In the present work, modeled scenarios are explored which examine the performance of a MCG system with an internal combustion engine, photovoltaic input and a Li-ion storage battery. An electricity demand profile from new data collected in Ottawa, Canada is used to provide a full year energy use context for the analyses. The demands placed on the battery are examined to assess the suitability of the battery size and performance, as well as control related functionalities which reveal significantly varying battery use, and led to a quantitative expression for equivalent cycles. The energy use simulations are derived from electrochemical fundamentals adapted for a larger battery pack. Simulation output provides the basis for techno-economic commentary on how to assess large-scale Li-ion batteries for effective electrical storage purposes in MCG systems, and the impact of the nature of the control strategy on the battery service life

  11. Design and analysis of aluminum/air battery system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua; Knickle, Harold

    Aluminum (Al)/air batteries have the potential to be used to produce power to operate cars and other vehicles. These batteries might be important on a long-term interim basis as the world passes through the transition from gasoline cars to hydrogen fuel cell cars. The Al/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to gasoline powered cars. From our design analysis, it can be seen that the cost of aluminum as an anode can be as low as US 1.1/kg as long as the reaction product is recycled. The total fuel efficiency during the cycle process in Al/air electric vehicles (EVs) can be 15% (present stage) or 20% (projected) comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEs) (13%). The design battery energy density is 1300 Wh/kg (present) or 2000 Wh/kg (projected). The cost of battery system chosen to evaluate is US 30/kW (present) or US$ 29/kW (projected). Al/air EVs life-cycle analysis was conducted and compared to lead/acid and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) EVs. Only the Al/air EVs can be projected to have a travel range comparable to ICEs. From this analysis, Al/air EVs are the most promising candidates compared to ICEs in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life-cycle cost.

  12. Novel thermal management system design methodology for power lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nerea; Díaz, Luis; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Blanco, Francisco; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    Battery packs conformed by large format lithium-ion cells are increasingly being adopted in hybrid and pure electric vehicles in order to use the energy more efficiently and for a better environmental performance. Safety and cycle life are two of the main concerns regarding this technology, which are closely related to the cell's operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the system. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs needs to be controlled by thermal management systems (TMSs). In the present paper an improved design methodology for developing TMSs is proposed. This methodology involves the development of different mathematical models for heat generation, transmission, and dissipation and their coupling and integration in the battery pack product design methodology in order to improve the overall safety and performance. The methodology is validated by comparing simulation results with laboratory measurements on a single module of the battery pack designed at IK4-IKERLAN for a traction application. The maximum difference between model predictions and experimental temperature data is 2 °C. The models developed have shown potential for use in battery thermal management studies for EV/HEV applications since they allow for scalability with accuracy and reasonable simulation time.

  13. Early results from a systems approach to improving the performance and lifetime of lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellaway, M. J.; Jennings, P.; Stone, D.; Crowe, E.; Cooper, A.

    Lead acid batteries offer important advantages in respect of unit cost and ease of recycling. They also have good power and low temperature performance. However, for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) duty with their extreme rates and continuous PSoC operation, improvements are required to significantly extend service life. The Reliable Highly Optimised Lead Acid Battery (RHOLAB) project is taking a radical approach to the design of a lead acid HEV battery pack to address this issue, taking a systems approach to produce a complete pack that is attractive to vehicle manufacturers. This paper describes the project at an intermediate stage where some testing has been completed and the construction of the complete pack system is well under way.

  14. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 1: Battery and Cranking System. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson-Roberts, Ludy; And Others

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 1, Battery and Cranking System. Focus of the exercises and pretests is testing the battery and cranking system. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the four performance objectives contained in the unit.…

  15. Power System Electronics Accommodation for a Lithium Ion Battery on the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ST5 mission requirements include validation of Lithium-ion battery in orbit. Accommodation in the power system for Li-ion battery can be reduced with smaller amp-hour size, highly matched cells when compared to the larger amp-hour size approach. Result can be lower system mass and increased reliability.

  16. The design and testing of an electrolyte destratification system applied to a 96 V Alco 2200 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, D.; Tomantschger, K.

    1984-01-01

    A pump system for electrolyte destratification in off-the-shelf conventional lead acid batteries was designed and tested at various operating temperatures. The system requires no modification to the battery case. The pump is inserted through small (3 to 4 mm) holes in the battery case top. The system applied was to a 96 V ALCO 2200 battery. The charge time was cut in half, the water loss was minimized, and overall efficiencies for the modified ALCO 2200 increased. Leakage problems were experienced in some modules due to the deterioration of the glue which attaches the air-lift pump manifolds onto the battery cover. The tests were performed on a 48 V system and extrapolated to a 96 V system.

  17. Multi-physics Model for the Aging Prediction of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Present a multi-physics model of vanadium redox-flow battery. • This model is essential for aging prediction. • It is applicable for VRB system of different power and capacity ratings. • Good results comparing with current research in this field. - Abstract: The all-vanadium redox-flow battery is an attractive candidate to compensate the fluctuations of non-dispatchable renewable energy generation. While several models for vanadium redox batteries have been described yet, no model has been published, which is adequate for the aging prediction. Therefore, the present paper presents a multi-physics model which determines all parameters that are essential for an aging prediction. In a following paper, the corresponding aging model of vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) is described. The model combines existing models for the mechanical losses and temperature development with new approaches for the batteries side reactions. The model was implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The modeling results presented in the paper prove to be consistent with the experimental results of other research groups

  18. Experimental Testing Procedures and Dynamic Model Validation for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand;

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... efficiency of the battery system. The test procedure has general validity and could also be used for other storage technologies. The storage model proposed and described is suitable for electrical studies and can represent a general model in terms of validity. Finally, the model simulation outputs are...

  19. Power Constrained High-Level Synthesis of Battery Powered Digital Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Madsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    We present a high-level synthesis algorithm solving the combined scheduling, allocation and binding problem minimizing area under both latency and maximum power per clock-cycle constraints. Our approach eliminates the large power spikes, resulting in an increased battery lifetime, a property of...... utmost importance for battery powered embedded systems. Our approach extends the partial-clique partitioning algorithm by introducing power awareness through a heuristic algorithm which bounds the design space to those of power feasible schedules. We have applied our algorithm on a set of dataflow graphs...

  20. Electrically rechargeable zinc/air battery: a high specific energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F.; Sauter, J.-C.; Masanz, G.; Mueller, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This contribution describes our research and development efforts towards the demonstration of a light-weight, low-cost 12 V/20 Ah electrically rechargeable Zn/air battery. We successfully developed electrodes having active areas of up to 200 cm{sup 2}. Deep discharge cycles at different currents as well as current-voltage curves are reported for a 10 cell Zn/air battery (serial connection) with a rated capacity of 20 Ah. Based on the discharge cycle at a power of 19 W, and the weight of the battery, a specific energy of more than 90 Wh/kg could be evaluated for the whole system. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  1. High-power batteries for the new 36/42 V automotive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. F.

    The new automotive architectures will require high-voltage, high-power batteries that are completely different from existing 12 V flooded lead-acid products. Battery requirements for these applications are reviewed first from the standpoint of the vehicle, and then from an electrochemical/thermal performance perspective. Design and performance characteristics are then critically evaluated for the three major candidates for the new 36/42 V systems, namely: valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA), nickel-metal-hydride (Ni-MH), and lithium-ion (Li-ion). Design and manufacturing requirements, performance strengths and weaknesses, reliability issues, markets and pricing are then examined for the VRLA battery, which appears to be the leading candidate at this time.

  2. An overview of batteries for compact nuclear instrumentation and embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern compact and embedded nuclear instruments need equally good energy sources to empower them effectively. Rechargeable batteries are essential if such instruments need to be truly mobile. The batteries required in such applications may be selected considering various aspects like system power consumption, size, voltage, self-discharge and availability of any particular battery technology. For example, the highest power density is offered by Li-ion and is a clearer choice for new instruments, where as Ni-MH offers moderate power and simplicity in use. Ni-Cd and SLA are mature and offer proven performance at lower power requirements. These technologies have been discussed here from application point of view rather than their chemistry and construction, and a brief comparative analysis is presented. (author)

  3. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  4. Spin exchange and superconductivity in a $t-J'-V$ model for two-dimensional quarter-filled systems

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Andres; Merino, Jaime; Foussats, Adriana; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations on two-dimensional quarter-filled systems is studied theoretically. An effective $t-J'-V$ model on a square lattice which accounts for checkerboard charge fluctuations and next-nearest-neighbors antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations is considered. From calculations based on large-N theory on this model it is found that the exchange interaction, $J'$, increases the attraction between electrons in the d$_{xy}$ channel only, so that both charge and...

  5. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  6. The Laboratory Parenting Assessment Battery: Development and Preliminary Validation of an Observational Parenting Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Durbin, C. Emily

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of contributors to and consequences of the parent-child relationship require accurate assessment of the nature and quality of parenting. The present study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Laboratory Parenting Assessment Battery (Lab-PAB), an observational rating system that assesses parenting behaviors…

  7. The Study of Operation Modes and Control Strategies of a Multidirectional MC for Battery Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Toosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the performance of stand-alone battery based system and to achieve the continuous power transmission, the behavior of multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC has been analyzed in different operation modes. A systematic method interfacing a renewable source, a storage battery, and a load is proposed for a stand-alone battery based power system (SABBPS to utilize the MDMC as PWM converter, inverter, or PWM converter and inverter in different operation modes. In this study, the Extended Direct Duty Pulse Width Modulation (EDDPWM technique has been applied to control the power flow path between the renewable source, load, and the battery. Corresponding to generator voltage, input frequency, and loads demands, several operating states and control strategies are possible. Therefore, the boundaries and distribution of operation modes are discussed and illustrated to improve the system performance. The mathematical equation of the EDDPWM under different operation modes has been derived to achieve the maximum voltage ratio in each mode. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in simulation using MATLAB and experimental testing. Moreover, the THD, ripple, and power flow direction have been analyzed for output current to investigate the behavior of system in each operation mode.

  8. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, Mohammed G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  9. Coordinated control of dispersed battery energy storage systems for services to network operators

    OpenAIRE

    Foggia, Guillaume; NETO, ALEXANDRE; Michiorri, Andrea; Bocquet, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Distributed Battery Energy Storage Systems, controlled either per resource or in coordination, can provide many services to the network operators. The present study emphasizes the contributions of dedicated scheduling applications in order to enhance the reliability, performance and life expectation of the storage assets, based on the Nice Grid case, a Smart Grid pilot project.

  10. A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Haverkort, Boudewijn; Jongerden, Marijn;

    2015-01-01

    usage (charge and discharge) profiles on cycle life. The wear score function can not only be used to rank different usage profiles, these rankings can also be used as a criterion for optimizing the overall lifetime of a battery-powered system. We perform such an optimization on a nano-satellite case...

  11. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme which minimizes the operating cost of a grid connected micro-grid supplemented by battery energy storage system (BESS). What distinguishes approach presented here from conventional strategies is that not only the price of electricity is considered in the...

  12. Solid-state active switch matrix for high energy, moderate power battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, Larry; Paris, Peter; Ye, Changqing

    2016-06-07

    A battery management system employs electronic switches and capacitors. No traditional cell-balancing resistors are used. The BMS electronically switches individual cells into and out of a module of cells in order to use the maximum amount of energy available in each cell and to completely charge and discharge each cell without overcharging or under-discharging.

  13. Optimization of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR control quarter car suspension system using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Nagarkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA based in an optimization approach is presented in order to search the optimum weighting matrix parameters of a linear quadratic regulator (LQR. A Macpherson strut quarter car suspension system is implemented for ride control application. Initially, the GA is implemented with the objective of minimizing root mean square (RMS controller force. For single objective optimization, RMS controller force is reduced by 20.42% with slight increase in RMS sprung mass acceleration. Trade-off is observed between controller force and sprung mass acceleration. Further, an analysis is extended to multi-objective optimization with objectives such as minimization of RMS controller force and RMS sprung mass acceleration and minimization of RMS controller force, RMS sprung mass acceleration and suspension space deflection. For multi-objective optimization, Pareto-front gives flexibility in order to choose the optimum solution as per designer’s need.

  14. Charactrization of a Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Vishkasougheh, Mehdi; Tunaboylu, Bahadir

    2014-11-01

    The number of photovoltaic (PV) system installations is increasing rapidly. As more people learn about this versatile and often cost-effective power option, this trend will accelerate. This document presents a recommended design for a battery based stand-alone photovoltaic system (BSPV). BSPV system has the ability to be applied in different areas, including warning signals, lighting, refrigeration, communication, residential water pumping, remote sensing, and cathodic protection. The presented calculation method gives a proper idea for a system sizing technique. Based on application load, different scenarios are possible for designing a BSPV system. In this study, a battery based stand-alone system was designed. The electricity generation part is three a-Si panels, which are connected in parallel, and for the storage part LFP (lithium iron phosphate) battery was used. The high power LFP battery packs are 40 cells each 8S5P (configured 8 series 5 parallel). Each individual pack weighs 0.5 kg and is 25.6 V. In order to evaluate the efficiency of a-Si panels with respect to the temperature and the solar irradiation, cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Adana in Turkey were selected. Temperature and solar irradiation were gathered from reliable sources and by using translation equations, current and voltage output of panels were calculated. As a result of these calculations, current and energy outputs were computed by considering an average efficient solar irradiation time value per day in Turkey. The calculated power values were inserted to a battery cycler system, and the behavior of high power LFP batteries in a time sequence of 7.2 h was evaluated. The charging and discharging cycles were obtained and their behavior was discussed. According to the results, Istanbul has the lowest number of peak month's energy, it followed by Ankara, and ultimately Adana has the highest number of peak months and energy storage. It was observed during the tests that values up to 4 A was

  15. The selection of a Marine artillery battery fire direction computer system

    OpenAIRE

    Gido, Paul Andrew

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The artillery fire direction systems currently used by the U.S. Marine Corps are inadequate to meet the demands of today's battlefield. The lack of a modern artillery fire direction computer system degrades the Marine Corps overall combat effectiveness. This thesis presents a cost effectiveness analysis of four fire direction computer systems which can significantly enhance an artillery battery's combat effectiveness. As a result of...

  16. Optimal sizing of grid-independent hybrid photovoltaic–battery power systems for household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A feasibility study on a stand-alone solar–battery power generation system is carried out. • An in-house developed calculation code able to estimate photovoltaic panels behaviour is described. • The feasibility of replacing grid electricity with hybrid system is examined. • Guidelines for optimal photovoltaic design are given. • Guidelines for optimal storage sizing in terms of batteries number and capacity are given. - Abstract: The penetration of renewable sources into the grid, particularly wind and solar, have been increasing in recent years. As a consequence, there have been serious concerns over reliable and safety operation of power systems. One possible solution, to improve grid stability, is to integrate energy storage devices into power system network: storing energy produced in periods of low demand to later use, ensuring full exploitation of intermittent available sources. Focusing on stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) energy system, energy storage is needed with the purpose of ensuring continuous power flow, to minimize or, if anything, to neglect electrical grid supply. A comprehensive study on a hybrid stand-alone photovoltaic power system using two different energy storage technologies has been performed. The study examines the feasibility of replacing electricity provided by the grid with hybrid system to meet household demand. In particular, this paper presents first results for photovoltaic (PV)/battery (B) hybrid configuration. The main objective of this paper is focused on PV/B system, to recommend hybrid system optimal design in terms of PV module number, PV module tilt, number and capacity of batteries to minimize or, if possible, to neglect grid supply. This paper is the early stage of a theoretical and experimental study in which two different hybrid power system configurations will be evaluated and compared: (i) PV/B system and (ii) PV/B/fuel cell (FC) system. The aim of the overall study will be the definition of the

  17. Harmonic distortion caused by EV battery chargers in the distribution systems network and its remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Malabika; Gaughan, Kevin; Coyle, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    An effective way to minimise harmonic pollution in power systems is by careful design of the equipment connected to them. It is important for designers of equipment associated with emerging technologies to be aware of the potential impact of their designs on power system quality. One such upcoming technology is electric vehicle (EV) battery charging which may contribute to high harmonic distortion in the power system during the charging period. The literature notes total harmonic distortion o...

  18. Realization of Constant-Current Mode for a Contactless Battery Charging System

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Sun; Zheng-You He; Yan-Ling Li; Xin Dai

    2013-01-01

    For a contactless battery charging system based on inductively coupled power transfer technology, a generalized state-space averaging method is first introduced, which can convert the original system with the oscillating and nonlinear characteristics to a linear time-invariant system by using the low-order Fourier series to approximate the original circuit signals and nonlinear terms and then the performance weighting functions for multi-objective optimization are adjusted and chosen in the f...

  19. Battery Recharging Issue for a Two-Power-Level Flywheel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel battery recharging system for an all-electric driveline comprising a flywheel with a permanent magnet double wound synchronous machine (motor/generator is presented. The double winding enables two voltage levels and two different power levels. This topology supersedes other all-electric drivelines. The battery operates in a low-power regime supplying the average power whereas the flywheel delivers and absorbs power peaks, which are up to a higher order of magnitude. The topology presents new challenges for the power conversion system, which is the focus of this investigation. The main challenge is the control of the power flow to the battery when the vehicle is parked despite the decay of the flywheel machine voltage; which is dependent on its charge state, that is, rotational speed. The design and simulation of an unidirectional DC/DC buck/boost converter for a variable rotational speed flywheel is presented. Conventional power electronic converters are used in a new application, which can maintain a constant current or voltage on the battery side. Successful PI current control has been implemented and simulated, together with the complete closed loop system.

  20. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  1. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  2. Implementation Of A Battery Storage System Of An Individual Active Power Control Based On A Cascaded Multilevel Pwm Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJASEKHARACHARI K, G.BALASUNDARAM, KUMAR K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For The Smart Grid Arrangement A Battery Energy Storage System Is Important Equipment Of Renewable Energy Resources. In This Paper We Will Have A Discussion On Active Power Control In A Battery Storage System With A Topology Of Cascaded Multi Level Inverter With Pulse Width Modulation Switching Technique. Multilevel Inverters Have Been Attracting In Favor Of Academia As Well As Industry In The Recent Decade For High-Power And Medium-Voltage Energy Control. A Battery Energy Storage System (BESS, Combining Battery Packs With A Power Converter And Control, Should Be Installed In The Vicinity Of An Intermittent Energy Source. Here We Can Control The Active Power As Individually In A Converter Cell Battery Arrangement Unit, By This We Can Have A Advantage Of Charging And Discharging Of A Battery Units At Different Power Levels. The Charging/Discharging Of The Battery In A Dc Form Can Be Shown In This Paper. From The Controlling Of Active Power As In A Individual Converter Cells We Will Get Maximum Utilization Of Battery Power To The Load As Required. If We Will Get A Less Harmonic Content In The Output Voltage Definitely We Can Improve The Utilization Part, So This Can Be Obtain By Getting The Multiple Level Of Voltage As Approximately Sinusoidal With Maximum Reduction Of Harmonics. The Simulation Results For This Proposed System Have Been Shown In This And Also Multiple Levels Of Voltages In Output Can Be Shown In This Paper.

  3. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  4. Storage battery market: profiles and trade opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonfer, D.

    1985-04-01

    The export market for domestically produced storage batteries is a modest one, typically averaging 6 to 7% of domestic industry shipments. Exports in 1984 totalled about $167 million. Canada and Mexico were the largest export markets for US storage batteries in 1984, accounting for slightly more than half of the total. The United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and the Netherlands round out the top five export markets. Combined, these five markets accounted for two-thirds of all US exports of storage batteries in 1984. On a regional basis, the North American (Canada), Central American, and European markets accounted for three-quarters of total storage battery exports. Lead-acid batteries accounted for 42% of total battery exports. Battery parts followed lead-acid batteries with a 29% share. Nicad batteries accounted for 16% of the total while other batteries accounted for 13%.

  5. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents

  6. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K T; Chan, C C; Shen, W X

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents.

  7. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, K.T. E-mail: ktchau@eee.hku.hk; Wu, K.C.; Chan, C.C.; Shen, W.X

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents.

  8. Modelling and simulation of an electric vehicle with battery-powered induction motor drive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hanrong.

    1994-05-01

    A computerized simulation model of an electric vehicle with a battery powered inverter-controlled induction machine drive system was developed. A modified Volkswagen Rabbit was selected as the simulation vehicle. The drive system is based on a squirrel-cage 3-phase ac induction motor, the inverter simulated is a power transistorized, pulse width modulated resonant dc link inverter, and the batteries are of the lead-acid type commonly used in golf carts. The following mathematical models were developed in the simulation: a vehicle dynamics model to calculate the instantaneous power requirement; a tire, differential, and gear model; a motor model; an inverter model; and a battery model. A listing of the computer simulation program QEVS, written in Fortran 77, is included. QEVS can be used to determine the power and energy requirements of vehicles over standard driving cycles for different route profiles. The effects on both vehicle performance and range due to changes in drive train component design and/or mode of operation are evaluated. The battery performance, major factors affecting range and energy use (including regenerative braking and gear shifting) and electric vehicle performance characteristics are presented. A maximum efficiency control strategy for the induction machine is proposed to optimize electric vehicle performance. 79 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Aging studies of batteries and transformers in class IE power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Phase I aging study of batteries used in 1E Power Systems of nuclear power plants concluded that significant aging effects for aged batteries are growth of positive plants, loosening of active material in plates that have grown, loss of active material caused by gassing and corrosion, and embrittlement of the lead grids and straps. These effects contribute to decreased electrical capacity and decreased seismic ruggedness which, during a seismic event, can lead to decreased electrical performance or complete failure. Subsequently a Phase II test program was conducted to determine if seismic ruggedness of aged batteries can be inadequate even if the electrical capacity is satisfactory, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Std 450-1987, open-quote IEEE Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Large Storage Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations.close quotes In addition, a Phase I aging study of transformers in 1E Power Systems was performed to identify stressors and failure mechanisms, investigate whether transformers are showing the effects of aging as they grow older, and to determine if current surveillance methods are effective in mitigating aging effects. This paper presents the results of these studies

  10. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  11. Experimental Demonstration of Coexistence of Microwave Wireless Communication and Power Transfer Technologies for Battery-Free Sensor Network Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Yoshida; Takumasa Noji; Goh Fukuda; Yuta Kobayashi; Shigeo Kawasaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes experimental demonstrations of a wireless power transfer system equipped with a microwave band communication function. Battery charging using the system is described to evaluate the possibility of the coexistence of both wireless power transfer and communication functions in the C-band. A battery-free wireless sensor network system is demonstrated, and a high-power rectifier for the system is also designed and evaluated in the S-band. We have confirmed that microwave wire...

  12. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  13. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...... system (BESS) in relation to the real-time electricity price in order to achieve the maximum profits of the BESS. The western Danish power system, which is currently the grid area in the world that has the largest share of wind power in its generation profiles and may represent the future of electricity...... markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve...

  14. Study of a Wind/PV/Battery hybrid system – Case study at Plaka in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to determine the optimum hybrid system able to supply the necessary electrical load of a typical community in a remote location in Greece. The renewable energy systems were comprised of different combinations of PV modules and wind turbines supplemented with battery storage. A software tool, HOMER is used for the analysis. The hybrid system analysis has showed that the minimum cost of energy is 0.268 $/kWh with 10% annual capacity of shortage. The optimum hybrid system is comprised of 1.5 kW PV array, 1 wind generator, 3 kW power converter and 14 storage batteries.

  15. Control strategy of hybrid fuel cell/battery distributed generation system for grid-connected operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Aliakbar GOLKAR; Amin HAJIZADEH

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of a hybrid fuel cell/battery distributed generation (HDG) system in distribution systems. The overall structure of the HDG system is given, dynamic models for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant,battery bank and its power electronic interfacing are briefly described, and controller design methodologies for the power conditioning units and fuel cell to control the power flow from the hybrid power plant to the utility grid are presented. To distribute the power between the fuel cell power plant and the battery energy storage, a neuro-fuzzy controller has been developed. Also, for controlling the active and reactive power independently in distribution systems, the current control strategy based on two fuzzy logic controllers has been presented. A Matlab/Simulink simulation model is developed for the HDG system by combining the individual component models and their controllers. Simulation results show the overall system performance including load-following and power management of the HDG system.

  16. Revisiting QRS Detection Methodologies for Portable, Wearable, Battery-Operated, and Wireless ECG Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Elgendi; Björn Eskofier; Socrates Dokos; Derek Abbott

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide. Currently, portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones with wireless ECG sensors have the potential to be used in continuous cardiac function assessment that can be easily integrated into daily life. These portable point-of-care diagnostic systems can therefore help unveil and treat cardiovascular diseases. The basis for ECG analysis is a robust detection of the prominent QRS complex, as well as other ECG signal ...

  17. Sliding Mode Control of the Battery Bank for the Fuel Cell-based Distributed Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Jiao

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic models for the fuel cell power and the configuration of the fuel cell distributed generation system are shown in this paper. Due to nonlinear characteristics of fuel cell model, the output voltage of fuel cell varies greatly when the load changes. A novel interface is designed to provide a constant output voltage for charging of the battery bank of the fuel cell distributed generation. The thesis presents a sliding mode control design of PEMFC distributed generation system. A casc...

  18. A General Framework for the Optimization of Energy Harvesting Communication Systems with Battery Imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Devillers, Bertrand; Gunduz, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Energy harvesting has emerged as a powerful technology for complementing current battery-powered communication systems in order to extend their lifetime. In this paper a general framework is introduced for the optimization of communication systems in which the transmitter is able to harvest energy from its environment. Assuming that the energy arrival process is known non-causally at the transmitter, the structure of the optimal transmission scheme, which maximizes the amount of transmitted d...

  19. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The increased grid-penetration levels of energy produced by renewable sources, which have almost no inertia, might have a negative impact on the reliable and stable operation of the power system. Various solutions for mitigating the aforementioned problem were proposed in the literature. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind po...

  20. Optimal Sizing and Control of Battery Energy Storage System for Peak Load Shaving

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Lu; Hanchen Xu; Xin Pan; Jie Song

    2014-01-01

    Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) can be utilized to shave the peak load in power systems and thus defer the need to upgrade the power grid. Based on a rolling load forecasting method, along with the peak load reduction requirements in reality, at the planning level, we propose a BESS capacity planning model for peak and load shaving problem. At the operational level, we consider the optimal control policy towards charging and discharging power with two different optimization objectives: o...

  1. Frequency regulation for a power system with wind power and battery energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    L. Liang; Zhong, J.; Jiao, Z.

    2012-01-01

    With the increase of wind power penetration to a notable level in power systems, the requirement on frequency regulation services has increased accordingly in recent decades. Due to the limited ramp rate and economic factors of conventional generators, simply increase the capacity of conventional generators may not be an effective solution for providing frequency regulation services quickly. Large-scale battery energy storage system has been applied as a promising solution for frequency contr...

  2. Transient Stability Improvement of Multi-Machine Power System with Large-Capacity Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Ken-Ichi; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    An emergency control has been applied to power systems to avoid cascading outages by making the best use of existing equipment under severe fault conditions. Battery energy storage system (BESS) is one of the attractive equipment for the emergency control according to its growing installed capacity in the current grid. This paper investigates an effective use of BESS for transient stability improvement, and proposes a novel control scheme using wide-area information. The proposed control scheme adopts two stability indices, the energy function and rotor speed of the critical machine, to make it applicable to multi-machine power systems. Besides, it can control active and reactive power injection of the BESS coordinately to make the best use of its converter capacity for the stability enhancement. Digital simulations are conducted on the 32-machine meshed system with multiple BESSs. The results demonstrate that the BESSs controlled by the proposed method can improve the first swing stability and the system damping, and it is made clear how they improve the transient stability of the multi-machine power system. In addition, an impact of the reactive power control on the bus voltages around the installation sites is investigated to discuss a preferable way of their installation.

  3. Stand-alone wind system with Vanadium Redox Battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Barote, L.; Weissbach, R.;

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. A Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) system has many features which make its integration with a stand-alone wind energy system attractive. This paper proposes the integration of a VRB system...... with a typical stand-alone wind energy system during wind speed variation as well as transient performance under variable load. The investigated system consists of a variable speed wind turbine with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), diode rectifier bridge, buck-boost converter, bidirectional charge...

  4. Microfibrous nickel substrates and electrodes for battery system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Durben, Peter J.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The use of microfibrous nickel substrates is advantageous for increasing the surface area available for the deposition of active material and reducing the substrate weight and consequently, yields a higher specific capacity for nickel hydroxide electrodes. Porous, microfiber-based nickel substrates were produced by sintering a composite preform. The preforms, consisting of nickel fibers with diameters as small as 2 μm and cellulose fibers, were formed using a papermaking process. The fabricated nickel electrodes that included a supporting nickel mesh in the substrate tested in a 26% KOH half-cell delivered a specific capacity of more than 250 mAh/g of the electrode weight (i.e. fibrous substrate, nickel mesh, and active material) at a 1.0 C discharge rate. An Auburn electrode without a nickel mesh tested in the same half-cell attained a higher specific capacity of 268 mAh/g at a 1.37 C discharge rate. The substrates used in these electrodes had porosities of 95-97%, and greatly improved the specific capacity of the nickel electrode. With the use of the microfibrous electrode, improved specific energies of nickel-based cell and battery designs are possible. When assembled in a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H 2) boilerplate cell, the specific capacity of nearly 230 mAh/g was observed for the nickel electrode at a 0.5 C rate during the 127th cycle test. The results of high specific capacity and quick rise in utilization of microfibrous nickel hydroxide electrodes make these electrodes good candidates for significantly improving the energy density and performance of nickel-hydrogen cells.

  5. Fuel cell/back-up battery hybrid energy conversion systems: Dynamic modeling and harmonic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel technique to completely eliminate the harmful harmonics of fuel cell system. • Presenting a novel high accurate detailed electrochemical dynamic model of fuel cells. • Back-up battery system to compensate the slow dynamic response of fuel cell system. • Exact analysis of real electrochemical reactions occurring inside fuel cells. - Abstract: In this study, a novel dynamic model of fuel cells is presented. High accurate static and dynamic responses of the proposed model are experimentally validated by comparing simulated results with real experimental data. The obtained model together with theoretical results shows that a fuel cell or a fuel cell stack has very slow dynamic response, so that, it cannot adapt itself to the fast variations in load demand. It is shown that for adapting well a fuel cell stack to the load demand, the stack should be equipped with a proposed back-up battery system which compensates the slow dynamic response of the stack by providing a bidirectional path to transmit/absorb the extra instant power. It is proved that the conventional switching waveforms used in the converters of the stacks and back-up systems produce an enormous amount of harmful harmonics. Then, a novel technique is proposed to completely eliminate main harmful harmonics. It is worthwhile to note that all the other techniques only reduce the harmful harmonics. Simulated results verify that the back-up battery system together with applying the proposed technique provide a fast dynamic response for the fuel cell/back-up battery system, and also completely eliminate the main harmful harmonics

  6. Numerical analyses on optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for lithium-ion batteries during fast charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal management is crucial for the operation of electric vehicles because lithium ion batteries are vulnerable to excessive heat generation during fast charging or other severe scenarios. In this work, an optimized heat pipe thermal management system (HPTMS) is proposed for fast charging lithium ion battery cell/pack. A numerical model is developed and comprehensively validated with experimental results. This model is then employed to investigate the thermal performance of the HPTMS under steady state and transient conditions. It is found that a cylinder vortex generator placed in front of the heat pipe condensers in the coolant stream improves the temperature uniformity. The uses of cooper heat spreaders and cooling fins greatly improve the performance of the thermal management system. Experiments and transient simulations of heat pipe thermal management system integrated with batteries prove that the improved HPTMS is capable for thermal management of batteries during fast charging. The air-cooled HPTMS is infeasible for thermal management of batteries during fast charging at the pack level due to the limitation of low specific heat capacity. - Highlights: • We develop a numerical model for optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for fast charging batteries. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • A cylinder vortex generator is placed at the inlet of the cooling stream to improve the temperature uniformity. • We validate the effectiveness of the optimized system with integration of prismatic batteries

  7. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef;

    2014-01-01

    this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid......The increased grid-penetration levels of energy produced by renewable sources, which have almost no inertia, might have a negative impact on the reliable and stable operation of the power system. Various solutions for mitigating the aforementioned problem were proposed in the literature. The aim of...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and...

  8. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  9. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  10. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  11. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 ..mu..g Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected.

  12. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 μg Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected

  13. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  14. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  15. Load Frequency Control of A Typical Two Area Interconnected Power System by Using Battery Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rajasekhar Chowdary; P. Santhoshi

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to maintain the constant frequency in two area interconnected power system by using Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) . When there is a variation in the load demand on a generating unit, there is a momenterial occurrence of unbalance between real power input and output. LFC helps in maintaining the scheduled system frequency and tie-line power interchange with the other areas within the prescribed limits .To control the load frequency and ...

  16. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  17. Practical control schemes of a battery/supercapacitor system for electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    CASTAINGS, Ali; Lhomme, Walter; TRIGUI, Rochdi; Bouscayrol, Alain

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle using supercapacitors and a battery is studied. Using energetic macroscopic representation formalism, an inversion-based control (IBC) can be deduced. A comparison between IBC and two other control schemes is performed within a practical aspect. Simulation and experimental tests with a reduced-scale test bed are provided using a real driving cycle of an electric car. The results point out a more effective behaviour for the IBC than the other...

  18. A Voltage Controller in Photo-Voltaic System with Battery Storage for Stand-Alone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Dharmireddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the new voltage controller in photo-voltaic system for Stand-Alone Applications with battery energy storage. The output of the PV array is unregulated DC supply due to change in weather conditions. The maximum power is tracked with respect to temperature and irradiance levels by using DC-DC converter. The perturbation and observes algorithm is applied for maximum power point tracking (MPPT purpose. This algorithm is selected due to its ability to withstand against any parameter variation and having high efficiency. The solar cell array powers the steady state energy and the battery compensates the dynamic energy in the system. The aim of the control strategy is to control the SEPIC converter and bi-direction DC-DC converter to operate in suitable modes according to the condition of solar cell and battery, so as to coordinate the two sources of solar cell and battery supplying power and ensure the system operates with high efficiency and behaviors with good dynamic performance. The output of DC-DC converter is converted to AC voltage by using inverter.  The AC output voltage and frequency are regulated. A closed loop voltage control for inverter is done by using unipolar sine wave pulse width modulation (SPWM. The regulated AC voltage is fed to AC standalone loads or grid integration. The overall system is designed, developed and validated by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results demonstrate the effective working of MPPT algorithm, control strategy and voltage controller with SPWM technique for inverter in AC standalone load applications.

  19. Influence of control strategies on battery/supercapacitor hybrid Energy Storage Systems for traction applications

    OpenAIRE

    ALLEGRE,AL; Bouscayrol, A; Trigui, R.

    2009-01-01

    The energy storage is key issue for traction applications like Electric Vehicles (EVs) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). Indeed, it needs a higher power and energy density, a weak bulk and size, a long lifetime and a low cost. A hybrid Energy Storage System (ESS) using batteries and supercapacitors, seems to be a good device to answer to these constraints. The objective of the paper is to study the influence of control strategies for this hybrid ESS. Indeed, according to the used strategy, ...

  20. Adaptive optimisation-based strategy of a battery/supercapacitor system for EV

    OpenAIRE

    CASTAINGS, Ali; Lhomme, Walter; TRIGUI, Rochdi; BOUSCAYROL, Alain; REDONDO IGLESIAS, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Optimisation-based Energy Management Strategies for hybrid and electric vehicles have to face some issues for realtime applications. In this study, an online adaptive optimisationbased strategy is used for an electric vehicle with a Hybrid Energy Storage System including supercapacitors and batteries. The SCs voltage limitations are taken into account by using a feedback control. Indeed the voltage limitation is a key point for safe operations in the vehicle. A comparison with a more classica...

  1. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André

    2015-05-22

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Model prediction for ranking lead-acid batteries according to expected lifetime in renewable energy systems and autonomous power-supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, J.; Sauer, D.U.; Bindner, Henrik W.;

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the lifetime of lead-acid batteries in applications with irregular operating conditions such as partial state-of-charge cycling, varying depth-of-discharge and different times between full charging is known as a difficult task. Experimental investigations in the laboratory are difficult...... system sizing and different battery technologies on battery lifetime. It is a tool for system designers and system operators to select appropriate batteries, to do a proper system design (sizing of the battery, power generators and loads), and to implement an optimized operation strategy (end-of-charge...... voltage, frequency of full charging, gassing periods, maximum depth-of-discharge). The model is a weighted Ah throughput approach based on the assumption that operating conditions are typically more severe than those used in standard tests of cycling and float lifetime. The wear depends on the depth...

  3. Design, control and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system for small electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer; Khaligh, Alireza;

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces design, control, and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system, utilized for small electric vehicles (EV). The batteries are designed and controlled to work as the main energy storage source of the vehicle, supplying average power to the load; and the ultra......-capacitors are used to meet the peak power demands during transients. Power management system determines the directions of power flow, according to load demand. Presented analyses validate the efficient power management methodology....

  4. Application of Battery-Based Storage Systems in household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids

    OpenAIRE

    PURVINS ARTURS; PAPAIOANNOU IOULIA; DEBARBERIS Luigi

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses in technical terms the application of battery-based storage systems for demand shifting in distribution grids. The analysis includes two case studies, Denmark and Portugal, thus comparing the use of batteries in two different climate regions: northern and south-western Europe. In the Portugal case study, a high penetration of photovoltaic systems in distribution grids is considered as an additional scenario. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to examine the dai...

  5. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yihe Sun; Li Shang; Qin Lv; Kun Li; Yifei Jiang; Jie Wu,

    2011-01-01

    Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (P)HEV fuel efficiency, battery system l...

  6. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  7. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, R. [CES - Consulting and Engineering Services, Heidelberg (Germany); Cramer, G.; Toenges, K.H. [SMA Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these `Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)` have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  8. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these 'Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)' have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  9. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  10. Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-yi LIANG; Jian-long ZHANG; Xi ZHANG; Shi-fei YUAN; Cheng-liang YIN

    2013-01-01

    To solve the low power density issue of hybrid electric vehicular batteries,a combination of batteries and ultracapacitors(UCs)could be a solution.The high power density feature of UCs can improve the performance of battery/UC hybrid energy storage systems(HESSs).This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)equipped with an internal combustion engine and an HESS.An advanced energy management strategy(EMS),mainly based on fuzzy logic,is proposed to improve the fuel economy of the HEV and the endurance of the HESS.The EMS is capable of determining the ideal distribution of output power among the internal combustion engine,battery,and UC according to the propelling power or regenerative braking power of the vehicle.To validate the effectiveness of the EMS,numerical simulation and experimental validations are carried out.The results indicate that EMS can effectively control the power sources to work within their respective efficient areas.The battery load can be mitigated and prolonged battery life can be expected.The electrical energy consumption in the HESS is reduced by 3.91%compared with that in the battery only system.Fuel consumption of the HEV is reduced by 24.3% compared with that of the same class conventional vehicles under Economic Commission of Europe driving cycle.

  11. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  12. Investigation of Impedance-Based Parameters in Metal-O2 Batteries for Next Generation of Battery Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Elkjær; Højberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Society, 159(2), R1. doi:10.1149/2.086202jes [2] Hartmann, P. (2012). A rechargeable room-temperature sodium superoxide (NaO2) battery. Nature Materials, 12(3), 228–232. doi:10.1038/nmat3486 [3] Ng, K. S., Moo, C.-S., Chen, Y.-P., & Hsieh, Y.-C. (2009). Enhanced coulomb counting method for estimating...... state-of-charge and state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries. Applied Energy, 86(9), 1506–1511. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.11.021 [4] McCloskey, B. D., Garcia, J. M., & Luntz, A. C. (2014). Chemical and Electrochemical Differences in Nonaqueous Li–O 2and Na–O2 Batteries. The Journal of Physical...... Chemistry Letters, 5(7), 1230–1235. doi:10.1021/jz500494s [5] Shiga, T., Hase, Y., Kato, Y., Inoue, M., & Takechi, K. (2013). A rechargeable non-aqueous Mg–O2 battery. Chemical Communications, 49(80), 9152–9154. doi:10.1039/c3cc43477j [6] Revel, R., Audichon, T., & Gonzalez, S. (2014). Non-aqueous aluminium...

  13. Battery Energy Storage System for PV Output Power Leveling

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkiran Singh; Seyedfoad Taghizadeh; Nadia Mei Lin Tan; Jagadeesh Pasupuleti

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV) output power reduces the reliability in power system when there is a massive penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter for PV output power leveling. This paper propos...

  14. Overview of basic and applied research on battery systems at Argonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, M. V.

    1979-01-01

    The need for a basic understanding of the ion transport and related effects that are observed under the unique physical and electrochemical conditions occurring in high-temperature, high-performance batteries is pointed out. Such effects include those that are typical of transport in bulk materials such as liquid and solid electrolytes and the less well understood effects observed in migration in and across the interfacial zones existing around electrodes. The basic and applied studies at Argonne National Laboratory, centered in part around the development of a Li(alloy)/iron sulfide battery system for energy storage, are briefly described as an example of the way that such an understanding is being sought by coordinated interdisciplinary research. 3 figures.

  15. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  16. Optimal Integration of Battery Energy Storage Systems in Smart Grids.

    OpenAIRE

    Khormali, Shahab

    2015-01-01

    Power systems have been undergoing radical changes in recent years, and their planning and operation will be surely undertaken according to the Smart Grid (SG) vision in the near future. The SG initiatives aim at introducing new technologies and services in power systems, to make the electrical networks more reliable, efficient, secure and environmentally-friendly. In particular, it is expected that communication technologies, computational intelligence and distributed energy sources will be ...

  17. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongyong Kim; Inho Song; Woongchul Choi

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a bat...

  18. A design scheme of control/optimization system for hybrid solar – wind and battery energy storages system

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R.; Abbod, M; W. Balachandran

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design scheme of controlling – optimization system for solar – wind distribution renewable energy sources, its transmission, charging – discharging Battery Energy Storage System and connection to the grid distribution. The distribution renewable energy sources employs the Voltage Base Self – Intervention technique for solar – wind distribution renewable energy sources. The Hierarchical Switching Control Process technique is employed to switch, control, manage – supervise...

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. First quarterly report, FY94, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The major task during this quarter was testing and evaluation of the 25 MBtu/hr Toroidal Vortex Combustor (TVC) at Textron Defense Systems`` (TDS) Haverhill laboratories. The tests were completed and the results are being evaluated along with other scale up and integration issues. The preliminary conclusion is that the NOx performance and current design uncertainties do not justify the development risk within the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) timetable. Further program effort will focus on advanced U-firing arrangements. The second major effort during the period was the engineering development of the moving bed copper oxide system for SOx/NOx control. Through application of a DOE-developed model and the team`s engineering analysis, significant progress was made on developing an improved process design. Work began on a small scale test of the moving bed concept under realistic temperature and dust loading conditions. Work continued through the quarter on finalizing the Preliminary Engineering Design, Design Deficiency Analysis, and Research, Development, and Test Plan. The Design and Development Report containing these three deliverables was released in March. Sargent & Lundy printed and distributed the report to team members, as well as to the advisory panelists. The advisory panel numbers approximately fifteen organizations as of the end of the period.

  20. Cooperative home energy management using batteries for a photovoltaic system considering the diversity of households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A home energy management system (HEMS) model including PV and battery is developed. • Impact of load and PV forecast errors on household economics are examined. • Real HEMS data on 160 households are used for the verification. • The contribution of HEMS to the central power grid is examined. - Abstract: Demand-side energy management systems (EMSs) are expected to be used as a method for further balancing the supply and demand of power systems with high levels of renewable energy generation, such as photovoltaic (PV) power. Energy demand and solar radiation must be predicted to realize the optimal operation scheduling of demand-side appliances by a home energy management system (HEMS), including heat pump water heaters, PV systems, and solar-powered water heaters. This paper presents a HEMS model that controls a residential battery system connected to a rooftop PV system taking into account of energy load and PV generation forecast errors. Forecast accuracy is verified by real HEMS data from 160 households; the impact of forecast errors on household economics is examined. Furthermore, the contribution to the entire power system is examined using the model under the dynamic pricing system

  1. Fuel Cell, Battery and Supercapacitor Hybrid System for Electric Vehicle: Modeling and Control via Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Gauchia, Lucia; Bouscayrol, Alain; Sanz, Javier; Trigui, Rochdi; Barrade, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, no electrochemical energy system presents a competitive operation if compared with internal combustion engine, which is the reason for combining electrochemical energy systems to obtain a hybrid energy storage system. This paper presents a fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor system for vehicle application. The objective of this paper is to present the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) of the multi-source power system.

  2. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  3. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, Van W.J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable e

  4. Analysis of a Battery Management System (BMS) Control Strategy for Vibration Aged Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Bruen; James Michael Hooper; James Marco; Miguel Gama; Gael Henri Chouchelamane

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO) were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles...

  5. NST Quarterly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events

  6. Leakage Power Reduction for Battery-Operated Portable Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuura, Hiroto

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses bitwidth optimization focusing on leakage power reduction for system-level low-power design. By means of tuning the design parameter, bitwidth tailored to a given application requirements, the datapath width of processors and size of memories are optimized resulting in significant leakage power reduction besides dynamic power reduction. Experimental results for several real embedded applications, show power reduction without performance penalty range from about 21.5% to 6...

  7. Development and validation of chemistry agnostic flow battery cost performance model and application to nonaqueous electrolyte systems: Chemistry agnostic flow battery cost performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Alasdair [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Thomsen, Edwin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Reed, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Stephenson, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Viswanathan, Vilayanur [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-01-01

    A chemistry agnostic cost performance model is described for a nonaqueous flow battery. The model predicts flow battery performance by estimating the active reaction zone thickness at each electrode as a function of current density, state of charge, and flow rate using measured data for electrode kinetics, electrolyte conductivity, and electrode-specific surface area. Validation of the model is conducted using a 4kW stack data at various current densities and flow rates. This model is used to estimate the performance of a nonaqueous flow battery with electrode and electrolyte properties used from the literature. The optimized cost for this system is estimated for various power and energy levels using component costs provided by vendors. The model allows optimization of design parameters such as electrode thickness, area, flow path design, and operating parameters such as power density, flow rate, and operating SOC range for various application duty cycles. A parametric analysis is done to identify components and electrode/electrolyte properties with the highest impact on system cost for various application durations. A pathway to 100$kWh-1 for the storage system is identified.

  8. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yuanbin; Zhang, Dongdong; Min, Haitao; Tang, Yi; Zhu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE) function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS), and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC) coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB). In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between s...

  9. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation:Lifetime Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver theprimary frequency regulation service. However, even though there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at p...

  10. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  11. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  12. Operation strategy for a lab-scale grid-connected photovoltaic generation system integrated with battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The operation strategy for grid-connected PV generation system integrated with battery energy storage is proposed. • The PV system is composed of an inverter and two DC-DC converter. • The negative impact of grid-connected PV generation systems on the grid can be alleviated by integrating a battery. • The operation of the developed system can be divided into nine modes. - Abstract: The operation strategy for a lab-scale grid-connected photovoltaic generation system integrated with battery energy storage is proposed in this paper. The photovoltaic generation system is composed of a full-bridge inverter, a DC–DC boost converter, an isolated bidirectional DC–DC converter, a solar cell array and a battery set. Since the battery set acts as an energy buffer to adjust the power generation of the solar cell array, the negative impact on power quality caused by the intermittent and unstable output power from a solar cell array is alleviated, so the penetration rate of the grid-connected photovoltaic generation system is increased. A lab-scale prototype is developed to verify the performance of the system. The experimental results show that it achieves the expected performance

  13. Technical and economic design of photovoltaic and battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Design of grid connected photovoltaic system integrating battery energy storage system. • A model to manage the energy flows and assess the system profitability is presented. • The model evaluates the effective PV power rate and battery energy system capacity. • An application and multi-scenario analysis based on an Italian context is discussed. • Results show the system technical feasibility and an energy cost save of 52 €/MW h. - Abstract: In the last years, the technological development and the increasing market competitiveness of renewable energy systems, like solar and wind energy power plants, create favorable conditions to the switch of the electricity generation from large centralized facilities to small decentralized energy systems. The distributed electricity generation is a suitable option for a sustainable development thanks to the environmental impact reduction, the load management benefits and the opportunity to provide electricity to remote areas. Despite the current cut off of the national supporting policies to the renewables, the photovoltaic (PV) systems still find profitable conditions for the grid connected users when the produced energy is self-consumed. Due to the intermittent and random nature of the solar source, PV plants require the adoption of an energy storage system to compensate fluctuations and to meet the energy demand during the night hours. This paper presents a technical and economic model for the design of a grid connected PV plant with battery energy storage (BES) system, in which the electricity demand is satisfied through the PV–BES system and the national grid, as the backup source. The aim is to present the PV–BES system design and management strategy and to discuss the analytical model to determine the PV system rated power and the BES system capacity able to minimize the Levelized Cost of the Electricity (LCOE). The proposed model considers the hourly energy demand profile for a reference

  14. Optimal Planning Strategy for Large PV/Battery System Based on Long-Term Insolation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yona, Atsushi; Uchida, Kosuke; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as some of the best alternative energy sources. Usually the power output of PV system fluctuates depending on weather conditions. In order to control the fluctuating power output for PV system, it requires control method of energy storage system. This paper proposes an optimization approach to determine the operational planning of power output for PV system with battery energy storage system (BESS). This approach aims to obtain more benefit for electrical power selling and to smooth the fluctuating power output for PV system. The optimization method applies genetic algorithm (GA) considering PV power output forecast error. The forecast error is based on our previous works with the insolation forecasting at one day ahead by using weather reported data, fuzzy theory and neural network(NN). The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by the computer simulations.

  15. A hybrid thermal management system for lithium ion batteries combining phase change materials with forced-air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heat accumulation in PCM causes failures of passive thermal management systems. • The introduction of forced air convection improves the reliability of PCMs. • Temperature distribution in the hybrid system remains uniform. • Active cooling and PCMs play separate roles in battery thermal management. • Numerical results agree with experiment data and give theoretic insights. - Abstract: Passive thermal management systems using phase change materials (PCMs) provides an effective solution to the overheating of lithium ion batteries. But this study shows heat accumulation in PCMs caused by the inefficient cooling of air natural convection leads to thermal management system failures: The temperature in a battery pack operating continuously outranges the safety limit of 60 °C after two cycles with discharge rate of 1.5 C and 2 C. Here a hybrid system that integrates PCMs with forced air convection is presented. This combined system successfully prevents heat accumulation and maintains the maximum temperature under 50 °C in all cycles. Study on airspeed effects reveals that thermo-physical properties of PCMs dictate the maximum temperature rise and temperature uniformity in the battery pack, while forced air convection plays a critical role in recovering thermal energy storage capacity of PCMs. A numerical study is also carried out and validated with experiment data, which gives theoretic insights on thermo-physical changes in this hybrid battery thermal management system

  16. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Akimoto, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  17. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  18. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery

  19. Primary frequency regulation with Li-ion battery energy storage system: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina;

    2013-01-01

    Meeting ambitious goals of transition to distributed and environmentally-friendly renewable energy generation can be difficult to achieve without energy storage systems due to technical and economical challenges. Moreover, energy storage systems have a high potential of not only smoothing and imp...... electricity market. Moreover, in this paper a possible improvement of the Li-ion BESS energy management strategy is shown, which allows for obtaining the higher NPV....... improving the predictability of the intermittent renewables but also of providing the ancillary services in the future energy markets. However, this is currently difficult to achieve due to high prices of the energy storage systems and difficulties with accurate prediction of the energy storage systems...... lifetime, which introduces significant risk into the business model. This paper deals with the investigation of the lifetime of LiFeP04/C battery systems when they are used to provide primary frequency regulation service. A semi-empirical lifetime model for these battery cells was developed based on the...

  20. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  1. Average Behavior of Battery - Electric Vehicles for Distributed Energy System Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    The increase of focus on electric vehicles (EVs) as distributed energy resources calls for new concepts of aggregated models of batteries. Despite the developed battery models for EVs applications, when looking at energy storage scenarios using EVs, both geographical-temporal aspects and battery...... use conditions cannot be neglected for a proper estimation of available fleet energy. In this paper we describe an average behavior of battery-EVs. Main points of this concept include the definition of the energy window and lifetime of the batteries, in relation to existing models and battery use...

  2. NST Quarterly. October 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in latex vulcanization (first RVNRL-based rubber gloves produced in Malaysia), tank floor scanning system (TAFLOSS), incineration and radiotherapeutic agent

  3. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. PMID:26852396

  4. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamics Traction Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Szumanowski, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The assumed method and effective model are very accurate according to error checking results of the NiMH and Li-Ion batteries. The modeling method is valid for different types of batteries. The model can be conveniently used for vehicle simulation because the battery model is accurately approximated by mathematical equations. The model provides the methodology for designing a battery management system and calculating the SOC. The influence of temperature on battery performance is analyzed acc...

  6. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  7. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): High Specific Energy Li-ion Battery Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the High Specific Energy Battery project element is to develop high specific energy battery technologies that enable new capabilities for future...

  8. A bi-directional DC/DC converter for hybrid wind generator/battery system with state machine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C.C.; Liao, Y.C. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A bi-directional DC to DC converter used in a hybrid wind generator/lead-acid battery power system was presented. A state machine control strategy was used to control both the system power flow and load distribution. It was also used to increase the power capacity of the system. The battery was also charged or discharged through the bi-directional DC to DC converter. Multi-stage current charging control of the batteries was accomplished by adjusting the duty cycle of the power converter. This also improved the charging efficiency by the maximum power point tracking algorithm. It was concluded that the proposed control method can be readily extended to other renewable energy conversion systems. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Design of a Supercapacitor-Battery Storage System for a Waste Collection Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    BUTTERBACH, S; VULTURESCU, B; FORGEZ, CH; Coquery, G.; Friedrich, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of battery-supercapacitors energy storage for an electric waste collection vehicle. The vehicle was simulated on an urban driving cycle and a simple power flow management based on the power limitation in battery was developed. The main benefit of the hybridization, the reduction of the losses within the battery, is outlined and we show how the ultracapacitor pack could be designed in order to prevent stress on battery and, consequently, to extend its lifetime....

  10. A wind-PV-battery hybrid power system at Sitakunda in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measured wind data of Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) for 2006 at 30 m height shows a good prospect for wind energy extraction at the site. For a few months and hours the speed is below the cut in speeds of the available turbines in the market. The predicted solar radiation data from directly related measured cloud cover and sunshine duration data of Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) for 1992-2003 indicates that a reliable power system can be developed over the year if the solar energy technology is merged with the wind energy technologies for this site. This research work has studied on optimization of a wind-photovoltaic-battery hybrid system and its performance for a typical community load. The assessment shows that least cost of energy (COE) is about USD 0.363/kWh for a community using 169 kWh/day with 61 kW peak and having minimum amount of access or unused energy. Moreover, compared to the existing fossil fuel-based electricity supply, such an environment friendly system can mitigate about 25 t CO2/yr. The analysis also indicates that wind-PV-battery is economically viable as a replacement for conventional grid energy supply for a community at a minimum distance of about 17 km from grid.

  11. Design and implementation of a hybrid power generation system with fuel cells and batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C.C.; Syu, W.C. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A hybrid power generation system with fuel cells and batteries was presented with particular reference to its soft-switching method and control scheme for an isolated step-up full bridge converter. The design considered leakage inductance of the transformer to assist energy conversion. This can improve the low efficiency and control problems resulting from leakage inductance. A set of clamping-diodes was used to mitigate the ringing of the transformer and output filter diodes. The converter can operate in low temperature and low voltage stress caused by the low efficiency and ringing. A soft-commutating criterion was also discussed. Zero-voltage-switching was achieved for the switches of the full-bridge converter that can efficiently reduce the switching losses. The system can operate in a continuous 740 W. Peak 1 kW was built using a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) having a voltage range of about 22 to 42 V and two 26 Ah lead-acid batteries in series with nominal voltage 24 V, respectively. The bi-directional converter with flexible control strategy can provide power sharing and energy storage at different load conditions, rendering it suitable for PEMFC powered AC applications. Tested results were presented to verify the performance of the system. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Lithium ion battery energy storage system for augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    Future large Wind Power Plants (WPP) will be intended to function like today's conventional power plants seen from the transmission system point of view, by complying with future, more stringent, grid codes and providing ancillary services. This is possible to achieve by integrating WPPs with Bat......Future large Wind Power Plants (WPP) will be intended to function like today's conventional power plants seen from the transmission system point of view, by complying with future, more stringent, grid codes and providing ancillary services. This is possible to achieve by integrating WPPs...... with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) into the so called Virtual Power Plants (VPP). Relatively new energy storage technologies based on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries are constantly improving their performance and are becoming attractive for stationary energy storage applications due...... for VPP integration are selected based on the accelerated lifetime tests. The knowledge of the BESS lifetime is a key factor for their integration with WPPs. This is because an accurate knowledge of the BESS lifetime is a crucial factor in the project planning stage for the investigation on the BESS...

  13. Optimization of Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Wind Photovoltaic System with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kathirvel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the Design and Implementation of a multi source hybrid Wind-Photovoltaic stand alone system with proposed energy management strategy. The method of investigation concerned with the definition of the system topology, interconnection of the various sources with maximum energy transfer, optimum control and energy management in order to maintain the DC bus voltage into a fixed value. An Energy management strategy was proposed using the Fuzzy logic controller such that enhancement in the performance of the system and optimization can be done. The Fuzzy logic controller takes the input from Solar (irradiation, Wind (speed, Power demand and the battery voltage which controls the respective subsystem and formulates into different operational modes of energy management. The role of Fuzzy threshold controller is to adjust continuously the threshold value for optimal performance based on expected wind, solar conditions, battery voltage and power demand. It is shown that when the fuzzy logic controller is used, the proposed DC bus voltage regulation strategy with different modes of operation have fast response and efficient operation which leads to a reduced operating cost.

  14. Synthesis of CaCrO{sub 4} powders for the cathode material of the thermal battery by GNP and electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl/CaCrO{sub 4} thermal battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe

    2000-04-01

    Thermal batteries are one of the devices employing solid electrolyte that are not nonconductive at ambient temperature, and activated by electrochemical reaction when the sufficient heat is supplied to electrolyte to melt. The demand of thermal batteries would be increased because it is cost effective and highly reliable in that no maintenance is necessary, electric power can be generated as necessary and no self discharge unlike the other primary batteries. These thermal batteries are used to the military purposes and satellite communication systems and as an emergency power sources, applied to the important places where power supply should not be interrupted, such as hospital, powder plants, ships and portable communication devices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was focused to obtain the manufacturing technologies of thermal battery on our own, after manufacturing the CaCrO{sub 4} produced by GNP and investigating the electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl+CaCrO{sub 4}/Ni.

  15. Synthesis of CaCrO4 powders for the cathode material of the thermal battery by GNP and electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl/CaCrO4 thermal battery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal batteries are one of the devices employing solid electrolyte that are not nonconductive at ambient temperature, and activated by electrochemical reaction when the sufficient heat is supplied to electrolyte to melt. The demand of thermal batteries would be increased because it is cost effective and highly reliable in that no maintenance is necessary, electric power can be generated as necessary and no self discharge unlike the other primary batteries. These thermal batteries are used to the military purposes and satellite communication systems and as an emergency power sources, applied to the important places where power supply should not be interrupted, such as hospital, powder plants, ships and portable communication devices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was focused to obtain the manufacturing technologies of thermal battery on our own, after manufacturing the CaCrO4 produced by GNP and investigating the electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl+CaCrO4/Ni

  16. Experimental study of an air-cooled thermal management system for high capacity lithium-titanate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Michael R.; Prasad, Ajay K.; Advani, Suresh G.

    2012-10-01

    Lithium-titanate batteries have become an attractive option for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. In order to maintain safe operating temperatures, these batteries must be actively cooled during operation. Liquid-cooled systems typically employed for this purpose are inefficient due to the parasitic power consumed by the on-board chiller unit and the coolant pump. A more efficient option would be to circulate ambient air through the battery bank and directly reject the heat to the ambient. We designed and fabricated such an air-cooled thermal management system employing metal-foam based heat exchanger plates for sufficient heat removal capacity. Experiments were conducted with Altairnano's 50 Ah cells over a range of charge-discharge cycle currents at two air flow rates. It was found that an airflow of 1100 mls-1 per cell restricts the temperature rise of the coolant air to less than 10 °C over ambient even for 200 A charge-discharge cycles. Furthermore, it was shown that the power required to drive the air through the heat exchanger was less than a conventional liquid-cooled thermal management system. The results indicate that air-cooled systems can be an effective and efficient method for the thermal management of automotive battery packs.

  17. Behavior Patterns, Origin of Problems and Solutions Regarding Hysteresis Phenomena in Complex Battery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Barreras, Jorge Varela; Stan, Ana-Irina;

    2014-01-01

    One of the common phenomenona for most of the battery cell chemistries is hysteresis. Since an open circuit voltage (OCV) path is not identical for the charge and discharge of the battery cell at different states of charge (SoC) level, the battery cells show the hysteresis effect. Usually, the OC...

  18. A feasibility study of a stand-alone hybrid solar–wind–battery system for a remote island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A feasibility study of a hybrid solar–wind–battery system is carried out. • Techno-economic evaluation is conducted for this proposed system. • Thousands of cases are simulated to achieve an optimal system configuration. • The performance of the proposed system is analyzed in detail. • A sensitivity analysis on its load and renewable energy resource is performed. - Abstract: This paper presents a detailed feasibility study and techno-economic evaluation of a standalone hybrid solar–wind system with battery energy storage for a remote island. The solar radiation and wind data on this island in 2009 was recorded for this study. The HOMER software was employed to do the simulations and perform the techno-economic evaluation. Thousands of cases have been carried out to achieve an optimal autonomous system configuration, in terms of system net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE). A detailed analysis, description and expected performance of the proposed system were presented. Moreover, the effects of the PV panel sizing, wind turbine sizing and battery bank capacity on the system’s reliability and economic performance were examined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis on its load consumption and renewable energy resource was performed to evaluate the robustness of economic analysis and identify which variable has the greatest impact on the results. The results demonstrate the techno-economic feasibility of implementing the solar–wind battery system to supply power to this island

  19. Battery-free, stretchable optoelectronic systems for wireless optical characterization of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Salvatore, Giovanni A.; Araki, Hitoshi; Chiarelli, Antonio M.; Xie, Zhaoqian; Banks, Anthony; Sheng, Xing; Liu, Yuhao; Lee, Jung Woo; Jang, Kyung-In; Heo, Seung Yun; Cho, Kyoungyeon; Luo, Hongying; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Kim, Joonhee; Yan, Lingqing; Feng, Xue; Xu, Sheng; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in materials, mechanics, and electronic device design are rapidly establishing the foundations for health monitoring technologies that have “skin-like” properties, with options in chronic (weeks) integration with the epidermis. The resulting capabilities in physiological sensing greatly exceed those possible with conventional hard electronic systems, such as those found in wrist-mounted wearables, because of the intimate skin interface. However, most examples of such emerging classes of devices require batteries and/or hard-wired connections to enable operation. The work reported here introduces active optoelectronic systems that function without batteries and in an entirely wireless mode, with examples in thin, stretchable platforms designed for multiwavelength optical characterization of the skin. Magnetic inductive coupling and near-field communication (NFC) schemes deliver power to multicolored light-emitting diodes and extract digital data from integrated photodetectors in ways that are compatible with standard NFC-enabled platforms, such as smartphones and tablet computers. Examples in the monitoring of heart rate and temporal dynamics of arterial blood flow, in quantifying tissue oxygenation and ultraviolet dosimetry, and in performing four-color spectroscopic evaluation of the skin demonstrate the versatility of these concepts. The results have potential relevance in both hospital care and at-home diagnostics. PMID:27493994

  20. Battery-free, stretchable optoelectronic systems for wireless optical characterization of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Salvatore, Giovanni A; Araki, Hitoshi; Chiarelli, Antonio M; Xie, Zhaoqian; Banks, Anthony; Sheng, Xing; Liu, Yuhao; Lee, Jung Woo; Jang, Kyung-In; Heo, Seung Yun; Cho, Kyoungyeon; Luo, Hongying; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Kim, Joonhee; Yan, Lingqing; Feng, Xue; Xu, Sheng; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in materials, mechanics, and electronic device design are rapidly establishing the foundations for health monitoring technologies that have "skin-like" properties, with options in chronic (weeks) integration with the epidermis. The resulting capabilities in physiological sensing greatly exceed those possible with conventional hard electronic systems, such as those found in wrist-mounted wearables, because of the intimate skin interface. However, most examples of such emerging classes of devices require batteries and/or hard-wired connections to enable operation. The work reported here introduces active optoelectronic systems that function without batteries and in an entirely wireless mode, with examples in thin, stretchable platforms designed for multiwavelength optical characterization of the skin. Magnetic inductive coupling and near-field communication (NFC) schemes deliver power to multicolored light-emitting diodes and extract digital data from integrated photodetectors in ways that are compatible with standard NFC-enabled platforms, such as smartphones and tablet computers. Examples in the monitoring of heart rate and temporal dynamics of arterial blood flow, in quantifying tissue oxygenation and ultraviolet dosimetry, and in performing four-color spectroscopic evaluation of the skin demonstrate the versatility of these concepts. The results have potential relevance in both hospital care and at-home diagnostics. PMID:27493994

  1. Design Considerations for Wireless Charging Systems with an Analysis of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three criteria, including charging time, effective charging capacity and charging energy efficiency, are introduced to evaluate the CC (constant current and CC/CV (constant current/constant voltage charging strategies. Because the CC strategy presents a better performance and most resonant topologies have the CC characteristic, the CC strategy is more suitable for the design of wireless charging systems than the CC/CV strategy. Then, the state space model of the receiver is built to study the system dynamic characteristics, and the design of nonuse output filter capacitors is proposed, which can improve the system power density and avoid the drop in efficiency caused by capacitor degradation. At last, an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS based analysis method is introduced to validate that the design without output filter capacitors has no effects on the battery characteristics when the charging frequency is higher than 460 Hz. A prototype is fabricated to verify our research results.

  2. Analysis and Design of CLL Resonant Converter for Solar Panel-battery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Ramasubramanian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a CLL resonant converter with DSP based Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC for solar panel to battery charging system. The mathematical model of the converters has been developed and simulated using MATLAB. The state space model of the converter is developed; it is used to analysis the steady state stability of the system. The aim of the proposed converter is to regulate and control of the output voltage from the solar panel voltage. The performance of the proposed converter is validated through experiments with a 75-Watt solar panel. The effectiveness of the controller is verified for supply change and load disturbance. The converter is implemented on a TMS320F2407 Digital Signal Processor with 75-Watt PV system. Comparison between experimental and simulations show a very good agreement and the reliability of fuzzy controller.

  3. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs

  4. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  5. Development of a hybrid battery system for an implantable biomedical device, especially a defibrillator/cardioverter (ICD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Jürgen; Wolf, R.; Fehrmann, G.; Staub, R.

    An implantable defibrillator battery has to provide pulse power capabilities as well as high energy density. Low self-discharge rates are mandatory and a way to check the remaining available capacity is necessary. These requirements are accomplished by a system consisting of a lithium/manganese dioxide 6 V battery, plus a lithium/iodine-cell. The use of a high rate 6 V double-cell design in combination with a high energy density cell reduces the total volume required by the power source within an implantable defibrillator. The design features and performance data of the hybrid system are described.

  6. Development of a hybrid battery system for an implantable biomedical device, especially a defibrillator/cardioverter (ICD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, J.; Wolf, R.; Fehrmann, G.; Staub, R. [Litronik GmbH und Co., Pirna (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    An implantable defibrillator battery has to provide pulse power capabilities as well as high energy density. Low self-discharge rates are mandatory and a way to check the remaining available capacity is necessary. These requirements are accomplished by a system consisting of a lithium/manganese dioxide 6 V battery, plus a lithium/iodine-cell. The use of a high rate 6 V double-cell design in combination with a high energy density cell reduces the total volume required by the power source within an implantable defibrillator. The design features and performance data of the hybrid system are described. (orig.)

  7. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan;

    2011-01-01

    , grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation.The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information...... charging/discharging and local loads, which is available of either grid-connected operation or islanding operation. By using the proposed control strategy, the operations of a modular PV generation system are categorized into four modes: islanding with battery discharging, grid-connected rectification...... maximum power point tracking operation, which enables the dc bus voltage regulation capability ofmodular dc/dc converters. Seamless switching of a battery converter between charging and discharging and that of a grid-connected converter between rectification and inversion are ensured by the proposed...

  8. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  9. Decontamination systems information and research programs. Quarterly report, July 1--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The US contains numerous hazardous waste sites. Many sites are on private land near operating units of various companies. An effort is being made to determine the conditions under which such sites can be remediated voluntarily. The objective of the project will be to first assess the interest and willingness of industry in the Kanawha River Valley, WV to participate in discussions that would lead toward voluntary cleanup activities. The second will be to implement the activities agreed upon by the interested parties. The project will first involve individual discussions with the industrial, government, and other organized groups in the area. These discussions will help determine the feasibility of organizing voluntary efforts. If the discussions indicate that conditions may be favorable for developing individual or group voluntary cleanup projects, a working group will be convened to establish the environmental goals of the project as well as the technical approach for achieving those goals. The projects for the 1996 WVU Cooperative Agreement are categorized into three task focus areas: Task 1.0 Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation, Task 2.0 Cross Cutting Innovative Technologies, and Task 3.0 Small Business Support Program. Summaries of the accomplishments for the subtasks reporting under these categories during the third quarter, 1 July 96 through 30 September 96, are presented.

  10. A novel, integrated treatment system for coal wastewaters. Quarterly report, September 2, 1991--December 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1991-12-31

    This is the first quarterly report of the above project. The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the inorganics present in coal conversion wastewaters. The initial phase of the work has been focused on the development of modified clays for use in the selective removal and recovery of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, chromate and selenate. The results presented here show that a surfactant-modified clay adsorbs Cd strongly at a pH of 8.5 and poorly at pH 4.0. Further, the adsorption of Cd on modified clay is unaffected by the ionic strength of the medium. In the case of Cu, it has been shown that the metal forms a complex with alkyl diamines in aqueous solutions at a pH of 6.0 and does not bind to these surfactants at a lower pH of 3.0. These findings are a preliminary indication that the surface and solution chemistry of amine surfactants can be gainfully modified to adsorb and desorb cationic heavy metals.

  11. Inverse opal-inspired, nanoscaffold battery separators: a new membrane opportunity for high-performance energy storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, Keun-Ho; Yu, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Joo Sung; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-08-13

    The facilitation of ion/electron transport, along with ever-increasing demand for high-energy density, is a key to boosting the development of energy storage systems such as lithium-ion batteries. Among major battery components, separator membranes have not been the center of attention compared to other electrochemically active materials, despite their important roles in allowing ionic flow and preventing electrical contact between electrodes. Here, we present a new class of battery separator based on inverse opal-inspired, seamless nanoscaffold structure ("IO separator"), as an unprecedented membrane opportunity to enable remarkable advances in cell performance far beyond those accessible with conventional battery separators. The IO separator is easily fabricated through one-pot, evaporation-induced self-assembly of colloidal silica nanoparticles in the presence of ultraviolet (UV)-curable triacrylate monomer inside a nonwoven substrate, followed by UV-cross-linking and selective removal of the silica nanoparticle superlattices. The precisely ordered/well-reticulated nanoporous structure of IO separator allows significant improvement in ion transfer toward electrodes. The IO separator-driven facilitation of the ion transport phenomena is expected to play a critical role in the realization of high-performance batteries (in particular, under harsh conditions such as high-mass-loading electrodes, fast charging/discharging, and highly polar liquid electrolyte). Moreover, the IO separator enables the movement of the Ragone plot curves to a more desirable position representing high-energy/high-power density, without tailoring other battery materials and configurations. This study provides a new perspective on battery separators: a paradigm shift from plain porous films to pseudoelectrochemically active nanomembranes that can influence the charge/discharge reaction. PMID:24979037

  12. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  13. Sliding Mode Control of the Battery Bank for the Fuel Cell-based Distributed Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Jiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic models for the fuel cell power and the configuration of the fuel cell distributed generation system are shown in this paper. Due to nonlinear characteristics of fuel cell model, the output voltage of fuel cell varies greatly when the load changes. A novel interface is designed to provide a constant output voltage for charging of the battery bank of the fuel cell distributed generation. The thesis presents a sliding mode control design of PEMFC distributed generation system. A cascaded control structure is chosen for ease of control realization and to exploit the motion separation property of power converters. The simulation results confirm the output current and voltage of the PEM fuel cell array converge rapidly to their reference values.

  14. Research on the characteristics of the vanadium redox-flow battery in power systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizhong, Chen; Ziqiang, Xu; Bei, Li

    2013-11-01

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) have power rating and energy durations that are independent of one another, which make them attractive for power systems applications. This paper focuses on the energy and power response capability of the VRFBs, which has been experimentally researched based on 5 kW/10 kWh and 0.5 MW/1 MWh systems. With three experimental operating modes, three threshold values and one baseline have been obtained based on the experimental results. The maximum state of charge (“SOC”), charged by 1.4 times rated power at 1 time ratio (“TR”), is 47% SOC. The minimum TR, charged by times rated power at SOC = 100%, is 1.5. The maximum charge/discharge power rating is 1.35 times rated power. The reserve SOC curves are a baseline on which the VRFB can respond to equally charge/discharge energy demand.

  15. Containment system and thermal conduction in lithium electric batteries energy modules 2 kWh with polymeric electrolytes; Sviluppo del sistema di contenimento e del condizionamento termico di moduli da 2 kWh di batterie al litio ad elettrolita polimerico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Alessandrini, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia Divisione Tecnologie Energetiche Avanzate

    1997-06-01

    In this work are presented some technical specifications regarding lithium electric batteries with polymeric electrolytes, in particular the design of electrodes container efficient and reliable and thermal management system oriented to safety, performances and battery life.

  16. High thermal performance lithium-ion battery pack including hybrid active–passive thermal management system for using in hybrid/electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a novel Li-ion battery pack design including hybrid active–passive thermal management system is presented. The battery pack is suitable for using in hybrid/electric vehicles. Active part of the hybrid thermal management system uses distributed thin ducts, air flow and natural convection as cooling media while the passive part utilizes phase change material/expanded graphite composite (PCM/EG) as cooling/heating component to optimize the thermal performance of the proposed battery pack. High melting enthalpy of PCM/EG composite together with melting of PCM/EG composite at the temperature of 58.9 °C remains the temperature distribution of the battery units in the desired temperature range (below 60 °C). The temperature and voltage distributions in the proposed battery pack design consisting of battery units, distributed thin ducts and PCM/EG composite are calculated by numerical solving of the related partial differential equations. Simulation results obtained by writing M-files code in Matlab environment and plotting the numerical data are presented to validate the theoretical results. A comparison between the thermal and physical characteristics of the proposed battery pack and other latest works is presented that explicitly proves the battery pack performance. - Highlights: • Novel Li-ion battery pack including active and passive thermal management systems. • The battery pack has high thermal performance for ambient temperatures until 55 °C. • Uniform temperature and voltage distributions. • The maximum observed temperature in each battery unit is less than other works. • The maximum temperature dispersion in each battery is less than other works

  17. Analysis of a Battery Management System (BMS Control Strategy for Vibration Aged Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bruen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS. In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles of European and North American customer operation. This paper presents a study which defines the effect that the change in electrical properties of vibration aged 18650 NMC cells can have on the control strategy employed by the battery management system (BMS of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. It also proposes various cell balancing strategies to manage these changes in electrical properties. Subsequently this study recommends that EV manufacturers conduct vibration testing as part of their cell selection and development activities so that electrical ageing characteristics associated with road induced vibration phenomena are incorporated to ensure effective BMS and RESS performance throughout the life of the vehicle.

  18. A review of thermal performance improving methods of lithium ion battery: Electrode modification and thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Sijie; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery has emerged as an important power source for portable devices and electric vehicles due to its superiority over other energy storage technologies. A mild temperature variation as well as a proper operating temperature range are essential for a Li-ion battery to perform soundly and have a long service life. In this review paper, the heat generation and dissipation of Li-ion battery are firstly analyzed based on the energy conservation equations, followed by an examination of the hazardous effects of an above normal operating temperature. Then, advanced techniques in respect of electrode modification and systematic battery thermal management are inspected in detail as solutions in terms of reducing internal heat production and accelerating external heat dissipation, respectively. Specifically, variable parameters like electrode thickness and particle size of active material, along with optimization methods such as coating, doping, and adding conductive media are discussed in the electrode modification section, while the current development in air cooling, liquid cooling, heat pipe cooling, and phase change material cooling systems are reviewed in the thermal management part as different ways to improve the thermal performance of Li-ion batteries.

  19. Optimal Scheduling of Energy Storage System for Self-Sustainable Base Station Operation Considering Battery Wear-Out Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohwan Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A self-sustainable base station (BS where renewable resources and energy storage system (ESS are interoperably utilized as power sources is a promising approach to save energy and operational cost in communication networks. However, high battery price and low utilization of ESS intended for uninterruptible power supply (UPS necessitates active utilization of ESS. This paper proposes a multi-functional framework of ESS using dynamic programming (DP for realizing a sustainable BS. We develop an optimal charging and discharging scheduling algorithm considering a detailed battery wear-out model to minimize operational cost as well as to prolong battery lifetime. Our approach significantly reduces total cost compared to the conventional method that does not consider battery wear-out. Extensive experiments for several scenarios exhibit that total cost is reduced by up to 70.6% while battery wear-out is also reduced by 53.6%. The virtue of the proposed framework is its wide applicability beyond sustainable BS and thus can be also used for other types of load in principle.

  20. Comparison of a synergetic battery pack drive system to a pulse width modulated AC induction motor drive for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Eaves, S.S. [Eaves Devices, Charlestown, RI (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and as a battery charger. In this paper, the performance of a Synergetic Battery Pack during motor drive operation is compared via computer simulation with a conventional motor drive which uses sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to determine its effectiveness as a motor drive. The study showed that the drive efficiency was compatible with the conventional system, and offered a significant advantage in the lower frequency operating ranges. The voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) of the SBP was significantly lower than the PWM drive output, but the current THD was slightly higher due to the shape of the harmonic spectrum. In conclusion, the SBP is an effective alternative to a conventional drive, but the real advantage lies in its battery management capabilities and charger operation.

  1. Application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for storage of solar electricity in stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the northwest areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shounan; Zhou, Qingshen; Kong, Delong; Ma, Jianping

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations for solar electric power generation are being established rapidly in the northwest areas of China, and it is increasingly important for these power systems to have reliable and cost effective energy storage. The lead-acid battery is the more commonly used storage technology for PV systems due to its low cost and its wide availability. However, analysis shows that it is the weakest component of PV power systems. Because the batteries can be over discharged, or operated under partial state of charge (PSOC), their service life in PV systems is shorter than could be expected. The working conditions of batteries in remote area installations are worse than those in situations where technical support is readily available. Capacity-loss in lead-acid batteries operated in remote locations often occurs through sulfation of electrodes and stratification of electrolyte. In northwest China, Shandong Sacred Sun Power Sources Industry Co. Ltd. type GFMU valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being used in PV power stations. These batteries have an advanced grid structure, superior leady paste, and are manufactured using improved plate formation methods. Their characteristics, and their performance in PV systems, are discussed in this paper. The testing results of GFMU VRLA batteries in the laboratory have shown that the batteries could satisfy the demands of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for PV systems.

  2. Application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for storage of solar electricity in stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the northwest areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Shounan; Zhou, Qingshen; Kong, Delong; Ma, Jianping [Shandong Sacred Sun Power Sources Industry Co. Ltd., Qufu 273100 (China)

    2006-08-25

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations for solar electric power generation are being established rapidly in the northwest areas of China, and it is increasingly important for these power systems to have reliable and cost effective energy storage. The lead-acid battery is the more commonly used storage technology for PV systems due to its low cost and its wide availability. However, analysis shows that it is the weakest component of PV power systems. Because the batteries can be over discharged, or operated under partial state of charge (PSOC), their service life in PV systems is shorter than could be expected. The working conditions of batteries in remote area installations are worse than those in situations where technical support is readily available. Capacity-loss in lead-acid batteries operated in remote locations often occurs through sulfation of electrodes and stratification of electrolyte. In northwest China, Shandong Sacred Sun Power Sources Industry Co. Ltd. type GFMU valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being used in PV power stations. These batteries have an advanced grid structure, superior leady paste, and are manufactured using improved plate formation methods. Their characteristics, and their performance in PV systems, are discussed in this paper. The testing results of GFMU VRLA batteries in the laboratory have shown that the batteries could satisfy the demands of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for PV systems. (author)

  3. Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Ferdowsi; Robert G. Landers; Samuel Novosad; Jack Savage; Poria Fajri; Nima Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commerc...

  4. SiC-based High Efficiency Bidirectional Battery Converter for Smart PV Residential Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Cam; Biris, Valeriu-Ciprian; Teodorescu, Remus; KEREKES, Tamas; Mathe, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Smart PV inverters are essential components of future grids. Beside conventional functionalities they can communicate with the grid, supports the grid with reactive power and with active power from internal battery storage. To maximize internal consumption, a high efficiency bidirectional DC-DC converter for the battery storage is necessary, as energy will be processed twice. Realisation of the battery converter with silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors offers many advantages compared to Sili...

  5. Quarterly Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program tasks for April 2000 through June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.P.

    2000-10-23

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems (OSDPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVSs) and weld shields (WSs). This quarterly report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from OSDPS for fiscal year (FY) 2000. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, clad vent sets (CVSs), and weld shields (WSs). In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of flight quality (FQ) components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for two new RPS. The last section is dedicated to studies of the potential for the production of 238Pu at ORNL.

  6. Developments in redox flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Tangirala, Ravichandra

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the electrochemistry principles, technology, construction and composition of the electrode materials, electrolyte and additives used in redox flow batteries. The aim was to study a flow battery system with an appreciable working performance. The study explores and compares mainly three different redox flow battery technologies; all-vanadium, soluble lead-acid and a novel copper-lead dioxide flow batteries. The first system is based in sulfuric acid e...

  7. Improving the aluminum-air battery system for use in electrical vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua

    The objectives of this study include improvement of the efficiency of the aluminum/air battery system and demonstration of its ability for vehicle applications. The aluminum/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to that of gasoline powered cars. Therefore has the potential to be a power source for electrical vehicles. Aluminum/air battery vehicle life cycle analysis was conducted and compared to that of lead/acid and nickel-metal hydride vehicles. Only the aluminum/air vehicles can be projected to have a travel range comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE). From this analysis, an aluminum/air vehicle is a promising candidate compared to ICE vehicles in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life cycle cost. We have chosen two grades of Al alloys (Al alloy 1350, 99.5% and Al alloy 1199, 99.99%) in our study. Only Al 1199 was studied extensively using Na 2SnO3 as an electrolyte additive. We then varied concentration and temperature, and determined the effects on the parasitic (corrosion) current density and open circuit potential. We also determined cell performance and selectivity curves. To optimize the performance of the cell based on our experiments, the recommended operating conditions are: 3--4 N NaOH, about 55°C, and a current density of 150--300 mA/cm2. We have modeled the cell performance using the equations we developed. The model prediction of cell performance shows good agreement with experimental data. For better cell performance, our model studies suggest use of higher electrolyte flow rate, smaller cell gap, higher conductivity and lower parasitic current density. We have analyzed the secondary current density distributions in a two plane, parallel Al/air cell and a wedge-type Al/air cell. The activity of the cathode has a large effect on the local current density. With increases in the cell gap, the local current density increases, but the increase is

  8. New Thermoelectric Materials and New System-Level Analysis Perspectives Using Battlefield Heat Sources for Battery Recharging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.; Hogan, Tim; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-03-30

    This paper discusses thermoelectric power systems as a solution pathway to allieviate military dependence on non-rechargeable batteries and subsequent cost and waste issues associated with battefield use. This paper also discusses the most recent progress with LAST/LASTT materials.

  9. Control of a Multi-Functional Inverter for Grid Integration of PV and Battery Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Beirami, A.; Jalilian, Alireza; Guerrero, Josep M.; Li, Chendan

    This paper presents a multi-functional control of a DC/AC inverter for Power Quality compensation of nonlinear and unequal local loads and grid integration of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems. Multi-layer neural network estimator and a DC/DC converter are used for maximum...

  10. Optimal Power Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid PV-Wind-Battery Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a lineal mathematical model is proposed to schedule optimally the power references of the distributed energy resources in a grid-connected hybrid PVwind-battery microgrid. The optimization of the short term scheduling problem is addressed through a mixed-integer linear programming...... mathematical model, wherein the cost of energy purchased from the main grid is minimized and profits for selling energy generated by photovoltaic arrays are maximized by considering both physical constraints and requirements for a feasible deployment in the real system. The optimization model is tested by...... using a real-time simulation of the model and uploaded it in a digital control platform. The results show the economic benefit of the proposed optimal scheduling approach in two different scenarios....

  11. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  12. Battery Energy Storage Systems to Mitigate the Variability of Photovoltaic Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurganus, Heath Alan

    Methods of generating renewable energy such as through solar photovoltaic (PV) cells and wind turbines offer great promise in terms of a reduced carbon footprint and overall impact on the environment. However, these methods also share the attribute of being highly stochastic, meaning they are variable in such a way that is difficult to forecast with sufficient accuracy. While solar power currently constitutes a small amount of generating potential in most regions, the cost of photovoltaics continues to decline and a trend has emerged to build larger PV plants than was once feasible. This has brought the matter of increased variability to the forefront of research in the industry. Energy storage has been proposed as a means of mitigating this increased variability --- and thus reducing the need to utilize traditional spinning reserves --- as well as offering auxiliary grid services such as peak-shifting and frequency control. This thesis addresses the feasibility of using electrochemical storage methods (i.e. batteries) to decrease the ramp rates of PV power plants. By building a simulation of a grid-connected PV array and a typical Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in the NetLogo simulation environment, I have created a parameterized tool that can be tailored to describe almost any potential PV setup. This thesis describes the design and function of this model, and makes a case for the accuracy of its measurements by comparing its simulated output to that of well-documented real world sites. Finally, a set of recommendations for the design and operational parameters of such a system are then put forth based on the results of several experiments performed using this model.

  13. Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However, with these models one can only compute lifetimes for specific discharge profiles, and not for workloads in general. In this paper, we give an overview of the different battery models that are availabl...

  14. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo;

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...

  15. Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems with Supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; de Castro, Ricardo;

    2014-01-01

    certain vehicle over a predefined driving cycle. During this process, three battery models will be considered. The first consists in a linear static zeroeth order battery model over a restricted operating window. The second is a non-linear static model, while the third takes into account first...

  16. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2007-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  17. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. → Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. → New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. → Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  18. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Luis M., E-mail: luis.fernandez@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Carlos Andres, E-mail: carlosandres.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, Francisco, E-mail: fjurado@ujaen.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, No. 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. {yields} Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. {yields} New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. {yields} Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  19. Lithium ion battery production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sustainable battery manufacturing focus on more efficient methods and recycling. ► Temperature control and battery management system increase battery lifetime. ► Focus on increasing battery performance at low- and high temperatures. ► Production capacity of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. - Abstract: Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on energy storage. Materials needed for battery applications require specially made high quality products. Diminishing amounts of easily minable metal ores increase the consumption of separation and purification energy and chemicals. The metals are likely to be increasingly difficult to process. Iron, manganese, lead, zinc, lithium, aluminium, and nickel are still relatively abundant but many metals like cobalt and rare earths are becoming limited resources more rapidly. The global capacity of industrial-scale production of larger lithium ion battery cells may become a limiting factor in the near future if plans for even partial electrification of vehicles or energy storage visions are realized. The energy capacity needed is huge and one has to be reminded that in terms of cars for example production of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. Consequently annual production capacity of 106 cars requires 100 factories each with a 300 MWh capacity. Present day lithium ion batteries have limitations but significant improvements have been achieved recently . The main challenges of lithium ion batteries are related to material deterioration, operating temperatures, energy and power output, and lifetime. Increased lifetime

  20. Simulation and Performance Analysis of Lithium Battery Bank Mounted on the Hybrid Power System for Mobile Public Health Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busono, Pratondo; Kartini, Evvy

    2013-07-01

    Mobile medical clinic has been proposed to serve homeless people, people in the disaster area or in the remote area where no health service exist. At that site, a number of essential services such as primary health care, general health screening, medical treatment and emergency/rescue operations are required. Such services usually requires on board electrical equipments such as refrigerators, komputer, power tools and medical equipments. To supply such electrical equipments, it needs extra auxiliary power sources, in addition of standard automotive power supply. The auxiliary power source specifically design to supply non automotive load which may have similar configuration, but usually uses high power alternator rated and larger deep cycle on board battery bank. This study covers the modeling and dynamic simulation of auxiliary power source/battery to supply the medical equipment and other electrical equipments on board. It consists a variable speed diesel generator set, photovoltaic (PV) generator mounted on the roof of the car, a rechargable battery bank. As an initial step in the system design, a simulation study was performed. The simulation is conducted in the system level. Simulation results shows that dynamical behaviour by means of current density, voltage and power plot over a chosen time range, and functional behaviour such as charging and discharging characteristic of the battery bank can be obtained.

  1. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  2. Power control for direct-driven permanent magnet wind generator system with battery storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Chu Xiao; Ying, Kong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to construct a wind generator system (WGS) loss model that addresses the loss of the wind turbine and the generator. It aims to optimize the maximum effective output power and turbine speed. Given that the wind generator system has inertia and is nonlinear, the dynamic model of the wind generator system takes the advantage of the duty of the Buck converter and employs feedback linearization to design the optimized turbine speed tracking controller and the load power controller. According to that, this paper proposes a dual-mode dynamic coordination strategy based on the auxiliary load to reduce the influence of mode conversion on the lifetime of the battery. Optimized speed and power rapid tracking as well as the reduction of redundant power during mode conversion have gone through the test based on a 5 kW wind generator system test platform. The generator output power as the capture target has also been proved to be efficient. PMID:25050405

  3. Operational analysis of a small-capacity cogeneration system with a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a cold region during winter, energy demand for residential heating is high and energy saving, the discharge of greenhouse gases, and air pollution are all of significant concern. We investigated the fundamental characteristics of an energy storage system with a GHB (gas hydrate battery) in which heat cycle by a unique change in state of gas hydrate operates using the low-temperature ambient air of a cold region. The proposed system with the GHB can respond to a high heat to power ratio caused by a small-scale CGS (cogeneration system) that is powered by a gas engine, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, or a solid oxide fuel cell. In this paper, we explain how the relation between fossil fuel consumption and heat to power ratio of the different types of systems differ. We investigated the proposed system by laboratory experiments and analysis of the characteristics of power load and heat load of such a system in operation in Kitami, a cold district in Japan. If a hydrate formation space of 2 m3 is introduced into the proposed system, 48%–52% (namely, power rate by green energy) of total electric power consumption is supplied by the GHB. - Highlights: • Heat cycle by unique change in state of gas hydrate was developed. • Characteristics of energy storage equipment using CO2 hydrate were investigated. • Hybrid system of small-scale cogeneration and gas hydrate heat cycle was examined. • Proposed system can reduce fuel consumption during winter in a cold region

  4. Battery Monitoring Unit Using SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Priyesh Pandya; Vikas Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Battery Management System (BMS) means different things to different people. To some it is simply battery monitoring, keeping a check on the key operational parameters during charging and discharging such as voltages and currents and the battery internal and ambient temperature. The monitoring circuits would normally provide inputs to protection device which would generate alarms or disconnects the battery from the load or charger should any of the parameters be...

  5. Rechargeable Battery Capacity Level Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Technology on rechargeable batteries has advanced over the years as a result of the need to power portable devices that have risen in numbers in the last decade. Just like primary cells, rechargeable batteries work in the same way, only their chemical reactions are reversible. This project aimed at building a system that would indicate the capacity level of a Nickel Metal Hydride battery upon charging and discharging. The Nickel Metal Hydride battery was selected in this project due to it...

  6. Battery charging characteristics in small scaled photovoltaic system using resonant DC-DC converter with electric isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar energy has been drawing attention of the whole world as a clean and infinite energy, since the globe resource, the globe ecology and so on came into question. The wide applications of the solar energy are being expected in a range from electric power plants to household systems. But the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of the solar radiation, a temperature of the solar cells and so on, so the various useful forms of the solar energy are being proposed for a purpose of stable power supply. a system described in this paper is a small scaled photovoltaic system with storage batteries. This paper describes the theoretical analyses of the photovoltaic system using a resonant DC-DC converter in order to clarify a desirable circuit condition, besides the experimental results of the battery charging characteristics are presented

  7. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system.

  8. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system. (author)

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Power Conversion Cycle Design for Optimized Battery-Type Integral Reactor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) promises a high power conversion efficiency of the recompression Brayton cycle due to its excellent compressibility reducing the compression work at the bottom of the cycle and to a higher density than helium or steam decreasing the component size. Therefore, the high SCO2 Brayton cycle efficiency as high as 45 % furnishes small sized nuclear reactors with economical benefits on the plant construction and maintenance. A 23 MWth BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System) is being developed as a multipurpose reactor. BORIS, an integral-type optimized fast reactor with an ultra long life core, is coupled to the SCO2 Brayton cycle needing less room relative to the Rankine steam cycle because of its smaller components. The SCO2 Brayton cycle of BORIS consists of a 16 MW turbine, a 32 MW high temperature recuperator, a 14 MW low temperature recuperator, an 11 MW pre-cooler and 2 and 2.8 MW compressors. Entering six heat exchangers between primary and secondary system at 19.9 MPa and 663 K, the SCO2 leaves the heat exchangers at 19.9 MPa and 823 K. The promising secondary system efficiency of 45 % was calculated by a theoretical method in which the main parameters include pressure, temperature, heater power, the turbine's, recuperators' and compressors' efficiencies, and the flow split ratio of SCO2 going out from the low temperature recuperator. Test loop SOLOS (Shell-and-tube Overall Layout Optimization Study) is utilized to develop advanced techniques needed to adopt the shell-and-tube type heat exchanger in the secondary loop of BORIS by studying the SCO2 behavior from both thermal and hydrodynamic points of view. Concurrently, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code analysis is being conducted to develop an optimal analytical method of the SCO2 turbine efficiency having the parameters of flow characteristics of SCO2 passing through buckets of the turbine. These simultaneous experimental and analytical methods for designing

  10. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Fathima; Palanisamy, K

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The ...

  11. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  12. Technical and economic assessment of hybrid photovoltaic/wind system with battery storage in Corsica island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaf, S.; Louche, A. [Universite de Corse CNRS - UMR 6134, Vignola - Route des Sanguinaires, Ajaccio (France); Belhamel, M. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62 16340 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Ecole Polytechnique d' El harrach, Algiers (Algeria)

    2008-02-15

    The sizing and techno-economical optimization of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind system (HPWS) with battery storage is presented in this paper. The main objective of the present study is to find the optimum size of system, able to fulfill the energy requirements of a given load distribution, for three sites located at Corsica island and to analyze the impact of different parameters on the system size. The methodology used provides a useful and simple approach for sizing and analyzing an HPWS. In the proposed stand-alone system, a new concept such as the supply of wind power via a uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is introduced and therefore the energy produced by the wind generator can be sent directly to the load. In this context, an optimization sizing model is developed. It consists of three submodels; system components submodels, technical submodel based on the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and the economical submodel based on the levelized cost of energy (LCE). Applying the developed model, a set of configurations meeting the desired LPSP are obtained. The configuration with the lowest LCE gives the optimal one. Analyzing the optimal system configurations used to satisfy the requirements of typical residential home (3 kWh/day), a significant reduction in system size is observed as the available renewable potential increases leading to a considerable decrease in LCE (case of Cape corse site). The 2 days storage capacity is found to be the best for the optimal configuration with the lowest LCE. On the other hand, for low energy requirements, the LCE is found relatively high and decreases sharply with the increase in load. However, for low LPSP values, the LCE is found to rise sharply for a little increase in LPSP. (author)

  13. Technical and economic assessment of hybrid photovoltaic/wind system with battery storage in Corsica island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sizing and techno-economical optimization of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind system (HPWS) with battery storage is presented in this paper. The main objective of the present study is to find the optimum size of system, able to fulfill the energy requirements of a given load distribution, for three sites located at Corsica island and to analyze the impact of different parameters on the system size. The methodology used provides a useful and simple approach for sizing and analyzing an HPWS. In the proposed stand-alone system, a new concept such as the supply of wind power via a uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is introduced and therefore the energy produced by the wind generator can be sent directly to the load. In this context, an optimization sizing model is developed. It consists of three submodels; system components submodels, technical submodel based on the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and the economical submodel based on the levelized cost of energy (LCE). Applying the developed model, a set of configurations meeting the desired LPSP are obtained. The configuration with the lowest LCE gives the optimal one. Analyzing the optimal system configurations used to satisfy the requirements of typical residential home (3 kWh/day), a significant reduction in system size is observed as the available renewable potential increases leading to a considerable decrease in LCE (case of Cape corse site). The 2 days storage capacity is found to be the best for the optimal configuration with the lowest LCE. On the other hand, for low energy requirements, the LCE is found relatively high and decreases sharply with the increase in load. However, for low LPSP values, the LCE is found to rise sharply for a little increase in LPSP

  14. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study, it is clear that the optimized hybrid system is more cost effective compared to the diesel generator system alone where the NPC and COE are equal, respectively, to 19,561 USD and 1.205 USD/kWh and 47,932 USD and 2.952 USD/kWh. The sensitivity analysis predicts that the grid extension distance varies from 1.25 to 1.85 km depending on wind speed and fuel price which indicate a positive result to implement a stand-alone hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension. In addition to the feasibility of this system, it can reduce the emission of the CO2, SO2, and NOx, respectively, from 4758 to 147, from 9.45 to 0.294, and from 105 to 3.23 kg/yr. Investments in autonomous renewable energy systems should be considered particularly in remote areas. They can be financed in the framework of the National Energy Action Plan of Algeria.

  15. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1995-07-24

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Technical progress is described for the following tasks: physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; mechanisms of in situ gelation; and mathematical modelling of the gel systems.

  16. Design studies of supplemental-heating systems. Quarterly report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first objective is to summarize and evaluate the data base for Tokamak heating systems, in order to understand thoroughly the technology, cost and risk implications associated with the selection of any particular heating technique. A preliminary selection of optimized RF and neutral beam systems will be made for a near-term device (TFTR), based on existing data. This will provide a technical and cost base for the second phase where concept and design selection will be performed for an advanced reactor system. In addition, the analysis procedure will be carefully documented, together with a program plan for the development of each of the systems and a detailed cost estimate

  17. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Nanwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: nwzhu@sina.com

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni{sup 0}) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d{sup -1} and HRT was 3 days.

  18. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni0) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d-1 and HRT was 3 days

  19. Off-grid hybrid electric power supply system, using a combination of solar cells, small scale wind turbine and batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, W.

    1994-03-01

    The design of an off-grid electric power supply system consisting of a small scale wind turbine, a combination of solar cells and batteries is described. The robust, small scale FC 4000 wind turbine, which needs little maintenance, can be used under varying climatic conditions. It is equipped with a permanent-magnet generator with an output of 1.5 kW. The generator`s rotor is directly coupled with the wind turbine`s rotor and is without a gearbox, so the frequency and output varies according to wind speed. The 12 m{sup 2} solar cell system consists of round modules embedded in glass and with an efficiency of 13%. The lead acid batteries are used when power consumption exceeds production and store energy for future use. Further adjustments are necessary in order to optimize the performance of this hybrid system. (AB)

  20. Analysis of an electric Equivalent Circuit Model of a Li-Ion battery to develop algorithms for battery states estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi, Mohammad Haris

    2016-01-01

    Batteries have imparted momentum to the process of transition towards a green future. However, mass application of batteries is obstructed due to their explosive nature, a trait specific to Li-Ion batteries. To cater to an efficient battery utilization, an introduction of a battery management system would provide an ultimate solution. This thesis deals with different aspects crucial in designing a battery management system for high energy as well as high power applications. To build a battery...

  1. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  2. Experimental investigation on the dynamic performance of a hybrid PEM fuel cell/battery system for lightweight electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid system combining a 2 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and a lead-acid battery pack is developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The dynamic performances of this PEMFC system with and without the assistance of the batteries are systematically investigated in a series of laboratory and road tests. The stack current and voltage have timely dynamic responses to the load variations. Particularly, the current overshoot and voltage undershoot both happen during the step-up load tests. These phenomena are closely related to the charge double-layer effect and the mass transfer mechanisms such as the water and gas transport and distribution in the fuel cell. When the external load is beyond the range of the fuel cell system, the battery immediately participates in power output with a higher transient discharging current especially in the accelerating and climbing processes. The DC-DC converter exhibits a satisfying performance in adaptive modulation. It helps rectify the voltage output in a rigid manner and prevent the fuel cell system from being overloaded. The dynamic responses of other operating parameters such as the anodic operating pressure and the inlet and outlet temperatures are also investigated. The results show that such a hybrid system is able to dynamically satisfy the vehicular power demand.

  3. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system. Quarterly technical report, December 1992--February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-22

    The goal of this contractual effort is the development and demonstration of a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system to meet the unique needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system will be designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganics, and explosive materials. The planned laboratory system will consist of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  4. 小区内部管理系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the Internal Management System of Residential Quarters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄月新

    2014-01-01

    With the development of market economy and the improvement of people's living standard, residential quarters has become the mainstream of living,the internal management system of residential quarters is the require of the contemporary scoial market In order to improve the community service and management level and create a comfortable living environment,in this paper, after the description of functional requirements, functional structure, database design,introducing the design process and the functional of he internal management system of residential quarters detailedly, to achieve the internal information management of residential quarters.It has good practicability and scalability.%随着市场经济的发展和人们生活水平的提高,住宅小区成为居住的主流,小区内部管理正是针对当代社会这一市场需要应运而生的。为了提高小区内部的服务和管理水平,创造一个舒适的生活环境,本文在说明了功能需求、功能结构、数据库设计等部分之后,详细地介绍了小区内部管理系统的设计过程及功能实现,实现了对小区内部信息的管理,具有良好的实用性、扩展性。

  5. Novel, Integrated Reactor/Power Conversion System. Quarterly Report, September 1 - November 30, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desired design objectives and operation parameters were determined and system characteristics to be investigated were identified together with critical issues. Specific tasks were outlined and communicated to the performing personnel

  6. Institutional applications of solar total energy systems. First quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The meteorology followed to develop a data base for assessing market potential in the eight institutional subsectors is described. The subsectors are: elementary and high schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, military installations, public administration buildings, post offices, airports, and prisons. The market characteristics to be studied in detail are defined, and the methodology to be followed in assessing the relative economic performance of representative STE systems is given. The generic STE conceptual system design is introduced. (MHR)

  7. Modular lithium-ion-battery-system for utility vehicles with high efficient integrated power electronics; Modulares Lithium-Ionen-Batteriesystem fuer Nutzfahrzeuge mit hocheffizienter integrierter Leistungselektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teigelkoetter, Johannes; Kowalski, Thomas; Stock, Alexander; Staudt, Stefan [Hochschule Aschaffenburg (Germany); Parr, Markus [Batterie-Montage-Zentrum GmbH, Karlstein am Main (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the continual electrification of road vehicles and the associated increased research and development work higher and higher power and energy densities are being reached for the accumulators. This report relates to a battery system which enables the construction of custom designed energy storages. The requirement of modularity to the overall system applies to both the necessarily infrastructure and the charging electronics. Therefore a topology in which every single cell of the battery stack is assigned to a power electronic component has been chosen. This power electronics is responsible for all functions which are necessary for a safe use of the battery such as surveillance of the cell voltage and temperature. The same power electronics provides a charging power of 1 kW per battery cell during the normal ''Plugin'' charging operation. When using the ''Dynamic-Balancing-Mode'' the power electronics is occurred by the total battery voltage. Because of this architecture the cells with the lowest individual energy can be supported while the operation of the vehicle but the total package whereby the energy of the series-connected cell can be used optimally. Especially the high availability of the system of utility vehicles is a great challenge to the battery system. Thanks to the integration of the power electronics into the battery cell the availability can be improved significantly. (orig.)

  8. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  9. Paintable Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials...

  10. Magnet Design and Analysis of a 40 Tesla Long Pulse System Energized by a Battery Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. L.; Peng, T.; Wang, G. B.; Ding, T. H.; Han, X. T.; Pan, Y.; Li, L.

    2013-03-01

    A 40 tesla long pulse magnet and a battery bank as the power supply have been designed. This is now under construction at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. The 22 mm bore magnet will generate smooth pulses with duration 1 s and rise time 0.5 s. The battery bank consists of 945 12V/200 Ah lead-acid battery cells. The magnet and battery bank were optimized by codes developed in-house and by ANSYS. The coil was made from soft copper with internal reinforcement by fiber-epoxy composite; it is divided into two sections connected in series. The inner section consists of helix coils with each layer reinforced by Zylon composite. The outer section will be wound from copper sheet and externally reinforced by carbon fiber composite.

  11. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  12. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: (1) Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source. (2) Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. (3) Combustion Gas Turbine. (4) Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  13. Micro controlled system used in the control and in the monitoring of batteries bank; Sistema microcontrolado usado no controle e monitoracao de banco de baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacorso, Nelso Gauze

    1991-09-01

    The development of a closed loop micro controlled based system for battery charging, monitoring charge and discharge, and even more, detecting structure failures is presented. The control algorithm is emphasized, being applied a charging method which uses voltage, current and temperature information. The objective of using this control technique is the design of a high performance battery charger, allowing the longest battery life possible, in reliable UPS applications. A prototype has been built and laboratory tested. Experimental results, developed program routines and the system circuits are included. (author)

  14. Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Pinto, Claudio; de Castro, Ricardo;

    2014-01-01

    While a great number of battery balancing circuit topologies have been proposed, the unique control objective typically pursued is equalization of single cell charge. However, a balancing circuit could offer potentially more control features, especially with topologies able to provide bidirection...... and evaluated for a battery pack made up of 48 large format Li-Ion cells in series in a e-mobility application. Simulation results demonstrate the technical feasibility of this newly defined concept....

  15. Design, Operation, Control, and Economics of a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S. Whiteman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV array combined with a PEM fuel cell/NiCd battery bus currently operating shuttle routes on the University of Delaware campus. The system’s overall operating objectives—meeting the total power demand of the bus and maintaining the desired state of charge (SOC of the NiCd battery—are achieved with appropriately designed controllers: a logic-based “algebraic controller” and a standard PI controller. The design, implementation, and performance of the hybrid system are demonstrated via simulation of real shuttle runs under various operating conditions. The results show that both control strategies perform equally well in enabling the HRES to meet its objectives under typical operating conditions, and under sudden cloud cover conditions; however, at consistently high bus speeds, battery SOC maintenance is better, and the system consumes less hydrogen, with PI control. An economic analysis of the PV investment necessary to realize the HRES design objectives indicates a return on investment of approximately 30% (a slight, but nonetheless positive, ~$550 profit over the bus lifetime in Newark, DE, establishing the economic viability of the proposed addition of a PV array to the existing University of Delaware fuel cell/battery bus.

  16. Battery monitoring in Mexican hybrid power systems; Monitoreo de las baterias en sistemas de potencia hibridos Mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. Roberto; Agredano, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Hybrid power systems for an autonomous power supply are based on different renewable and fossil energy sources. They are considered as a good option for the power supply of remote areas. In these systems an energy storage is a vital necessity and very often this storage will consist of batteries which are generally connected in series and parallel arrays, or both. In Mexico as in other countries, the most extensively use batteries used for this application are the stationary and electric car type deep cycle batteries. However the experience with them in these systems is generally not very good. One way to overcome this problem is to maintain a regular monitoring of installing monitoring equipment, in order to make preventive actions before a developing fault can have serious consequences and in this manner increase the practical lifetime of the batteries. Unfortunately, battery monitoring is not easy task because most of the hybrid power systems are installed in remote areas which makes it difficult and expensive. In Mexico it has been not possible to maintain a regular monitoring of all hybrid power systems installed, due to the high cost of this work and the lack of founds. The hybrid power systems installed in the state of Quintana Roo are the only systems that have been continuously monitored since their installation. This paper gives an overview of the hybrid power systems installed in Mexico, focusing in the battery banks, the way they are being monitored, the main parameters used to detect possible premature problems and the method used to evaluate the battery bank conditions. Finally some results from the battery banks monitoring activities are presented. [Espanol] Los sistemas de potencia hibridos para un suministro autonomo de energia a regiones remotas, estan basados en diferentes fuentes de energia fosiles y renovables. Estos son considerados como una buena opcion para el suministro de energia a areas remotas. En estos sistemas es una necesidad vital el

  17. Design and commissioning of a TF coil power system using deep-cycle batteries for versatile experiment spherical torus (VEST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A toroidal field (TF) coil power system has been designed and successfully commissioned to be suitable for the research objectives of VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) which was recently constructed at Seoul National University. The TF coil power system for VEST is fabricated using a series–parallel connection of 200 deep-cycle batteries with 100 A h capacity so as to generate flat-top TF field of 0.12 T on magnetic axis for sufficiently long time up to hundreds of milliseconds. Ten battery modules are designed to operate independently through 10 magnetic contactor (MC) switches so as to produce toroidal magnetic field with various amplitudes and waveforms. During the initial start-up experiments of VEST, the modulation capability of toroidal magnetic field is successfully verified, showing possibility of its versatile utilization on various experimental topics in the future

  18. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The projects reported for the WVU Cooperative Agreement are categorized into the following three areas: (1) in situ remediation process development; (2) advanced product applications testing; and (3) information systems, public policy, community outreach, and economics. Summaries of the significant accomplishments for the projects reported during the period 1 July 1995 through 30 September 1995 are presented.

  19. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The projects reported during this period are categorized into the following three areas: 1.0 Site Remediation Technologies, 2.0 Advanced Product Applications Testing, and 3.0 Information Systems, Public Policy, Community Outreach, and Economics. Summaries of the significant accomplishments for the projects reported during this period, are presented.

  20. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  1. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  2. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV: Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, vessels, glands, membranes, and many others. It may be expected that in many cases the relevance of results obtained from human placenta will be higher than those from animal models due to species specificity of metabolism and placental structure. For practical and economical reasons, we propose to apply a battery of sequential experiments for analysis of potential toxicants. This should start with using cell lines, followed by testing placenta tissue explants and isolated placenta cells, and finally by application of single and dual side ex vivo placenta perfusion. With each of these steps, the relative workload increases while the number of feasible repeats decreases. Simultaneously, the predictive power enhances by increasing similarity with in vivo human conditions. Toxic effects may be detected by performing proliferation, vitality and cell death assays, analysis of protein and hormone expression, immunohistochemistry or testing functionality of signaling pathways, gene expression, transport mechanisms, and so on. When toxic effects appear at any step, the subsequent assays may be cancelled. Such a system may be useful to reduce costs and increase specificity in testing questionable toxicants. Nonetheless, it requires further standardization and end point definitions for better comparability of results from different toxicants and to estimate the respective in vivo translatability and predictive value. PMID:23548605

  3. Bifunctional redox flow battery-1 V(III)/V(II)-glyoxal(O2) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifunctional redox flow batteries (BRFB) possess functions of both electricity storage and electrochemical preparation, having the potential for increasing the electrical energy utilization. A V(III)/V(II)-glyoxal(O2) system has been developed. Separators of the BRFB play a key role in BRFB performance. A Nafion solution was sprayed on a gas diffusion layer (GDL) at the Nafion loading of 2 mg cm-2, and the GDL was then hot-pressed onto a Nafion115 cation exchange membrane, obtaining a modified separator. This separator not only prevents the crossover of vanadium but also has favorable conductivity, obtaining optimal charge and organic electro-synthesis performance of the BRFB. The effects of the concentrations of glyoxal and HCl on the performance of BRFB were also investigated. It is shown that the optimal concentration of glyoxal and HCl should be 1.2 and 3 M, respectively. As a result, the current efficiency of organic electro-synthesis is further increased. An acceptable discharge performance is achieved for a period exceeding 20 h at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. The average discharge voltage of 0.73 V and the coulombic efficiency of 66% are obtained. It is demonstrated that the principle of the BRFB is feasible. However, further experiments are needed to improve the performance

  4. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shivazad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  5. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Aliyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1 the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound, V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds, CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol, terminator III® (phenols, and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride. But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.

  6. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  7. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies--drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors--monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; Winfield cleanup survey; assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation--non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; assessment of environmental remediation storage technology; assessment of environmental remediation excavation technology; assessment of environmental remediation monitoring technology; and remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming

  8. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies--drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors--monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; Winfield cleanup survey; assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation--non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; assessment of environmental remediation storage technology; assessment of environmental remediation excavation technology; assessment of environmental remediation monitoring technology; and remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming.

  9. [Experiments on the OMEGA Laser System]. LLE Review. Quarterly report, July-September 1985. Volume 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the first 24-beam uv experiments on the OMEGA laser system, the use of absorption spectroscopy to diagnose high-density compressions, the development of a new target fabrication technique to coat mechanically unsupported laser-fusion targets with a parylene layer, the use of liquid crystals as laser-beam apodizers, the investigation of the process of melting using a subpicosecond probe, the development of a new picosecond oscilloscope, and the National Laser Users Facility activities for June-September 1985. 80 refs., 36 figs

  10. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Progress reports are given on the following projects: (A) Subsurface contaminants, containment and remediation: 1.1 Characteristic evaluation of grout barriers in grout testing chamber; 1.2 Development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for desiccation barriers; 1.3 Development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in-situ formed barriers -- technical support; 1.4 Laboratory studies and field testing at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant (Ashtabula, Ohio); 1.5 Use of drained enhanced soil flushing for contaminants removal; (B) Mixed waste characterization, treatment and disposal: Analysis of the Vortec cyclone melting system for remediation of PCB contaminated soils using computational fluid dynamics; (C) Decontamination and decommissioning: 3.1 Production and evaluation of biosorbents and cleaning solutions for use in D and D; 3.2 Use of Spintek centrifugal membrane technology and sorbents/cleaning solutions in the D and D of DOE facilities; (D) Cross-cutting innovative technologies: 4.1 Use of centrifugal membrane technology with novel membranes to treat hazardous/radioactive wastes; 4.2 Environmental pollution control devices based on novel forms of carbon; 4.3 Design of rotating membrane filtration system for remediation technologies; and (E) Outreach: Small business technical based support.

  11. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report contains separate reports on the following subtasks: analysis of the Vortec cyclone melting system for remediation of PCB contaminated soils using CFD; drain enhanced soil flushing using prefabricated vertical drains; performance and characteristics evaluation of acrylates as grout barriers; development of standard test protocol barrier design models for desiccation barriers, and for in-situ formed barriers; in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; development of a decision support system and a prototype database for management of the EM50 technology development program; GIS-based infrastructure for site characterization and remediation; treatment of mixed wastes via fluidized bed steam reforming; use of centrifugal membrane technology to treat hazardous/radioactive waste; environmental pollution control devices based on novel forms of carbon; development of instrumental methods for analysis of nuclear wastes and environmental materials; production and testing of biosorbents and cleaning solutions for D and D; use of SpinTek centrifugal membrane and sorbents/cleaning solutions for D and D; West Virginia High Tech Consortium Foundation--Environmental support program; small business interaction opportunities; and approach for assessing potential voluntary environmental protection.

  12. Water soluble graphene as electrolyte additive in magnesium-air battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, K.; Mayilvel Dinesh, M.; Selvam, M.; Srither, S. R.; Rajendran, V.; Kaler, Karan V. I. S.

    2015-02-01

    Magnesium-air (Mg-air) batteries are an important energy source used to power electronic equipment and automobiles. Metal-air batteries give more energy density due to surplus air involved in reduction reaction at air cathode. In this study, the scope of improvements in the efficiency of Metal-air batteries is investigated through addition of water soluble graphene (WSG) as inhibitor in NaCl electrolyte. The discharge performance, corrosion behaviour and electrochemical impedance are studied for (i) the conventional Mg-air battery using 3.5% NaCl and (ii) Mg-air battery with WSG-based 3.5% NaCl electrolyte. X-ray diffraction analysis for WSG is carried out and it shows the crystalline nature of WSG by an intense sharp peak at 26.3°. Scanning electron microscope study is also performed and shows the flake-like structure of WSG denoted by thin layers of carbon. The immersion of WSG in 3.5% NaCl electrolyte increased the current density from 13.24 to 19.33 mA cm-2. Meanwhile, the WSG-based Mg-air battery was found to hold specific discharge capacity of 1030.71 mAh g-1, which was higher than that obtained in 3.5% NaCl electrolyte (i.e., 822.85 mAh g-1). The WSG-based Mg-air battery shows good self-discharge capacity and higher electrochemical activity during discharge.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  14. Advanced state prediction of lithium-ion traction batteries in hybrid and battery electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadidi, Yasser

    2011-07-01

    Automotive power trains with high energy efficiencies - particularly to be found in battery and hybrid electric vehicles - find increasing attention in the focus of reduction of exhaust emissions and increase of mileage. The underlying concept, the electrification of the power train, is subject to the traction battery and its battery management system since the capability of the battery permits and restricts electric propulsion. Consequently, the overall vehicle efficiency and in particular the operation strategy performance strongly depends on the quality of information about the battery. Besides battery technology, the key challenges are given by both the accurate prediction of battery behaviour and the electrochemical battery degradation that leads to power and capacity fade of the traction battery. This book provides the methodology for development of a battery state monitoring and prediction algorithm for application in a battery management system that accounts for the effects of electrochemical degradation. (orig.)

  15. The Outer Solar System Origins Survey: I. Design and First-Quarter Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Bannister, Michele T; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gladman, Brett J; Gwyn, Stephen D J; Chen, Ying-Tung; Volk, Kathryn; Alexandersen, Mike; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey; Fraser, Wesley; Granvik, Mikael; Grundy, Will M; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Hestroffer, Daniel; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jakubik, Marian; Jones, Lynne; Kaib, Nathan; Lacerda, Pedro; Lawler, Samantha; Lehner, Matthew J; Lin, Hsing Wen; Lister, Tim; Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Monty, Stephanie; Marsset, Michael; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Noll, Keith; Parker, Alex; Pike, Rosemary E; Rousselot, Philippe; Rusk, David; Schwamb, Megan E; Shankman, Cory; Sicardy, Bruno; Vernazza, Pierre; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    We report 85 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the first 42 deg$^{2}$ of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS), an ongoing $r$-band survey with the 0.9 deg$^{2}$ field-of-view MegaPrime camera on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. A dense observing cadence and our innovative astrometric technique produced survey-measured orbital elements for these TNOs precise to a fractional semi-major axis uncertainty $<0.1\\%$ in two sequential years, instead of the 3-5 years needed with sparser observing strategies. These discoveries are free of ephemeris bias, a first for large Kuiper belt surveys. The survey's simulator provides full characterization, including calibrated detection efficiency functions, for debiasing the discovery sample. We confirm the existence of a cold "kernel" of objects within the main cold classical Kuiper belt, and imply the existence of an extension of the "stirred" cold classical Kuiper belt to at least several AU beyond the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Neptune. The popula...

  16. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is a summary of the work conducted for the period of October--December 1993 by the West Virginia University for the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Research under the program focuses on pertinent technology for hazardous waste clean-up. This report reflects the progress performed on sixteen technical projects encompassed by this program: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Site remediation technologies: (a) Drain-enhanced soil flushing and (b) In situ bio-remediation of organic contaminants; Excavation systems for hazardous waste sites: Dust control methods for in-situ nuclear waste handling; Chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; Development of organic sensors: Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Microbial enrichment for enhancing biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes in soil; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Treatment of volatile organic compounds using biofilters; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organic, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; and Improved socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration techniques.

  17. Potential of Na/MCl{sub 2} battery systems - Final report; Potential des Batteriesystems Na/MCl{sub 2} - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustmann, C.-H.

    2010-07-15

    Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their specific power (target: 500 W/kg) and their specific energy (target: {>=}200 Wh/kg). These target values cannot be reached with the present generation of NaNiCl{sub 2}-batteries (ZEBRA) by what the other advantageous capacities as there are safety, low cost potential of as low as 150 Euro/kWh and established simple recycling are disregarded. The present investigation shows indeed that the mentioned target values cannot be reached with the present cell design. But the theoretical specific energy of 760 Wh/kg for this chemical system is high enough and comparable with the corresponding values of Li-systems, so that the target values could be reached with a cell design of flat and thin cathodes in combination with a bipolar configuration and a modification of the cathode formula. The research issues to achieve these targets are mentioned as well as the required improvements in the thermal battery pack design. (author)

  18. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo; Schaltz, Erik; Burlacu, Paul Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...... module is established based on the relationship between SOC (State of Charge) and OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) which is obtained from the battery charge and discharge test curves. A hierarchical control structure is proposed to realize different operating modes. The decoupled current control scheme is...

  19. Comparative life cycle assessment of battery storage systems for stationary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Mitavachan; Derendorf, Karen; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP) of four stationary battery technologies: lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium-redox-flow. The analyses were carried out for a complete utilization of their cycle life and for six different stationary applications. Due to its lower CED and GWP impacts, a qualitative analysis of lithium-ion was carried out to assess the impacts of its process chains on 17 midpoint impact categories using ReCiPe-2008 methodology. It was found that in general the use stage of batteries dominates their life cycle impacts significantly. It is therefore misleading to compare the environmental performance of batteries only on a mass or capacity basis at the manufacturing outlet ("cradle-to-gate analyses") while neglecting their use stage impacts, especially when they have different characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the relative ranking of batteries does not show a significant dependency on the investigated stationary application scenarios in most cases. Based on the results obtained, the authors go on to recommend the deployment of batteries with higher round-trip efficiency, such as lithium-ion, for stationary grid operation in the first instance. PMID:25798660

  20. Coordinated Control Scheme of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Distributed Generations (DGs) for Electric Distribution Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a coordinated control scheme of battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generations (DGs) for electric distribution grid operation. The BESS is designed to stabilize frequency and voltages as a primary control after the electric distribution system enters into the...... response. The modified IEEE 9-bus system, which is comprised of several DG units, wind power plant and the BESS, has been employed to illustrate the performance of the proposed coordinated flexible control scheme using RTDS in order to verify its practical efficacy....