WorldWideScience

Sample records for battery model presentation

  1. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  2. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  3. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  4. A VRLA battery simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, Phillip E.; Anbuky, Adnan H.

    2004-01-01

    A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery simulation model is an invaluable tool for the standby power system engineer. The obvious use for such a model is to allow the assessment of battery performance. This may involve determining the influence of cells suffering from state of health (SOH) degradation on the performance of the entire string, or the running of test scenarios to ascertain the most suitable battery size for the application. In addition, it enables the engineer to assess the performance of the overall power system. This includes, for example, running test scenarios to determine the benefits of various load shedding schemes. It also allows the assessment of other power system components, either for determining their requirements and/or vulnerabilities. Finally, a VRLA battery simulation model is vital as a stand alone tool for educational purposes. Despite the fundamentals of the VRLA battery having been established for over 100 years, its operating behaviour is often poorly understood. An accurate simulation model enables the engineer to gain a better understanding of VRLA battery behaviour. A system level multipurpose VRLA battery simulation model is presented. It allows an arbitrary battery (capacity, SOH, number of cells and number of strings) to be simulated under arbitrary operating conditions (discharge rate, ambient temperature, end voltage, charge rate and initial state of charge). The model accurately reflects the VRLA battery discharge and recharge behaviour. This includes the complex start of discharge region known as the coup de fouet

  5. From battery modeling to battery management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Danilov, D.

    2011-01-01

    The principles of rechargeable battery operation form the basis of the electronic network models developed for Nickel-based aqueous battery systems, including Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and non-aqueous battery systems, such as the well-known Li-ion. These electronic network models are based on

  6. Identification and modelling of Lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Sun, L.; Chan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    A universal battery model for the charging process has been identified for Lithium ion battery working at constant temperature. Mathematical models are fitted to different collected charging profiles using the least squares algorithm. With the removal of the component which is related to the DC resistance of the battery, a universal model can be fitted to predict profiles of different charging rates after time scaling. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the goodness of fit of the model at different charging rates and for batteries of different capacities. Comparison with standard electrical-circuit model is also presented. With the proposed model, it is possible to derive more effective way to monitor the status of Lithium ion batteries, and to develop a universal quick charger for different capacities of batteries to result with a more effective usage of Lithium ion batteries.

  7. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  8. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  9. Batteries 2020 – Lithium - ion battery first and second life ageing, validated battery models, lifetime modelling and ageing assessment of thermal parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Nikolian, Alexandros; De Hoog, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The European Project “Batteries 2020” unites nine partners jointly working on research and the development of competitive European automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing both the energy density and lifetime of large format pouch lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... vehicle application. These batteries are still operational and suitable to less restrictive conditions, such as those for stationary and renewable energy application. Therefore, possible second life opportunities have been identified and further assessed. In this paper, the main ageing effects of lithium...... ion batteries are explained. Next, an overview of different validated battery models will be discussed. Finally, a methodology for assessing the performance of the battery cells in a second life application is presented....

  10. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  11. Modeling for Battery Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Goebel, Kai; Khasin, Michael; Hogge, Edward; Quach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    , and is of suitable accuracy for reliable EOD prediction in a variety of operational profiles. The model can be considered an electrochemical engineering model, but unlike most such models found in the literature, certain approximations are done that allow to retain computational efficiency for online implementation of the model. Although the focus here is on Li-ion batteries, the model is quite general and can be applied to different chemistries through a change of model parameter values. Progress on model development, providing model validation results and EOD prediction results is being presented.

  12. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  13. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  14. Li-NMC Batteries Model Evaluation with Experimental Data for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Baczyńska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the battery equivalent circuit for electric vehicle application. Moreover, the model described below is dedicated to lithium-ion types of batteries. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient and transparent method to develop a battery equivalent circuit model. Battery modeling requires, depending on the chosen method, either significant calculations or a highly developed mathematical model for optimization. The model is evaluated in comparison to the real data measurements, to present the performance of the method. Battery measurements based on charge/discharge tests at a fixed C-rate are presented to show the relation of the output voltage profiles with the battery state of charge. The pulse discharge test is presented to obtain the electric parameters of the battery equivalent circuit model, using a Thévenin circuit. According to the Reverse Trike Ecologic Electric Vehicle (VEECO RT characteristics used as a case study in this work, new values for vehicle autonomy and battery pack volume based on lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cells are evaluated.

  15. Study on the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Cláudio; Barreras, Jorge V.; de Castro, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles. In particular, the aim is to find the number of battery (and supercapacitor) cells to propel a light vehicle to run two different standard driving cycles....... Despite the same tendency, when a hybrid vehicle is taken into account, the influence of the battery models is dependent on the sizing strategy. In this work, two sizing strategies are evaluated: dynamic programming and filter-based. For the latter, the complexity of the battery model has a clear....... Three equivalent circuit models are considered to simulate the battery electrical performance: linear static, non-linear static and non-linear with first-order dynamics. When dimensioning a battery-based vehicle, less complex models may lead to a solution with more battery cells and higher costs...

  16. Online Semiparametric Identification of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using the Wavelet-Based Partially Linear Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Battery model identification is very important for reliable battery management as well as for battery system design process. The common problem in identifying battery models is how to determine the most appropriate mathematical model structure and parameterized coefficients based on the measured terminal voltage and current. This paper proposes a novel semiparametric approach using the wavelet-based partially linear battery model (PLBM and a recursive penalized wavelet estimator for online battery model identification. Three main contributions are presented. First, the semiparametric PLBM is proposed to simulate the battery dynamics. Compared with conventional electrical models of a battery, the proposed PLBM is equipped with a semiparametric partially linear structure, which includes a parametric part (involving the linear equivalent circuit parameters and a nonparametric part [involving the open-circuit voltage (OCV]. Thus, even with little prior knowledge about the OCV, the PLBM can be identified using a semiparametric identification framework. Second, we model the nonparametric part of the PLBM using the truncated wavelet multiresolution analysis (MRA expansion, which leads to a parsimonious model structure that is highly desirable for model identification; using this model, the PLBM could be represented in a linear-in-parameter manner. Finally, to exploit the sparsity of the wavelet MRA representation and allow for online implementation, a penalized wavelet estimator that uses a modified online cyclic coordinate descent algorithm is proposed to identify the PLBM in a recursive fashion. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed PLBM with the corresponding identification algorithm can accurately simulate the dynamic behavior of a lithium-ion battery in the Federal Urban Driving Schedule tests.

  17. Modeling of electric vehicle battery for vehicle-to-grid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Ying; Brady, Cormac; Pellegrino, Giustino

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicle battery models are essential when performing analysis of EV systems. The battery package of electric vehicles is complicated and unpredictable because of its chemical based functioning. In this paper, a battery model is presented with a number of internal and external factors taken...

  18. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

  19. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  20. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  1. An improved PNGV modeling and SOC estimation for lithium iron phosphate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Because lithium iron phosphate battery has many advantages, it has been used more and more widely in the field of electric vehicle. The lithium iron phosphate battery, presents the improved PNGV model, and the batteries charge discharge characteristics and pulse charge discharge experiments, identification of parameters of the battery model by interpolation and least square fitting method, to achieve a more accurate modeling of lithium iron phosphate battery, and the extended Calman filter algorithm (EKF) is completed state nuclear power battery (SOC) estimate.

  2. Improving optimal control of grid-connected lithium-ion batteries through more accurate battery and degradation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Jorn M.; Mulder, Grietus; Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Howey, David A.

    2018-03-01

    The increased deployment of intermittent renewable energy generators opens up opportunities for grid-connected energy storage. Batteries offer significant flexibility but are relatively expensive at present. Battery lifetime is a key factor in the business case, and it depends on usage, but most techno-economic analyses do not account for this. For the first time, this paper quantifies the annual benefits of grid-connected batteries including realistic physical dynamics and nonlinear electrochemical degradation. Three lithium-ion battery models of increasing realism are formulated, and the predicted degradation of each is compared with a large-scale experimental degradation data set (Mat4Bat). A respective improvement in RMS capacity prediction error from 11% to 5% is found by increasing the model accuracy. The three models are then used within an optimal control algorithm to perform price arbitrage over one year, including degradation. Results show that the revenue can be increased substantially while degradation can be reduced by using more realistic models. The estimated best case profit using a sophisticated model is a 175% improvement compared with the simplest model. This illustrates that using a simplistic battery model in a techno-economic assessment of grid-connected batteries might substantially underestimate the business case and lead to erroneous conclusions.

  3. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  4. A simplified physics-based model for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Dougal, Roger A.; Weidner, John W.; Gao, Lijun

    This paper presents a simplified model of a nickel hydrogen battery based on a first approximation. The battery is assumed uniform throughout. The reversible potential is considered primarily due to one-electron transfer redox reaction of nickel hydroxide and nickel oxyhydroxide. The non-ideality due to phase reactions is characterized by the two-parameter activity coefficients. The overcharge process is characterized by the oxygen reaction. The overpotentials are lumped to a tunable resistive drop to fit particular battery designs. The model is implemented in the Virtual Test Bed environment, and the characteristics of the battery are simulated and in good agreement with the experimental data within the normal operating regime. The model can be used for battery dynamic simulation and design in a satellite power system, an example of which is given.

  5. Thermal modeling of cylindrical lithium ion battery during discharge cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Dong Hyup; Baek, Seung Man

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. → This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. → A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. → The contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate. → The contribution of heat source due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. - Abstract: Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. The simplified model by adopting a cylindrical coordinate was employed. This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. The mathematical model solves conservation of energy considering heat generations due to both joule heating and entropy change. A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. The temperature profile from simulation had similar tendency with experiment. The temperature profile was decomposed with contributions of each heat sources and was presented at several discharge rates. It was found that the contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate, whereas that due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. Also the effect of cooling condition and the LiNiCoMnO 2 /C battery were analyzed for the purpose of temperature reduction.

  6. Modeling aluminum-air battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Willis, M. S.

    The performance of a complete aluminum-air battery system was studied with a flowsheet model built from unit models of each battery system component. A plug flow model for heat transfer was used to estimate the amount of heat transferred from the electrolyte to the air stream. The effect of shunt currents on battery performance was found to be insignificant. Using the flowsheet simulator to analyze a 100 cell battery system now under development demonstrated that load current, aluminate concentration, and electrolyte temperature are dominant variables controlling system performance. System efficiency was found to decrease as both load current and aluminate concentration increases. The flowsheet model illustrates the interdependence of separate units on overall system performance.

  7. Modeling charge polarization voltage for large lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polarization voltage of the lithium-ion battery is an important parameter that has direct influence on battery performance. The paper aims to analyze the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of currents, initial SOC of the battery on charge polarization voltage are investigated, which is approximately linear function of charge current. The change of charge polarization voltage is also analyzed with the gradient analytical method in the SOC domain. The charge polarization model with two RC networks is presented, and parts of model parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance are estimated by both EIS method and battery constant current testing method. Findings: This paper reveals that the Ohmic resistance accounts for much contribution to battery total polarization compared to charge transfer impedance. Practical implications: Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the model with the proposed identification method, which provides the foundation for battery charging optimization. Originality/value: The paper analyzed the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data, presented a charge polarization model with two RC networks, and estimated parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance.

  8. Model-Based Design and Integration of Large Li-ion Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Kim, Gi-Heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad; Mukherjee, Partha; Barai, Pallab; Maute, Kurt; Behrou, Reza; Patil, Chinmaya

    2015-11-17

    This presentation introduces physics-based models of batteries and software toolsets, including those developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries Program (CAEBAT). The presentation highlights achievements and gaps in model-based tools for materials-to-systems design, lifetime prediction and control.

  9. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  10. An Acausal Li-Ion Battery Pack Model for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotub Uddin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel acausal and reconfigurable battery pack model is presented. The model structure adopted for the battery cell is based on an equivalent circuit representation. The circuit elements are modified to take account of both hysteresis and diffusion limitation. The latter is known to be a nonlinear function of large operating currents or long operating times. It is shown that the integration of a current dependent time constant within the cell model better emulates the solid diffusional dynamics of lithium intercalation into the active material under large electrical loads. The advantages of an acausal modeling approach, when scaling-up individual cell models into a complete battery system are also presented. Particular consideration is given to emulating the impact of cell to cell variations on pack performance. Using statistical analysis of battery tests, cell model parameter variations are characterized and quantified. The cell and scaled-up pack model are parameterized for a number of commercially available cell formats, energy capacities and chemistries. The new models are validated using transient, real-world, electrical data measured from an electric vehicle (EV operating within an urban environment.

  11. Multi-physics Model for the Aging Prediction of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merei, Ghada; Adler, Sophie; Magnor, Dirk; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Present a multi-physics model of vanadium redox-flow battery. • This model is essential for aging prediction. • It is applicable for VRB system of different power and capacity ratings. • Good results comparing with current research in this field. - Abstract: The all-vanadium redox-flow battery is an attractive candidate to compensate the fluctuations of non-dispatchable renewable energy generation. While several models for vanadium redox batteries have been described yet, no model has been published, which is adequate for the aging prediction. Therefore, the present paper presents a multi-physics model which determines all parameters that are essential for an aging prediction. In a following paper, the corresponding aging model of vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) is described. The model combines existing models for the mechanical losses and temperature development with new approaches for the batteries side reactions. The model was implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The modeling results presented in the paper prove to be consistent with the experimental results of other research groups

  12. Lithium-ion Battery Electrothermal Model, Parameter Estimation, and Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Orcioni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The market for lithium-ion batteries is growing exponentially. The performance of battery cells is growing due to improving production technology, but market request is growing even more rapidly. Modeling and characterization of single cells and an efficient simulation environment is fundamental for the development of an efficient battery management system. The present work is devoted to defining a novel lumped electrothermal circuit of a single battery cell, the extraction procedure of the parameters of the single cell from experiments, and a simulation environment in SystemC-WMS for the simulation of a battery pack. The electrothermal model of the cell was validated against experimental measurements obtained in a climatic chamber. The model is then used to simulate a 48-cell battery, allowing statistical variations among parameters. The different behaviors of the cells in terms of state of charge, current, voltage, or heat flow rate can be observed in the results of the simulation environment.

  13. Modeling all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilov, D.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is presented. The model includes the charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface, diffusion of lithium in the intercalation electrode, and diffusion and migration of ions in the electrolyte. The model has been applied to

  14. Electrical circuit models for performance modeling of Lithium-Sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    emerging technology for various applications, there is a need for Li-S battery performance model; however, developing such models represents a challenging task due to batteries' complex ongoing chemical reactions. Therefore, the literature review was performed to summarize electrical circuit models (ECMs......) used for modeling the performance behavior of Li-S batteries. The studied Li-S pouch cell was tested in the laboratory in order to parametrize four basic ECM topologies. These topologies were compared by analyzing their voltage estimation accuracy values, which were obtained for different battery...... current profiles. Based on these results, the 3 R-C ECM was chosen and the Li-S battery cell discharging performance model with current dependent parameters was derived and validated....

  15. Battery Modeling: A Versatile Tool to Design Advanced Battery Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Danilov, D.L.

    Fundamental physical and (electro) chemical principles of rechargeable battery operation form the basis of the electronic network models developed for Nickel-based aqueous battery systems, including Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and non-aqueous battery systems, such as the well-known Li-ion. Refined

  16. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Charles E.; Arif, Muhammad; Streque, Jeremy; Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2015-09-01

    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  17. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Charles E.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, 30332-0250 Atlanta (United States); Arif, Muhammad; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, EA 4423, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Streque, Jeremy; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim [Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2015-09-14

    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  18. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Charles E.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Arif, Muhammad; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Streque, Jeremy; El Gmili, Youssef; Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination

  19. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  20. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  1. Lithium-ion battery models: a comparative study and a model-based powerline communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saidani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, various Lithium-ion (Li-ion battery models are evaluated according to their accuracy, complexity and physical interpretability. An initial classification into physical, empirical and abstract models is introduced. Also known as white, black and grey boxes, respectively, the nature and characteristics of these model types are compared. Since the Li-ion battery cell is a thermo-electro-chemical system, the models are either in the thermal or in the electrochemical state-space. Physical models attempt to capture key features of the physical process inside the cell. Empirical models describe the system with empirical parameters offering poor analytical, whereas abstract models provide an alternative representation. In addition, a model selection guideline is proposed based on applications and design requirements. A complex model with a detailed analytical insight is of use for battery designers but impractical for real-time applications and in situ diagnosis. In automotive applications, an abstract model reproducing the battery behavior in an equivalent but more practical form, mainly as an equivalent circuit diagram, is recommended for the purpose of battery management. As a general rule, a trade-off should be reached between the high fidelity and the computational feasibility. Especially if the model is embedded in a real-time monitoring unit such as a microprocessor or a FPGA, the calculation time and memory requirements rise dramatically with a higher number of parameters. Moreover, examples of equivalent circuit models of Lithium-ion batteries are covered. Equivalent circuit topologies are introduced and compared according to the previously introduced criteria. An experimental sequence to model a 20 Ah cell is presented and the results are used for the purposes of powerline communication.

  2. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  3. Lead/acid batteries for photovoltaic applications. Test results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copetti, J B [CIEMAT, Inst. de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Chenlo, F [CIEMAT, Inst. de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-01-01

    This work presents the results of experiments carried out on lead/acid batteries during charge and discharge processes at different currents and temperatures, selected to a cover a large range of operating conditions, including those encountered in photovoltaic (PV) system applications. The results allow us to verify the relations among the battery external parameters (voltage, current, state-of-charge and temperature), the behaviour of the internal resistance, and to deduce a model that represents the discharge and charge processes, including the overcharge. Finally, normalized equations with respect to the battery capacity are proposed, which allow us to fix the values of parameters and hence the model is valid for any type and size of lead/acid battery. (orig.)

  4. Overview of Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Methods for State-of-Charge Estimation in Electrical Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinhao, Meng; Guangzhao, Luo; Ricco, Mattia

    2018-01-01

    As a critical indictor in the Battery Management System (BMS), State of Charge (SOC) is closely related to the reliable and safe operation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Model-based methods are an effective solution for accurate and robust SOC estimation, the performance of which heavily relies...... on the battery model. This paper mainly focuses on battery modeling methods, which have the potential to be used in a model-based SOC estimation structure. Battery modeling methods are classified into four categories on the basis of their theoretical foundations, and their expressions and features are detailed....... Furthermore, the four battery modeling methods are compared in terms of their pros and cons. Future research directions are also presented. In addition, after optimizing the parameters of the battery models by a Genetic Algorithm (GA), four typical battery models including a combined model, two RC Equivalent...

  5. On electric vehicle battery charger modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz Sapera, Luis; Mesas García, Juan José; Balcells Sendra, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) battery chargers connected to electric networks could lead to future harmonic problems in power systems. These loads are nonlinear devices that inject harmonic currents and pollute network voltages. Thus, battery charger modeling must be studied in detail to determine their harmonic emissions and prevent future problems. This paper investigates EV battery charger behavior, analyzes its equivalent circuit and reports a model for each ...

  6. Datasheet-based modeling of Li-Ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Schaltz, Erik; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and developers use battery models in order to predict the performance of batteries depending on external and internal conditions, such as temperature, C-rate, Depth-of-Discharge (DoD) or State-of-Health (SoH). Most battery models proposed in the literature require specific laboratory...

  7. An Advanced HIL Simulation Battery Model for Battery Management System Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Fleischer, Christian; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of battery management systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller Hardware (HW) and Software (SW), such as analog front-end and performance of generated control code. In comparison with the tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on a state......-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator can be more cost and time effective, easier to reproduce, and safer beyond the normal range of operation, especially at early stages in the development process or during fault insertion. In this paper, an HIL simulation battery model is developed for purposes of BMS...... testing on a commercial HIL simulator. A multicell electrothermal Li-ion battery (LIB) model is integrated in a system-level simulation. Then, the LIB system model is converted to C code and run in real time with the HIL simulator. Finally, in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the setup...

  8. Dynamical modeling procedure of a Li-ion battery pack suitable for real-time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, S.; Gauchia, L.; Voncila, E.; Sanz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamical modeling of a 50 A h battery pack composed of 56 cells. • Detailed analysis of SOC tests at realistic performance range imposed by BMS. • We propose an electrical circuit that improves how the battery capacity is modeled. • The model is validated in the SOC range using a real-time experimental setup. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of a 50 A h battery pack composed of 56 cells, taking into account real battery performance conditions imposed by the BMS control. The modeling procedure starts with a detailed analysis of experimental charge and discharge SOC tests. Results from these tests are used to obtain the battery model parameters at a realistic performance range (20–80% SOC). The model topology aims to better describe the finite charge contained in a battery pack. The model has been validated at three different SOC values in order to verify the model response at real battery pack operation conditions. The validation tests show that the battery pack model is able to simulate the real battery response with excellent accuracy in the range tested. The proposed modeling procedure is fully applicable to any Li-ion battery pack, regardless of the number of series or parallel cells or its rated capacity

  9. Two-dimensional Thermal Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Cell Based on Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries is gaining its importance together with increasing power density and compact design of the modern battery systems in order to assure battery safety and long lifetime. Thermal models of lithium-ion batteries are usually either expensive to develop...... and accurate or equivalent thermal circuit based with moderate accuracy and without spatial temperature distribution. This work presents initial results that can be used as a fundament for the cost-efficient development of the two-dimensional thermal model of lithium-ion battery based on multipoint...

  10. Adaptive State of Charge Estimation for Li-Ion Batteries Based on an Unscented Kalman Filter with an Enhanced Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC of batteries is one of the key problems in a battery management system. This paper proposes an adaptive SOC estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter algorithms for lithium (Li-ion batteries. First, an enhanced battery model is proposed to include the impacts due to different discharge rates and temperatures. An adaptive joint estimation of the battery SOC and battery internal resistance is then presented to enhance system robustness with battery aging. The SOC estimation algorithm has been developed and verified through experiments on different types of Li-ion batteries. The results indicate that the proposed method provides an accurate SOC estimation and is computationally efficient, making it suitable for embedded system implementation.

  11. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  12. Adaptive thermal modeling of Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadman Rad, M.; Danilov, D.L.; Baghalha, M.; Kazemeini, M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple, accurate and adaptive thermal model is proposed for Li-ion batteries. • Equilibrium voltages, overpotentials and entropy changes are quantified from experimental results. • Entropy changes are highly dependent on the battery State-of-Charge. • Good agreement between simulated and measured heat development is obtained under all conditions. • Radiation contributes to about 50% of heat dissipation at elevated temperatures. -- Abstract: An accurate thermal model to predict the heat generation in rechargeable batteries is an essential tool for advanced thermal management in high power applications, such as electric vehicles. For such applications, the battery materials’ details and cell design are normally not provided. In this work a simple, though accurate, thermal model for batteries has been developed, considering the temperature- and current-dependent overpotential heat generation and State-of-Charge dependent entropy contributions. High power rechargeable Li-ion (7.5 Ah) batteries have been experimentally investigated and the results are used for model verification. It is shown that the State-of-Charge dependent entropy is a significant heat source and is therefore essential to correctly predict the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries under a wide variety of operating conditions. An adaptive model is introduced to obtain these entropy values. A temperature-dependent equation for heat transfer to the environment is also taken into account. Good agreement between the simulations and measurements is obtained in all cases. The parameters for both the heat generation and heat transfer processes can be applied to the thermal design of advanced battery packs. The proposed methodology is generic and independent on the cell chemistry and battery design. The parameters for the adaptive model can be determined by performing simple cell potential/current and temperature measurements for a limited number of charge/discharge cycles

  13. Modeling Battery Behavior on Sensory Operations for Context-Aware Smartphone Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yurur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM, under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services.

  14. Modeling battery behavior on sensory operations for context-aware smartphone sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-05-26

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services.

  15. Electrochemistry-based Battery Modeling for Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications. In recent years, they have become popular as a source of power for electric vehicles such as cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, and commericial passenger aircraft. In such application domains, it becomes crucial to both monitor battery health and performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL) events. To implement such technologies, it is crucial to understand how batteries work and to capture that knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis algorithms. In this work, we develop electrochemistry-based models of lithium-ion batteries that capture the significant electrochemical processes, are computationally efficient, capture the effects of aging, and are of suitable accuracy for reliable EOD prediction in a variety of usage profiles. This paper reports on the progress of such a model, with results demonstrating the model validity and accurate EOD predictions.

  16. A method of computer modelling the lithium-ion batteries aging process based on the experimental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerepicki, A.; Koniak, M.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a method of modelling the processes of aging lithium-ion batteries, its implementation as a computer application and results for battery state estimation. Authors use previously developed behavioural battery model, which was built using battery operating characteristics obtained from the experiment. This model was implemented in the form of a computer program using a database to store battery characteristics. Batteries aging process is a new extended functionality of the model. Algorithm of computer simulation uses a real measurements of battery capacity as a function of the battery charge and discharge cycles number. Simulation allows to take into account the incomplete cycles of charge or discharge battery, which are characteristic for transport powered by electricity. The developed model was used to simulate the battery state estimation for different load profiles, obtained by measuring the movement of the selected means of transport.

  17. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  18. An enhanced dynamic model of battery using genetic algorithm suitable for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaifi, S.; Moulahoum, S.; Colak, I.; Merrouche, W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a developed dynamic battery model suitable for photovoltaic systems. • We used genetic algorithm optimization method to find parameters that gives minimized error. • The validation was carried out with real measurements from stand-alone photovoltaic string. - Abstract: Modeling of batteries in photovoltaic systems has been a major issue related to the random dynamic regime imposed by the changes of solar irradiation and ambient temperature added to the complexity of battery electrochemical and electrical behaviors. However, various approaches have been proposed to model the battery behavior by predicting from detailed electrochemical, electrical or analytical models to high-level stochastic models. In this paper, an improvement of dynamic electrical battery model is proposed by automatic parameter extraction using genetic algorithm in order to give usefulness and future implementation for practical application. It is highlighted that the enhancement of 21 values of the parameters of CEIMAT model presents a good agreement with real measurements for different modes like charge or discharge and various conditions.

  19. Thermal modeling. Application to lithium batteries; Modelisation thermique. Application aux accumulateurs lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Flament, P. [SAFT, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Marolleau, T. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Guiot, T.; Lefriec, C. [TSR Futuropolis, 86 - Chasseneuil du Poitou (France)

    1996-12-31

    The thermal modeling of electrochemical batteries is today an integral part of the design and validation operations of new products. The Li-ion pair allows to increase the power density of batteries but leads to higher heat fluxes during charging-output cycles. Thus, the thermal control has become more crucial and requires the use of modeling. SAFT and TSR companies are involved in this approach and use the ESACAP software. This paper presents this software which uses a nodal method for the modeling of the coupled thermal and electrical processes that take place inside elementary cells and batteries. (J.S.)

  20. Thermal modeling. Application to lithium batteries; Modelisation thermique. Application aux accumulateurs lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, A [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d` Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Flament, P [SAFT, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Marolleau, T [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Guiot, T; Lefriec, C [TSR Futuropolis, 86 - Chasseneuil du Poitou (France)

    1997-12-31

    The thermal modeling of electrochemical batteries is today an integral part of the design and validation operations of new products. The Li-ion pair allows to increase the power density of batteries but leads to higher heat fluxes during charging-output cycles. Thus, the thermal control has become more crucial and requires the use of modeling. SAFT and TSR companies are involved in this approach and use the ESACAP software. This paper presents this software which uses a nodal method for the modeling of the coupled thermal and electrical processes that take place inside elementary cells and batteries. (J.S.)

  1. New Electro-Thermal Battery Pack Model of an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Alhanouti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution of the electric and hybrid vehicle, the analysis of batteries’ characteristics and influence on driving range has become essential. This fact advocates the necessity of accurate simulation modeling for batteries. Different models for the Li-ion battery cell are reviewed in this paper and a group of the highly dynamic models is selected for comparison. A new open circuit voltage (OCV model is proposed. The new model can simulate the OCV curves of lithium iron magnesium phosphate (LiFeMgPO4 battery type at different temperatures. It also considers both charging and discharging cases. The most remarkable features from different models, in addition to the proposed OCV model, are integrated in a single hybrid electrical model. A lumped thermal model is implemented to simulate the temperature development in the battery cell. The synthesized electro-thermal battery cell model is extended to model a battery pack of an actual electric vehicle. Experimental tests on the battery, as well as drive tests on the vehicle are performed. The proposed model demonstrates a higher modeling accuracy, for the battery pack voltage, than the constituent models under extreme maneuver drive tests.

  2. Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems with Supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; de Castro, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the influence of different aggregated electrical circuit battery models in the sizing process of a hybrid energy storage system (ESS), composed by Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The aim is to find the number of cells required to propel...... a certain vehicle over a predefined driving cycle. During this process, three battery models will be considered. The first consists in a linear static zeroeth order battery model over a restricted operating window. The second is a non-linear static model, while the third takes into account first......-order dynamics of the battery. Simulation results demonstrate that the adoption of a more accurate battery model in the sizing of hybrid ESSs prevents over-sizing, leading to a reduction in the number of cells of up to 29%, and a cost decrease of up to 10%....

  3. Impedance Characterization and Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Considering the Internal Temperature Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery impedance is essential to the management of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs, and impedance characterization can help to monitor and predict the battery states. Many studies have been undertaken to investigate impedance characterization and the factors that influence impedance. However, few studies regarding the influence of the internal temperature gradient, which is caused by heat generation during operation, have been presented. We have comprehensively studied the influence of the internal temperature gradient on impedance characterization and the modeling of battery impedance, and have proposed a discretization model to capture battery impedance characterization considering the temperature gradient. Several experiments, including experiments with artificial temperature gradients, are designed and implemented to study the influence of the internal temperature gradient on battery impedance. Based on the experimental results, the parameters of the non-linear impedance model are obtained, and the relationship between the parameters and temperature is further established. The experimental results show that the temperature gradient will influence battery impedance and the temperature distribution can be considered to be approximately linear. The verification results indicate that the proposed discretization model has a good performance and can be used to describe the actual characterization of the battery with an internal temperature gradient.

  4. Modelling Thermal Effects of Battery Cells inside Electric Vehicle Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The poster presents a methodology to account for thermal effects on battery cells to improve the typical thermal performances in a pack through heating calculations generally performed under the operating condition assumption. The aim is to analyze the issues based on battery thermo-physical char...

  5. Thermo-electrochemical model for forced convection air cooling of a lithium-ion battery module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Wei; Somasundaram, Karthik; Birgersson, Erik; Mujumdar, Arun S.; Yap, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupled thermal-electrochemical model for a Li-ion battery module resolving every functional layer in all cells. • Parametric analysis of forced convection air cooling of Li-ion battery module with a detailed multi-scale model. • Reversing/reciprocating airflow for Li-ion battery module thermal management provides uniform temperature distribution. - Abstract: Thermal management is critical for safe and reliable operation of lithium-ion battery systems. In this study, a one-dimensional thermal-electrochemical model of lithium-ion battery interactively coupled with a two-dimensional thermal-fluid conjugate model for forced convection air cooling of a lithium-ion battery module is presented and solved numerically. This coupled approach makes the model more unique and detailed as transport inside each cell in the battery module is solved for and thus covering multiple length and time scales. The effect of certain design and operating parameters of the thermal management system on the performance of the battery module is assessed using the coupled model. It is found that a lower temperature increase of the battery module can be achieved by either increasing the inlet air velocity or decreasing the distance between the cells. Higher air inlet velocity, staggered cell arrangement or a periodic reversal airflow of high reversal frequency results in a more uniform temperature distribution in the module. However, doing so increases the parasitic load as well as the volume of the battery module whence a trade-off should be taken into account between these parameters.

  6. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannala, S.; Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J.; Wang, H.; Nanda, J.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments

  7. Prediction of lithium-ion battery capacity with metabolic grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Lin, Weilong; Li, Junzi; Tian, Binbin; Pan, Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Given the popularity of Lithium-ion batteries in EVs (electric vehicles), predicting the capacity quickly and accurately throughout a battery's full life-time is still a challenging issue for ensuring the reliability of EVs. This paper proposes an approach in predicting the varied capacity with discharge cycles based on metabolic grey theory and consider issues from two perspectives: 1) three metabolic grey models will be presented, including MGM (metabolic grey model), MREGM (metabolic Residual-error grey model), and MMREGM (metabolic Markov-residual-error grey model); 2) the universality of these models will be explored under different conditions (such as various discharge rates and temperatures). Furthermore, the research findings in this paper demonstrate the excellent performance of the prediction depending on the three models; however, the precision of the MREGM model is inferior compared to the others. Therefore, we have obtained the conclusion in which the MGM model and the MMREGM model have excellent performances in predicting the capacity under a variety of load conditions, even using few data points for modeling. Also, the universality of the metabolic grey prediction theory is verified by predicting the capacity of batteries under different discharge rates and different temperatures. - Highlights: • The metabolic mechanism is introduced in a grey system for capacity prediction. • Three metabolic grey models are presented and studied. • The universality of these models under different conditions is assessed. • A few data points are required for predicting the capacity with these models.

  8. Second annual battery and electrochemical technology conference: agenda and technical presentations. [Arlington, Va. , June 5--7, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Papers were presented at this conference on the following topics: general overview of batteries and battery programs, near-term battery systems, fundamental research, advanced battery development, energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, and advanced battery research. This publication contains only the slides and viewgraphs used by the speakers in giving their presentations; there is no text. (RWR)

  9. On-line adaptive battery impedance parameter and state estimation considering physical principles in reduced order equivalent circuit battery models. Part 1. Requirements, critical review of methods and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Christian; Waag, Wladislaw; Heyn, Hans-Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems employed in high power demanding systems such as electric vehicles require a sophisticated monitoring system to ensure safe and reliable operation. Three major states of the battery are of special interest and need to be constantly monitored, these include: battery state of charge (SoC), battery state of health (capcity fade determination, SoH), and state of function (power fade determination, SoF). In a series of two papers, we propose a system of algorithms based on a weighted recursive least quadratic squares parameter estimator, that is able to determine the battery impedance and diffusion parameters for accurate state estimation. The functionality was proven on different battery chemistries with different aging conditions. The first paper investigates the general requirements on BMS for HEV/EV applications. In parallel, the commonly used methods for battery monitoring are reviewed to elaborate their strength and weaknesses in terms of the identified requirements for on-line applications. Special emphasis will be placed on real-time capability and memory optimized code for cost-sensitive industrial or automotive applications in which low-cost microcontrollers must be used. Therefore, a battery model is presented which includes the influence of the Butler-Volmer kinetics on the charge-transfer process. Lastly, the mass transport process inside the battery is modeled in a novel state-space representation.

  10. Optimal input shaping for Fisher identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Michael J.

    -output measurements, and is the approach used in this dissertation. Research in the literature studies optimal current input shaping for high-order electrochemical battery models and focuses on offline laboratory cycling. While this body of research highlights improvements in identifiability through optimal input shaping, each optimal input is a function of nominal parameters, which creates a tautology. The parameter values must be known a priori to determine the optimal input for maximizing estimation speed and accuracy. The system identification literature presents multiple studies containing methods that avoid the challenges of this tautology, but these methods are absent from the battery parameter estimation domain. The gaps in the above literature are addressed in this dissertation through the following five novel and unique contributions. First, this dissertation optimizes the parameter identifiability of a thermal battery model, which Sergio Mendoza experimentally validates through a close collaboration with this dissertation's author. Second, this dissertation extends input-shaping optimization to a linear and nonlinear equivalent-circuit battery model and illustrates the substantial improvements in Fisher identifiability for a periodic optimal signal when compared against automotive benchmark cycles. Third, this dissertation presents an experimental validation study of the simulation work in the previous contribution. The estimation study shows that the automotive benchmark cycles either converge slower than the optimized cycle, or not at all for certain parameters. Fourth, this dissertation examines how automotive battery packs with additional power electronic components that dynamically route current to individual cells/modules can be used for parameter identifiability optimization. While the user and vehicle supervisory controller dictate the current demand for these packs, the optimized internal allocation of current still improves identifiability. Finally, this

  11. Validating and improving a zero-dimensional stack voltage model of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2018-02-01

    Simple, computationally efficient battery models can contribute significantly to the development of flow batteries. However, validation studies for these models on an industrial-scale stack level are rarely published. We first extensively present a simple stack voltage model for the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. For modeling the concentration overpotential, we derive mass transfer coefficients from experimental results presented in the 1990s. The calculated mass transfer coefficient of the positive half-cell is 63% larger than of the negative half-cell, which is not considered in models published to date. Further, we advance the concentration overpotential model by introducing an apparent electrochemically active electrode surface which differs from the geometric electrode area. We use the apparent surface as fitting parameter for adapting the model to experimental results of a flow battery manufacturer. For adapting the model, we propose a method for determining the agreement between model and reality quantitatively. To protect the manufacturer's intellectual property, we introduce a normalization method for presenting the results. For the studied stack, the apparent electrochemically active surface of the electrode is 41% larger than its geometrical area. Hence, the current density in the diffusion layer is 29% smaller than previously reported for a zero-dimensional model.

  12. Modeling Stationary Lithium-Ion Batteries for Optimization and Predictive Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszmann, Emma; Baker, Kyri; Shi, Ying; Christensen, Dane

    2017-02-22

    Accurately modeling stationary battery storage behavior is crucial to understand and predict its limitations in demand-side management scenarios. In this paper, a lithium-ion battery model was derived to estimate lifetime and state-of-charge for building-integrated use cases. The proposed battery model aims to balance speed and accuracy when modeling battery behavior for real-time predictive control and optimization. In order to achieve these goals, a mixed modeling approach was taken, which incorporates regression fits to experimental data and an equivalent circuit to model battery behavior. A comparison of the proposed battery model output to actual data from the manufacturer validates the modeling approach taken in the paper. Additionally, a dynamic test case demonstrates the effects of using regression models to represent internal resistance and capacity fading.

  13. Performance Modeling of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery during Discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.W.; He, Y.L.; Li, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional quasi-steady-state model is presented to simulate coupled mass-species-charge transfer and electrochemical reactions in all vanadium redox flow battery. Emphasis is located on examining the influences of applied current density, initial vanadium concentration, initial acid concentration and electrolyte flow rate on overpotentials in both electrodes, ohmic loss in electrolyte phase as well as battery discharging voltage. It is indicated that overpotential in negative electrode is the dominant factor causing the loss of battery discharging voltage at relatively lower or higher state of charge, while ohmic loss in electrolyte phase is dominant when discharging at moderate state of charge. Increasing initial vanadium concentration, the battery discharging voltage is significantly increased due to the reduced overpotentials in both electrodes. With the increase in initial acid concentration, the battery discharging voltage is also obviously increased because of increased open circuit voltage and decreased ohmic loss in electrolyte phase. As the electrolyte flow rate increases, the total discharging time is extended due to the retarded concentration polarization and the battery discharging voltage is obviously increased at lower state of charge

  14. Model-based design and optimization of vanadium redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Sebastian

    2017-07-19

    This work targets on increasing the efficiency of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) using a model-based approach. First, a detailed instruction for setting up a VRFB model on a system level is given. Modelling of open-circuit-voltage, ohmic overpotential, concentration overpotential, Vanadium crossover, shunt currents as well as pump power demand is presented. All sub-models are illustrated using numerical examples. Using experimental data from three battery manufacturers, the voltage model validated. The identified deviations reveal deficiencies in the literature model. By correctly deriving the mass transfer coefficients and adapting the effective electrode area, these deficiencies are eliminated. The validated battery model is then deployed in an extensive design study. By varying the electrode area between 1000 and 4000 cm{sup 2} and varying the design of the electrolyte supply channel, twenty-four different cell designs are created using finite element analysis. These designs are subsequently simulated in 40-cell stacks deployed in systems with a single stack and systems with a three-stack string. Using the simulation results, the impact of different design parameters on different loss mechanisms is investigated. While operating the VRFB, the electrolyte flow rate is the most important operational parameter. A novel, model-based optimization strategy is presented and compared to established flow rate control strategies. Further, a voltage controller is introduced which delays the violation of cell voltage limits by controlling the flow rate as long as the pump capacity is not fully exploited.

  15. Model-based design and optimization of vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    This work targets on increasing the efficiency of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) using a model-based approach. First, a detailed instruction for setting up a VRFB model on a system level is given. Modelling of open-circuit-voltage, ohmic overpotential, concentration overpotential, Vanadium crossover, shunt currents as well as pump power demand is presented. All sub-models are illustrated using numerical examples. Using experimental data from three battery manufacturers, the voltage model validated. The identified deviations reveal deficiencies in the literature model. By correctly deriving the mass transfer coefficients and adapting the effective electrode area, these deficiencies are eliminated. The validated battery model is then deployed in an extensive design study. By varying the electrode area between 1000 and 4000 cm 2 and varying the design of the electrolyte supply channel, twenty-four different cell designs are created using finite element analysis. These designs are subsequently simulated in 40-cell stacks deployed in systems with a single stack and systems with a three-stack string. Using the simulation results, the impact of different design parameters on different loss mechanisms is investigated. While operating the VRFB, the electrolyte flow rate is the most important operational parameter. A novel, model-based optimization strategy is presented and compared to established flow rate control strategies. Further, a voltage controller is introduced which delays the violation of cell voltage limits by controlling the flow rate as long as the pump capacity is not fully exploited.

  16. Three Dimensional Thermal Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Pack Based on Multiphysics and Calorimetric Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional multiphysics-based thermal model of a battery pack is presented. The model is intended to demonstrate the cooling mechanism inside the battery pack. Heat transfer (HT) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) physics are coupled for both time-dependent and steady-state simulatio...

  17. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-02-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  18. A novel Gaussian model based battery state estimation approach: State-of-Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, HongWen; Zhang, YongZhi; Xiong, Rui; Wang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Gaussian model is employed to construct a novel battery model. • The genetic algorithm is used to implement model parameter identification. • The AIC is used to decide the best hysteresis order of the battery model. • A novel battery SoE estimator is proposed and verified by two kinds of batteries. - Abstract: State-of-energy (SoE) is a very important index for battery management system (BMS) used in electric vehicles (EVs), it is indispensable for ensuring safety and reliable operation of batteries. For achieving battery SoE accurately, the main work can be summarized in three aspects. (1) In considering that different kinds of batteries show different open circuit voltage behaviors, the Gaussian model is employed to construct the battery model. What is more, the genetic algorithm is employed to locate the optimal parameter for the selecting battery model. (2) To determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is used to determine the best hysteresis order of the combined battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order hysteresis battery model is thought of being the best based on the AIC values. (3) The central difference Kalman filter (CDKF) is used to estimate the real-time SoE and an erroneous initial SoE is considered to evaluate the robustness of the SoE estimator. Lastly, two kinds of lithium-ion batteries are used to verify the proposed SoE estimation approach. The results show that the maximum SoE estimation error is within 1% for both LiFePO 4 and LiMn 2 O 4 battery datasets

  19. Analysis and Modeling of Heat Generation in Overcharged Li-Ion Battery with Passive Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation in Lithium batteries and an investigation of the heat transfer as well as the capacity of Phase Change Materials (PCM’s) to store energy inside a battery cell module when the battery is overcharged. The study is performed...... by coupling a one-dimensional model of the electrochemical processes with a two-dimensional model for the heat transfer in a cross section of a battery pack. The heat generation and subsequent temperature rise is analyzed for different charging currents for the two cases where the cell is air......-cooled and passively cooled using a PCM, respectively. As expected, the results show that for high currents, the heat generation and implicitly the temperature increases. However, using a PCM the temperature increase is found to be limited allowing the battery to be overcharged to a certain degree. It is found...

  20. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  1. Support vector machine based battery model for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junping; Chen Quanshi; Cao Binggang

    2006-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) is a novel type of learning machine based on statistical learning theory that can map a nonlinear function successfully. As a battery is a nonlinear system, it is difficult to establish the relationship between the load voltage and the current under different temperatures and state of charge (SOC). The SVM is used to model the battery nonlinear dynamics in this paper. Tests are performed on an 80Ah Ni/MH battery pack with the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle to set up the SVM model. Compared with the Nernst and Shepherd combined model, the SVM model can simulate the battery dynamics better with small amounts of experimental data. The maximum relative error is 3.61%

  2. Empirical Modeling of Lithium-ion Batteries Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadani, Ehsan; Farhad, Siamak; Scott, William; Mastali, Mehrdad; Gimenez, Leonardo E.; Fowler, Michael; Fraser, Roydon A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two commercial Lithium-ion batteries are studied through HPPC and EIS tests. • An equivalent circuit model is developed for a range of operating conditions. • This model improves the current battery empirical models for vehicle applications • This model is proved to be efficient in terms of predicting HPPC test resistances. - ABSTRACT: An empirical model for commercial lithium-ion batteries is developed based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. An equivalent circuit is established according to EIS test observations at various battery states of charge and temperatures. A Laplace transfer time based model is developed based on the circuit which can predict the battery operating output potential difference in battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles at various operating conditions. This model demonstrates up to 6% improvement compared to simple resistance and Thevenin models and is suitable for modeling and on-board controller purposes. Results also show that this model can be used to predict the battery internal resistance obtained from hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests to within 20 percent, making it suitable for low to medium fidelity powertrain design purposes. In total, this simple battery model can be employed as a real-time model in electrified vehicle battery management systems

  3. Adaptive thermal modeling of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rad, M.S.; Danilov, D.L.; Baghalha, M.; Kazemeini, M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate thermal model to predict the heat generation in rechargeable batteries is an essential tool for advanced thermal management in high power applications, such as electric vehicles. For such applications, the battery materials’ details and cell design are normally not provided. In this work

  4. Model-Based Battery Management Systems: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manan

    Lithium-ion batteries are now extensively being used as the primary storage source. Capacity and power fade, and slow recharging times are key issues that restrict its use in many applications. Battery management systems are critical to address these issues, along with ensuring its safety. This dissertation focuses on exploring various control strategies using detailed physics-based electrochemical models developed previously for lithium-ion batteries, which could be used in advanced battery management systems. Optimal charging profiles for minimizing capacity fade based on SEI-layer formation are derived and the benefits of using such control strategies are shown by experimentally testing them on a 16 Ah NMC-based pouch cell. This dissertation also explores different time-discretization strategies for non-linear models, which gives an improved order of convergence for optimal control problems. Lastly, this dissertation also explores a physics-based model for predicting the linear impedance of a battery, and develops a freeware that is extremely robust and computationally fast. Such a code could be used for estimating transport, kinetic and material properties of the battery based on the linear impedance spectra.

  5. Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O' Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-10-29

    Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

  6. DC Batteries in NPP, Present and Future Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonduelle, Gery

    2015-01-01

    Electrical batteries are important for addressing the coping time in SBO condition. An overview of different types of batteries with their pros and cons was given. Today, lead acid type still seems to be the most reliable technology

  7. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and to determine their suitability for various applications, battery models are needed. An equivalent electrical circuit model is the most common way of representing the behavior of a Li-ion battery. There are different...... characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-of-charge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  8. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bloom, Ira D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dees, Dennis W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publicly available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publicly peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on

  9. Safety modelling and testing of lithium-ion batteries in electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Bae, Chulheung; Marcicki, James; Masias, Alvaro; Miller, Theodore

    2018-04-01

    To optimize the safety of batteries, it is important to understand their behaviours when subjected to abuse conditions. Most early efforts in battery safety modelling focused on either one battery cell or a single field of interest such as mechanical or thermal failure. These efforts may not completely reflect the failure of batteries in automotive applications, where various physical processes can take place in a large number of cells simultaneously. In this Perspective, we review modelling and testing approaches for battery safety under abuse conditions. We then propose a general framework for large-scale multi-physics modelling and experimental work to address safety issues of automotive batteries in real-world applications. In particular, we consider modelling coupled mechanical, electrical, electrochemical and thermal behaviours of batteries, and explore strategies to extend simulations to the battery module and pack level. Moreover, we evaluate safety test approaches for an entire range of automotive hardware sets from cell to pack. We also discuss challenges in building this framework and directions for its future development.

  10. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  11. A self-discharge model of Lithium-Sulfur batteries based on direct shuttle current measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    . A simple but comprehensive mathematical model of the Li-S battery cell self-discharge based on the shuttle current was developed and is presented. The shuttle current values for the model parameterization were obtained from the direct shuttle current measurements. Furthermore, the battery cell depth......-of-discharge values were recomputed in order to account for the influence of the self-discharge and provide a higher accuracy of the model. Finally, the derived model was successfully validated against laboratory experiments at various conditions....

  12. Model Based Optimal Control, Estimation, and Validation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Hector Eduardo

    This dissertation focuses on developing and experimentally validating model based control techniques to enhance the operation of lithium ion batteries, safely. An overview of the contributions to address the challenges that arise are provided below. Chapter 1: This chapter provides an introduction to battery fundamentals, models, and control and estimation techniques. Additionally, it provides motivation for the contributions of this dissertation. Chapter 2: This chapter examines reference governor (RG) methods for satisfying state constraints in Li-ion batteries. Mathematically, these constraints are formulated from a first principles electrochemical model. Consequently, the constraints explicitly model specific degradation mechanisms, such as lithium plating, lithium depletion, and overheating. This contrasts with the present paradigm of limiting measured voltage, current, and/or temperature. The critical challenges, however, are that (i) the electrochemical states evolve according to a system of nonlinear partial differential equations, and (ii) the states are not physically measurable. Assuming available state and parameter estimates, this chapter develops RGs for electrochemical battery models. The results demonstrate how electrochemical model state information can be utilized to ensure safe operation, while simultaneously enhancing energy capacity, power, and charge speeds in Li-ion batteries. Chapter 3: Complex multi-partial differential equation (PDE) electrochemical battery models are characterized by parameters that are often difficult to measure or identify. This parametric uncertainty influences the state estimates of electrochemical model-based observers for applications such as state-of-charge (SOC) estimation. This chapter develops two sensitivity-based interval observers that map bounded parameter uncertainty to state estimation intervals, within the context of electrochemical PDE models and SOC estimation. Theoretically, this chapter extends the

  13. Multi-temperature state-dependent equivalent circuit discharge model for lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Marinescu, Monica; Auger, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are described extensively in the literature, but existing computational models aimed at scientific understanding are too complex for use in applications such as battery management. Computationally simple models are vital for exploitation. This paper proposes a non......-linear state-of-charge dependent Li-S equivalent circuit network (ECN) model for a Li-S cell under discharge. Li-S batteries are fundamentally different to Li-ion batteries, and require chemistry-specific models. A new Li-S model is obtained using a ‘behavioural’ interpretation of the ECN model; as Li...... pulse profile at four temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C, giving linearized ECN parameters for a range of states-of-charge, currents and temperatures. These are used to create a nonlinear polynomial-based battery model suitable for use in a battery management system. When the model is used to predict...

  14. Adaptive estimation of state of charge and capacity with online identified battery model for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Tseng, King Jet; Wai, Nyunt; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Reliable state estimate depends largely on an accurate battery model. However, the parameters of battery model are time varying with operating condition variation and battery aging. The existing co-estimation methods address the model uncertainty by integrating the online model identification with state estimate and have shown improved accuracy. However, the cross interference may arise from the integrated framework to compromise numerical stability and accuracy. Thus this paper proposes the decoupling of model identification and state estimate to eliminate the possibility of cross interference. The model parameters are online adapted with the recursive least squares (RLS) method, based on which a novel joint estimator based on extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is formulated to estimate the state of charge (SOC) and capacity concurrently. The proposed joint estimator effectively compresses the filter order which leads to substantial improvement in the computational efficiency and numerical stability. Lab scale experiment on vanadium redox flow battery shows that the proposed method is highly authentic with good robustness to varying operating conditions and battery aging. The proposed method is further compared with some existing methods and shown to be superior in terms of accuracy, convergence speed, and computational cost.

  15. Thermal modeling of cylindrical LiFePO4 batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman Rad, M.; Danilov, D.L.; Baghalha, M.; Kazemeini, M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal management of Li-ion batteries is important because of the high energy content and the risk of rapid temperature development in the high current range. Reliable and safe operation of these batteries is seriously endangered by high temperatures. It is important to have a simple but accurate model to evaluate the thermal behavior of batteries under a variety of operating conditions and be able to predict the internal temperature as well. To achieve this goal, a radial-axial model is dev...

  16. Analysis and Modeling of Heat Generation in Overcharged Li-Ion Battery with Passive Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation in Lithium batteries and an investigation of the heat transfer as well as the capacity of Phase Change Materials (PCM’s) to store energy inside a battery cell module when the battery is overcharged. The study is performed......-cooled and passively cooled using a PCM, respectively. As expected, the results show that for high currents, the heat generation and implicitly the temperature increases. However, using a PCM the temperature increase is found to be limited allowing the battery to be overcharged to a certain degree. It is found...

  17. Performance Model for High-Power Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries based on Extended Characterization Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are found nowadays not only in portable/consumer electronics but also in more power demanding applications, such as stationary renewable energy storage, automotive and back-up power supply, because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy...... storage technologies. Nevertheless, prior to be used in any of the aforementioned application, a Li-ion battery cell must be intensively characterized and its behavior needs to be understood. This can be realized by performing extended laboratory characterization tests and developing Li-ion battery...... performance models. Furthermore, accurate performance models are necessary in order to analyze the behavior of the battery cell under different mission profiles, by simulation; thus, avoiding time and cost demanding real life tests. This paper presents the development and the parametrization of a performance...

  18. A method for state of energy estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on neural network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-energy is an important evaluation index for energy optimization and management of power battery systems in electric vehicles. Unlike the state-of-charge which represents the residual energy of the battery in traditional applications, state-of-energy is integral result of battery power, which is the product of current and terminal voltage. On the other hand, like state-of-charge, the state-of-energy has an effect on terminal voltage. Therefore, it is hard to solve the nonlinear problems between state-of-energy and terminal voltage, which will complicate the estimation of a battery's state-of-energy. To address this issue, a method based on wavelet-neural-network-based battery model and particle filter estimator is presented for the state-of-energy estimation. The wavelet-neural-network based battery model is used to simulate the entire dynamic electrical characteristics of batteries. The temperature and discharge rate are also taken into account to improve model accuracy. Besides, in order to suppress the measurement noises of current and voltage, a particle filter estimator is applied to estimate cell state-of-energy. Experimental results on LiFePO_4 batteries indicate that the wavelet-neural-network based battery model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy and the estimation value based on the particle filter estimator converges to the real state-of-energy within an error of ±4%. - Highlights: • State-of-charge is replaced by state-of-energy to determine cells residual energy. • The battery state-space model is established based on a neural network. • Temperature and current influence are considered to improve the model accuracy. • The particle filter is used for state-of-energy estimation to improve accuracy. • The robustness of new method is validated under dynamic experimental conditions.

  19. A state-space-based prognostics model for lithium-ion battery degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin; Chen, Nan

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyze the degradation of lithium-ion batteries with the sequentially observed discharging profiles. A general state-space model is developed in which the observation model is used to approximate the discharging profile of each cycle, the corresponding parameter vector is treated as the hidden state, and the state-transition model is used to track the evolution of the parameter vector as the battery ages. The EM and EKF algorithms are adopted to estimate and update the model parameters and states jointly. Based on this model, we construct prediction on the end of discharge times for unobserved cycles and the remaining useful cycles before the battery failure. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated using a real lithium-ion battery degradation data set. - Highlights: • Unifying model for Li-Ion battery SOC and SOH estimation. • Extended Kalman filter based efficient inference algorithm. • Using voltage curves in discharging to have wide validity.

  20. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  1. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anele, A O; Hamam, Y; Djouani, K; Chassagne, L; Alayli, Y; Linares, J

    2015-01-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV. (paper)

  2. A Simple theoretical model for 63Ni betavoltaic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZUO, Guoping; ZHOU, Jianliang; KE, Guotu

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the energy deposition distribution in semiconductors is performed for 63 Ni beta particles. Results show that the energy deposition distribution exhibits an approximate exponential decay law. A simple theoretical model is developed for 63 Ni betavoltaic battery based on the distribution characteristics. The correctness of the model is validated by two literature experiments. Results show that the theoretical short-circuit current agrees well with the experimental results, and the open-circuit voltage deviates from the experimental results in terms of the influence of the PN junction defects and the simplification of the source. The theoretical model can be applied to 63 Ni and 147 Pm betavoltaic batteries. - Highlights: • The energy deposition distribution is found following an approximate exponential decay law when beta particles emitted from 63 Ni pass through a semiconductor. • A simple theoretical model for 63 Ni betavoltaic battery is constructed based on the exponential decay law. • Theoretical model can be applied to the betavoltaic batteries which radioactive source has a similar energy spectrum with 63 Ni, such as 147 Pm

  3. A review of safety-focused mechanical modeling of commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juner; Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point in the adoption of electric vehicles on the roads. All major automotive companies are having well-funded plans for mass market affordable branded EV product line models, which can open the floodgates. A rapid growth of battery energy density, accompanied by an aggressive progress of reduction of costs of lithium-ion batteries, brings safety concerns. While more energy stored in the battery pack of an EV translates to a longer range, the downside is that accidents will be more violent due to battery inevitable explosion. With today's technology, severe crashes involving intrusion into the battery pack will potentially result in a thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. Most of research on lithium-ion batteries have been concerned with the electrochemistry of cells. However, in most cases failure and thermal runaway is caused by mechanical loading due to crash events. There is a growing need to summarize the already published results on mechanical loading and response of batteries and offer a critical evaluation of work in progress. The objective of this paper is to present such review with a discussion of many outstanding issues and outline of a roadmap for future research.

  4. Homogenized modeling methodology for 18650 lithium-ion battery module under large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Cheng, Pengle

    2017-01-01

    Effective lithium-ion battery module modeling has become a bottleneck for full-size electric vehicle crash safety numerical simulation. Modeling every single cell in detail would be costly. However, computational accuracy could be lost if the module is modeled by using a simple bulk material or rigid body. To solve this critical engineering problem, a general method to establish a computational homogenized model for the cylindrical battery module is proposed. A single battery cell model is developed and validated through radial compression and bending experiments. To analyze the homogenized mechanical properties of the module, a representative unit cell (RUC) is extracted with the periodic boundary condition applied on it. An elastic–plastic constitutive model is established to describe the computational homogenized model for the module. Two typical packing modes, i.e., cubic dense packing and hexagonal packing for the homogenized equivalent battery module (EBM) model, are targeted for validation compression tests, as well as the models with detailed single cell description. Further, the homogenized EBM model is confirmed to agree reasonably well with the detailed battery module (DBM) model for different packing modes with a length scale of up to 15 × 15 cells and 12% deformation where the short circuit takes place. The suggested homogenized model for battery module makes way for battery module and pack safety evaluation for full-size electric vehicle crashworthiness analysis. PMID:28746390

  5. Homogenized modeling methodology for 18650 lithium-ion battery module under large deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    Full Text Available Effective lithium-ion battery module modeling has become a bottleneck for full-size electric vehicle crash safety numerical simulation. Modeling every single cell in detail would be costly. However, computational accuracy could be lost if the module is modeled by using a simple bulk material or rigid body. To solve this critical engineering problem, a general method to establish a computational homogenized model for the cylindrical battery module is proposed. A single battery cell model is developed and validated through radial compression and bending experiments. To analyze the homogenized mechanical properties of the module, a representative unit cell (RUC is extracted with the periodic boundary condition applied on it. An elastic-plastic constitutive model is established to describe the computational homogenized model for the module. Two typical packing modes, i.e., cubic dense packing and hexagonal packing for the homogenized equivalent battery module (EBM model, are targeted for validation compression tests, as well as the models with detailed single cell description. Further, the homogenized EBM model is confirmed to agree reasonably well with the detailed battery module (DBM model for different packing modes with a length scale of up to 15 × 15 cells and 12% deformation where the short circuit takes place. The suggested homogenized model for battery module makes way for battery module and pack safety evaluation for full-size electric vehicle crashworthiness analysis.

  6. A reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jiuchun; Ruan, Haijun; Sun, Bingxiang; Zhang, Weige; Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Linjing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model is proposed. • A novel frequency-dependent equation for polarization parameters is presented. • The model is validated under different frequency and low-temperature conditions. • The reduced model exhibits a high accuracy with a low computational effort. • The adaptability of the proposed methodology for model reduction is verified. - Abstract: A low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model, which is based on the electrochemical mechanism, is developed to accurately capture both electrical and thermal behaviors of batteries. Activation energies reveal that temperature dependence of resistances is greater than that of capacitances. The influence of frequency on polarization voltage and irreversible heat is discussed, and frequency dependence of polarization resistance and capacitance is obtained. Based on the frequency-dependent equation, a reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model is proposed and experimentally validated under different temperature, frequency and amplitude conditions. Simulation results exhibit good agreement with experimental data, where the maximum relative voltage error and temperature error are below 2.65% and 1.79 °C, respectively. The reduced model is demonstrated to have almost the same accuracy as the original model and require a lower computational effort. The effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed methodology for model reduction is verified using batteries with three different cathode materials from different manufacturers. The reduced model, thanks to its high accuracy and simplicity, provides a promising candidate for development of rapid internal heating and optimal charging strategies at low temperature, and for evaluation of the state of battery health in on-board battery management system.

  7. Modeling Battery Behavior on Sensory Operations for Context-Aware Smartphone Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is ...

  8. A control-oriented cycle-life model for hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suri, Girish; Onori, Simona

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a semi-empirical Lithium-iron phosphate-graphite battery aging model is identified over data mimicking actual cycling conditions that a hybrid electric vehicle battery encounters under real driving scenarios. The aging model is then used to construct the severity factor map, used to characterize relative aging of the battery under different operating conditions. This is used as a battery degradation criterion within a multi-objective optimization problem where battery aging minimization is to be achieved along with fuel consumption minimization. The method proposed is general and can be applied to other battery chemistry as well as different vehicular applications. Finally, simulations conducted using a hybrid electric vehicle simulator show how the two modeling tools developed in this paper, i.e., the severity factor map and the aging model, can be effectively used in a multi-objective optimization problem to predict and control battery degradation. - Highlights: • Battery aging model for hybrid electric vehicles using real driving conditions data. • Development of a modeling tool to assess battery degradation for real time optimization. • "3"1P NMR analysis of an enzyme-treated extract showed expected hydrolysis of P forms. • Development of an energy management strategy to minimize battery degradation. • Simulation results from hybrid electric vehicle simulator.

  9. A model-based adaptive state of charge estimator for a lithium-ion battery using an improved adaptive particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Min; Guo, Hui; Cao, Binggang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved adaptive particle swarm filter method. • The SoC estimation method for the battery based on the adaptive particle swarm filter is presented. • The algorithm is validated by the case study of different aged extent batteries. • The effectiveness and applicability of the algorithm are validated by the LiPB batteries. - Abstract: Obtaining accurate parameters, state of charge (SoC) and capacity of a lithium-ion battery is crucial for a battery management system, and establishing a battery model online is complex. In addition, the errors and perturbations of the battery model dramatically increase throughout the battery lifetime, making it more challenging to model the battery online. To overcome these difficulties, this paper provides three contributions: (1) To improve the robustness of the adaptive particle filter algorithm, an error analysis method is added to the traditional adaptive particle swarm algorithm. (2) An online adaptive SoC estimator based on the improved adaptive particle filter is presented; this estimator can eliminate the estimation error due to battery degradation and initial SoC errors. (3) The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using various initial states of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cells and lithium-ion polymer (LiPB) batteries. The experimental analysis shows that the maximum errors are less than 1% for both the voltage and SoC estimations and that the convergence time of the SoC estimation decreased to 120 s.

  10. Performance-degradation model for Li4Ti5O12-based battery cells used in wind power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to mitigate the negative impact of wind power grid integration on the power system stability, which is caused by the characteristics of the wind. This paper presents a performance model for a Li4Ti5O12/LiMO2 battery cell....... For developing the performance model an EIS-based electrical modelling approach was followed. The obtained model is able to predict with high accuracy charge and discharge voltage profiles for different ages of the battery cell and for different charging/discharging current rates. Moreover, the ageing behaviour...... of the battery cell was analysed for the case of accelerated cycling ageing with a certain mission profile....

  11. Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) battery-related burns presenting to US emergency departments, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Chang, Joanne T; Rostron, Brian L

    2018-03-05

    Currently, an estimated 7.9 million US adults use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Although published reports have identified fires and explosions related to use of ENDS since 2009, these reports do not provide national estimates of burn injuries associated with ENDS batteries in the US. We analyzed nationally representative data provided in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to estimate the number of US emergency department (ED) visits for burn injuries associated with ENDS batteries. We reviewed the case narrative field to gain additional insights into the circumstances of the burn injury. In 2016, 26 ENDS battery-related burn cases were captured by NEISS, which translates to a national estimate of 1007 (95%CI: 357-1657) injuries presenting in US EDs. Most of the burns were thermal burns (80.4%) and occurred to the upper leg/lower trunk (77.3%). Examination of the case narrative field indicated that at least 20 of the burn injuries occurred while ENDS batteries were in the user's pocket. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the current burden of ENDS battery-related burn injuries treated in US EDs. The nature and circumstances of the injuries suggest these incidents were unintentional and would potentially be prevented through battery design requirements, battery testing standards and public education related to ENDS battery safety.

  12. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  13. Dynamic Prediction of Power Storage and Delivery by Data-Based Fractional Differential Models of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fractional derivative system identification approach for modeling battery dynamics is presented in this paper, where fractional derivatives are applied to approximate non-linear dynamic behavior of a battery system. The least squares-based state-variable filter (LSSVF method commonly used in the identification of continuous-time models is extended to allow the estimation of fractional derivative coefficents and parameters of the battery models by monitoring a charge/discharge demand signal and a power storage/delivery signal. In particular, the model is combined by individual fractional differential models (FDMs, where the parameters can be estimated by a least-squares algorithm. Based on experimental data, it is illustrated how the fractional derivative model can be utilized to predict the dynamics of the energy storage and delivery of a lithium iron phosphate battery (LiFePO 4 in real-time. The results indicate that a FDM can accurately capture the dynamics of the energy storage and delivery of the battery over a large operating range of the battery. It is also shown that the fractional derivative model exhibits improvements on prediction performance compared to standard integer derivative model, which in beneficial for a battery management system.

  14. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  15. A flexible model for economic operational management of grid battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; Webber, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    To connect energy storage operational planning with real-time battery control, this paper integrates a dynamic battery model with an optimization program. First, we transform a behavioral circuit model designed to describe a variety of battery chemistries into a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Then, we discretize the differential equations to integrate the battery model with a GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) optimization program, which decides when the battery should charge and discharge to maximize its operating revenue. We demonstrate the capabilities of our model by applying it to lithium-ion (Li-ion) energy storage operating in Texas' restructured electricity market. By simulating 11 years of operation, we find that our model can robustly compute an optimal charge-discharge schedule that maximizes daily operating revenue without violating a battery's operating constraints. Furthermore, our results show there is significant variation in potential operating revenue from one day to the next. The revenue potential of Li-ion storage varies from approximately $0–1800/MWh of energy discharged, depending on the volatility of wholesale electricity prices during an operating day. Thus, it is important to consider the material degradation-related “cost” of performing a charge-discharge cycle in battery operational management, so that the battery only operates when revenue exceeds cost. - Highlights: • A flexible, dynamic battery model is integrated with an optimization program. • Electricity price data is used to simulate 11 years of Li-ion operation on the grid. • The optimization program robustly computes an optimal charge-discharge schedule. • Variation in daily Li-ion battery revenue potential from 2002 to 2012 is shown. • We find it is important to consider the cost of a grid duty cycle

  16. A 3D thermal runaway propagation model for a large format lithium ion battery module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jiangqiu; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model is built for a large format lithium ion battery module. The 3D TR propagation model is built based on the energy balance equation. Empirical equations are utilized to simplify the calculation of the chemical kinetics for TR, whereas equivalent thermal resistant layer is employed to simplify the heat transfer through the thin thermal layer. The 3D TR propagation model is validated by experiment and can provide beneficial discussions on the mechanisms of TR propagation. According to the modeling analysis of the 3D model, the TR propagation can be delayed or prevented through: 1) increasing the TR triggering temperature; 2) reducing the total electric energy released during TR; 3) enhancing the heat dissipation level; 4) adding extra thermal resistant layer between adjacent batteries. The TR propagation is successfully prevented in the model and validated by experiment. The model with 3D temperature distribution provides a beneficial tool for researchers to study the TR propagation mechanisms and for engineers to design a safer battery pack. - Highlights: • A 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model for Li-ion battery pack is built. • The 3D TR propagation model can fit experimental results well. • Temperature distributions during TR propagation are presented using the 3D model. • Modeling analysis provides solutions for the prevention of TR propagation. • Quantified solutions to prevent TR propagation in battery pack are discussed.

  17. Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang; Lundblad, Anders; Campana, Pietro Elia; Benavente, F.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Battery sizing and rule-based operation are achieved concurrently. • Hybrid operation strategy that combines different strategies is proposed. • Three operation strategies are compared through multi-objective optimization. • High Net Present Value and Self Sufficiency Ratio are achieved at the same time. - Abstract: The optimal components design for grid-connected photovoltaic-battery systems should be determined with consideration of system operation. This study proposes a method to simultaneously optimize the battery capacity and rule-based operation strategy. The investigated photovoltaic-battery system is modeled using single diode photovoltaic model and Improved Shepherd battery model. Three rule-based operation strategies—including the conventional operation strategy, the dynamic price load shifting strategy, and the hybrid operation strategy—are designed and evaluated. The rule-based operation strategies introduce different operation parameters to run the system operation. multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the decisional variables, including battery capacity and operation parameters, towards maximizing the system’s Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value. The results indicate that employing battery with the conventional operation strategy is not profitable, although it increases Self Sufficiency Ratio. The dynamic price load shifting strategy has similar performance with the conventional operation strategy because the electricity price variation is not large enough. The proposed hybrid operation strategy outperforms other investigated strategies. When the battery capacity is lower than 72 kW h, Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value increase simultaneously with the battery capacity.

  18. High-Fidelity Battery Model for Model Predictive Control Implemented into a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sockeel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Power management strategies have impacts on fuel economy, greenhouse gasses (GHG emission, as well as effects on the durability of power-train components. This is why different off-line and real-time optimal control approaches are being developed. However, real-time control seems to be more attractive than off-line control because it can be directly implemented for managing power and energy flows inside an actual vehicle. One interesting illustration of these power management strategies is the model predictive control (MPC based algorithm. Inside a MPC, a cost function is optimized while system constraints are validated in real time. The MPC algorithm relies on dynamic models of the vehicle and the battery. The complexity and accuracy of the battery model are usually neglected to benefit the development of new cost functions or better MPC algorithms. The contribution of this manuscript consists of developing and evaluating a high-fidelity battery model of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV that has been used for MPC. Via empirical work and simulation, the impact of a high-fidelity battery model has been evaluated and compared to a simpler model in the context of MPC. It is proven that the new battery model reduces the absolute voltage, state of charge (SoC, and battery power loss error by a factor of 3.2, 1.9 and 2.1 on average respectively, compared to the simpler battery model.

  19. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  20. NASA Perspective and Modeling of Thermal Runaway Propagation Mitigation in Aerospace Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shack, P.; Iannello, C.; Rickman, S.; Button, R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has traditionally sought to reduce the likelihood of a single cell thermal runaway (TR) in their aerospace batteries to an absolute minimum by employing rigorous screening program of the cells. There was generally a belief that TR propagation resulting in catastrophic failure of the battery was a forgone conclusion for densely packed aerospace lithium-ion batteries. As it turns out, this may not be the case. An increasing number of purportedly TR propagation-resistant batteries are appearing among NASA partners in the commercial sector and the Department of Defense. In the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. Unfortunately, there are no best-practice guidelines for this work in the Agency, so the first project team attempting to meet these requirements would have an undue burden placed upon them. A NASA engineering Safety Center (NESC) team set out to perform pathfinding activities for meeting those requirements. This presentation will provide contextual background to this effort, as well as initial results in attempting to model and simulate TR heat transfer and propagation within battery designs.

  1. Development of single cell lithium ion battery model using Scilab/Xcos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianto, Sigit; Yunaningsih, Rietje Y.; Astuti, Edi Tri; Hafiz, Samsul

    2016-02-01

    In this research, a lithium battery model, as a component in a simulation environment, was developed and implemented using Scicos/Xcos graphical language programming. Scicos used in this research was actually Xcos that is a variant of Scicos which is embedded in Scilab. The equivalent circuit model used in modeling the battery was Double Polarization (DP) model. DP model consists of one open circuit voltage (VOC), one internal resistance (Ri), and two parallel RC circuits. The parameters of the battery were extracted using Hybrid Power Pulse Characterization (HPPC) testing. In this experiment, the Double Polarization (DP) electrical circuit model was used to describe the lithium battery dynamic behavior. The results of simulation of the model were validated with the experimental results. Using simple error analysis, it was found out that the biggest error was 0.275 Volt. It was occurred mostly at the low end of the state of charge (SOC).

  2. Symposium on Electrochemical and Thermal Modeling of Battery, Fuel Cell, and Photoenergy Conversion Systems, San Diego, CA, Oct. 20-22, 1986, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, J. Robert; Maru, Hans C.

    Papers are presented on modeling of the zinc chlorine battery, design modeling of zinc/bromine battery systems, the modeling of aluminum-air battery systems, and a point defect model for a nickel electrode structure. Also considered are the impedance of a tubular electrode under laminar flow, mathematical modeling of a LiAl/Cl2 cell with a gas diffusion Cl2 electrode, ultrahigh power batteries, and battery thermal modeling. Other topics include an Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell, leakage currents in electrochemical systems having common electrodes, modeling for CO poisoning of a fuel cell anode, electrochemical corrosion of carbonaceous materials, and electrolyte management in molten carbonate fuel cells.

  3. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  4. Modeling the Effects of the Cathode Composition of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery on the Discharge Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Cho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects on the discharge behavior of the cathode composition of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP battery cell comprising a LFP cathode, a lithium metal anode, and an organic electrolyte. A one-dimensional model based on a finite element method is presented to calculate the cell voltage change of a LFP battery cell during galvanostatic discharge. To test the validity of the modeling approach, the modeling results for the variations of the cell voltage of the LFP battery as a function of time are compared with the experimental measurements during galvanostatic discharge at various discharge rates of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1.0C, and 2.0C for three different compositions of the LFP cathode. The discharge curves obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. On the basis of the validated modeling approach, the effects of the cathode composition on the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell are estimated. The modeling results exhibit highly nonlinear dependencies of the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell on the discharge C-rate and cathode composition.

  5. Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis of Redox Flow Battery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Noack

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic model was developed to investigate the influence of components on the system costs of redox flow batteries. Sensitivity analyses were carried out based on an example of a 10 kW/120 kWh vanadium redox flow battery system, and the costs of the individual components were analyzed. Particular consideration was given to the influence of the material costs and resistances of bipolar plates and energy storage media as well as voltages and electric currents. Based on the developed model, it was possible to formulate statements about the targeted optimization of a developed non-commercial vanadium redox flow battery system and general aspects for future developments of redox flow batteries.

  6. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  7. Integrated computation model of lithium-ion battery subject to nail penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Binghe; Yin, Sha; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupling model to predict battery penetration process is established. • Penetration test is designed and validates the computational model. • Governing factors of the penetration induced short-circuit is discussed. • Critical safety battery design guidance is suggested. - Abstract: The nail penetration of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has become a standard battery safety evaluation method to mimic the potential penetration of a foreign object into LIB, which can lead to internal short circuit with catastrophic consequences, such as thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. To provide a safe, time-efficient, and cost-effective method for studying the nail penetration problem, an integrated computational method that considers the mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal behaviors of the jellyroll was developed using a coupled 3D mechanical model, a 1D battery model, and a short circuit model. The integrated model, along with the sub-models, was validated to agree reasonably well with experimental test data. In addition, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of governing factors, e.g., shapes, sizes, and displacements of nails, states of charge, and penetration speeds, was conducted. The proposed computational framework for LIB nail penetration was first introduced. This framework can provide an accurate prediction of the time history profile of battery voltage, temperature, and mechanical behavior. The factors that affected the behavior of the jellyroll under nail penetration were discussed systematically. Results provide a solid foundation for future in-depth studies on LIB nail penetration mechanisms and safety design.

  8. Detection of Internal Short Circuit in Lithium Ion Battery Using Model-Based Switching Model Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhwan Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of an internal short circuit (ISCr in a Li-ion battery can prevent it from undergoing thermal runaway, and thereby ensure battery safety. In this paper, a model-based switching model method (SMM is proposed to detect the ISCr in the Li-ion battery. The SMM updates the model of the Li-ion battery with ISCr to improve the accuracy of ISCr resistance R I S C f estimates. The open circuit voltage (OCV and the state of charge (SOC are estimated by applying the equivalent circuit model, and by using the recursive least squares algorithm and the relation between OCV and SOC. As a fault index, the R I S C f is estimated from the estimated OCVs and SOCs to detect the ISCr, and used to update the model; this process yields accurate estimates of OCV and R I S C f . Then the next R I S C f is estimated and used to update the model iteratively. Simulation data from a MATLAB/Simulink model and experimental data verify that this algorithm shows high accuracy of R I S C f estimates to detect the ISCr, thereby helping the battery management system to fulfill early detection of the ISCr.

  9. An advanced Lithium-ion battery optimal charging strategy based on a coupled thermoelectric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Yang, Zhile; Zhang, Cheng; Deng, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted as the power supplies for electric vehicles. A key but challenging issue is to achieve optimal battery charging, while taking into account of various constraints for safe, efficient and reliable operation. In this paper, a triple-objective function is first formulated for battery charging based on a coupled thermoelectric model. An advanced optimal charging strategy is then proposed to develop the optimal constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) charge current profile, which gives the best trade-off among three conflicting but important objectives for battery management. To be specific, a coupled thermoelectric battery model is first presented. Then, a specific triple-objective function consisting of three objectives, namely charging time, energy loss, and temperature rise (both the interior and surface), is proposed. Heuristic methods such as Teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to optimize the triple-objective function, and their optimization performances are compared. The impacts of the weights for different terms in the objective function are then assessed. Experimental results show that the proposed optimal charging strategy is capable of offering desirable effective optimal charging current profiles and a proper trade-off among the conflicting objectives. Further, the proposed optimal charging strategy can be easily extended to other battery types.

  10. Dynamic electro-thermal modeling of all-vanadium redox flow battery with forced cooling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Zhao, Jiyun; Xiong, Binyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic electro-thermal model is proposed for VRB with forced cooling. • The Foster network is adopted to model the battery cooling process. • Both the electrolyte temperature and terminal voltage can be accurately predicted. • The flow rate of electrolyte and coolant significantly impact battery performance. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the dynamic electro-thermal modeling for the all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) with forced cooling strategies. The Foster network is adopted to dynamically model the heat dissipation of VRB with heat exchangers. The parameters of Foster network are extracted by fitting the step response of it to the results of linearized CFD model. Then a complete electro-thermal model is proposed by coupling the heat generation model, Foster network and electrical model. Results show that the established model has nearly the same accuracy with the nonlinear CFD model in electrolyte temperature prediction but drastically improves the computational efficiency. The modeled terminal voltage is also benchmarked with the experimental data under different current densities. The electrolyte temperature is found to be significantly influenced by the flow rate of coolant. As compared, although the electrolyte flow rate has unremarkable impact on electrolyte temperature, its effect on system pressure drop and battery efficiency is significant. Increasing the electrolyte flow rate improves the coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency simultaneously but at the expense of higher pump power demanded. An optimal flow rate exists for each operating condition to maximize the system efficiency

  11. Kalman filtering state of charge estimation for battery management system based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network battery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Long; Wang Junping; Chen Quanshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel extended Kalman Filtering SOC estimation method based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) battery model is proposed. ► The SFNN which has filtering effect on noisy input can model the battery nonlinear dynamic with high accuracy. ► A robust parameter learning algorithm for SFNN is studied so that the parameters can converge to its true value with noisy data. ► The maximum SOC estimation error based on the proposed method is 0.6%. - Abstract: Extended Kalman filtering is an intelligent and optimal means for estimating the state of a dynamic system. In order to use extended Kalman filtering to estimate the state of charge (SOC), we require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of battery pack. In this paper, we propose a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) instead of the traditional neural network that has filtering effect on noisy input to model the battery nonlinear dynamic. Then, the paper studies the extended Kalman filtering SOC estimation method based on a SFNN model. The modeling test is realized on an 80 Ah Ni/MH battery pack and the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle is used to verify the SOC estimation method. The maximum SOC estimation error is 0.6% compared with the real SOC obtained from the discharging test.

  12. A multi-timescale estimator for battery state of charge and capacity dual estimation based on an online identified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Zhao, Jiyun; Ji, Dongxu; Tseng, King Jet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •SOC and capacity are dually estimated with online adapted battery model. •Model identification and state dual estimate are fully decoupled. •Multiple timescales are used to improve estimation accuracy and stability. •The proposed method is verified with lab-scale experiments. •The proposed method is applicable to different battery chemistries. -- Abstract: Reliable online estimation of state of charge (SOC) and capacity is critically important for the battery management system (BMS). This paper presents a multi-timescale method for dual estimation of SOC and capacity with an online identified battery model. The model parameter estimator and the dual estimator are fully decoupled and executed with different timescales to improve the model accuracy and stability. Specifically, the model parameters are online adapted with the vector-type recursive least squares (VRLS) to address the different variation rates of them. Based on the online adapted battery model, the Kalman filter (KF)-based SOC estimator and RLS-based capacity estimator are formulated and integrated in the form of dual estimation. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method estimates the model parameters, SOC, and capacity in real time with fast convergence and high accuracy. Experiments on both lithium-ion battery and vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) verify the generality of the proposed method on multiple battery chemistries. The proposed method is also compared with other existing methods on the computational cost to reveal its superiority for practical application.

  13. Numerical simulation and optimization of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Jun; Qin, Ming-Jun; Zhu, Peng; Yang, Li

    2008-05-01

    A three-dimensional, transient numerical model of an individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen battery has been developed based on energy conservation law, mechanisms of heat and mass transfer, and electrochemical reactions in the battery. The model, containing all components of a battery including the battery shell, was utilized to simulate the transient temperature of the battery, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. The comparison of the model prediction and experimental data shows a good agreement, which means that the present model can be used for the engineering design and parameter optimization of nickel-hydrogen batteries in aerospace power systems. Two kinds of optimization schemes were provided and evaluated by the simulated temperature field. Based on the model, the temperature simulation during five successive periods in a designed space battery was conducted and the simulation results meet the requirement of safe operation.

  14. Modeling, Design and Simulation of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power Systems with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Essalam BADOUD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand alone renewable energy based on photovoltaic systems accompanied with battery storage system are beginning to play an important role over the world to supply power to remote areas. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to elaborate and design a bond graphs model for sizing stand-alone domestic solar photovoltaic electricity systems and simulating the performance of the systems in a tropical climate. The systems modelled consist of an array of PV modules, a lead-acid battery, and a number of direct current appliances. This paper proposes the combination of lead acid battery system with a typical stand alone photovoltaic energy system under variable loads. The main activities of this work purpose to establish library graphical models for each individual component of standalone photovoltaic system. Control strategy has been considered to achieve permanent power supply to the load via photovoltaic/battery based on the power available from the sun. The complete model was simulated under two testing including sunny and cloudy conditions. Simulation of the system using Symbols software was performed and the results of simulation show the superior stable control system and high efficiency. These results have been contrasted with real measured data from a measurement campaign plant carried on electrical engineering laboratory of Grenoble using various interconnection schemes are presented.

  15. An Online SOC and SOH Estimation Model for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Chin Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and prognosis of cell degradation in lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are essential for assuring the reliability and safety of electric and hybrid vehicles. This paper aims to develop a reliable and accurate model for online, simultaneous state-of-charge (SOC and state-of-health (SOH estimations of Li-ion batteries. Through the analysis of battery cycle-life test data, the instantaneous discharging voltage (V and its unit time voltage drop, V′, are proposed as the model parameters for the SOC equation. The SOH equation is found to have a linear relationship with 1/V′ times the modification factor, which is a function of SOC. Four batteries are tested in the laboratory, and the data are regressed for the model coefficients. The results show that the model built upon the data from one single cell is able to estimate the SOC and SOH of the three other cells within a 5% error bound. The derived model is also proven to be robust. A random sampling test to simulate the online real-time SOC and SOH estimation proves that this model is accurate and can be potentially used in an electric vehicle battery management system (BMS.

  16. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  17. Cycle life performance of rechargeable lithium ion batteries and mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Gang

    Capacity fade of commercial Sony US 18650 Li-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates was studied at ambient temperature. Battery cycled at the highest discharge rate (3 C) shows the largest internal resistance increase of 27.7% relative to the resistance of fresh battery. It's been observed anode carbon loses 10.6% of its capability to intercalate or deintercalate Li+ after it was subjected to 300 cycles at discharge rate of 3 C. This loss dominates capacity fade of full battery. A mechanism considering continuous parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and film thickening has been proposed. First principles based charge-discharge models to simulate cycle life behavior of rechargeable Li-ion batteries have been developed. In the generalized model, transport in both electrolyte phase and solid phase were simultaneously taken into account. Under mild charge-discharge condition, transport of lithium in the electrolyte phase has been neglected in the simplified model. Both models are based on loss of the active lithium ions due to the electrochemical parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and on rise of the anode film resistance. The effect of parameters such as depth of discharge (DOD), end of charge voltage (EOCV) and overvoltage of the parasitic reaction on the cycle life behavior of a battery has been analyzed. The experimental results obtained at a charge rate of 1 C, discharge rate of 0.5 C, EOCV of 4.0 V and DOD of 0.4 have been used to validate cycle life models. Good agreement between the simulations and the experiments has been achieved up to 1968 cycles with both models. Simulation of cycle life of battery under multiple cycling regimes has also been demonstrated.

  18. Fuel cell/back-up battery hybrid energy conversion systems: Dynamic modeling and harmonic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel technique to completely eliminate the harmful harmonics of fuel cell system. • Presenting a novel high accurate detailed electrochemical dynamic model of fuel cells. • Back-up battery system to compensate the slow dynamic response of fuel cell system. • Exact analysis of real electrochemical reactions occurring inside fuel cells. - Abstract: In this study, a novel dynamic model of fuel cells is presented. High accurate static and dynamic responses of the proposed model are experimentally validated by comparing simulated results with real experimental data. The obtained model together with theoretical results shows that a fuel cell or a fuel cell stack has very slow dynamic response, so that, it cannot adapt itself to the fast variations in load demand. It is shown that for adapting well a fuel cell stack to the load demand, the stack should be equipped with a proposed back-up battery system which compensates the slow dynamic response of the stack by providing a bidirectional path to transmit/absorb the extra instant power. It is proved that the conventional switching waveforms used in the converters of the stacks and back-up systems produce an enormous amount of harmful harmonics. Then, a novel technique is proposed to completely eliminate main harmful harmonics. It is worthwhile to note that all the other techniques only reduce the harmful harmonics. Simulated results verify that the back-up battery system together with applying the proposed technique provide a fast dynamic response for the fuel cell/back-up battery system, and also completely eliminate the main harmful harmonics

  19. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  20. Battery Aging, Battery Charging and the Kinetic Battery Model : A First Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Bertrand, Nathalie; Bortolussi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are omnipresent and will be used more and more, for instance for wearables devices, electric vehicles or domestic energy storage. However, batteries can deliver power only for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to

  1. A novel multi-model probability battery state of charge estimation approach for electric vehicles using H-infinity algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng; Mu, Hao; Xiong, Rui; Shen, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-model probability battery SOC fusion estimation approach was proposed. • The linear matrix inequality-based H∞ technique is employed to estimate the SOC. • The Bayes theorem has been employed to realize the optimal weight for the fusion. • The robustness of the proposed approach is verified by different batteries. • The results show that the proposed method can promote global estimation accuracy. - Abstract: Due to the strong nonlinearity and complex time-variant property of batteries, the existing state of charge (SOC) estimation approaches based on a single equivalent circuit model (ECM) cannot provide the accurate SOC for the entire discharging period. This paper aims to present a novel SOC estimation approach based on a multiple ECMs fusion method for improving the practical application performance. In the proposed approach, three battery ECMs, namely the Thevenin model, the double polarization model and the 3rd order RC model, are selected to describe the dynamic voltage of lithium-ion batteries and the genetic algorithm is then used to determine the model parameters. The linear matrix inequality-based H-infinity technique is employed to estimate the SOC from the three models and the Bayes theorem-based probability method is employed to determine the optimal weights for synthesizing the SOCs estimated from the three models. Two types of lithium-ion batteries are used to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the accuracy and reliability of the SOC estimation against uncertain battery materials and inaccurate initial states.

  2. On-line adaptive battery impedance parameter and state estimation considering physical principles in reduced order equivalent circuit battery models part 2. Parameter and state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Christian; Waag, Wladislaw; Heyn, Hans-Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems employed in high power demanding systems such as electric vehicles require a sophisticated monitoring system to ensure safe and reliable operation. Three major states of the battery are of special interest and need to be constantly monitored. These include: battery state of charge (SoC), battery state of health (capacity fade determination, SoH), and state of function (power fade determination, SoF). The second paper concludes the series by presenting a multi-stage online parameter identification technique based on a weighted recursive least quadratic squares parameter estimator to determine the parameters of the proposed battery model from the first paper during operation. A novel mutation based algorithm is developed to determine the nonlinear current dependency of the charge-transfer resistance. The influence of diffusion is determined by an on-line identification technique and verified on several batteries at different operation conditions. This method guarantees a short response time and, together with its fully recursive structure, assures a long-term stable monitoring of the battery parameters. The relative dynamic voltage prediction error of the algorithm is reduced to 2%. The changes of parameters are used to determine the states of the battery. The algorithm is real-time capable and can be implemented on embedded systems.

  3. Post-vehicle-application lithium-ion battery remanufacturing, repurposing and recycling capacity: Modeling and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Standridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A mathematical model is used to help determine the manufacturing capacity needed to support post-vehicle-application remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of lithium-ion batteries over time.  Simulation is used in solving the model to estimate capacity in kWh.  Lithium-ion batteries that are commonly used in the electrification of vehicles cannot be simply discarded post-vehicle-application due to the materials of which they are composed.  Eventually, each will fail to hold a charge and will need to be recycled.  Remanufacturing, allowing a battery to return to a vehicle application, and repurposing, transforming a battery for use in a non-vehicle application, postpone recycling and increase value. The mathematical model and its solution using simulation test the hypothesis that the capacity needed for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling as well as new battery production is a function of a single parameter:  the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured. Design/methodology/approach: Equations in the mathematical model represent the capacity needed for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling as well as new battery production as dependent variables.  Independent variables are exogenous quantities as such as the demand for electrified vehicles of all types, physical properties of batteries such as their application life distribution including the time to recycling, and a single decision variable:  the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  Values of the dependent variables over time are estimated by simulation for values of the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries ranging from 0% to 85% in steps of 5%. Findings and Originality/value: The simulation results support important insights for investment in capacity for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application batteries as well as new batteries.  The capacity needed for

  4. Secondary Use of PHEV and EV Batteries: Opportunities & Challenges (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Howell, D.

    2010-05-01

    NREL and partners will investigate the reuse of retired lithium ion batteries for plug-in hybrid, hybrid, and electric vehicles in order to reduce vehicle costs and emissions and curb our dependence on foreign oil. A workshop to solicit industry feedback on the process is planned. Analyses will be conducted, and aged batteries will be tested in two or three suitable second-use applications. The project is considering whether retired PHEV/EV batteries have value for other applications; if so, what are the barriers and how can they be overcome?

  5. Fuzzy logic modeling of EIS measurements on lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pritpal; Vinjamuri, Ramana; Wang, Xiquan; Reisner, David

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy logic-based state of health (SOH) meter is being developed for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries for potential use in portable defibrillators. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements have been made from which input parameters for a fuzzy logic model to estimate the state of charge (SOC) and SOH are derived. The batteries are discharged continuously at a 1.4 A load current to simulate the constant current draw during the monitoring and recording of a patient's EKG, and periodically interrupted by 10 A pulses to simulate the battery discharge to charge up the capacitor that is in turn discharged to supply high voltage to the electrodes for the defibrillation of the patient. The test procedures included both voltage recovery and EIS measurements, and were made as the batteries were being discharged and over 30 charge/discharge cycles. Accurate models have been developed to estimate the number of pulses that the battery pack can deliver at various stages of its cycle life (SOC measure) and the number of charge/discharge cycles (SOH measure) that it had undergone

  6. State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery with a Temperature-Compensated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC of batteries is crucial in a battery management system. Many studies on battery SOC estimation have been investigated recently. Temperature is an important factor that affects the SOC estimation accuracy while it is still not adequately addressed at present. This paper proposes a SOC estimator based on a new temperature-compensated model with extended Kalman Filter (EKF. The open circuit voltage (OCV, capacity, and resistance and capacitance (RC parameters in the estimator are temperature dependent so that the estimator can maintain high accuracy at various temperatures. The estimation accuracy decreases when applied in high current continuous discharge, because the equivalent polarization resistance decreases as the discharge current increases. Therefore, a polarization resistance correction coefficient is proposed to tackle this problem. The estimator also demonstrates a good performance in dynamic operating conditions. However, the equivalent circuit model shows huge uncertainty in the low SOC region, so measurement noise variation is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy there.

  7. 3-D CFD modeling and experimental testing of thermal behavior of a Li-Ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gümüşsu, Emre; Ekici, Özgür; Köksal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermally fully predictive 3-D CFD model is developed for Li-Ion batteries. • Complete flow field around the battery and conduction inside the battery are solved. • Macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term are investigated. • Discharge rate and usage history of the battery are systematically investigated. • Reliability of the model was tested through experimental measurements. - Abstract: In this study, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model was developed for investigating the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under natural convection. The model solves the complete flow field around the battery as well as conduction inside the battery using the well-known heat generation model of Bernardi et al. (1985). The model is thermally fully predictive so it requires only electrical performance parameters of the battery to calculate its temperature during discharging. Using the model, detailed investigation of the effects of the variation of the macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term of the heat generation model was carried out. Results show that specific heat is a critical property that has a significant impact on the simulation results whereas thermal conductivity has relatively minor importance. Moreover, the experimental data can be successfully predicted without taking the entropic term into account in the calculation of the heat generation. The difference between the experimental and predicted battery surface temperature was less than 3 °C for all discharge rates and regardless of the usage history of the battery. The developed model has the potential to be used for the investigation of the thermal behavior of Li-Ion batteries in different packaging configurations under natural and forced convection.

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES POTENTIALLY STREAMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Halutin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models in the electrical parameters of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries are developed. The developed model parameters (discharge mode are identified out of family of discharging curve. By using of the parameters of this model we get the numerically model of lithium-ion battery.

  9. A mass transfer based variable porosity model with particle radius change for a Lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, T.R.; McGordon, A.; Jennings, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass transfer based model to calculate the porosity variation and radius change. • Can be used with any model that calculates Lithium concentration in electrolyte. • Considers SEI as a mass deposition rather than simply an internal resistance. • Brings more accuracy to the volume specific area and the Butler-Volmer kinetics • Practical applicability in pre-lithiation, lithium plating and stress calculation. - Abstract: Micro pore-clogging in the electrodes due to SEI growth and other side reactions can cause adverse effects on the performance of a Lithium-ion battery. The fundamental problem of volume fraction variation and particle radius change during the charge-discharge process in a lithium-ion battery is modelled in this paper with the help of mass transfer based formulation and demonstrated on a battery with LiCoO_2 chemistry. The model can handle the volume fraction change due to intercalation reaction, solvent reduction side reaction and the electrolyte density change due to side reaction contamination in the battery. The entire calculation presented in this paper models particle radius and volume fraction together and therefore gives greater accuracy in calculating the volume-specific-area of the reacting particles which is an important parameter controlling the Butler-Volmer kinetics. The mass deposit on the electrode (or loss of lithium) gives an indication of the amount of pre-lithiation required to maintain cell performance while the amount of mass deposited on the SEI helps to decide the safe operating condition for which the clogging of pores and capacity fade will be minimal. Moreover the model presented in this paper has wide applicability in analysing the stress development inside the battery due to irreversible porous filling.

  10. Generic modelling framework for economic analysis of battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    opportunities, a generic modelling framework is proposed to handle this task. This framework outlines a set of building blocks which are necessary for carrying out the economic analysis of various BS applications. Further, special focus is given on describing how to use the rainflow cycle counting algorithm...... for battery cycle life estimation, since the cycle life plays a central role in the economic analysis of BS. To illustrate the modelling framework, a case study using a Sodium Sulfur Battery (NAS) system with 5-minute regulating service is performed. The economic performances of two dispatch scenarios, a so......Deregulated electricity markets provide opportunities for Battery Systems (BS) to participate in energy arbitrage and ancillary services (regulation, operating reserves, contingency reserves, voltage regulation, power quality etc.). To evaluate the economic viability of BS with different business...

  11. A Generalized SOC-OCV Model for Lithium-Ion Batteries and the SOC Estimation for LNMCO Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-charge (SOC versus open-circuit-voltage (OCV model developed for batteries should preferably be simple, especially for real-time SOC estimation. It should also be capable of representing different types of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, regardless of temperature change and battery degradation. It must therefore be generic, robust and adaptive, in addition to being accurate. These challenges have now been addressed by proposing a generalized SOC-OCV model for representing a few most widely used LIBs. The model is developed from analyzing electrochemical processes of the LIBs, before arriving at the sum of a logarithmic, a linear and an exponential function with six parameters. Values for these parameters are determined by a nonlinear estimation algorithm, which progressively shows that only four parameters need to be updated in real time. The remaining two parameters can be kept constant, regardless of temperature change and aging. Fitting errors demonstrated with different types of LIBs have been found to be within 0.5%. The proposed model is thus accurate, and can be flexibly applied to different LIBs, as verified by hardware-in-the-loop simulation designed for real-time SOC estimation.

  12. Numerical modeling of an all vanadium redox flow battery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Jonathan R.; Brunini, Victor E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a capability to simulate reduction-oxidation (redox) flow batteries in the Sierra Multi-Mechanics code base. Specifically, we focus on all-vanadium redox flow batteries; however, the capability is general in implementation and could be adopted to other chemistries. The electrochemical and porous flow models follow those developed in the recent publication by [28]. We review the model implemented in this work and its assumptions, and we show several verification cases including a binary electrolyte, and a battery half-cell. Then, we compare our model implementation with the experimental results shown in [28], with good agreement seen. Next, a sensitivity study is conducted for the major model parameters, which is beneficial in targeting specific features of the redox flow cell for improvement. Lastly, we simulate a three-dimensional version of the flow cell to determine the impact of plenum channels on the performance of the cell. Such channels are frequently seen in experimental designs where the current collector plates are borrowed from fuel cell designs. These designs use a serpentine channel etched into a solid collector plate.

  13. Initialization of a fractional order identification algorithm applied for Lithium-ion battery modeling in time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser Eddine, Achraf; Huard, Benoît; Gabano, Jean-Denis; Poinot, Thierry

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with the initialization of a non linear identification algorithm used to accurately estimate the physical parameters of Lithium-ion battery. A Randles electric equivalent circuit is used to describe the internal impedance of the battery. The diffusion phenomenon related to this modeling is presented using a fractional order method. The battery model is thus reformulated into a transfer function which can be identified through Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to ensure the algorithm's convergence to the physical parameters. An initialization method is proposed in this paper by taking into account previously acquired information about the static and dynamic system behavior. The method is validated using noisy voltage response, while precision of the final identification results is evaluated using Monte-Carlo method.

  14. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  15. State of Charge Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter for Battery Management Systems Based on the ARX Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is a critical factor to guarantee that a battery system is operating in a safe and reliable manner. Many uncertainties and noises, such as fluctuating current, sensor measurement accuracy and bias, temperature effects, calibration errors or even sensor failure, etc. pose a challenge to the accurate estimation of SOC in real applications. This paper adds two contributions to the existing literature. First, the auto regressive exogenous (ARX model is proposed here to simulate the battery nonlinear dynamics. Due to its discrete form and ease of implemention, this straightforward approach could be more suitable for real applications. Second, its order selection principle and parameter identification method is illustrated in detail in this paper. The hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC cycles are implemented on the 60AH LiFePO4 battery module for the model identification and validation. Based on the proposed ARX model, SOC estimation is pursued using the extended Kalman filter. Evaluation of the adaptability of the battery models and robustness of the SOC estimation algorithm are also verified. The results indicate that the SOC estimation method using the Kalman filter based on the ARX model shows great performance. It increases the model output voltage accuracy, thereby having the potential to be used in real applications, such as EVs and HEVs.

  16. An improved theoretical electrochemical-thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery packs in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiribavandpour, Parisa; Shen, Weixiang; Mu, Daobin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-06-01

    A theoretical electrochemical thermal model combined with a thermal resistive network is proposed to investigate thermal behaviours of a battery pack. The combined model is used to study heat generation and heat dissipation as well as their influences on the temperatures of the battery pack with and without a fan under constant current discharge and variable current discharge based on electric vehicle (EV) driving cycles. The comparison results indicate that the proposed model improves the accuracy in the temperature predication of the battery pack by 2.6 times. Furthermore, a large battery pack with four of the investigated battery packs in series is simulated in the presence of different ambient temperatures. The simulation results show that the temperature of the large battery pack at the end of EV driving cycles can reach to 50 °C or 60 °C in high ambient temperatures. Therefore, thermal management system in EVs is required to maintain the battery pack within the safe temperature range.

  17. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  18. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  19. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  20. Sequential Monte Carlo filter for state estimation of LiFePO4 batteries based on an online updated model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahao; Klee Barillas, Joaquin; Guenther, Clemens; Danzer, Michael A.

    2014-02-01

    Battery state monitoring is one of the key techniques in battery management systems e.g. in electric vehicles. An accurate estimation can help to improve the system performance and to prolong the battery remaining useful life. Main challenges for the state estimation for LiFePO4 batteries are the flat characteristic of open-circuit-voltage over battery state of charge (SOC) and the existence of hysteresis phenomena. Classical estimation approaches like Kalman filtering show limitations to handle nonlinear and non-Gaussian error distribution problems. In addition, uncertainties in the battery model parameters must be taken into account to describe the battery degradation. In this paper, a novel model-based method combining a Sequential Monte Carlo filter with adaptive control to determine the cell SOC and its electric impedance is presented. The applicability of this dual estimator is verified using measurement data acquired from a commercial LiFePO4 cell. Due to a better handling of the hysteresis problem, results show the benefits of the proposed method against the estimation with an Extended Kalman filter.

  1. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corp.

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  2. Multiphysics Modelling of Sodium Sulfur Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jerry Hunter

    Due to global climate change and the desire to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, large scale energy storage has become a critical issue. Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar will not be a viable energy source unless the storage problem is solved. One of the practical and cost effective solutions for this problem is sodium sulfur batteries. These batteries are comprised of liquid electrode materials suspended in porous media and operate at relatively high temperatures (>300°C). The sodium anode and the sulfur/sodium-polysulfide cathode are separated by a solid electrolyte made of beta-alumina or NASICON material. Due to the use of porous materials in the electrodes, capillary pressure and the combination of capillary action and gravity become important. Capillary pressure has a strong dependence on the wetting phase (liquid electrode material) saturation; therefore sharp concentration gradients can occur between the inert gas and the electrode liquid, especially within the cathode. These concentration gradients can have direct impacts on the electrodynamics of the battery as they may produce areas of high electrical potential variation, which can decrease efficiency and even cause failures. Then, thermal management also becomes vital since the electrochemistry and material properties are sensitive to temperature gradients. To investigate these phenomena in detail and to attempt to improve upon battery design a multi-dimensional, multi-phase code has been developed and validated in this study. Then a porous media flow model is implemented. Transport equations for charge, mass and heat are solved in a time marching fashion using finite volume method. Material properties are calculated and updated as a function of time. The porous media model is coupled with the continuity equation and a separate diffusion equation for the liquid sodium in the melt. The total mass transport model is coupled with charge transport via Faraday's law. Results show that

  3. Sample-Data Modeling of a Zero Voltage Transition DC-DC Converter for On-Board Battery Charger in EV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. Granados-Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery charger is a key device in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. On-board and off-board topologies are available in the market. Lightweight, small, high performance, and simple control are desired characteristics for on-board chargers. Moreover, isolated single-phase topologies are the most common system in Level 1 battery charger topologies. Following this trend, this paper proposes a sampled-data modelling strategy of a zero voltage transition (ZVT DC-DC converter for an on-board battery charger. A piece-wise linear analysis of the converter is the basis of the technique presented such that a large-signal model and, therefore, a small-signal model of the converter are derived. Numerical and simulation results of a 250 W test rig validate the model.

  4. Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium-ion batteries based on extended accelerated aging test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Gerschler, Jochen B.; Vogel, Jan; Käbitz, Stefan; Hust, Friedrich; Dechent, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-10-01

    Battery lifetime prognosis is a key requirement for successful market introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles. This work aims at the development of a lifetime prediction approach based on an aging model for lithium-ion batteries. A multivariable analysis of a detailed series of accelerated lifetime experiments representing typical operating conditions in hybrid electric vehicle is presented. The impact of temperature and state of charge on impedance rise and capacity loss is quantified. The investigations are based on a high-power NMC/graphite lithium-ion battery with good cycle lifetime. The resulting mathematical functions are physically motivated by the occurring aging effects and are used for the parameterization of a semi-empirical aging model. An impedance-based electric-thermal model is coupled to the aging model to simulate the dynamic interaction between aging of the battery and the thermal as well as electric behavior. Based on these models different drive cycles and management strategies can be analyzed with regard to their impact on lifetime. It is an important tool for vehicle designers and for the implementation of business models. A key contribution of the paper is the parameterization of the aging model by experimental data, while aging simulation in the literature usually lacks a robust empirical foundation.

  5. Enhanced Prognostic Model for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Particle Filter State Transition Model Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhi Arachchige

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on predicting the End of Life and End of Discharge of Lithium ion batteries using a battery capacity fade model and a battery discharge model. The proposed framework will be able to estimate the Remaining Useful Life (RUL and the Remaining charge through capacity fade and discharge models. A particle filter is implemented that estimates the battery’s State of Charge (SOC and State of Life (SOL by utilizing the battery’s physical data such as voltage, temperature, and current measurements. The accuracy of the prognostic framework has been improved by enhancing the particle filter state transition model to incorporate different environmental and loading conditions without retuning the model parameters. The effect of capacity fade in the reduction of the EOD (End of Discharge time with cycling has also been included, integrating both EOL (End of Life and EOD prediction models in order to get more accuracy in the estimations.

  6. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  7. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corporation

    2017-09-06

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4% RMS error and resistance growth with 15% RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  8. Model-based prognostics for batteries which estimates useful life and uses a probability density function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention develops a mathematical model to describe battery behavior during individual discharge cycles as well as over its cycle life. The basis for the form of the model has been linked to the internal processes of the battery and validated using experimental data. Effects of temperature and load current have also been incorporated into the model. Subsequently, the model has been used in a Particle Filtering framework to make predictions of remaining useful life for individual discharge cycles as well as for cycle life. The prediction performance was found to be satisfactory as measured by performance metrics customized for prognostics for a sample case. The work presented here provides initial steps towards a comprehensive health management solution for energy storage devices.

  9. Cost-driven materials selection criteria for redox flow battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmello, Rylan; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Smith, Kyle C.

    2016-10-01

    Redox flow batteries show promise for grid-scale energy storage applications but are presently too expensive for widespread adoption. Electrolyte material costs constitute a sizeable fraction of the redox flow battery price. As such, this work develops a techno-economic model for redox flow batteries that accounts for redox-active material, salt, and solvent contributions to the electrolyte cost. Benchmark values for electrolyte constituent costs guide identification of design constraints. Nonaqueous battery design is sensitive to all electrolyte component costs, cell voltage, and area-specific resistance. Design challenges for nonaqueous batteries include minimizing salt content and dropping redox-active species concentration requirements. Aqueous battery design is sensitive to only redox-active material cost and cell voltage, due to low area-specific resistance and supporting electrolyte costs. Increasing cell voltage and decreasing redox-active material cost present major materials selection challenges for aqueous batteries. This work minimizes cost-constraining variables by mapping the battery design space with the techno-economic model, through which we highlight pathways towards low price and moderate concentration. Furthermore, the techno-economic model calculates quantitative iterations of battery designs to achieve the Department of Energy battery price target of 100 per kWh and highlights cost cutting strategies to drive battery prices down further.

  10. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  11. Modeling study of a Li–O2 battery with an active cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xianglin; Huang, Jing; Faghri, Amir

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new organic lithium oxygen (Li–O 2 ) battery structure is proposed to enhance battery capacity. The electrolyte is forced to recirculate through the cathode and then saturated with oxygen in a tank external to the battery. The forced convection enhances oxygen transport and alleviates the problem of electrode blockage during discharge. A two dimensional, transient, non-isothermal simulation model is developed to study the heat and mass transfer within the battery and validate the proposed design. Results show that this novel active cathode design improves the battery capacity at all discharge current densities. The capacity of the Li–O 2 battery is increased by 15.5 times (from 12.2 mAh g −1 to 201 mAh g −1 ) at the discharge current of 2.0 mA cm −2 when a conventional passive electrode is replaced by the newly designed active electrode. Furthermore, a cathode with non-uniform porosity is suggested and simulation results show that it can reach a higher discharge capacity without decreasing its power density. Detailed mass transport processes in the battery are also studied. - Highlights: • Electrolyte is circulated through the cathode and externally saturated with oxygen. • A two-dimensional, transient, non-isothermal model is developed for a Li–O 2 battery. • The new design's capacity can be 15.5 times that of a battery with passive cathode. • A cathode with non-uniform porosity is proposed to further enhance battery capacity

  12. Comparison of Parametrization Techniques for an Electrical Circuit Model of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    on the comparison of different parametrization methods of electrical circuit models (ECMs) for Li-S batteries. These methods are used to parametrize an ECM based on laboratory measurements performed on a Li-S pouch cell. Simulation results of ECMs are presented and compared against measurement values...

  13. Impedance-based overcharging and gassing model for VRLA/AGM batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thele, M.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents for the first time an impedance-based non-linear model for lead-acid batteries that is applicable in all operational modes. An overcharging model describes the accumulation and depletion of the dissolved Pb 2+ ions. This physical model has been added to the earlier presented model to expand the model validity. To properly represent the charge acceptance during dynamic operation, a concept of "hardening crystals" has been introduced in the model. Moreover, a detailed gassing and oxygen recombination model has been integrated. A realistic simulation of the overcharging behavior is now possible. The mathematical description is given in the paper. Simplifications are introduced that allow for an efficient implementation and for model parameterization in the time domain. A comparison between experimental data and simulation results demonstrates the achieved accuracy. The model enhancement is of major importance to analyze charging strategies especially in partial-cycling operation with limited charging time, e.g. in electrically assisted or hybrid cars and autonomous power supply systems.

  14. Analysis of model interfaces for Li ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemayer, Andreas; Pareek, Aparna; Vogel, Dirk; Rohwerder, Michael; Renner, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Lithium ion batteries are the most promising power source for future electromobility applications. Therefore a better understanding of the basic processes in Lithium ion batteries is needed. Especially nowadays research projects aim to improve real systems in terms of higher rate capability, cycle life, safety and operating temperature. Following the surface science approach we focus on the investigation of single crystal model systems of possible anode and cathode materials and electrode/solid electrolyte interfaces prepared by electrochemical deposition, molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition.

  15. Cooling Simulation and Thermal Abuse Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using the Newman, Tiedemann, Gu, and Kim (NTGK) Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the cooling simulation and thermal abuse modeling of lithium-ion batteries by ANSYS FLUENT. Cooling strategies are important issues in the thermal management of lithium-ion battery systems, and it is essential to investigate them attentively in order to maintain...... the functioning temperature of batteries within an optimum range. The high temperature is able not only to decrease the efficiency of batteries but also may lead to the thermal runaway. To comprehend further, the thermal abuse behavior of lithium-ion batteries based on The Newman, Tiedemann, Gu, and Kim (NTGK......) model has been implemented in ANSYS FLUENT software. The results show that to achieve an optimum energy consumption for battery cooling, a minimum value of average heat transfer coefficient can be selected in order to keep the functioning temperature of batteries within an optimum range....

  16. A model for crack initiation in the Li-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panat, Rahul, E-mail: rahul.panat@wsu.edu

    2015-12-01

    The development of high energy density Lithium-ion batteries is of intense interest due to their application in the electric car and consumer electronics industry. The primary limiter in using high energy density battery electrodes is the cracking of the electrode material due to the severe strain caused by the charging–discharging cycles. In this paper, a linear perturbation model is used to describe the evolution of the electrode surface under stress. The driving force for the surface undulation formation is the reduction in the electrode strain energy. The kinetics of mass transport is described by the surface and volume diffusion. The model predicts that the Si electrode will develop surface undulations of the order of sub-1 μm length scale on the electrode surface, showing a reasonable agreement with experimental results reported in literature. Such surface undulations roughen the anode surface and can form notches that can act as crack initiation sites. It is also shown that this model is applicable when the temperature of the system is not constant and the system is not isolated. The limitations of the model are also discussed. - Highlights: • This work presents a theoretical formulation that predicts crack formation at an electrode surface under a lithiation cycle. • The research provides the critical parameters required to improve the life of the Li-ion batteries. • These research findings can be used to modify the surface structure to minimize crack formation. • The predictions from the model show a reasonable agreement with the experiments. • None of the theoretical literature so far has addressed the crack formation problem addressed in this paper.

  17. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-ion Battery Packs using Phase Change Materials (PCM) and Fluid Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the maximum temperature in LiFePO4 battery cells. The model is constructed by coupling a one-dimensional electro-chemical model with a two-dimensional thermal model and fluid...

  18. Integrated modeling for the cyclic behavior of high power Li-ion batteries under extended operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Á.G.; Hong, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Redefine the traditional concepts of state of charge modeling. • Accurate non-intrusive extraction method of an integrated battery model. • Indexes of performance can be employed to compare different types of batteries. • High power electrical battery model dependent on current and temperature effects. - Abstract: The dynamic thermal and electrical behavior of high power LiFePO 4 cathode-type Li-ion batteries is studied with extended considerations such as demanded current ranging from 12 to 30 A, battery temperatures ranging from 283 to 313 K and a redefinition of the concept of state of charge during cycling conditions. The equivalent electrical model, consisting of a series resistance, a parallel resistance–capacitor, a voltage source and state of charge calculators, can be improved with the addition of current and temperature gains for each element. In addition, a non-intrusively-obtained alternative thermal model extraction is proposed to uncouple from the experimental battery temperature based on electrochemical research found in the literature. This improved model extraction for high power cylindrical batteries can achieve a temperature and voltage relative runtime error in the range of 1% and 5% in average, respectively. The effects of lithium concentration in the anode and cathode are accurately predicted with state of charge accelerators, which vary linearly with temperature. Aiming for a power systems environment, the integrated battery model is built and validated experimentally to demonstrate its accurate prediction. This improved integrated battery model can be employed for battery stack simulations, improved state of charge algorithm testing and optimization of hybrid systems - with a light computational demand. Finally, a performance index radar plot is proposed to conveniently compare electrical and thermal properties of different types of batteries

  19. Electronic network modeling of rechargeable batteries: II: The NiCd system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Kruijt, W.S.; Bergveld, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on the concept of a defined sealed rechargeable NiCd battery, the mathematics of the various electrochemical and physical processes occurring inside the battery are described. Subsequently, these sets of mathematical equations are clustered and converted into an electronic network model.

  20. Depletion-of-Battery Attack: Specificity, Modelling and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhov, Vladimir; Koo, Insoo

    2018-06-06

    The emerging Internet of Things (IoT) has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.

  1. Equivalent circuit model parameters of a high-power Li-ion battery: Thermal and state of charge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jamie; Nelson, Ruben; Kalu, Egwu E.; Weatherspoon, Mark H.; Zheng, Jim P.

    2011-05-01

    Equivalent circuit model (EMC) of a high-power Li-ion battery that accounts for both temperature and state of charge (SOC) effects known to influence battery performance is presented. Electrochemical impedance measurements of a commercial high power Li-ion battery obtained in the temperature range 20 to 50 °C at various SOC values was used to develop a simple EMC which was used in combination with a non-linear least squares fitting procedure that used thirteen parameters for the analysis of the Li-ion cell. The experimental results show that the solution and charge transfer resistances decreased with increase in cell operating temperature and decreasing SOC. On the other hand, the Warburg admittance increased with increasing temperature and decreasing SOC. The developed model correlations that are capable of being used in process control algorithms are presented for the observed impedance behavior with respect to temperature and SOC effects. The predicted model parameters for the impedance elements Rs, Rct and Y013 show low variance of 5% when compared to the experimental data and therefore indicates a good statistical agreement of correlation model to the actual experimental values.

  2. An electro-thermal model and its application on a spiral-wound lithium ion battery with porous current collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yonghuang; Shi, Yixiang; Saw, Lip Huat; Tay, Andrew A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A local electro-thermal model is developed to verify the validity of a lump electro-thermal model. • Comparisons on edge effect of batteries with porous current collectors and batteries normal current collector foil. • Investigation on thermal performance of novel battery with porous current collector sheets. - Abstract: A local electro-thermal model for a spiral-wound lithium ion battery is developed to provide detailed and local insights of electrochemistry, transport phenomenon and heat transfer processes in spiral-wound geometries. The discharging potential, bulk heat generation rate, battery surface temperature and the temperature distribution within battery predicted by the model are used to verify a lumped electro-thermal model. The results show good agreement between the lumped electro-thermal model and the local electro-thermal model. The edge effect is investigated using the local electro-thermal model. And the results indicate that a novel battery with porous current collector sheets has a higher utilization rate of porous electrode materials than a commercial battery with normal current collector foils. The novel battery with porous current collector sheets is also investigated using the local electro-thermal model, simulation results show smaller liquid phase potential gradient and smaller liquid concentration gradient in the novel battery. The increased electrical resistance has minor effect on the overall heat generation within the battery when the porous current collector is employed, while it reduces the discharging potential of the battery

  3. Selection and impedance based model of a lithium ion battery technology for integration with virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    is to integrate lithium-ion batteries into virtual power plants; thus, the power system stability and the energy quality can be increased. The selection of the best lithium-ion battery candidate for integration with wind power plants is a key aspect for the economic feasibility of the virtual power plant...... investment. This paper presents a methodology for selection, between three candidates, of a Li-ion battery which offers long cycle lifetime at partial charge/discharge (required by many grid support applications) while providing a low cost per cycle also. For the selected Li-ion battery an impedance......-based diagnostic tool for lifetime estimation was developed and verified. This diagnostic tool can be extended into an impedance-based lifetime model that will be able to predict the remaining useful lifetime of Li-ion batteries for specific grid support applications....

  4. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design feature associated with Lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...) T00012WI for installation of Lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. The Model 680 is a twin-engine, medium...

  5. A dynamic capacity degradation model and its applications considering varying load for a large format Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Zhe; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic capacity degradation model for large format Li-ion battery is proposed. • The change of the model parameters directly link with the degradation mechanisms. • The model can simulate the fading behavior of Li-ion battery under varying loads. • The model can help evaluate the longevity of a battery system under specific load. • The model can help predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack. - Abstract: The capacity degradation of the lithium ion battery should be well predicted during battery system design. Therefore, high-fidelity capacity degradation models that are suitable for the task of capacity prediction are required. This paper proposes a novel capacity degradation model that can simulate the degradation dynamics under varying working conditions for large-format lithium ion batteries. The degradation model is built based on a mechanistic and prognostic model (MPM) whose parameters are closely linked with the degradation mechanisms of lithium ion batteries. Chemical kinetics was set to drive the parameters of the MPM to change as capacity degradation continues. With the dynamic parameters of the MPM, the capacity predicted by the degradation model decreases as the cycle continues. Accelerated aging tests were conducted on three types of commercial lithium ion batteries to calibrate the capacity degradation model. The good fit with the experimental data indicates that the model can capture the degradation mechanisms well for different types of commercial lithium ion batteries. Furthermore, the calibrated model can be used to (1) evaluate the longevity of a battery system under a specific working load and (2) predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack when different cell works at different conditions. Correlated applications are discussed using the calibrated degradation model.

  6. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid...... on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs) and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific...... and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact...

  7. Recent Progress in the Design of Advanced Cathode Materials and Battery Models for High-Performance Lithium-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Ma, Jianmin; Fan, Qinghua; Guo, Shaojun; Dou, Shixue

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances and achievements in emerging Li-X (X = O 2 , S, Se, Te, I 2 , Br 2 ) batteries with promising cathode materials open up new opportunities for the development of high-performance lithium-ion battery alternatives. In this review, we focus on an overview of recent important progress in the design of advanced cathode materials and battery models for developing high-performance Li-X (X = O 2 , S, Se, Te, I 2 , Br 2 ) batteries. We start with a brief introduction to explain why Li-X batteries are important for future renewable energy devices. Then, we summarize the existing drawbacks, major progress and emerging challenges in the development of cathode materials for Li-O 2 (S) batteries. In terms of the emerging Li-X (Se, Te, I 2 , Br 2 ) batteries, we systematically summarize their advantages/disadvantages and recent progress. Specifically, we review the electrochemical performance of Li-Se (Te) batteries using carbonate-/ether-based electrolytes, made with different electrode fabrication techniques, and of Li-I 2 (Br 2 ) batteries with various cell designs (e.g., dual electrolyte, all-organic electrolyte, with/without cathode-flow mode, and fuel cell/solar cell integration). Finally, the perspective on and challenges for the development of cathode materials for the promising Li-X (X = O 2 , S, Se, Te, I 2 , Br 2 ) batteries is presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kandler A.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2007-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide high energy and power density energy storage for diverse applications ranging from cell phones to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For efficient and reliable systems integration, low order dynamic battery models are needed. This paper introduces a general method to generate numerically a fully observable/controllable state variable model from electrochemical kinetic, species and charge partial differential equations that govern the discharge/charge behavior of a Li-ion battery. Validated against a 313th order nonlinear CFD model of a 6 Ah HEV cell, a 12th order state variable model predicts terminal voltage to within 1% for pulse and constant current profiles at rates up to 50 C. The state equation is constructed in modal form with constant negative real eigenvalues distributed in frequency space from 0 to 10 Hz. Open circuit potential, electrode surface concentration/reaction distribution coupling and electrolyte concentration/ionic conductivity nonlinearities are explicitly approximated in the model output equation on a local, electrode-averaged and distributed basis, respectively. The balanced realization controllability/observability gramian indicates that the fast electrode surface concentration dynamics are more observable/controllable than the electrode bulk concentration dynamics (i.e. state of charge)

  9. The discharge behavior of lithium-ion batteries using the Dual-Potential Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Battery Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the discharge behavior of lithium-ion batteries based on the investigations, which have been done by the researchers [1– 19]. In this article, the battery's discharge behaviour at various discharge rates is studied and surface monitor, discharge curve, volume monitor...... to analysis the discharge behaviour of lithium-ion batteries. The results show that surface monitor plot of discharge curve at 1 C has a decreasing trend and volume monitor plot of maximum temperature in the domain has slightly increasing pattern over the simulation time. For the curves of discharge...... plot of maximum temperature in the domain and maximum temperature in the area are illustrated. Additionally, an external and internal short-circuit treatment for three cases have been studied. The Dual-Potential Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Battery Model (BM) was used by ANSYS FLUENT software...

  10. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F; Castillo, S; Laberty- Robert, C; Pellizon-Birelli, M [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  11. A phenomenological force model of Li-ion battery packs for enhanced performance and health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2017-10-01

    A 1-D phenomenological force model of a Li-ion battery pack is proposed to enhance the control performance of Li-ion battery cells in pack conditions for efficient performance and health management. The force model accounts for multiple swelling sources under the operational environment of electric vehicles to predict swelling-induced forces in pack conditions, i.e. mechanically constrained. The proposed force model not only incorporates structural nonlinearities due to Li-ion intercalation swelling, but also separates the overall range of states of charge into three ranges to account for phase transitions. Moreover, an approach to study cell-to-cell variations in pack conditions is proposed with serial and parallel combinations of linear and nonlinear stiffness, which account for battery cells and other components in the battery pack. The model is shown not only to accurately estimate the reaction force caused by swelling as a function of the state of charge, battery temperature and environmental temperature, but also to account for cell-to-cell variations due to temperature variations, SOC differences, and local degradation in a wide range of operational conditions of electric vehicles. Considering that the force model of Li-ion battery packs can account for many possible situations in actual operation, the proposed approach and model offer potential utility for the enhancement of current battery management systems and power management strategies.

  12. A Capacity Fading Model of Lithium-Ion Battery Cycle Life Based on the Kinetics of Side Reactions for Electric Vehicle Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Weijun; Sun, Zechang; Wei, Xuezhe; Dai, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Describe the aging mechanism of lithium-ion battery with electrochemical kinetics. • Establish the fading rate equation based on Eyring Equation. • The established equation is applicable to any reaction order. • Integrate the internal kinetics with external degradation characteristics. - Abstract: Battery life prediction is one of the critical issues that restrict the development of electric vehicles. Among the typical battery life models, the mechanism model focusing on the internal physical or electrochemical processes has a stronger theoretical foundation and greater accuracy. The empirical formula, which relies on the simplified mechanism, has a concise model structure and more flexibility in vehicle applications. However, the internal aging mechanism rarely correlates with the external operating characteristics. Based on the summary of the capacity fading mechanism and the reasoning of the internal kinetics of side reactions during the aging process, a lifetime model of the lithium-ion battery is established in this paper. The solutions to the vital parameters based on the external accelerated life testing results are also presented. The testing sample is a manganese oxide lithium-ion battery of 8 Ah. The validation results indicated that the life model established in this paper can describe the capacity fading law of the lithium-ion battery and the operability and accuracy for vehicle applications

  13. Depletion-of-Battery Attack: Specificity, Modelling and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shakhov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Internet of Things (IoT has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.

  14. Battery Performance Modelling ad Simulation: a Neural Network Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottavianelli, Giuseppe; Donati, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    This project has developed on the background of ongoing researches within the Control Technology Unit (TOS-OSC) of the Special Projects Division at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency. The purpose of this research is to develop and validate an Artificial Neural Network tool (ANN) able to model, simulate and predict the Cluster II battery system's performance degradation. (Cluster II mission is made of four spacecraft flying in tetrahedral formation and aimed to observe and study the interaction between sun and earth by passing in and out of our planet's magnetic field). This prototype tool, named BAPER and developed with a commercial neural network toolbox, could be used to support short and medium term mission planning in order to improve and maximise the batteries lifetime, determining which are the future best charge/discharge cycles for the batteries given their present states, in view of a Cluster II mission extension. This study focuses on the five Silver-Cadmium batteries onboard of Tango, the fourth Cluster II satellite, but time restrains have allowed so far to perform an assessment only on the first battery. In their most basic form, ANNs are hyper-dimensional curve fits for non-linear data. With their remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise history data, ANN can be used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer techniques. ANNs learn by example, and this is why they can be described as an inductive, or data-based models for the simulation of input/target mappings. A trained ANN can be thought of as an "expert" in the category of information it has been given to analyse, and this expert can then be used, as in this project, to provide projections given new situations of interest and answer "what if" questions. The most appropriate algorithm, in terms of training speed and memory storage requirements, is clearly the Levenberg

  15. A review of fractional-order techniques applied to lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changfu; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhenpo; Wik, Torsten; Pecht, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Electrochemical energy storage systems play an important role in diverse applications, such as electrified transportation and integration of renewable energy with the electrical grid. To facilitate model-based management for extracting full system potentials, proper mathematical models are imperative. Due to extra degrees of freedom brought by differentiation derivatives, fractional-order models may be able to better describe the dynamic behaviors of electrochemical systems. This paper provides a critical overview of fractional-order techniques for managing lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, and supercapacitors. Starting with the basic concepts and technical tools from fractional-order calculus, the modeling principles for these energy systems are presented by identifying disperse dynamic processes and using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Available battery/supercapacitor models are comprehensively reviewed, and the advantages of fractional types are discussed. Two case studies demonstrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of fractional-order models. These models offer 15-30% higher accuracy than their integer-order analogues, but have reasonable complexity. Consequently, fractional-order models can be good candidates for the development of advanced battery/supercapacitor management systems. Finally, the main technical challenges facing electrochemical energy storage system modeling, state estimation, and control in the fractional-order domain, as well as future research directions, are highlighted.

  16. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  17. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-01-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole lifecycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can......, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies withspecific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery...... tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yieldedbattery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has...

  18. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  19. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-04-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole life cycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies with specific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yielded battery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by the European Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this technology is the most commonly used. Through this work the project partner institutions have intended to provide useful tools to improve the design capabilities of organizations, private and public, in remote power systems. (au)

  20. A combination Kalman filter approach for State of Charge estimation of lithium-ion battery considering model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanwen; Wang, Chao; Gong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation plays an important role in battery electric vehicles. This paper makes two contributions to the existing literature. (1) A recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor has been presented to update the model parameters close to the real value more quickly. (2) The statistical information of the innovation sequence obeying chi-square distribution has been introduced to identify model uncertainty, and a novel combination algorithm of strong tracking unscented Kalman filter and adaptive unscented Kalman filter has been developed to estimate SOC (State of Charge). Experimental results indicate that the novel algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery SOC against initial SOC errors and voltage sensor drift. A comparison with the unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms and adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed SOC estimation method has better accuracy, robustness and convergence behavior. - Highlights: • Recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor is presented. • The innovation obeying chi-square distribution is used to identify uncertainty. • A combination Karman filter approach for State of Charge estimation is presented. • The performance of the proposed method is verified by comparison results.

  1. First Principles Investigation of Zinc-anode Dissolution in Zinc-air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Lundgård, Keld Troen

    2013-01-01

    With surging interest in high energy density batteries, much attention has recently been devoted to metal-air batteries. The zinc-air battery has been known for more than hundred years and is commercially available as a primary battery, but recharging has remained elusive; in part because...... the fundamental mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. Here, we present a density functional theory investigation of the zinc dissolution (oxidation) on the anode side in the zinc-air battery. Two models are envisaged, the most stable (0001) surface and a kink surface. The kink model proves to be more....... The applied methodology provides new insight into computational modelling and design of secondary metal-air batteries....

  2. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  3. An adaptive model for vanadium redox flow battery and its application for online peak power estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Meng, Shujuan; Tseng, King Jet; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Soong, Boon Hee; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2017-03-01

    An accurate battery model is the prerequisite for reliable state estimate of vanadium redox battery (VRB). As the battery model parameters are time varying with operating condition variation and battery aging, the common methods where model parameters are empirical or prescribed offline lacks accuracy and robustness. To address this issue, this paper proposes to use an online adaptive battery model to reproduce the VRB dynamics accurately. The model parameters are online identified with both the recursive least squares (RLS) and the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Performance comparison shows that the RLS is superior with respect to the modeling accuracy, convergence property, and computational complexity. Based on the online identified battery model, an adaptive peak power estimator which incorporates the constraints of voltage limit, SOC limit and design limit of current is proposed to fully exploit the potential of the VRB. Experiments are conducted on a lab-scale VRB system and the proposed peak power estimator is verified with a specifically designed "two-step verification" method. It is shown that different constraints dominate the allowable peak power at different stages of cycling. The influence of prediction time horizon selection on the peak power is also analyzed.

  4. Co-estimation of state-of-charge, capacity and resistance for lithium-ion batteries based on a high-fidelity electrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Linfeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Guoxiu; Jiang, Jiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The numerical solution for an electrochemical model is presented. • Trinal PI observers are used to concurrently estimate SOC, capacity and resistance. • An iteration-approaching method is incorporated to enhance estimation performance. • The robustness against aging and temperature variations is experimentally verified. - Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used as enabling energy storage in many industrial fields. Accurate modeling and state estimation play fundamental roles in ensuring safe, reliable and efficient operation of lithium-ion battery systems. A physics-based electrochemical model (EM) is highly desirable for its inherent ability to push batteries to operate at their physical limits. For state-of-charge (SOC) estimation, the continuous capacity fade and resistance deterioration are more prone to erroneous estimation results. In this paper, trinal proportional-integral (PI) observers with a reduced physics-based EM are proposed to simultaneously estimate SOC, capacity and resistance for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a numerical solution for the employed model is derived. PI observers are then developed to realize the co-estimation of battery SOC, capacity and resistance. The moving-window ampere-hour counting technique and the iteration-approaching method are also incorporated for the estimation accuracy improvement. The robustness of the proposed approach against erroneous initial values, different battery cell aging levels and ambient temperatures is systematically evaluated, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  6. Model-based dynamic multi-parameter method for peak power estimation of lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, F.; Xiong, R.; He, H.; Li, W.; Aussems, J.E.E.

    2012-01-01

    A model-based dynamic multi-parameter method for peak power estimation is proposed for batteries and battery management systems (BMSs) used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The available power must be accurately calculated in order to not damage the battery by over charging or over discharging or

  7. Modeling a constant power load for nickel-hydrogen battery testing using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas B.; Lollar, Louis F.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effort to design and model a constant power load for the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) nickel-hydrogen battery tests is described. The constant power load was designed for three different simulations on the batteries: life cycling, reconditioning, and capacity testing. A dc-dc boost converter was designed to act as this constant power load. A boost converter design was chosen because of the low test battery voltage (4 to 6 VDC) generated and the relatively high power requirement of 60 to 70 W. The SPICE model was shown to consistently predict variations in the actual circuit as various designs were attempted. It is concluded that the confidence established in the SPICE model of the constant power load ensures its extensive utilization in future efforts to improve performance in the actual load circuit.

  8. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  9. Fabrication, characterization, and modeling of a biodegradable battery for transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edupuganti, Vineet; Solanki, Raj

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, emphasis has been placed on durable, long-lasting electronics. However, electronics that are meant to intentionally degrade over time can actually have significant practical applications. Biodegradable, or transient, electronics would open up opportunities in the field of medical implants, where the need for surgical removal of devices could be eliminated. Environmental sensors and, eventually, consumer electronics would also greatly benefit from this technology. An essential component of transient electronics is the battery, which serves as a biodegradable power source. This work involves the fabrication, characterization, and modeling of a magnesium-based biodegradable battery. Galvanostatic discharge tests show that an anode material of magnesium alloy AZ31 extends battery lifetime by over six times, as compared to pure magnesium. With AZ31, the maximum power and capacity of the fabricated device are 67 μW and 5.2 mAh, respectively, though the anode area is just 0.8 cm2. The development of an equivalent circuit model provided insight into the battery's behavior by extracting fitting parameters from experimental data. The model can accurately simulate device behavior, taking into account its intentional degradation. The size of the device and the power it produces are in accordance with typical levels for low-power transient systems.

  10. NREL Multiphysics Modeling Tools and ISC Device for Designing Safer Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Yang, Chuanbo

    2016-03-24

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a portfolio of multiphysics modeling tools to aid battery designers better understand the response of lithium ion batteries to abusive conditions. We will discuss this portfolio, which includes coupled electrical, thermal, chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical modeling. These models can simulate the response of a cell to overheating, overcharge, mechanical deformation, nail penetration, and internal short circuit. Cell-to-cell thermal propagation modeling will be discussed.

  11. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pannala, Sreekanth [Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), Houston, TX (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  12. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery's capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  13. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  14. A naive Bayes model for robust remaining useful life prediction of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Selina S.Y.; Xing, Yinjiao; Tsui, Kwok L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Robustness of RUL predictions for lithium-ion batteries is analyzed quantitatively. • RUL predictions of the same battery over cycle life are evaluated. • RUL predictions of batteries over different operating conditions are evaluated. • Naive Bayes (NB) is proposed for predictions under constant discharge environments. • Its robustness and accuracy are compared with that of support vector machine (SVM). - Abstract: Online state-of-health (SoH) estimation and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction is a critical problem in battery health management. This paper studies the modeling of battery degradation under different usage conditions and ambient temperatures, which is seldom considered in the literature. Li-ion battery RUL prediction under constant operating conditions at different values of ambient temperature and discharge current are considered. A naive Bayes (NB) model is proposed for RUL prediction of batteries under different operating conditions. It is shown in this analysis that under constant discharge environments, the RUL of Li-ion batteries can be predicted with the NB method, irrespective of the exact values of the operating conditions. The case study shows that the NB generates stable and competitive prediction performance over that of the support vector machine (SVM). This also suggests that, while it is well known that the environmental conditions have big impact on the degradation trend, it is the changes in operating conditions of a Li-ion battery over cycle life that makes the Li-ion battery degradation and RUL prediction even more difficult

  15. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Madani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific heat capacity, entropic heat coefficient, and thermal conductivity in order to design suitable thermal management system.

  16. Simulation of Ni-63 based nuclear micro battery using Monte Carlo modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The radioisotope batteries have an energy density of 100-10000 times greater than chemical batteries. Also, Li ion battery has the fundamental problems such as short life time and requires recharge system. In addition to these things, the existing batteries are hard to operate at internal human body, national defense arms or space environment. Since the development of semiconductor process and materials technology, the micro device is much more integrated. It is expected that, based on new semiconductor technology, the conversion device efficiency of betavoltaic battery will be highly increased. Furthermore, the radioactivity from the beta particle cannot penetrate a skin of human body, so it is safer than Li battery which has the probability to explosion. In the other words, the interest for radioisotope battery is increased because it can be applicable to an artificial internal organ power source without recharge and replacement, micro sensor applied to arctic and special environment, small size military equipment and space industry. However, there is not enough data for beta particle fluence from radioisotope source using nuclear battery. Beta particle fluence directly influences on battery efficiency and it is seriously affected by radioisotope source thickness because of self-absorption effect. Therefore, in this article, we present a basic design of Ni-63 nuclear battery and simulation data of beta particle fluence with various thickness of radioisotope source and design of battery

  17. End-of-Discharge and End-of-Life Prediction in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Electrochemistry-Based Aging Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Kulkarni, Chetan S.

    2016-01-01

    As batteries become increasingly prevalent in complex systems such as aircraft and electric cars, monitoring and predicting battery state of charge and state of health becomes critical. In order to accurately predict the remaining battery power to support system operations for informed operational decision-making, age-dependent changes in dynamics must be accounted for. Using an electrochemistry-based model, we investigate how key parameters of the battery change as aging occurs, and develop models to describe aging through these key parameters. Using these models, we demonstrate how we can (i) accurately predict end-of-discharge for aged batteries, and (ii) predict the end-of-life of a battery as a function of anticipated usage. The approach is validated through an experimental set of randomized discharge profiles.

  18. Lithium-Ion Battery Power Degradation Modelling by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique as an alternative to the DC pulses technique for estimating the power capability decrease of Lithium-ion batteries during calendar ageing. Based on results obtained from calendar ageing tests performed...... at different conditions during one to two years, a generalized model that estimates the battery power capability decrease as function of the resistance Rs increase (obtained from EIS) was proposed and successfully verified....

  19. Coupled electrochemical thermal modelling of a novel Li-ion battery pack thermal management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Sohn, Dong Kee; Yeo, Taejung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional electrochemical thermal model of Li-ion battery pack using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). • Novel pack design for compact liquid cooling based thermal management system. • Simple temperature estimation algorithm for the cells in the pack using the results from the model. • Sensitivity of the thermal performance to contact resistance has been investigated. - Abstract: Thermal management system is of critical importance for a Li-ion battery pack, as high performance and long battery pack life can be simultaneously achieved when operated within a narrow range of temperature around the room temperature. An efficient thermal management system is required to keep the battery temperature in this range, despite widely varying operating conditions. A novel liquid coolant based thermal management system, for 18,650 battery pack has been introduced herein. This system is designed to be compact and economical without compromising safety. A coupled three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical thermal model is constructed for the proposed Li-ion battery pack. The model is used to evaluate the effects of different operating conditions like coolant flow-rate and discharge current on the pack temperature. Contact resistance is found to have the strongest impact on the thermal performance of the pack. From the numerical solution, a simple and novel temperature correlation of predicting the temperatures of all the individual cells given the temperature measurement of one cell is devised and validated with experimental results. Such coefficients have great potential of reducing the sensor requirement and complexity in a large Li-ion battery pack, typical of an electric vehicle.

  20. An Overview of Different Approaches for Battery Lifetime Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy and the continuous improvement of the power supply reliability, battery energy storage technology has been wildly used in power system. Battery degradation is a nonnegligible issue when battery energy storage system participates in system design and operation strategies optimization. The health assessment and remaining cycle life estimation of battery gradually become a challenge and research hotspot in many engineering areas. In this paper, the battery capacity falling and internal resistance increase are presented on the basis of chemical reactions inside the battery. The general life prediction models are analysed from several aspects. The characteristics of them as well as their application scenarios are discussed in the survey. In addition, a novel weighted Ah ageing model with the introduction of the Ragone curve is proposed to provide a detailed understanding of the ageing processes. A rigorous proof of the mathematical theory about the proposed model is given in the paper.

  1. Thermal modelling of Li-ion polymer battery for electric vehicle drive cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Salvio; Chung, Yongmann M.

    2012-09-01

    Time-dependent, thermal behaviour of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) polymer cell has been modelled for electric vehicle (EV) drive cycles with a view to developing an effective battery thermal management system. The fully coupled, three-dimensional transient electro-thermal model has been implemented based on a finite volume method. To support the numerical study, a high energy density Li-ion polymer pouch cell was tested in a climatic chamber for electric load cycles consisting of various charge and discharge rates, and a good agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimental data. The cell-level thermal behaviour under stressful conditions such as high power draw and high ambient temperature was predicted with the model. A significant temperature increase was observed in the stressful condition, corresponding to a repeated acceleration and deceleration, indicating that an effective battery thermal management system would be required to maintain the optimal cell performance and also to achieve a full battery lifesapn.

  2. Extensive EIS characterization of commercially available lithium polymer battery cell for performance modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    or degradation of an electrochemical system. Used for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, this method allows for a fast and accurate assessment of the battery's impedance at any working point, without modifying the state of the battery. The influence of the operating conditions, state of charge (SOC) and temperature...... on the performance of a commercially available 53 Ah Lithium polymer battery cell, manufactured by Kokam Co. Ltd., is investigated in laboratory experiments, at its beginning of life, by means of EIS. A data fitting algorithm was used to obtain the parameter values for the proposed equivalent electrical circuit......, which was further selected for the development of an accurate EIS based performance model for the chosen Li-ion battery cell....

  3. A computationally efficient implementation of a full and reduced-order electrochemistry-based model for Li-Ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Najafi, E.; Li, Z.; Bergveld, H.J.; Donkers, M.C.F.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are commonly employed in various applications owing to high energy density and long service life. Lithium-ion battery models are used for analysing batteries and enabling power control in applications. The Doyle-Fuller-Newman (DFN) model is a popular electrochemistry-based

  4. An Empirical Rate Constant Based Model to Study Capacity Fading in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivatsan Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model based on solvent diffusion and kinetics to study the formation of the SEI (solid electrolyte interphase layer and its impact on the capacity of a lithium ion battery is developed. The model uses the earlier work on silicon oxidation but studies the kinetic limitations of the SEI growth process. The rate constant of the SEI formation reaction at the anode is seen to play a major role in film formation. The kinetics of the reactions for capacity fading for various battery systems are studied and the rate constants are evaluated. The model is used to fit the capacity fade in different battery systems.

  5. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Latz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  6. Surface analysis of Li-ion battery model anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemayer, Andreas; Bach, Philipp; Renner, Frank Uwe [Max Planck Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Lithium ion batteries are the most promising power source for future electromobility applications. Research on the battery systems aims to achieve higher rate capability, cycle life, or better safety. To achieve necessary further improvements a better understanding of the basic processes is needed. Following a surface science approach we focus on the investigation of simple model systems (like single crystals or thin film electrodes) of relevant anode materials. We report investigations of the electrochemical insertion of lithium in Au, Ag, Al, Mg and Si model surfaces, i.e. alloying and dealloying of lithium alloys. As electrolyte we use the ionic liquid 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesolfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) with 0.3M LiTFSI. The electrochemical characterisation is performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The surface and film characterisation regarding its geometrical structure is investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The chemical composition is characterised ex-situ by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

  7. Energy Storage Scheduling with an Advanced Battery Model: A Game–Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Pilz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems will play a key role for individual users in the future smart grid. They serve two purposes: (i handling the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for a more reliable and efficient system; and (ii preventing the impact of blackouts on users and allowing for more independence from the grid, while saving money through load-shifting. In this paper we investigate the latter scenario by looking at a neighbourhood of 25 households whose demand is satisfied by one utility company. Assuming the users possess lithium-ion batteries, we answer the question of how each household can make the best use of their individual storage system given a real-time pricing policy. To this end, each user is modelled as a player of a non-cooperative scheduling game. The novelty of the game lies in the advanced battery model, which incorporates charging and discharging characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The action set for each player comprises day-ahead schedules of their respective battery usage. We analyse different user behaviour and are able to obtain a realistic and applicable understanding of the potential of these systems. As a result, we show the correlation between the efficiency of the battery and the outcome of the game.

  8. Design and simulation of liquid cooled system for power battery of PHEV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianpeng; Xu, Haijun; Xu, Xiaojun; Pan, Cunyun

    2017-09-01

    Various battery chemistries have different responses to failure, but the most common failure mode of a cell under abusive conditions is the generation of heat and gas. To prevent battery thermal abuse, a battery thermal management system is essential. An excellent design of battery thermal management system can ensure that the battery is working at a suitable temperature and keeps the battery temperature diffenence at 2-3 °C. This paper presents a thermal-elcetric coupling model for a 37Ah lithium battery using AMESim. A liquid cooled system of hybrid electric vehicle power battery is designed to control the battery temperature.A liquid cooled model of thermal management system is built using AMESim, the simulation results showed that the temperature difference within 3°C of cell in the pack.

  9. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  10. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  12. Non-isothermal modelling of the all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fetlawi, H.; Shah, A.A.; Walsh, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    An non-isothermal model for the all-vanadium redox flow battery (RFB) is presented. The two-dimensional model is based on a comprehensive description of mass, charge, energy and momentum transport and conservation, and is combined with a global kinetic model for reactions involving vanadium species. Heat is generated as a result of activation losses, electrochemical reaction and ohmic resistance. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effects of changes in the operating temperature on performance. It is shown that variations in the electrolyte flow rate and the magnitude of the applied current substantially alter the charge/discharge characteristics, the temperature rise and the distribution of temperature. The influence of heat losses on the charge/discharge behaviour and temperature distribution is investigated. Conditions for localised heating and membrane degradation are discussed.

  13. Characterization and modeling of the thermal mechanics of lithium-ion battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal swelling shape is different than Li-ion intercalation swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature and gap creation leads to a convex shape at free conditions. • Important parameters of thermal mechanics are estimated through experiments. • A coupled thermal-structural analysis accurately predicts thermal swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature still plays a critical role at pack conditions. - Abstract: The thermal mechanics of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is explored with a focus on thermal swelling. Experiments show for the first time that the swelling shape of prismatic battery cells due to temperature variations is significantly different from that due to Li-ion intercalation in unconstrained conditions. In contrast to uniform and orthotropic Li-ion intercalation swelling in a direction perpendicular to electrodes, the nonuniform temperature distribution in the jellyroll and the gaps/voids between electrodes result in distinguishable different swelling shapes. A unique coupled thermal-structural analysis with a simple, but efficient 3-D finite numerical model is proposed to investigate the impact of temperature variations on the thermal behaviors of battery cells. Anisotropic heat conduction and temperature dependency of the coefficient of thermal expansion are taken into account and found to have an impact on temperature distribution and thermal expansion. Experimental validation of the proposed model clearly demonstrates that the coupled thermal-structural analysis with the proposed model can predict accurately the thermal swelling at unconstrained conditions. The solution at pack (constrained) conditions shows that the nonuniform temperature distribution of the jellyroll still plays a critical role for the thermal swelling shape, although the gaps/voids do not occur because of the constraints from spacers in the pack, suggesting that the estimation of core temperature is important. Such an accurate model, able to estimate cell

  14. Battery Simulation Tool for Worst Case Analysis and Mission Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefeuvre Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the PSpice models including their respective variable parameters at SBS and cell level. Then the second part of the paper introduces to the reader the model parameters that were chosen and identified to perform Monte Carlo Analysis simulations. The third part reflects some MCA results for a VES16 battery module. Finally the reader will see some other simulations that were performed by re-using the battery model for an another Saft battery cell type (MP XTD for a specific space application, at high temperature.

  15. A Real-Time Joint Estimator for Model Parameters and State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1 In view of the model-based SoC estimation flow diagram, the n-order resistance-capacitance (RC battery model is proposed and expected to accurately simulate the battery’s major time-variable, nonlinear characteristics. Then, the mathematical equations for model parameter identification and SoC estimation of this model are constructed. (2 The Akaike information criterion is used to determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision for the n-order RC battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order RC battery model is thought to be the best based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC values. (3 The real-time joint estimator for the model parameter and SoC is constructed, and the application based on two battery types indicates that the proposed SoC estimator is a closed-loop identification system where the model parameter identification and SoC estimation are corrected mutually, adaptively and simultaneously according to the observer values. The maximum SoC estimation error is less than 1% for both battery types, even against the inaccurate initial SoC.

  16. Thermal Behavior and Heat Generation Modeling of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence of the tempe......Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence...... of the temperature on the performance parameters of a 3.4 Ah Lithium-Sulfur battery cell. Furthermore, the values of the internal resistance and entropic heat coefficient, which are necessary for the parametrization of a heat generation model, are determined experimentally....

  17. Generalized Characterization Methodology for Performance Modelling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are complex energy storage devices with their performance behavior highly dependent on the operating conditions (i.e., temperature, load current, and state-of-charge (SOC)). Thus, in order to evaluate their techno-economic viability for a certain application, detailed...... information about Li-ion battery performance behavior becomes necessary. This paper proposes a comprehensive seven-step methodology for laboratory characterization of Li-ion batteries, in which the battery’s performance parameters (i.e., capacity, open-circuit voltage (OCV), and impedance) are determined...... and their dependence on the operating conditions are obtained. Furthermore, this paper proposes a novel hybrid procedure for parameterizing the batteries’ equivalent electrical circuit (EEC), which is used to emulate the batteries’ dynamic behavior. Based on this novel parameterization procedure, the performance model...

  18. Influence of Battery Parametric Uncertainties on the State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-Based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Meng, Jinhao; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    to describe the battery dynamics. The SOC estimation method proposed in this paper is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and nonlinear battery model which was parameterized using extended laboratory tests performed on several 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries. The developed......State of charge (SOC) is one of the most important parameters in battery management systems, as it indicates the available battery capacity at every moment. There are numerous battery model-based methods used for SOC estimation, the accuracy of which depends on the accuracy of the model considered...... a sensitivity analysis it was showed that the SOC and voltage estimation error are only slightly dependent on the variation of the battery model parameters with the SOC....

  19. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  20. Model-based fault diagnosis approach on external short circuit of lithium-ion battery used in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zeyu; Xiong, Rui; Tian, Jinpeng; Shang, Xiong; Lu, Jiahuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The characteristics of ESC fault of lithium-ion battery are investigated experimentally. • The proposed method to simulate the electrical behavior of ESC fault is viable. • Ten parameters in the presented fault model were optimized using a DPSO algorithm. • A two-layer model-based fault diagnosis approach for battery ESC is proposed. • The effective and robustness of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated. - Abstract: This study investigates the external short circuit (ESC) fault characteristics of lithium-ion battery experimentally. An experiment platform is established and the ESC tests are implemented on ten 18650-type lithium cells considering different state-of-charges (SOCs). Based on the experiment results, several efforts have been made. (1) The ESC process can be divided into two periods and the electrical and thermal behaviors within these two periods are analyzed. (2) A modified first-order RC model is employed to simulate the electrical behavior of the lithium cell in the ESC fault process. The model parameters are re-identified by a dynamic-neighborhood particle swarm optimization algorithm. (3) A two-layer model-based ESC fault diagnosis algorithm is proposed. The first layer conducts preliminary fault detection and the second layer gives a precise model-based diagnosis. Four new cells are short-circuited to evaluate the proposed algorithm. It shows that the ESC fault can be diagnosed within 5 s, the error between the model and measured data is less than 0.36 V. The effectiveness of the fault diagnosis algorithm is not sensitive to the precision of battery SOC. The proposed algorithm can still make the correct diagnosis even if there is 10% error in SOC estimation.

  1. Thermal mathematical modeling of a multicell common pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbom; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional and time-dependent thermal model of a multicell common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel-hydrogen battery was developed. A finite element solver called PDE/Protran was used to solve this model. The model was used to investigate the effects of various design parameters on the temperature profile within the cell. The results were used to help find a design that will yield an acceptable temperature gradient inside a multicell CPV nickel-hydrogen battery. Steady-state and unsteady-state cases with a constant heat generation rate and a time-dependent heat generation rate were solved.

  2. Lifetime Models for Lithium-ion Batteries used in Virtual Power Plant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    ; however, because of their advantages, which include fast response, high efficiency, long lifetime and environmental friendliness, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries represent suitable candidates for integration within VPPs, especially when they are required to provide short- and medium-time services....... The family of Li-ion batteries is broad with many different chemistries available at present on the market. Nonetheless, the Li-ion battery based on the lithium iron phosphate/graphite (further referred LFP/C) chemistry is investigated in this thesis. The lifetime of the Li-ion battery ESS represents a key...... parameter in the analysis of the economic feasibility of integrating such systems in WPPs. Even though their price is decreasing due to the research carried out mainly in the automotive sector, Li-ion batteries are still expensive energy storage devices. Therefore, accurate information about Li...

  3. A mathematical model for the iron/chromium redox battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedkiw, P. S.; Watts, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the isothermal operation of a single anode-separator-cathode unit cell in a redox-flow battery and has been applied to the NASA iron/chromium system. The model, based on porous electrode theory, incorporates redox kinetics, mass transfer, and ohmic effects as well as the parasitic hydrogen reaction which occurs in the chromium electrode. A numerical parameter study was carried out to predict cell performance to aid in the rational design, scale-up, and operation of the flow battery. The calculations demonstrate: (1) an optimum electrode thickness and electrolyte flow rate exist; (2) the amount of hydrogen evolved and, hence, cycle faradaic efficiency, can be affected by cell geometry, flow rate, and charging procedure; (3) countercurrent flow results in enhanced cell performance over cocurrent flow; and (4) elevated temperature operation enhances cell performance.

  4. Lithium-ion battery capacity fading dynamics modelling for formulation optimization: A stochastic approach to accelerate the design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Laifa; Cheng, Yujie; Lu, Chen; Su, Yuzhuan; Chong, Jin; Jin, Haizu; Lin, Yongshou; Noktehdan, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The model is linked to known physicochemical degradation processes and material properties. •Aging dynamics of various battery formulations can be understood by the proposed model. •Large number of experiments will be reduced to accelerate the battery design process. •This approach can describe batteries under various operating conditions. •The proposed model is simple and easily implemented. -- Abstract: A five-state nonhomogeneous Markov chain model, which is an effective and promising way to accelerate the Li-ion battery design process by investigating the capacity fading dynamics of different formulations during the battery design phase, is reported. The parameters of this model are linked to known physicochemical degradation dynamics and material properties. Herein, the states and behaviors of the active materials in Li-ion batteries are modelled. To verify the efficiency of the proposed model, a dataset from approximately 3 years of cycling capacity fading experiments of various formulations using several different materials provided by Contemporary Amperex Technology Limited (CATL), as well as a NASA dataset, are employed. The capabilities of the proposed model for different amounts (50%, 70%, and 90%) of available experimental capacity data are tested and analyzed to assist with the final design determination for manufacturers. The average relative errors of life cycling prediction acquired from these tests are less than 2.4%, 0.8%, and 0.3%, even when only 50%, 70%, and 90% of the data, respectively, is available for different anode materials, electrolyte materials, and individual batteries. Furthermore, the variance is 0.518% when only 50% of the data are available; i.e., one can save at least 50% of the total experimental time and cost with an accuracy greater than 97% in the design phase, which demonstrates an effective and promising way to accelerate the Li-ion battery design process. The qualitative and quantitative analyses

  5. Predictive Model Based Battery Constraints for Electric Motor Control within EV Powertrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roşca, B.; Wilkins, S.; Jacob, J.; Hoedemaekers, E.R.G.; Hoek, S.P. van den

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method of predicting the maximum power capability of a Li-Ion battery, to be used for electric motor control within automotive powertrains. As maximum power is highly dependent on battery state, the method consists of a pack level state observer coupled with a predictive

  6. Simulation of hybrid vehicle propulsion with an advanced battery model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallabolu, S.; Kostetzer, L.; Rudnyi, E. [CADFEM GmbH, Grafing (Germany); Geppert, M.; Quinger, D. [LION Smart GmbH, Frieding (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years there has been observed an increasing concern about global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to the environmental issues the predicted scarcity of oil supplies and the dramatic increase in oil price puts new demands on vehicle design. As a result energy efficiency and reduced emission have become one of main selling point for automobiles. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have therefore become an interesting technology for the governments and automotive industries. HEV are more complicated compared to conventional vehicles due to the fact that these vehicles contain more electrical components such as electric machines, power electronics, electronic continuously variable transmissions (CVT), and embedded powertrain controllers. Advanced energy storage devices and energy converters, such as Li-ion batteries, ultracapacitors, and fuel cells are also considered. A detailed vehicle model used for an energy flow analysis and vehicle performance simulation is necessary. Computer simulation is indispensible to facilitate the examination of the vast hybrid electric vehicle design space with the aim to predict the vehicle performance over driving profiles, estimate fuel consumption and the pollution emissions. There are various types of mathematical models and simulators available to perform system simulation of vehicle propulsion. One of the standard methods to model the complete vehicle powertrain is ''backward quasistatic modeling''. In this method vehicle subsystems are defined based on experiential models in the form of look-up tables and efficiency maps. The interaction between adjacent subsystems of the vehicle is defined through the amount of power flow. Modeling the vehicle subsystems like motor, engine, gearbox and battery is under this technique is based on block diagrams. The vehicle model is applied in two case studies to evaluate the vehicle performance and fuel consumption. In the first case study the affect

  7. On-board adaptive model for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on Kalman filter with proportional integral-based error adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of battery-powered electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery plays a critical role in the reliability of vehicle system. In order to provide timely management and protection for battery systems, it is necessary to develop a reliable battery model and accurate battery parameters estimation to describe battery dynamic behaviors. Therefore, this paper focuses on an on-board adaptive model for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a first-order equivalent circuit battery model is employed to describe battery dynamic characteristics. Then, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide good initial values of model parameters to ensure filter stability and reduce the convergence time. Thirdly, an extended-Kalman-filter (EKF) is applied to on-line estimate battery SOC and model parameters. Considering that the EKF is essentially a first-order Taylor approximation of battery model, which contains inevitable model errors, thus, a proportional integral-based error adjustment technique is employed to improve the performance of EKF method and correct model parameters. Finally, the experimental results on lithium-ion batteries indicate that the proposed EKF with proportional integral-based error adjustment method can provide robust and accurate battery model and on-line parameter estimation.

  8. The battery market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually at present. The geographical distribution of this market is shown in this paper. The American (North and South), Western Europe and Africa, and Asian and Australia represent equal markets of $6 billion each. The communist block countries (including Russia and China) are estimated to represent a $3 billion market. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. Industrial batteries make up the rest. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries (automotive, for example) have only 60% share of the world battery consumption. Primary batteries (most toy batteries that are the throw away type) exceed rechargeables by far in units. However, the larger size of rechargeable batteries makes their total value larger despite the small number of units

  9. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  10. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  11. Accurate Online Full Charge Capacity Modeling of Smartphone Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Siekkinen, Matti; Koo, Jonghoe; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2016-01-01

    Full charge capacity (FCC) refers to the amount of energy a battery can hold. It is the fundamental property of smartphone batteries that diminishes as the battery ages and is charged/discharged. We investigate the behavior of smartphone batteries while charging and demonstrate that the battery voltage and charging rate information can together characterize the FCC of a battery. We propose a new method for accurately estimating FCC without exposing low-level system details or introducing new ...

  12. Model Predictive Control for Distributed Microgrid Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morstyn, Thomas; Hredzak, Branislav; Aguilera, Ricardo P.

    2018-01-01

    , and converter current constraints to be addressed. In addition, nonlinear variations in the charge and discharge efficiencies of lithium ion batteries are analyzed and included in the control strategy. Real-time digital simulations were carried out for an islanded microgrid based on the IEEE 13 bus prototypical......This brief proposes a new convex model predictive control (MPC) strategy for dynamic optimal power flow between battery energy storage (ES) systems distributed in an ac microgrid. The proposed control strategy uses a new problem formulation, based on a linear $d$ – $q$ reference frame voltage...... feeder, with distributed battery ES systems and intermittent photovoltaic generation. It is shown that the proposed control strategy approaches the performance of a strategy based on nonconvex optimization, while reducing the required computation time by a factor of 1000, making it suitable for a real...

  13. Life Modeling for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries in Geosynchronous Satellite Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, A. H; Ang, V. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The model has been used to predict how properly designed and operated nickel-hydrogen battery lifetimes should depend on the operating environments and charge control methods typically used in GEO operation...

  14. Electro-thermal modelling of polymer lithium batteries for starting period and pulse power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudry, P. [Electricite de France DER, Site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Neri, M. [Electricite de France DER, Site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Gueguen, M. [Bollore Technologies, Odet, 29 Quimper (France); Lonchampt, G. [CEA/CEREM, CENG-85X, 38 Grenoble (France)

    1995-04-01

    Since power capabilities of solid polymer lithium batteries can only be delivered above 60 C, the thermal management in electric-vehicle applications has to be carefully considered. Electro-thermal modelling of a thermally insulated 200 kg battery was performed, and electrochemical data were obtained from laboratory cell impedance measurements at 20 and 80 C. Starting at 20 C as initial working temperature, the battery reaches 40 C after 150 s of discharge in a 0.5 {Omega} resistance. At 40 C, the useful peak power is 20 kW. The energy expense for heating the battery from 20 to 40 C is 1.4 kWh, corresponding to 6% of the energy available in the battery. After a stand-by period of 24 h, the temperature decreases from 80 to 50 C, allowing efficient starting conditions. (orig.)

  15. State-of-charge inconsistency estimation of lithium-ion battery pack using mean-difference model and extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Gao, Wenkai; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Zhou, Long; Han, Xuebing

    2018-04-01

    State-of-charge (SOC) inconsistency impacts the power, durability and safety of the battery pack. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the SOC inconsistency of the battery pack with good accuracy. We explore a novel method for modeling and estimating the SOC inconsistency of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack with low computation effort. In this method, a second-order RC model is selected as the cell mean model (CMM) to represent the overall performance of the battery pack. A hypothetical Rint model is employed as the cell difference model (CDM) to evaluate the SOC difference. The parameters of mean-difference model (MDM) are identified with particle swarm optimization (PSO). Subsequently, the mean SOC and the cell SOC differences are estimated by using extended Kalman filter (EKF). Finally, we conduct an experiment on a small Li-ion battery pack with twelve cells connected in series. The results show that the evaluated SOC difference is capable of tracking the changing of actual value after a quick convergence.

  16. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  17. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  18. Thermal modeling of nickel-hydrogen battery cells operating under transient orbital conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, Dean S.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical study of the thermal operating characteristics of nickel-hydrogen battery cells is presented. Combined finite-element and finite-difference techniques are employed to arrive at a computationally efficient composite thermal model representing a series-cell arrangement operating in conjunction with a radiately coupled baseplate and coldplate thermal bus. An aggressive, low-mass design approach indicates that thermal considerations can and should direct the design of the thermal bus arrangement. Special consideration is given to the potential for mixed conductive and convective processes across the hydrogen gap. Results of a compressible flow model are presented and indicate the transfer process is suitably represented by molecular conduction. A high-fidelity thermal model of the cell stack (and related components) indicates the presence of axial and radial temperature gradients. A detailed model of the thermal bus reveals the thermal interaction of individual cells and is imperative for assessing the intercell temperature gradients.

  19. Mechanical characterization and modeling for anodes and cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lubing; Yin, Sha; Zhang, Chao; Huan, Yong; Xu, Jun

    2018-07-01

    Mechanical properties of electrode materials have significant influence over electrochemical properties as well as mechanical integrity of lithium-ion battery cells. Here, anode and cathode in a commercially available 18650 NCA (Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide)/graphite cell were comprehensively studied by tensile tests considering material anisotropy, SOC (state of charge), strain rate and electrolyte content. Results showed that the mechanical properties of both electrodes were highly dependent on strain rate and electrolyte content; however, anode was SOC dependent while cathode was not. Besides, coupled effects of strain rate and SOC of anodes were also discussed. SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of surfaces and cross-sections of electrodes showed the fracture morphology. In addition, mechanical behavior of Cu foil separated from anode with different SOC values were studied and compared. Finally, constitutive models of electrodes considering both strain rate and anisotropy effects were established. This study reveals the relationship between electrochemical dependent mechanical behavior of the electrodes. The established mechanical models of electrodes can be applied to the numerical computation of battery cells. Results are essential to predict the mechanical responses as well as the deformation of battery cell under various loading conditions, facilitating safer battery design and manufacturing.

  20. Economic models for battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckrodt, R.C.; Anderson, M.D.; Kluczny, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    While the technology required to produce viable Battery Energy Storage System exists, the economic feasibility (cost vs. benefits) of building these systems requires justification. First, a generalized decision diagram was developed to ensure that all of the economic factors were considered and properly related for the customer-side-of-the meter. Next, two economic models that had consistently given differing results were compared. One was the McKinney model developed at UM-Rolla in 1987; the second was the SYSPLAN model developed by Battelle. Differences were resolved on a point by point basis with reference to the current economic environment. The economic model was upgraded to include the best of both models based on the resolution of these differences. The upgrades were implemented as modifications to the original SYSPLAN (1986 version) to preserve user friendliness. In this paper four specific cases are evaluated and compared. The results are as predicted, since comparison was made with two known models

  1. Electrochemical-thermal Modeling to Evaluate Active Thermal Management of a Lithium-ion Battery Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahiraei, Farid; Fartaj, Amir; Nazri, Gholam-Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in hybrid electric and full electric vehicles (HEV and EV). In HEV, thermal management is a strict requirement to control the batteries temperature within an optimal range in order to enhance performance, safety, reduce cost, and prolong the batteries lifetime. The optimum design of a thermal management system depends on the thermo-electrochemical behavior of the batteries, operating conditions, and weight and volume constraints. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of various operating and design parameters on the thermal performance of a battery module consisted of six building block cells. An electrochemical-thermal model coupled to conjugate heat transfer and fluid dynamics simulations is used to assess the effectiveness of two indirect liquid thermal management approaches under the FUDC driving cycle. In this study, a novel pseudo 3D electrochemical-thermal model of the battery is used. It is found that the cooling plate thickness has a significant effect on the maximum and gradient of temperature in the module. Increasing the Reynolds number decreases the average temperature but at the expense of temperature uniformity. The results show that double channel cooling system has a lower maximum temperature and more uniform temperature distribution compared to a single channel cooling system.

  2. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  3. Integration of sampling based battery state of health estimation method in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkurt, Celil; Camci, Fatih; Atamuradov, Vepa; Odorry, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of a prototype system with full charge discharge cycling capability. • Presentation of SoH estimation results for systems degraded in the lab. • Discussion of integration alternatives of the presented method in EVs. • Simulation model based on presented SoH estimation for a real EV battery system. • Optimization of number of battery cells to be selected for SoH test. - Abstract: Battery cost is one of the crucial parameters affecting high deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) negatively. Accurate State of Health (SoH) estimation plays an important role in reducing the total ownership cost, availability, and safety of the battery avoiding early disposal of the batteries and decreasing unexpected failures. A circuit design for SoH estimation in a battery system that bases on selected battery cells and its integration to EVs are presented in this paper. A prototype microcontroller has been developed and used for accelerated aging tests for a battery system. The data collected in the lab tests have been utilized to simulate a real EV battery system. Results of accelerated aging tests and simulation have been presented in the paper. The paper also discusses identification of the best number of battery cells to be selected for SoH estimation test. In addition, different application options of the presented approach for EV batteries have been discussed in the paper.

  4. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  5. Considerations for the Thermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cells for Battery Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Christie, Robert J.; White, Ralph E.

    Recent well-publicized events involving lithium-ion batteries in laptops, electric cars, commercial aircraft and even hover boards have raised concerns regarding thermal runaway -- a phenomenon in which stored energy in a cell is rapidly released as heat along with vented effluents. If not properly...... managed, testing has shown that thermal runaway in a single cell can propagate to other cells in a battery and may lead to a potentially catastrophic event. Lithium-ion batteries are becoming more widely used in a number of human-rated extravehicular activity (EVA) space applications on the International...... Space Station. Thermal modeling in support of thermal runaway propagation mitigation in the Lithium-ion Rechargeable EVA Battery Assembly (LREBA) and the Lithium-on Pistol Grip Tool (LPGT) was pursued to inform design decisions and to understand the results of extensive development testing with the goal...

  6. Thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in intercalation battery electrodes - phenomenological modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Wei, E-mail: laiwei@msu.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ciucci, Francesco [Heidelberg Graduate School of Mathematical and Computational Methods for the Sciences, University of Heidelberg, INF 368 D - 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in intercalation battery electrodes are investigated by phenomenological models which include a mean-field lattice-gas thermodynamic model and a generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation set based on linear irreversible thermodynamics. The application of modeling to a porous intercalation electrode leads to a hierarchical equivalent circuit with elements of explicit physical meanings. The equivalent circuit corresponding to the intercalation particle of planar, cylindrical and spherical symmetry is reduced to a diffusion equation with concentration dependent diffusivity. The numerical analysis of the diffusion equation suggests the front propagation behavior during phase transformation. The present treatment is also compared with the conventional moving boundary and phase field approaches.

  7. Second International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-24

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at New Port Beach, U.S., from July 24 through 28, 1989. At the utility energy storage session, it is found that the 100kW-capable Na-S battery system of the Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., works effectively in levelling peakloads at storage efficiency of 70%. A Chino lead-acid battery system is also described. A lead-acid battery system of the BEWAG Corporation of Germany equipped with tubular electrodes is described. For application by the consuming party, system behavior relative to duty cycle control, sudden request for energy storage, power factor, and load adjustment is discussed. Use of a valve-controlled lead-acid battery is introduced, which is to be used as a stand-by system (such as an uninterruptible power supply) or for certain types of cyclic duties. At the 4th session, economic and technical models are exhibited. Computer-aided peakload prediction, battery storage system technology, economic parameters, profitability, etc., are explained for use by the consuming party in a peakload shaving battery system. The Zn/Br battery, redox-flow battery, and other advanced technologies are also presented. (NEDO)

  8. Optimal power flow management for distributed energy resources with batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazvinga, Henerica; Zhu, Bing; Xia, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV-diesel-battery hybrid system is proposed. • Model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs. • Power flows are analysed in a 24-h period. • Results provide a practical platform for decision making. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal energy management model of a solar photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid power supply system for off-grid applications. The aim is to meet the load demand completely while satisfying the system constraints. The proposed model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs and finds the optimal power flow, taking into account photovoltaic power availability, battery bank state of charge and load power demand. The optimal solutions are compared for cases when the objectives are weighted equally and when a larger weight is assigned to battery wear. A considerable increase in system operational cost is observed in the latter case owing to the increased usage of the diesel generator. The results are important for decision makers, as they depict the optimal decisions considered in the presence of trade-offs between conflicting objectives

  9. A Thermal Runaway Simulation on a Lithium Titanate Battery and the Battery Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the electrochemical and thermal model, a coupled electro-thermal runaway model was developed and implemented using finite element methods. The thermal decomposition reactions when the battery temperature exceeds the material decomposition temperature were embedded into the model. The temperature variations of a lithium titanate battery during a series of charge-discharge cycles under different current rates were simulated. The results of temperature and heat generation rate demonstrate that the greater the current, the faster the battery temperature is rising. Furthermore, the thermal influence of the overheated cell on surrounding batteries in the module was simulated, and the variation of temperature and heat generation during thermal runaway was obtained. It was found that the overheated cell can induce thermal runaway in other adjacent cells within 3 mm distance in the battery module if the accumulated heat is not dissipated rapidly.

  10. Infinite-Dimensional Boundary Observer for Lithium-Ion Battery State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Agus; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents boundary observer design for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-ion battery dynamics are governed by thermal-electrochemical principles, which mathematically modeled by partial differential equations (PDEs). In general, the model is a reaction......-diffusion equation with time-dependent coefficients. A Luenberger observer is developed using infinite-dimensional backstepping method and uses only a single measurement at the boundary of the battery. The observer gains are computed by solving the observer kernel equation. A numerical example is performed to show...

  11. Environmental characteristics comparison of Li-ion batteries and Ni–MH batteries under the uncertainty of cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yajuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lijing; Bao, Liying; Wu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    An environmental impact assessment model for secondary batteries under uncertainty is proposed, which is a combination of the life cycle assessment (LCA), Eco-indicator 99 system and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The LCA can describe the environmental impact mechanism of secondary batteries, whereas the cycle performance was simulated through MCS. The composite LCA–MCS model was then carried out to estimate the environmental impact of two kinds of experimental batteries. Under this kind of standard assessment system, a comparison between different batteries could be accomplished. The following results were found: (1) among the two selected batteries, the environmental impact of the Li-ion battery is lower than the nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) battery, especially with regards to resource consumption and (2) the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery is less sensitive to cycle uncertainty, its environmental impact fluctuations are small when compared with the selected Ni–MH battery and it is more environmentally friendly. The assessment methodology and model proposed in this paper can also be used for any other secondary batteries and they can be helpful in the development of environmentally friendly secondary batteries.

  12. Development of efficient air-cooling strategies for lithium-ion battery module based on empirical heat source model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Tseng, K.J.; Zhao, Jiyun

    2015-01-01

    Thermal modeling is the key issue in thermal management of lithium-ion battery system, and cooling strategies need to be carefully investigated to guarantee the temperature of batteries in operation within a narrow optimal range as well as provide cost effective and energy saving solutions for cooling system. This article reviews and summarizes the past cooling methods especially forced air cooling and introduces an empirical heat source model which can be widely applied in the battery module/pack thermal modeling. In the development of empirical heat source model, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is employed, and thermal insulation experiments are conducted to provide the key parameters. A transient thermal model of 5 × 5 battery module with forced air cooling is then developed based on the empirical heat source model. Thermal behaviors of battery module under different air cooling conditions, discharge rates and ambient temperatures are characterized and summarized. Varies cooling strategies are simulated and compared in order to obtain an optimal cooling method. Besides, the battery fault conditions are predicted from transient simulation scenarios. The temperature distributions and variations during discharge process are quantitatively described, and it is found that the upper limit of ambient temperature for forced air cooling is 35 °C, and when ambient temperature is lower than 20 °C, forced air-cooling is not necessary. - Highlights: • An empirical heat source model is developed for battery thermal modeling. • Different air-cooling strategies on module thermal characteristics are investigated. • Impact of different discharge rates on module thermal responses are investigated. • Impact of ambient temperatures on module thermal behaviors are investigated. • Locations of maximum temperatures under different operation conditions are studied.

  13. Modeling of a Pouch Lithium Ion Battery Using a Distributed Parameter Equivalent Circuit for Internal Non-Uniformity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A battery model that has the capability of analyzing the internal non-uniformity of local state variables, including the state of charge (SOC, temperature and current density, is proposed in this paper. The model is built using a set of distributed parameter equivalent circuits. In order to validate the accuracy of the model, a customized battery with embedded T-type thermocouple sensors inside the battery is tested. The simulated temperature conforms well with the measured temperature at each test point, and the maximum difference is less than 1 °C. Then, the model is applied to analyze the evolution processes of local state variables’ distribution inside the battery during the discharge process. The simulation results demonstrate drastic distribution changes of the local state variables inside the battery during the discharge process. The internal non-uniformity is originally caused by the resistance of positive and negative foils, while also influenced by the change rate of open circuit voltage and the total resistance of the battery. Hence, the factors that affect the distribution of the local state variables are addressed.

  14. Remaining dischargeable time prediction for lithium-ion batteries using unscented Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Wei, Jingwen; Chen, Zonghai; Sun, Han; Yu, Xiaowei

    2017-10-01

    To overcome the range anxiety, one of the important strategies is to accurately predict the range or dischargeable time of the battery system. To accurately predict the remaining dischargeable time (RDT) of a battery, a RDT prediction framework based on accurate battery modeling and state estimation is presented in this paper. Firstly, a simplified linearized equivalent-circuit-model is developed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of a battery. Then, an online recursive least-square-algorithm method and unscented-Kalman-filter are employed to estimate the system matrices and SOC at every prediction point. Besides, a discrete wavelet transform technique is employed to capture the statistical information of past dynamics of input currents, which are utilized to predict the future battery currents. Finally, the RDT can be predicted based on the battery model, SOC estimation results and predicted future battery currents. The performance of the proposed methodology has been verified by a lithium-ion battery cell. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can provide an accurate SOC and parameter estimation and the predicted RDT can solve the range anxiety issues.

  15. New battery model considering thermal transport and partial charge stationary effects in photovoltaic off-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Gorrachategui, Iván; Bernal, Carlos; Oyarbide, Estanis; Garayalde, Erik; Aizpuru, Iosu; Canales, Jose María; Bono-Nuez, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The optimization of the battery pack in an off-grid Photovoltaic application must consider the minimum sizing that assures the availability of the system under the worst environmental conditions. Thus, it is necessary to predict the evolution of the state of charge of the battery under incomplete daily charging and discharging processes and fluctuating temperatures over day-night cycles. Much of previous development work has been carried out in order to model the short term evolution of battery variables. Many works focus on the on-line parameter estimation of available charge, using standard or advanced estimators, but they are not focused on the development of a model with predictive capabilities. Moreover, normally stable environmental conditions and standard charge-discharge patterns are considered. As the actual cycle-patterns differ from the manufacturer's tests, batteries fail to perform as expected. This paper proposes a novel methodology to model these issues, with predictive capabilities to estimate the remaining charge in a battery after several solar cycles. A new non-linear state space model is proposed as a basis, and the methodology to feed and train the model is introduced. The new methodology is validated using experimental data, providing only 5% of error at higher temperatures than the nominal one.

  16. Experimental Testing Procedures and Dynamic Model Validation for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... efficiency of the battery system. The test procedure has general validity and could also be used for other storage technologies. The storage model proposed and described is suitable for electrical studies and can represent a general model in terms of validity. Finally, the model simulation outputs...

  17. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Fan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error.

  18. Battery electric vehicle energy consumption modelling for range estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Range anxiety is considered as one of the major barriers to the mass adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). One method to solve this problem is to provide accurate range estimation to the driver. This paper describes a vehicle energy consumption model considering the influence of weather

  19. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  20. A pseudo three-dimensional electrochemical–thermal model of a prismatic LiFePO4 battery during discharge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Meng; Zhang, Zhuqian; Wang, Xia; Jia, Li; Yang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    A lithium ion battery consists of numerous electrochemical cell units. Thermal and electrical behaviors of these local cell units have great influence on the battery's performance and safety. To study the relationship between the cell units and the battery cell, a pseudo 3D (three-dimensional) model was developed for a prismatic LiFePO 4 battery by coupling the mass, charge, and energy conservations, as well as the cell electrochemical kinetics. The model treated the battery with current collecting tabs as 3D and the local cell units as 1D. Both electrochemical and thermal characteristics of the battery were studied by using this simplified model during the discharge process. A uniformity index characterizing the SOC (state of charge) distributions among 1D cell units was also introduced. This index was used to investigate the effects of the tab placement on the uniformity of the battery cell. The placement of the positive and negative current collecting tabs on the prismatic battery was found to have a significant effect on the distributions of its potential and local reaction rates, which therefore affect the heat generation rate, and thus the temperature distribution within the battery. - Highlights: • We develop a 3D electrochemical–thermal model for a prismatic LiFePO 4 battery. • Reaction rate distribution is not in a uniform mode due to electrical gradient. • The higher reaction rate, the more quickly the heat generated in local regions. • The temperature is higher in the region close to the tabs than other regions. • Tabs placed on opposite sides will improve the uniformity of thermal distribution

  1. Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, H.F.; Badcock, C.C.; Quinzio, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Metal hydride hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen (Ni/H 2 ) batteries has been shown to increase battery energy density and improve battery heat management capabilities. However the properties of metal hydrides in a Ni/H 2 battery environment, which contains water vapor and oxygen in addition to the hydrogen, have not been well characterized. This work evaluates the use of hydrides in Ni/H 2 batteries by fundamental characterization of metal hydride properties in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Hydrogen sorption properties of various hydrides have been measured in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Results of detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies of hydrogen sorption in LaNi 5 in a Ni/H 2 cell environment are presented. Long-term cycling studies indicate that degradation of the hydride can be minimized by cycling between certain pressure limits. A model describing the mechanism of hydride degradation is presented

  2. Stability Analysis for Li-Ion Battery Model Parameters and State of Charge Estimation by Measurement Uncertainty Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of model parameters and state of charge (SoC is crucial for the lithium-ion battery management system (BMS. In this paper, the stability of the model parameters and SoC estimation under measurement uncertainty is evaluated by three different factors: (i sampling periods of 1/0.5/0.1 s; (ii current sensor precisions of ±5/±50/±500 mA; and (iii voltage sensor precisions of ±1/±2.5/±5 mV. Firstly, the numerical model stability analysis and parametric sensitivity analysis for battery model parameters are conducted under sampling frequency of 1–50 Hz. The perturbation analysis is theoretically performed of current/voltage measurement uncertainty on model parameter variation. Secondly, the impact of three different factors on the model parameters and SoC estimation was evaluated with the federal urban driving sequence (FUDS profile. The bias correction recursive least square (CRLS and adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF algorithm were adopted to estimate the model parameters and SoC jointly. Finally, the simulation results were compared and some insightful findings were concluded. For the given battery model and parameter estimation algorithm, the sampling period, and current/voltage sampling accuracy presented a non-negligible effect on the estimation results of model parameters. This research revealed the influence of the measurement uncertainty on the model parameter estimation, which will provide the guidelines to select a reasonable sampling period and the current/voltage sensor sampling precisions in engineering applications.

  3. Advances in Electrochemical Models for Predicting the Cycling Performance of Traction Batteries: Experimental Study on Ni-MH and Simulation Développement de modèles électrochimiques de batteries de traction pour la prédiction de performances : étude expérimentale de batteries NiMH et simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous electrochemical models to simulate the cycling performance of batteries have been successfully developed and reported in the literature. They constitute a very promising approach for State-of-Charge (SoC estimation based on the physics of the cell with regards to other methods since SoC is an internal parameter of these physical models. However, the computational time needed to solve electrochemical battery models for online applications requires to develop a simplified physics-based battery model. In this work, our goal is to present and validate an advanced 0D-electrochemical model of a Ni-MH cell, as an example. This lumped-parameter model will be used to design an extended Kalman filter to predict the SoC of a Ni-MH pack. It is presented, followed by an extensive experimental study conducted on Ni-MH cells to better understand the mechanisms of physico-chemical phenomena occurring at both electrodes and support the model development. The last part of the paper focuses on the evaluation of the model with regards to experimental results obtained on Ni-MH sealed cells but also on the related commercial HEV battery pack. Des modèles électrochimiques fins permettant de simuler le comportement de batteries ont été développés avec succès et reportés dans la littérature. Ils constituent une alternative aux méthodes classiques pour estimer l’état de charge (SoC pour State of Charge des batteries, cette variable étant ici un paramètre interne du modèle physique. Cependant, pour les applications embarquées, il est nécessaire de développer des modèles simplifiés sur la base de ces modèles physiques afin de diminuer le temps de calcul nécessaire à la résolution des équations. Ici, nous présenterons à titre d’exemple un modèle électrochimique 0D avancé d’un accumulateur NiMH et sa validation. Ce modèle à paramètres concentrés sera utilisé pour réaliser un filtre de Kalman qui permettra la prédiction de l

  4. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

  5. Batteries. Fundamentals and theory, present state of the art of technology and trends of developments. 5. ed.; Batterien. Grundlagen und Theorie, aktueller technischer Stand und Entwicklungstendenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiehne, H.A.; Berndt, D.; Fischer, W.; Franke, H.; Koenig, W.; Koethe, H.K.; Preuss, P.; Sassmannshausen, G.; Stahl, U.C.; Wehrle, E.; Will, G.; Willmes, H.

    2003-07-01

    This volume gives a comprehensive survey of the present state of the electrochemical power storage with special consideration of their technical characteristics of application. The volume is structured as follows: 1) Electrochemical energy storage, general fundamentals; 2) Batteries for electric-powered industrial trucks; 3) Energy supply concepts for driverless industrial trucks; 4) Batteries for electric-powered road vehicles; 5) Battery-fed electric drive from the user's point of view (=charging, maintenance); 6) Safety standards for stationary batteries and battery systems; 7) Batteries for stationary power supplies; 8) Battery operation from the user's point of view; 9) Starter batteries of vehicles; 10) High-energy batteries (e.g. Zn/Br{sub 2}-, Na/S-, Li/FeS-cells, fuel cells); 11) Solar-electric power supply with batteries; 12) Charging methods and charging technique; 13) Technology of battery chargers and current transformer, monitoring methods; 14) Standards and regulations for batteries and battery systems.

  6. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  7. Battery waste management status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, B.M.; Sabatini, J.C.; Wolsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper consists of a series of slides used in the conference presentation. The topics outlined in the slides are: an overview of battery waste management; waste management of lead acid batteries; lead acid recycling; typical legislation for battery waste; regulatory status in European countries; mercury use in cells; recent trends in Hg and Cd use; impact of batteries to air quality at MSW incinerators; impact of electric vehicles; new battery technologies; and unresolved issues

  8. Lithium iron phosphate based battery – Assessment of the aging parameters and development of cycle life model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, Noshin; Monem, Mohamed Abdel; Firouz, Yousef; Salminen, Justin; Smekens, Jelle; Hegazy, Omar; Gaulous, Hamid; Mulder, Grietus; Van den Bossche, Peter; Coosemans, Thierry; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extended life cycle tests. • Investigation of the battery life cycle at different working conditions. • Investigation of the impact fast charging on the battery performances. • Extraction all required relationship for development of a cycle life model. • Development of a new life cycle model. - Abstract: This paper represents the evaluation of ageing parameters in lithium iron phosphate based batteries, through investigating different current rates, working temperatures and depths of discharge. From these analyses, one can derive the impact of the working temperature on the battery performances over its lifetime. At elevated temperature (40 °C), the performances are less compared to at 25 °C. The obtained mathematical expression of the cycle life as function of the operating temperature reveals that the well-known Arrhenius law cannot be applied to derive the battery lifetime from one temperature to another. Moreover, a number of cycle life tests have been performed to illustrate the long-term capabilities of the proposed battery cells at different discharge constant current rates. The results reveal the harmful impact of high current rates on battery characteristics. On the other hand, the cycle life test at different depth of discharge levels indicates that the battery is able to perform 3221 cycles (till 80% DoD) compared to 34,957 shallow cycles (till 20% DoD). To investigate the cycle life capabilities of lithium iron phosphate based battery cells during fast charging, cycle life tests have been carried out at different constant charge current rates. The experimental analysis indicates that the cycle life of the battery degrades the more the charge current rate increases. From this analysis, one can conclude that the studied lithium iron based battery cells are not recommended to be charged at high current rates. This phenomenon affects the viability of ultra-fast charging systems. Finally, a cycle life model has been developed, which

  9. Experimental verification of a thermal equivalent circuit dynamic model on an extended range electric vehicle battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramotar, Lokendra; Rohrauer, Greg L.; Filion, Ryan; MacDonald, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    The development of a dynamic thermal battery model for hybrid and electric vehicles is realized. A thermal equivalent circuit model is created which aims to capture and understand the heat propagation from the cells through the entire pack and to the environment using a production vehicle battery pack for model validation. The inclusion of production hardware and the liquid battery thermal management system components into the model considers physical and geometric properties to calculate thermal resistances of components (conduction, convection and radiation) along with their associated heat capacity. Various heat sources/sinks comprise the remaining model elements. Analog equivalent circuit simulations using PSpice are compared to experimental results to validate internal temperature nodes and heat rates measured through various elements, which are then employed to refine the model further. Agreement with experimental results indicates the proposed method allows for a comprehensive real-time battery pack analysis at little computational expense when compared to other types of computer based simulations. Elevated road and ambient conditions in Mesa, Arizona are simulated on a parked vehicle with varying quiescent cooling rates to examine the effect on the diurnal battery temperature for longer term static exposure. A typical daily driving schedule is also simulated and examined.

  10. Hybrid unscented particle filter based state-of-charge determination for lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cell SOC (state of charge) is important for the safety and functional capabilities of the battery energy storage application system. This paper presents a hybrid UPF (unscented particle filter) based SOC determination combined model for batteries. To simulate the entire dynamic electrical characteristics of batteries, a novel combined state space model, which takes current as a control input and let SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables, is advanced to represent cell behavior. Besides that, an improved UPF method is used to evaluate cell SOC. Taking lead-acid batteries for example, we apply the established model for test. Results show that the evolved combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy and the prediction value based on the improved UPF method converges to the real SOC very quickly within the error of±2%. - Highlights: • This paper introduces a hybrid UPF based SOC determination model for batteries. • The evolved model takes SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables. • The combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly. • NLMS based method is employed to lessen search space and fasten convergence process. • Novel model converges to the real SOC robustly and quickly with fewer particles

  11. The mechanics of pressed-pellet separators in molten salt batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological constitutive model that describes the macroscopic behavior of pressed-pellet materials used in molten salt batteries. Such materials include separators, cathodes, and anodes. The purpose of this model is to describe the inelastic deformation associated with the melting of a key constituent, the electrolyte. At room temperature, all constituents of these materials are solid and do not transport cations so that the battery is inert. As the battery is heated, the electrolyte, a constituent typically present in the separator and cathode, melts and conducts charge by flowing through the solid skeletons of the anode, cathode, and separator. The electrochemical circuit is closed in this hot state of the battery. The focus of this report is on the thermal-mechanical behavior of the separator, which typically exhibits the most deformation of the three pellets during the process of activating a molten salt battery. Separator materials are composed of a compressed mixture of a powdered electrolyte, an inert binder phase, and void space. When the electrolyte melts, macroscopically one observes both a change in volume and shape of the separator that depends on the applied boundary conditions during the melt transition. Although porous flow plays a critical role in the battery mechanics and electrochemistry, the focus of this report is on separator behavior under flow-free conditions in which the total mass of electrolyte is static within the pellet. Specific poromechanics effects such as capillary pressure, pressure-saturation, and electrolyte transport between layers are not considered. Instead, a phenomenological model is presented to describe all such behaviors including the melting transition of the electrolyte, loss of void space, and isochoric plasticity associated with the binder phase rearrangement. The model is appropriate for use finite element analysis under finite deformation and finite temperature change conditions. The model

  12. Comparison Study on Two Model-Based Adaptive Algorithms for SOC Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC estimation is essential to battery management systems in electric vehicles (EVs to ensure the safe operations of batteries and providing drivers with the remaining range of the EVs. A number of estimation algorithms have been developed to get an accurate SOC value because the SOC cannot be directly measured with sensors and is closely related to various factors, such as ambient temperature, current rate and battery aging. In this paper, two model-based adaptive algorithms, including the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF and adaptive slide mode observer (ASMO are applied and compared in terms of convergence behavior, tracking accuracy, computational cost and estimation robustness against parameter uncertainties of the battery model in SOC estimation. Two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the two algorithms. Comparison results show that the AUKF has merits in convergence ability and tracking accuracy with an accurate battery model, while the ASMO has lower computational cost and better estimation robustness against parameter uncertainties of the battery model.

  13. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  14. Online model-based estimation of state-of-charge and open-circuit voltage of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongwen; Zhang, Xiaowei; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Yongli; Guo, Hongqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of a lithium-ion battery, based on an online identification of its open-circuit voltage (OCV), according to the battery’s intrinsic relationship between the SOC and the OCV for application in electric vehicles. Firstly an equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is employed modeling the polarization characteristic and the dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery, the corresponding equations are built to describe its electric behavior and a recursive function is deduced for the online identification of the OCV, which is implemented by a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with an optimal forgetting factor. The models with different RC networks are evaluated based on the terminal voltage comparisons between the model-based simulation and the experiment. Then the OCV-SOC lookup table is built based on the experimental data performed by a linear interpolation of the battery voltages at the same SOC during two consecutive discharge and charge cycles. Finally a verifying experiment is carried out based on nine Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedules. It indicates that the proposed method can ensure an acceptable accuracy of SOC estimation for online application with a maximum error being less than 5.0%. -- Highlights: ► An equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is built for lithium-ion batteries. ► A recursive function is deduced for the online estimation of the model parameters like OCV and R O . ► The relationship between SOC and OCV is built with a linear interpolation method by experiments. ► The experiments show the online model-based SOC estimation is reasonable with enough accuracy.

  15. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  16. Paraffin Nanocomposites for Heat Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Computational Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. N. Shirazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are currently considered as vital components for advances in mobile technologies such as those in communications and transport. Nonetheless, Li-ion batteries suffer from temperature rises which sometimes lead to operational damages or may even cause fire. An appropriate solution to control the temperature changes during the operation of Li-ion batteries is to embed batteries inside a paraffin matrix to absorb and dissipate heat. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the possibility of making paraffin nanocomposites for better heat management of a Li-ion battery pack. To fulfill this aim, heat generation during a battery charging/discharging cycles was simulated using Newman’s well established electrochemical pseudo-2D model. We couple this model to a 3D heat transfer model to predict the temperature evolution during the battery operation. In the later model, we considered different paraffin nanocomposites structures made by the addition of graphene, carbon nanotubes, and fullerene by assuming the same thermal conductivity for all fillers. This way, our results mainly correlate with the geometry of the fillers. Our results assess the degree of enhancement in heat dissipation of Li-ion batteries through the use of paraffin nanocomposites. Our results may be used as a guide for experimental set-ups to improve the heat management of Li-ion batteries.

  17. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  18. Battery sizing for serial plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: A model-based economic analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Christian-Simon; Hackbarth, Andre; Madlener, Reinhard; Lunz, Benedikt; Uwe Sauer, Dirk; Eckstein, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size, and the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about 6 years (5 years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even for the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO 2 emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached. - Highlights: → Total cost of ownership of a PHEV and a conventional car are compared for the average German car user.→ PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery reach the break-even after 5-6 years at current Li-Ion battery prices.→ Even with a small battery, PHEVs emit about 40% less CO 2 emissions than the average conventional car.

  19. Online Estimation of Model Parameters and State of Charge of LiFePO4 Batteries Using a Novel Open-Circuit Voltage at Various Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an online estimation of the model parameters and state of charge (SOC of lithium iron phosphate batteries in electric vehicles. A widely used SOC estimator is based on the dynamic battery model with predeterminate parameters. However, model parameter variances that follow with their varied operation temperatures can result in errors in estimating battery SOC. To address this problem, a battery online parameter estimator is presented based on an equivalent circuit model using an adaptive joint extended Kalman filter algorithm. Simulations based on actual data are established to verify accuracy and stability in the regression of model parameters. Experiments are also performed to prove that the proposed estimator exhibits good reliability and adaptability under different loading profiles with various temperatures. In addition, open-circuit voltage (OCV is used to estimate SOC in the proposed algorithm. However, the OCV based on the proposed online identification includes a part of concentration polarization and hysteresis, which is defined as parametric identification-based OCV (OCVPI. Considering the temperature factor, a novel OCV–SOC relationship map is established by using OCVPI under various temperatures. Finally, a validating experiment is conducted based on the consecutive loading profiles. Results indicate that our method is effective and adaptable when a battery operates at different ambient temperatures.

  20. Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-03-18

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  1. A simplified equivalent circuit model for simulation of Pb-acid batteries at load for energy storage application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu Ying [Center for Microfibrous Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, 212 Ross Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5127 (United States); Tatarchuk, Bruce J., E-mail: brucet@eng.auburn.edu [Center for Microfibrous Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, 212 Ross Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5127 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Pb-acid battery is reexamined in electrode structure and capacitance enhancement. {yields} Pb-acid batteries were tested through the electrochemical impedance at loads. {yields} Electrode behaviors are evaluated by simulation using an equivalent circuit model. {yields} A defective and a failed Pb-acid battery was used in non-destructive analysis. {yields} Potential applications are for power reserve and sustainable electricity storage. - Abstract: Three main types of battery chemistries in consideration for vehicle applications are Pb-acid, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in traditional automotive applications for many years. Higher voltage, high-rate discharge capability, good specific energy, lower temperature performance, lower thermal management requirement, and low-cost in both manufacturing and recycling are the advantages of the rechargeable battery. Disadvantages of the lead-acid battery are: weight concerns of lead metal (lower energy density and lower power density) and limited cycle-life (especially in deep-cycle duties). If two major disadvantages have been significantly changed to a proper state to compete with other battery chemistries, the Pb-acid battery is still a good candidate in considering of cost/performance ratio. The lead-acid battery is always a good power source for fast starting of cold vehicles, for recharging from either a stop-start braking system, or for a charge from the engine itself, which consumes battery energy or stores electricity back into chemical energy. The main reasons for reexamining this battery chemistry are cost-savings and life-cycling considerations upon advances in electrode structure design and enhancement of capacitance behavior inside the battery pack. Several Pb-acid batteries were evaluated and tested through a unique method, i.e., the electrochemical impedance method at different loads, in order to characterize and further understand the

  2. A simplified equivalent circuit model for simulation of Pb-acid batteries at load for energy storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu Ying; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pb-acid battery is reexamined in electrode structure and capacitance enhancement. → Pb-acid batteries were tested through the electrochemical impedance at loads. → Electrode behaviors are evaluated by simulation using an equivalent circuit model. → A defective and a failed Pb-acid battery was used in non-destructive analysis. → Potential applications are for power reserve and sustainable electricity storage. - Abstract: Three main types of battery chemistries in consideration for vehicle applications are Pb-acid, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in traditional automotive applications for many years. Higher voltage, high-rate discharge capability, good specific energy, lower temperature performance, lower thermal management requirement, and low-cost in both manufacturing and recycling are the advantages of the rechargeable battery. Disadvantages of the lead-acid battery are: weight concerns of lead metal (lower energy density and lower power density) and limited cycle-life (especially in deep-cycle duties). If two major disadvantages have been significantly changed to a proper state to compete with other battery chemistries, the Pb-acid battery is still a good candidate in considering of cost/performance ratio. The lead-acid battery is always a good power source for fast starting of cold vehicles, for recharging from either a stop-start braking system, or for a charge from the engine itself, which consumes battery energy or stores electricity back into chemical energy. The main reasons for reexamining this battery chemistry are cost-savings and life-cycling considerations upon advances in electrode structure design and enhancement of capacitance behavior inside the battery pack. Several Pb-acid batteries were evaluated and tested through a unique method, i.e., the electrochemical impedance method at different loads, in order to characterize and further understand the improved electrode

  3. Nickel hydrogen and silver zinc battery cell modeling at the Aerospace Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1996-02-01

    A nickel hydrogen battery cell model has been fully developed and implemented at The Aerospace Corporation. Applications of this model to industry needs for the design of better cells, power system design and charge control thermal management, and long-term performance trends will be described. Present efforts will be described that are introducing the silver and zinc electrode reactions into this model architecture, so that the model will be able to predict performance for not only silver zinc cells, but also nickel zinc, silver hydrogen, and silver cadmium cells. The silver zinc cell modeling effort is specifically designed to address the concerns that arise most often in launch vehicle applications: transient response, power-on voltage regulation, hot or cold operation, electrolyte spewing, gas venting, self-discharge, separator oxidation, and oxalate crystal growth. The specific model features that are being employed to address these issues will be described.

  4. Robustness of SOC Estimation Algorithms for EV Lithium-Ion Batteries against Modeling Errors and Measurement Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is one of the most important parameters in battery management system (BMS. There are numerous algorithms for SOC estimation, mostly of model-based observer/filter types such as Kalman filters, closed-loop observers, and robust observers. Modeling errors and measurement noises have critical impact on accuracy of SOC estimation in these algorithms. This paper is a comparative study of robustness of SOC estimation algorithms against modeling errors and measurement noises. By using a typical battery platform for vehicle applications with sensor noise and battery aging characterization, three popular and representative SOC estimation methods (extended Kalman filter, PI-controlled observer, and H∞ observer are compared on such robustness. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that deterioration of SOC estimation accuracy under modeling errors resulted from aging and larger measurement noise, which is quantitatively characterized. The findings of this paper provide useful information on the following aspects: (1 how SOC estimation accuracy depends on modeling reliability and voltage measurement accuracy; (2 pros and cons of typical SOC estimators in their robustness and reliability; (3 guidelines for requirements on battery system identification and sensor selections.

  5. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajuan Yu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1 A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2 Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3 The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries’ environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries’ environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries. PMID:24646862

  8. Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Study Using Multi-Physics Internal Short-Circuit Model (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G-.H.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01

    This presentation outlines NREL's multi-physics simulation study to characterize an internal short by linking and integrating electrochemical cell, electro-thermal, and abuse reaction kinetics models.

  9. Optimization of an off-grid hybrid PV-wind-diesel-battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merei, Ghada [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS)

    2012-07-01

    The power supply of remote sites and applications at minimal cost and with low emissions is an important issue when discussing future energy concepts. This paper presents the modelling and optimisation of a stand-alone hybrid energy system. The system consists of photovoltaic (PV) panels and a wind turbine as renewable power sources, a diesel generator for back-up power and batteries to store excess energy and to improve the system reliability. For storage the technologies of lithium-ion, lead-acid, vanadium redox-flow or a combination thereof are considered. In order to use different battery technologies at once, a battery management system (BMS) is needed. The presented BMS minimises operation cost while taking into account different battery operating points and ageing mechanisms. The system is modelled and implemented in Matlab/Simulink. As input, the model uses data of the irradiation, wind speed and air temperature measured in ten minute intervals for ten years in Aachen, Germany. The load is assumed to be that of a rural UMTS/GSM base station for telecommunication. For a timeframe of 20 years, the performance is evaluated and the total costs are determined. Using a genetic algorithm, component sizes and settings are then varied and the system re-evaluated to minimise the overall cost. The optimisation results show that using batteries in combination with the renewables is economic and ecologic. However, the best solution is to combine redox-flow batteries with the renewables. In addition, a power supply system consisting only of batteries, PV and wind generators can satisfy the power demand.

  10. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  11. The use of the bi-factor model to test the uni-dimensionality of a battery of reasoning tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primi, Ricardo; Rocha da Silva, Marjorie Cristina; Rodrigues, Priscila; Muniz, Monalisa; Almeida, Leandro S

    2013-02-01

    The Battery of Reasoning Tests 5 (BPR-5) aims to assess the reasoning ability of individuals, using sub-tests with different formats and contents that require basic processes of inductive and deductive reasoning for their resolution. The BPR has three sequential forms: BPR-5i (for children from first to fifth grade), BPR-5 - Form A (for children from sixth to eighth grade) and BPR-5 - form B (for high school and undergraduate students). The present study analysed 412 questionnaires concerning BPR-5i, 603 questionnaires concerning BPR-5 - Form A and 1748 questionnaires concerning BPR-5 - Form B. The main goal was to test the uni-dimensionality of the battery and its tests in relation to items using the bi-factor model. Results suggest that the g factor loadings (extracted by the uni-dimensional model) do not change when the data is adjusted for a more flexible multi-factor model (bi-factor model). A general reasoning factor underlying different contents items is supported.

  12. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  13. The practical model of electron emission in the radioisotope battery by fast ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhine, N.S.; Balebanov, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Under the theoretical analysis of secondary-emission radioisotope source of current the estimate of energy spectrum F(E) of secondary electrons with energy E emitted from films is the important problem. This characteristic knowledge allows, in particular, studying the volt-ampere function, the dependence of electric power deposited in the load on the system parameters and so on. Since the rigorous calculations of energy spectrum F(E) are the complicated enough and labour-intensive there is necessity to elaborate the practical model which allows by the simple computer routine on the basis of generalized data (both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations) on the stopping powers and mean free path of suprathermal electrons to perform reliable express-estimates of the energy spectrum F(E) and the volt-ampere function I(V) for the concrete materials of battery emitter films. This paper devoted to description of of the practical model to calculate electron emission characteristics under the passage of fast ion fluxes from the radioisotope source through the battery emitter. The analytical approximations for the stopping power of emitter materials, the electron inelastic mean free path, the ion production of fast electrons and the probability for them to arrive the film surface are taken into account. In the cases of copper and gold films, the secondary electron escaping depth, the position of energy spectrum peak are considered in the dependence on surface potential barrier magnitude U. According to our calculations the energy spectrum peak shifted to higher electron energy under the U growth. The model described may be used for express estimates and computer simulations of fast alpha-particles and suprathermal electrons interactions with the solid state plasma of battery emitter films, to study the electron emission layer characteristics including the secondary electron escaping depth, to find the optimum conditions for excitation of nonequilibrium

  14. Biomedical applications of batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Roger [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Linford, Roger [The Research Office, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Schlindwein, Walkiria [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-31

    An overview is presented of the many ways in which batteries and battery materials are used in medicine and in biomedical studies. These include the use of batteries as power sources for motorised wheelchairs, surgical tools, cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, dynamic prostheses, sensors and monitors for physiological parameters, neurostimulators, devices for pain relief, and iontophoretic, electroporative and related devices for drug administration. The various types of battery and fuel cell used for this wide range of applications will be considered, together with the potential harmful side effects, including accidental ingestion of batteries and the explosive nature of some of the early cardiac pacemaker battery systems.

  15. Combined electrochemical, heat generation, and thermal model for large prismatic lithium-ion batteries in real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohammed; Sweity, Haitham; Fleckenstein, Matthias; Habibi, Saeid

    2017-08-01

    Real-time prediction of the battery's core temperature and terminal voltage is very crucial for an accurate battery management system. In this paper, a combined electrochemical, heat generation, and thermal model is developed for large prismatic cells. The proposed model consists of three sub-models, an electrochemical model, heat generation model, and thermal model which are coupled together in an iterative fashion through physicochemical temperature dependent parameters. The proposed parameterization cycles identify the sub-models' parameters separately by exciting the battery under isothermal and non-isothermal operating conditions. The proposed combined model structure shows accurate terminal voltage and core temperature prediction at various operating conditions while maintaining a simple mathematical structure, making it ideal for real-time BMS applications. Finally, the model is validated against both isothermal and non-isothermal drive cycles, covering a broad range of C-rates, and temperature ranges [-25 °C to 45 °C].

  16. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  17. Representative-Sandwich Model for Mechanical-Crush and Short-Circuit Simulation of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-07-28

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of-the-art power sources for a variety of applications, from consumer electronic devices to electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). Being an energized component, failure of the battery is an essential concern, which can result in rupture, smoke, fire, or venting. The failure of Lithium-ion batteries can be due to a number of external abusive conditions (impact/crush, overcharge, thermal ramp, etc.) or internal conditions (internal short circuits, excessive heating due to resistance build-up, etc.), of which the mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit is a very practical problem. In order to better understand the behavior of Lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, thermal and electrical response has been developed for predicting short circuit under external crush.

  18. Crashworthiness Models for Automotive Batteries - Report on Project 2088-A031-15 for DOT/NHTSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turner, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turcksin, Bruno R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Safety is a key element of any device designed to store energy, in particular electrochemical batteries, which convert energy of chemical reactions to electrical energy. Safety considerations are especially important when applied to large automotive batteries designed for propulsion of electric vehicles (EV). The high amount of energy stored in EV battery packs translates to higher probability of fire in case of severe deformation of battery compartment due to automotive crash or impact caused by road debris. While such demand for safety has resulted in heavier protection of battery enclosure, the mechanisms leading to internal short circuit due to deformation of the battery are not well understood even on the level of a single electrochemical cell. Moreover, not all internal shorts result in thermal runaway, and thus a criterion for catastrophic failure needs to be developed. This report summarizes the effort to pinpoint the critical deformation necessary to trigger a short via experimental study on large format automotive Li-ion cells in a rigid spherical indentation configuration. Cases of single cells and cell stacks undergoing indentation were investigated. Mechanical properties of cell components were determined via experimental testing and served as input for constitutive models of Finite Element (FE) analysis. The ability of the model to predict the behavior of cell(s) under spherical indentation and to predict failure leading to internal short circuit was validated against experiments. The necessity of resolving pairs of negative and positive electrodes in the FE formulation is clearly demonstrated by comparing layer-resolved simulations with simulations involving batteries with homogenized material properties. Finally, a coupled solution of electrochemical-electrical-thermal (EET) problem on a Nissan Leaf battery module was demonstrated towards the goal of extending the simulations to module level.

  19. Joint optimisation of arbitrage profits and battery life degradation for grid storage application of battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    To meet European decarbonisation targets by 2050, the electrification of the transport sector is mandatory. Most electric vehicles rely on lithium-ion batteries, because they have a higher energy/power density and longer life span compared to other practical batteries such as zinc-carbon batteries. Electric vehicles can thus provide energy storage to support the system integration of generation from highly variable renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PV). However, charging/discharging causes batteries to degradate progressively with reduced capacity. In this study, we investigate the impact of the joint optimisation of arbitrage revenue and battery degradation of electric vehicle batteries in a simplified setting, where historical prices allow for market participation of battery electric vehicle owners. It is shown that the joint optimisation of both leads to stronger gains then the sum of both optimisation strategies and that including battery degradation into the model avoids state of charges close to the maximum at times. It can be concluded that degradation is an important aspect to consider in power system models, which incorporate any kind of lithium-ion battery storage.

  20. Study on feed forward neural network convex optimization for LiFePO4 battery parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Based on the modern facility agriculture automatic walking equipment LiFePO4 Battery, the parameter identification of LiFePO4 Battery is analyzed. An improved method for the process model of li battery is proposed, and the on-line estimation algorithm is presented. The parameters of the battery are identified using feed forward network neural convex optimization algorithm.

  1. Batteries. Fundamentals and theory, present state of the art of technology and trends of development. 4. compl. rev. ed.; Batterien. Grundlagen und Theorie, aktueller technischer Stand und Entwicklungstendenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiehne, H.A.; Berndt, D.; Fischer, W. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This volume gives a comprehensive survey of the present state of the electrochemical power storage with special consideration of their technical characteristics of application. The volume is structured as follows: 1) Electrochemical energy storage, general fundamentals; 2) Batteries for electric-powered industrial trucks; 3) Energy supply concepts for driverless industrial trucks; 4) Batteries for electric-powered road vehicles; 5) Battery-fed electric drive from the user's point of view (=charging, maintenance); 6) Safety standards for stationary batteries and battery systems; 7) Batteries for stationary power supplies; 8) Battery operation from the user's point of view; 9) Starter batteries of vehicles; 10) High-energy batteries (e.g. Zn/Br{sub 2}-, Na/S-, Li/FeS-cells, fuel cells); 11) Solar-electric power supply with batteries; 12) Charging methods and charging technique; 13) Technology of battery chargers and current transformer, monitoring methods; 14) Standards and regulations for batteries and battery systems.

  2. An On-Board Remaining Useful Life Estimation Algorithm for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Battery remaining useful life (RUL estimation is critical to battery management and performance optimization of electric vehicles (EVs. In this paper, we present an effective way to estimate RUL online by using the support vector machine (SVM algorithm. By studying the characteristics of the battery degradation process, the rising of the terminal voltage and changing characteristics of the voltage derivative (DV during the charging process are introduced as the training variables of the SVM algorithm to determine the battery RUL. The SVM is then applied to build the battery degradation model and predict the battery real cycle numbers. Experimental results prove that the built battery degradation model shows higher accuracy and less computation time compared with those of the neural network (NN method, thereby making it a potential candidate for realizing online RUL estimation in a battery management system (BMS.

  3. Explaining key properties of lithiation in TiO2-anatase Li-ion battery electrodes using phase-field modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, N.J.J.; Vasileiadis, A.; Smith, Raymond B.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of Li-ion battery performance requires development of models that capture the essential physics and chemistry in Li-ion battery electrode materials. Phase-field modeling has recently been shown to have this ability, providing new opportunities to gain understanding of these complex

  4. Prediction of the theoretical capacity of non-aqueous lithium-air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Peng; Wei, Zhaohuan; Shyy, W.; Zhao, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The theoretical capacity of non-aqueous lithium-air batteries is predicted. • Key battery design parameters are defined and considered. • The theoretical battery capacity is about 10% of the lithium capacity. • The battery mass and volume changes after discharge are also studied. - Abstract: In attempt to realistically assess the high-capacity feature of emerging lithium-air batteries, a model is developed for predicting the theoretical capacity of non-aqueous lithium-air batteries. Unlike previous models that were formulated by assuming that the active materials and electrolyte are perfectly balanced according to the electrochemical reaction, the present model takes account of the fraction of the reaction products (Li 2 O 2 and Li 2 O), the utilization of the onboard lithium metal, the utilization of the void volume of the porous cathode, and the onboard excess electrolyte. Results show that the gravimetric capacity increases from 1033 to 1334 mA h/g when the reaction product varies from pure Li 2 O 2 to pure Li 2 O. It is further demonstrated that the capacity declines drastically from 1080 to 307 mA h/g when the case of full utilization of the onboard lithium is altered to that only 10% of the metal is utilized. Similarly, the capacity declines from 1080 to 144 mA h/g when the case of full occupation of the cathode void volume by the reaction products is varied to that only 10% of the void volume is occupied. In general, the theoretical gravimetric capacity of typical non-aqueous lithium-air batteries falls in the range of 380–450 mA h/g, which is about 10–12% of the gravimetric capacity calculated based on the energy density of the lithium metal. The present model also facilitates the study of the effects of different parameters on the mass and volume change of non-aqueous lithium-air batteries

  5. Lithium-Ion Battery Management System: A Lifecycle Evaluation Model for the Use in the Development of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisodia Ayush

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Lithium-ion batteries in the automobile sector has expanded drastically in the recent years. The foreseen increment of lithium to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles has provoked specialists to analyze the long term credibility of lithium as a transportation asset. To give a better picture of future accessibility, this paper exhibits a life cycle model for the key procedures and materials associated with the electric vehicle lithium-ion battery life cycle, on a worldwide scale. This model tracks the flow of lithium and energy sources from extraction, to generation, to on road utilization, and the role of reusing and scrapping. This life cycle evaluation model is the initial phase in building up an examination model for the lithium ion battery production that would enable the policymakers to survey the future importance of lithium battery recycling, and when in time setting up a reusing foundation be made necessary.

  6. Numerical Model and Analysis of Peak Temperature Reduction in LiFePO4 Battery Packs Using Phase Change Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Numerical model and analysis of peak temperature reduction in LiFePO4 battery packs using phase change materials......Numerical model and analysis of peak temperature reduction in LiFePO4 battery packs using phase change materials...

  7. Comparison of Different Battery Types for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iclodean, C.; Varga, B.; Burnete, N.; Cimerdean, D.; Jurchiş, B.

    2017-10-01

    Battery powered Electric Vehicles are starting to play a significant role in today’s automotive industry. There are many types of batteries found in the construction of today’s Electric Vehicles, being hard to decide which one fulfils best all the most important characteristics, from different viewpoints, such as energy storage efficiency, constructive characteristics, cost price, safety and utilization life. This study presents the autonomy of an Electric Vehicle that utilizes four different types of batteries: Lithium Ion (Li-Ion), Molten Salt (Na-NiCl2), Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) and Lithium Sulphur (Li-S), all of them having the same electric energy storage capacity. The novelty of this scientific work is the implementation of four different types of batteries for Electric Vehicles on the same model to evaluate the vehicle’s autonomy and the efficiency of these battery types on a driving cycle, in real time, digitized by computer simulation.

  8. Performance Analysis of Machine-Learning Approaches for Modeling the Charging/Discharging Profiles of Stationary Battery Systems with Non-Uniform Cell Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandha Kumar Kandasamy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of Stationary Battery Systems (SBS connected to various power distribution networks across the world has increased drastically. The increase in the integration of renewable energy sources is one of the major contributors to the increase in the number of SBS. SBS are also used in other applications such as peak load management, load-shifting, voltage regulation and power quality improvement. Accurately modeling the charging/discharging characteristics of such SBS at various instances (charging/discharging profile is vital for many applications. Capacity loss due to the aging of the batteries is an important factor to be considered for estimating the charging/discharging profile of SBS more accurately. Empirical modeling is a common approach used in the literature for estimating capacity loss, which is further used for estimating the charging/discharging profiles of SBS. However, in the case of SBS used for renewable integration and other grid related applications, machine-learning (ML based models provide extreme flexibility and require minimal resources for implementation. The models can even leverage existing smart meter data to estimate the charging/discharging profile of SBS. In this paper, an analysis on the performance of different ML approaches that can be applied for lithium iron phosphate battery systems and vanadium redox flow battery systems used as SBS is presented for the scenarios where the aging of individual cells is non-uniform.

  9. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Batteries Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Energy Batteries and Energy Storage Energy Systems Modeling Transportation SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research program spans

  10. Stochastic model for the 3D microstructure of pristine and cyclically aged cathodes in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchler, Klaus; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Mitsch, Tim; Manke, Ingo; Schmidt, Volker

    2018-04-01

    It is well-known that the microstructure of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries strongly affects their performance. Vice versa, the microstructure can exhibit strong changes during the usage of the battery due to aging effects. For a better understanding of these effects, mathematical analysis and modeling has turned out to be of great help. In particular, stochastic 3D microstructure models have proven to be a powerful and very flexible tool to generate various kinds of particle-based structures. Recently, such models have been proposed for the microstructure of anodes in lithium-ion energy and power cells. In the present paper, we describe a stochastic modeling approach for the 3D microstructure of cathodes in a lithium-ion energy cell, which differs significantly from the one observed in anodes. The model for the cathode data enhances the ideas of the anode models, which have been developed so far. It is calibrated using 3D tomographic image data from pristine as well as two aged cathodes. A validation based on morphological image characteristics shows that the model is able to realistically describe both, the microstructure of pristine and aged cathodes. Thus, we conclude that the model is suitable to generate virtual, but realistic microstructures of lithium-ion cathodes.

  11. Development of diode junction nuclear battery using 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmen, B.; Miley, G.H.; Desai, P.D.; Moghaddam, S.; Masel, R.I.

    2009-01-01

    The diode junction nuclear battery is a long-lived, high-energy-density, but low electrical current power source with many specialized applications. In this type of battery, nuclear radiation is directly converted to electric power. A model is described and used to design the device configuration. Details of fabrication and testing of a planar geometry battery with 63 Ni radiation source are described. The electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurement technique and CASINO Monte Carlo simulation code were employed to analyze the device performance. Finally, an improved design with 3-dimensional surface microstructures that will provide improved performance is presented. (author)

  12. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  14. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. A novel modeling methodology of open circuit voltage hysteresis for LiFePO4 batteries based on an adaptive discrete Preisach model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Letao; Sun, Zechang; Dai, Haifeng; Wei, Xuezhe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An adaptive discrete Preisach model (ADPM) of OCV–SOC hysteresis is proposed. • The measured current is used to adjust the weight vector in the proposed ADPM. • A deformation algorithm of ADPM is developed for the accidental current errors. • The performance of ADPM under uncertainty of measured current is investigated. • The performance of ADPM under uncertainty of OCV is investigated. - Abstract: The relationship of open circuit voltage (OCV) versus state of charge (SOC) is critical for many techniques such as accurate battery modeling and reliable SOC estimation. However, the hysteresis existing in OCV–SOC curves of lithium-ion batteries complicates this relationship especially for lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) batteries which exhibit a very flat OCV–SOC hysteretic feature. This paper aims at modeling the OCV–SOC hysteresis for LiFePO 4 batteries. The modeling approach is a novel adaptive discrete Preisach model (ADPM) based on the classic Preisach model and the least mean square (LMS) theory. To enhance the performance, the ADPM uses the measured current at each time step to adjust the weight vector. This method significantly decreases the errors (<1%) between the model predicted SOC and the true SOC acquired from experiments. A deformation algorithm of ADPM is further proposed to guarantee the performance even when large errors appear in the measured current. For further applications of the proposed ADPM such as SOC estimation, the robust performance of ADPM is also discussed when considering OCV input errors and measurement current errors. The results show that the maximum SOC calculation errors are about 6% and 5% respectively against uncertain OCV input and measured current which indicate the enormous potential of ADPM in battery management systems

  16. Three-dimensional thermal finite element modeling of lithium-ion battery in thermal abuse application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guifang; Long, Bo; Cheng, Bo; Zhou, Shiqiong; Xu, Peng; Cao, Binggang

    In order to better understand the thermal abuse behavior of high capacities and large power lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicle application, a three-dimensional thermal model has been developed for analyzing the temperature distribution under abuse conditions. The model takes into account the effects of heat generation, internal conduction and convection, and external heat dissipation to predict the temperature distribution in a battery. Three-dimensional model also considers the geometrical features to simulate oven test, which are significant in larger cells for electric vehicle application. The model predictions are compared to oven test results for VLP 50/62/100S-Fe (3.2 V/55 Ah) LiFePO 4/graphite cells and shown to be in great agreement.

  17. Optimization of a PEMFC/battery pack power system for a bus application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, Linda; Bidini, Gianni; Ottaviano, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A dynamic model of a PEMFC/battery system for bus traction has been developed. ► The model incorporates the dynamics of the fuel cell and the state of charge (SOC) of the battery pack. ► The system output power have been determined according to the real driving load demand of a bus during 12 h. ► The model has allowed the sizing of the fuel cell and the hydrogen tank with the SOC control strategy optimization. ► The PEMFC power that allows to optimize the operation in terms of both SOC control strategy and consumption is 33 kW e . -- Abstract: In a global environment context in which the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions is of central relevance, it is becoming increasingly important the research for solutions, concerning the vehicular transport sector with low environmental impact. Fuel cell technology is expected to become a viable solution for these applications due to its environmental friendly characteristics. The present study concerns the traction system of a bus considering the case of hybrid solutions consisting of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in parallel with a battery pack. In particular, a dynamic model of a PEMFC/battery system is presented for the application under study. The model incorporates the dynamics of the fuel cell and the state of charge (SOC) of the battery pack. The fuel cell and the battery output power have been determined according to the real driving load demand of a bus taking into consideration a daily operation of 12 h. Such a model has allowed the correct dimensioning of the hybrid power system (giving a particular attention to the fuel cell and the hydrogen tank) together with the optimization of the SOC control strategy.

  18. Battery-powered transport systems. Possible methods of automatically charging drive batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    In modern driverless transport systems, not only easy maintenance of the drive battery is important but also automatic charging during times of standstill. Some systems are presented; one system is pointed out in particular in which 100 batteries can be charged at the same time.

  19. Power capability evaluation for lithium iron phosphate batteries based on multi-parameter constraints estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Rui; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai; Ling, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The battery power capability is intimately correlated with the climbing, braking and accelerating performance of the electric vehicles. Accurate power capability prediction can not only guarantee the safety but also regulate driving behavior and optimize battery energy usage. However, the nonlinearity of the battery model is very complex especially for the lithium iron phosphate batteries. Besides, the hysteresis loop in the open-circuit voltage curve is easy to cause large error in model prediction. In this work, a multi-parameter constraints dynamic estimation method is proposed to predict the battery continuous period power capability. A high-fidelity battery model which considers the battery polarization and hysteresis phenomenon is presented to approximate the high nonlinearity of the lithium iron phosphate battery. Explicit analyses of power capability with multiple constraints are elaborated, specifically the state-of-energy is considered in power capability assessment. Furthermore, to solve the problem of nonlinear system state estimation, and suppress noise interference, the UKF based state observer is employed for power capability prediction. The performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by experiments under different dynamic characterization schedules. The charge and discharge power capabilities of the lithium iron phosphate batteries are quantitatively assessed under different time scales and temperatures.

  20. Parallelized Genetic Identification of the Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of a well predicted model can be used as health characteristics for Lithium-ion battery. This article reports a parallelized parameter identification of the thermal-electrochemical model, which significantly reduces the time consumption of parameter identification. Since the P2D model has the most predictability, it is chosen for further research and expanded to the thermal-electrochemical model by coupling thermal effect and temperature-dependent parameters. Then Genetic Algorithm is used for parameter identification, but it takes too much time because of the long time simulation of model. For this reason, a computer cluster is built by surplus computing resource in our laboratory based on Parallel Computing Toolbox and Distributed Computing Server in MATLAB. The performance of two parallelized methods, namely Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD and parallel FOR loop (PARFOR, is investigated and then the parallelized GA identification is proposed. With this method, model simulations running parallelly and the parameter identification could be speeded up more than a dozen times, and the identification result is batter than that from serial GA. This conclusion is validated by model parameter identification of a real LiFePO4 battery.

  1. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-21

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  2. Nickel-hydrogen battery testing for Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Randy M.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors identify objectives and provide data from several nickel-hydrogen battery tests designed to evaluate the possibility of launching Ni-H2 batteries on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Test results from a 14-cell battery, a 12-cell battery, and a 4-cell pack are presented. Results of a thermal vacuum test to verify the battery-module/bay heat rejection capacity are reported. A 6-battery system simulation breadboard is described, and test results are presented.

  3. Structure formation and surface chemistry of ionic liquids on model electrode surfaces—Model studies for the electrode | electrolyte interface in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Florian; Uhl, Benedikt; Forster-Tonigold, Katrin; Bansmann, Joachim; Groß, Axel; Behm, R. Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as attractive electrolyte solvents in modern battery concepts such as Li-ion batteries. Here we present a comprehensive review of the results of previous model studies on the interaction of the battery relevant IL 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMP]+[TFSI]-) with a series of structurally and chemically well-defined model electrode surfaces, which are increasingly complex and relevant for battery applications [Ag(111), Au(111), Cu(111), pristine and lithiated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and rutile TiO2(110)]. Combining surface science techniques such as high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for characterizing surface structure and chemical composition in deposited (sub-)monolayer adlayers with dispersion corrected density functional theory based calculations, this work aims at a molecular scale understanding of the fundamental processes at the electrode | electrolyte interface, which are crucial for the development of the so-called solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer in batteries. Performed under idealized conditions, in an ultrahigh vacuum environment, these model studies provide detailed insights on the structure formation in the adlayer, the substrate-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions responsible for this, and the tendency for chemically induced decomposition of the IL. To mimic the situation in an electrolyte, we also investigated the interaction of adsorbed IL (sub-)monolayers with coadsorbed lithium. Even at 80 K, postdeposited Li is found to react with the IL, leading to decomposition products such as LiF, Li3N, Li2S, LixSOy, and Li2O. In the absence of a [BMP]+[TFSI]- adlayer, it tends to adsorb, dissolve, or intercalate into the substrate (metals, HOPG) or to react with the substrate (TiO2) above a critical temperature, forming LiOx and Ti3+ species in the latter case. Finally, the formation of stable

  4. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    to reduce the complexity of the model. This novel bidding model would help investor-owned battery storages better decide their bidding and operational schedules and investors to estimate the battery storage’s economic viability. The validity of the proposed model is proven by case study results....

  5. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  6. A method for state-of-charge estimation of Li-ion batteries based on multi-model switching strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Build a multi-model switching SOC estimate method for Li-ion batteries. • Build an improved interpretative structural modeling method for model switching. • The feedback strategy of bus delay is applied to improve the real-time performance. • The EKF method is used for SOC estimation to improve the estimated accuracy. - Abstract: The accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation and real-time performance are critical evaluation indexes for Li-ion battery management systems (BMS). High accuracy algorithms often take long program execution time (PET) in the resource-constrained embedded application systems, which will undoubtedly lead to the decrease of the time slots of other processes, thereby reduce the overall performance of BMS. Considering the resource optimization and the computational load balance, this paper proposes a multi-model switching SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries. Four typical battery models are employed to build a close-loop SOC estimation system. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is employed to eliminate the effect of the current noise and improve the accuracy of SOC. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are conducted to verify the accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that accurate estimation results and reasonable PET can be obtained by the proposed method

  7. Multiphysics Based Thermal Modeling of a Pouch Lithium-Ion Battery Cell for the Development of Pack Level Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    The research is focused on the development of a three-dimensional cell level multiphysics battery thermal model. The primary aim is to represent the cooling mechanism inside the unit cell battery pack. It is accomplished through the coupling of heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD......) physics. A lumped value of heat generation (HG) inside the battery cell is used. It stems from isothermal calorimeter experiment. HG depends on current rate and the corresponding operating temperature. It is demonstrated that the developed model provides a deeper understanding of the thermal spatio......-temporal behavior of Li-ion battery in different operating conditions....

  8. Physics based modeling of a series parallel battery pack for asymmetry analysis, predictive control and life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Nandhini; Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Yeo, Taejung; Sohn, Dong Kee; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-08-01

    Lithium-Ion batteries used for electric vehicle applications are subject to large currents and various operation conditions, making battery pack design and life extension a challenging problem. With increase in complexity, modeling and simulation can lead to insights that ensure optimal performance and life extension. In this manuscript, an electrochemical-thermal (ECT) coupled model for a 6 series × 5 parallel pack is developed for Li ion cells with NCA/C electrodes and validated against experimental data. Contribution of the cathode to overall degradation at various operating conditions is assessed. Pack asymmetry is analyzed from a design and an operational perspective. Design based asymmetry leads to a new approach of obtaining the individual cell responses of the pack from an average ECT output. Operational asymmetry is demonstrated in terms of effects of thermal gradients on cycle life, and an efficient model predictive control technique is developed. Concept of reconfigurable battery pack is studied using detailed simulations that can be used for effective monitoring and extension of battery pack life.

  9. Mesoscopic modeling and parameter estimation of a lithium-ion battery based on LiFePO4/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Ali; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-03-01

    A novel numerical model for simulating the behavior of lithium-ion batteries based on LiFePO4(LFP)/graphite is presented. The model is based on the modified Single Particle Model (SPM) coupled to a mesoscopic approach for the LFP electrode. The model comprises one representative spherical particle as the graphite electrode, and N LFP units as the positive electrode. All the SPM equations are retained to model the negative electrode performance. The mesoscopic model rests on non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions and uses a non-monotonic open circuit potential for each unit. A parameter estimation study is also carried out to identify all the parameters needed for the model. The unknown parameters are the solid diffusion coefficient of the negative electrode (Ds,n), reaction-rate constant of the negative electrode (Kn), negative and positive electrode porosity (εn&εn), initial State-Of-Charge of the negative electrode (SOCn,0), initial partial composition of the LFP units (yk,0), minimum and maximum resistance of the LFP units (Rmin&Rmax), and solution resistance (Rcell). The results show that the mesoscopic model can simulate successfully the electrochemical behavior of lithium-ion batteries at low and high charge/discharge rates. The model also describes adequately the lithiation/delithiation of the LFP particles, however, it is computationally expensive compared to macro-based models.

  10. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  11. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  12. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  13. Enhanced representations of lithium-ion batteries in power systems models and their effect on the valuation of energy arbitrage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Apurba; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Sepulveda, Nestor; Uckun, Canan; Vergara, Claudio; de Sisternes, Fernando J.; Dees, Dennis W.; Botterud, Audun

    2017-02-01

    We develop three novel enhanced mixed integer-linear representations of the power limit of the battery and its efficiency as a function of the charge and discharge power and the state of charge of the battery, which can be directly implemented in large-scale power systems models and solved with commercial optimization solvers. Using these battery representations, we conduct a techno-economic analysis of the performance of a 10 MWh lithium-ion battery system testing the effect of a 5-min vs. a 60-min price signal on profits using real time prices from a selected node in the MISO electricity market. Results show that models of lithium-ion batteries where the power limits and efficiency are held constant overestimate profits by 10% compared to those obtained from an enhanced representation that more closely matches the real behavior of the battery. When the battery system is exposed to a 5-min price signal, the energy arbitrage profitability improves by 60% compared to that from hourly price exposure. These results indicate that a more accurate representation of li-ion batteries as well as the market rules that govern the frequency of electricity prices can play a major role on the estimation of the value of battery technologies for power grid applications.

  14. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included

  15. Charge Equalization Controller Algorithm for Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems: Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an accurate model of a charge equalization controller (CEC that manages individual cell monitoring and equalizing by charging and discharging series-connected lithium-ion (Li-ion battery cells. In this concept, an intelligent control algorithm is developed to activate bidirectional cell switches and control direct current (DC–DC converter switches along with pulse width modulation (PWM generation. Individual models of an electric vehicle (EV-sustainable Li-ion battery, optimal power rating, a bidirectional flyback DC–DC converter, and charging and discharging controllers are integrated to develop a small-scale CEC model that can be implemented for 10 series-connected Li-ion battery cells. Results show that the charge equalization controller operates at 91% efficiency and performs well in equalizing both overdischarged and overcharged cells on time. Moreover, the outputs of the CEC model show that the desired balancing level occurs at 2% of state of charge difference and that all cells are operated within a normal range. The configuration, execution, control, power loss, cost, size, and efficiency of the developed CEC model are compared with those of existing controllers. The proposed model is proven suitable for high-tech storage systems toward the advancement of sustainable EV technologies and renewable source of applications.

  16. Batteries for energy storage. Examples, strategies, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlbusch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the variety of battery technologies and describes their mobile and stationary applications and uses. The major social project of the energy transition requires a holistic approach that takes into account especially the issues of energy saving and efficiency in addition to the power generation and distribution from renewable resources. In addition, the book provides an outlook on the further development possibilities of battery technology and battery applications. Improved battery technology is an important factor to help electromobility and stationary applications of batteries as distributed energy storage breakthrough. Not least, the importance and the need for the recycling of batteries and the variety of battery technologies are presented that have the greatest importance in terms of resource conservation and resource security. [de

  17. Lithium Ion Batteries Ageing Analysis when used in a PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Aparicio, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the integration of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries into large scale grid-connected PV plants. It performs a systematic analysis on both the operation improvement obtained by a PV+ES power plant and the ageing experienced by the Li-ion batteries used as Energy Storage (ES) system...... when operating under different energy management strategies (EMS). In this paper, the PV+ES power plant structure is presented and the selection of Li-on batteries as ES system (ESS) is justified. Moreover, the simulation model used for studying the Li-ion battery ageing is explained and tested...

  18. Automotive battery energy density — past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.

    Energy and power densities of automotive batteries at engine starting rates have doubled over the past twenty years. Most recent improvements can be credited to the use of both very thin plates with optimized grid design and low-resistance polyethylene separators with a thin backweb and a reduced rib height. Opportunities for further improvements using the same design approach and similar processing techniques are limited. The effect of some recent innovative developments on weight reduction and performance improvement are reviewed, together with possible changes to the electrical system of vehicles.

  19. A fully implantable pacemaker for the mouse: from battery to wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughner, Jacob I; Marrus, Scott B; Zellmer, Erik R; Weinheimer, Carla J; MacEwan, Matthew R; Cui, Sophia X; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days) pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24) were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14) and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10). Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1%) mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10%) mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice.

  20. A Fully Implantable Pacemaker for the Mouse: From Battery to Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Erik R.; Weinheimer, Carla J.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Cui, Sophia X.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days) pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24) were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14) and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10). Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1%) mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10%) mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice. PMID:24194832

  1. A fully implantable pacemaker for the mouse: from battery to wireless power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob I Laughner

    Full Text Available Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24 were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14 and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10. Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1% mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10% mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice.

  2. Research on Frequency Control of Grid Connected Sodium-Sulfur Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fenglin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium sulfur battery is the only energy storage battery with large capacity and high energy density. It has a great application prospect in the peak load shifting of power grid, due to the lack of domestic research on it, it is urgent to evaluate the effect of grid-connection of sodium sulfur battery scientifically. According to the experimental data of the sodium sulfur battery project, the battery model is built. Compared with the real discharge curve, the error of the model simulation curve is small, so the battery model is effective. The AC / DC power grid model is built, and the rectifier and inverter control circuits are designed to simulate the scenario that the wind turbine and the battery are supplied to the passive load. The simulation results show that the grid-connected model of the sodium sulfur battery under the two control strategies can stabilize the larger frequency fluctuation.

  3. A dynamic performance model for redox-flow batteries involving soluble species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.A.; Watt-Smith, M.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    A transient modelling framework for a vanadium redox-flow battery (RFB) is developed and experiments covering a range of vanadium concentration and electrolyte flow rate are conducted. The two-dimensional model is based on a comprehensive description of mass, charge and momentum transport and conservation, and is combined with a global kinetic model for reactions involving vanadium species. The model is validated against the experimental data and is used to study the effects of variations in concentration, electrolyte flow rate and electrode porosity. Extensions to the model and future work are suggested

  4. Range-extending Zinc-air battery for electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Sherman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle model is used to evaluate a novel powertrain that is comprised of a dual energy storage system (Dual ESS. The system includes two battery packs with different chemistries and the necessary electronic controls to facilitate their coordination and optimization. Here, a lithium-ion battery pack is used as the primary pack and a Zinc-air battery as the secondary or range-extending pack. Zinc-air batteries are usually considered unsuitable for use in vehicles due to their poor cycle life, but the model demonstrates the feasibility of this technology with an appropriate control strategy, with limited cycling of the range extender pack. The battery pack sizes and the battery control strategy are configured to optimize range, cost and longevity. In simulation the vehicle performance compares favourably to a similar vehicle with a single energy storage system (Single ESS powertrain, travelling up to 75 km further under test conditions. The simulation demonstrates that the Zinc-air battery pack need only cycle 100 times to enjoy a ten-year lifespan. The Zinc-air battery model is based on leading Zinc-air battery research from literature, with some assumptions regarding achievable improvements. Having such a model clarifies the performance requirements of Zinc-air cells and improves the research community's ability to set performance targets for Zinc-air cells.

  5. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  6. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm. PMID:29543875

  7. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wentao; Ramezani, Mohsen; An, Kun; Kim, Inhi

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm.

  8. Energy efficiency of neptunium redox battery in comparison with vanadium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, T.; Watanabe, N.; Shiokawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A neptunium ion possesses two isostructural and reversible redox couples (Np 3+ /Np 4+ and NpO 2 + /NpO 2 2+ ) and is therefore suitable as an active material for a redox-flow battery. Since the plastic formed carbon (PFC) is known to show the largest k values for Np(IV)/Np(III) and Np(V)/Np(VI) reactions among various carbon electrodes, a cell was constructed by using the PFC, with the circulation induced by bubbling gas through the electrolyte. In discharge experiments with a neptunium and a vanadium battery using the cell, the former showed a lower voltage loss which suggests a smaller reaction overvoltage. Because of the high radioactivity of the neptunium, it was difficult to obtain sufficient circulation required for the redox-flow battery, therefore a model for evaluating the energy efficiency of the redox-flow battery was developed. By using the known k values for neptunium and vanadium electrode reactions at PFC electrodes, the energy efficiency of the neptunium battery was calculated to be 99.1% at 70 mA cm -2 , which exceeds that of the vanadium battery by ca. 16%

  9. An application of on-line battery monitoring to the Vulcano PV plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonarota, A.; Menga, P.; Ostano, P.; Scarioni, V.

    1988-05-01

    The reliable knowledge of the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery of a photovoltaic (PV) plant can contribute to improve system management. Unfortunately, the technologies currently adopted to determine the battery SOC are not fully satisfactory. The experience obtained by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) on traction lead-acid batteries, operating under cyclic conditions, led to the formulation of a simple model capable of describing the relationships among the operating conditions (profile of current, temperature, etc.) and the internal SOC of the battery. This model was extended to the stationary accumulators to the Vulcano PV plant of ENEL, and checked by means of laboratory tests at the CESI (Italy) laboratories. Relevant to this work, an automatic system for the on-line evaluation of the SOC of the battery has recently been set up and installed at Vulcano. This paper presents the basis of the methodology, the layout of the system, and the preliminary results.

  10. Integrated Equivalent Circuit and Thermal Model for Simulation of Temperature-Dependent LiFePO4 Battery in Actual Embedded Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchang Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational efficient battery pack model with thermal consideration is essential for simulation prototyping before real-time embedded implementation. The proposed model provides a coupled equivalent circuit and convective thermal model to determine the state-of-charge (SOC and temperature of the LiFePO4 battery working in a real environment. A cell balancing strategy applied to the proposed temperature-dependent battery model balanced the SOC of each cell to increase the lifespan of the battery. The simulation outputs are validated by a set of independent experimental data at a different temperature to ensure the model validity and reliability. The results show a root mean square (RMS error of 1.5609 × 10−5 for the terminal voltage and the comparison between the simulation and experiment at various temperatures (from 5 °C to 45 °C shows a maximum RMS error of 7.2078 × 10−5.

  11. A Lithium-Ion Battery Simulator Based on a Diffusion and Switching Overpotential Hybrid Model for Dynamic Discharging Behavior and Runtime Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Rong Dung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new battery simulator based on a hybrid model is proposed in this paper for dynamic discharging behavior and runtime predictions in existing electronic simulation environments, e.g., PSIM, so it can help power circuit designers to develop and optimize their battery-powered electronic systems. The hybrid battery model combines a diffusion model and a switching overpotential model, which automatically switches overpotential resistance mode or overpotential voltage mode to accurately describe the voltage difference between battery electro-motive force (EMF and terminal voltage. Therefore, this simulator can simply run in an electronic simulation software with less computational efforts and estimate battery performances by further considering nonlinear capacity effects. A linear extrapolation technique is adopted for extracting model parameters from constant current discharging tests, so the EMF hysteresis problem is avoided. For model validation, experiments and simulations in MATLAB and PSIM environments are conducted with six different profiles, including constant loads, an interrupted load, increasing and decreasing loads and a varying load. The results confirm the usefulness and accuracy of the proposed simulator. The behavior and runtime prediction errors can be as low as 3.1% and 1.2%, respectively.

  12. A control-oriented lithium-ion battery pack model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle cycle-life studies and system design with consideration of health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    A crucial step towards the large-scale introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the market is to reduce the cost of its battery systems. Currently, battery cycle- and calendar-life represents one of the greatest uncertainties in the total life-cycle cost of battery systems. The field of battery aging modeling and prognosis has seen progress with respect to model-based and data-driven approaches to describe the aging of battery cells. However, in real world applications cells are interconnected and aging propagates. The propagation of aging from one cell to others exhibits itself in a reduced battery system life. This paper proposes a control-oriented battery pack model that describes the propagation of aging and its effect on the life span of battery systems. The modeling approach is such that it is able to predict pack aging, thermal, and electrical dynamics under actual PHEV operation, and includes consideration of random variability of the cells, electrical topology and thermal management. The modeling approach is based on the interaction between dynamic system models of the electrical and thermal dynamics, and dynamic models of cell aging. The system-level state-of-health (SOH) is assessed based on knowledge of individual cells SOH, pack electrical topology and voltage equalization approach.

  13. An improved charging/discharging strategy of lithium batteries considering depreciation cost in day-ahead microgrid scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Jianxue; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A quantitative depreciation cost model is put forward for lithium batteries. • A practical charging/discharging strategy is applied to battery management. • The depth of discharge of the battery storage is scheduled more rationally. • The proposed strategy improves the cost efficiency of lithium batteries in MGs. - Abstract: An energy storage system is critical for the safe and stable operation of a microgrid (MG) and has a promising prospect in future power system. Economical and safe operation of storage system is of great significance to MGs. This paper presents an improved management strategy for lithium battery storage by establishing a battery depreciation cost model and employing a practical charging/discharging strategy. Firstly, experimental data of lithium battery cycle lives, which are functions of the depth of discharge, are investigated and synthesized. A quantitative depreciation cost model is put forward for lithium batteries from the perspective of cycle life. Secondly, a practical charging/discharging strategy is applied to the lithium battery management in MGs. Then, an optimal scheduling model is developed to minimize MG operational cost including battery depreciation cost. Finally, numerical tests are conducted on a typical grid-connected MG. Results show that the depth of discharge of storage is scheduled more rationally, and operational cost is simultaneously saved for MG under the proposed management strategy. This study helps to improve the cost efficiency and alleviate the aging process for lithium batteries.

  14. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  15. PROBLEMS WITH DETERMINATION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM COKE OVEN BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven battery is complex and multifaceted facility in terms of air pollutant emissions. As far as stack or quenching tower does not cause major difficulties of emission measurement, the fugitive emission measurement from sources such as battery top elements (charging holes, ascension pipes or oven doors is still complicated and not fully solved problem. This article presents the discussion concerning main problems and errors likely to be made in particular stages of procedure of fugitive emissions characterization from coke oven battery (selection of sampling points, sampling itself, measurement of air velocity over battery top and laboratory analyses. In addition, results of concentrations measurements of selected substances characteristic for the coking process (naphthalene, anthracene, 4 PAHs and TSP originating from fugitive sources of coke oven battery and subjected to reporting under the E-PRTR are presented. The measurements were carried out on coke oven battery top in points selected on the basis of the preceding detailed air convection velocity measurements over battery top. Results of the velocity measurements were compared with results of numerical modelling using CFD software. The presented material is an attempt to cross-sectional presentation of issues related to the quantitative evaluation of fugitive emission from coke oven battery, discussed on the example of PAHs emission as a group of substances characteristic for coking of coal.

  16. Innovative model-based flow rate optimization for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an innovative approach is presented to optimize the flow rate of a 6-kW vanadium redox flow battery with realistic stack dimensions. Efficiency is derived using a multi-physics battery model and a newly proposed instantaneous efficiency determination technique. An optimization algorithm is applied to identify optimal flow rates for operation points defined by state-of-charge (SoC) and current. The proposed method is evaluated against the conventional approach of applying Faraday's first law of electrolysis, scaled to the so-called flow factor. To make a fair comparison, the flow factor is also optimized by simulating cycles with different charging/discharging currents. It is shown through the obtained results that the efficiency is increased by up to 1.2% points; in addition, discharge capacity is also increased by up to 1.0 kWh or 5.4%. Detailed loss analysis is carried out for the cycles with maximum and minimum charging/discharging currents. It is shown that the proposed method minimizes the sum of losses caused by concentration over-potential, pumping and diffusion. Furthermore, for the deployed Nafion 115 membrane, it is observed that diffusion losses increase with stack SoC. Therefore, to decrease stack SoC and lower diffusion losses, a higher flow rate during charging than during discharging is reasonable.

  17. On-line scheme for parameter estimation of nonlinear lithium ion battery equivalent circuit models using the simplified refined instrumental variable method for a modified Wiener continuous-time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allafi, Walid; Uddin, Kotub; Zhang, Cheng; Mazuir Raja Ahsan Sha, Raja; Marco, James

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Off-line estimation approach for continuous-time domain for non-invertible function. •Model reformulated to multi-input-single-output; nonlinearity described by sigmoid. •Method directly estimates parameters of nonlinear ECM from the measured-data. •Iterative on-line technique leads to smoother convergence. •The model is validated off-line and on-line using NCA battery. -- Abstract: The accuracy of identifying the parameters of models describing lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in typical battery management system (BMS) applications is critical to the estimation of key states such as the state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH). In applications such as electric vehicles (EVs) where LIBs are subjected to highly demanding cycles of operation and varying environmental conditions leading to non-trivial interactions of ageing stress factors, this identification is more challenging. This paper proposes an algorithm that directly estimates the parameters of a nonlinear battery model from measured input and output data in the continuous time-domain. The simplified refined instrumental variable method is extended to estimate the parameters of a Wiener model where there is no requirement for the nonlinear function to be invertible. To account for nonlinear battery dynamics, in this paper, the typical linear equivalent circuit model (ECM) is enhanced by a block-oriented Wiener configuration where the nonlinear memoryless block following the typical ECM is defined to be a sigmoid static nonlinearity. The nonlinear Weiner model is reformulated in the form of a multi-input, single-output linear model. This linear form allows the parameters of the nonlinear model to be estimated using any linear estimator such as the well-established least squares (LS) algorithm. In this paper, the recursive least square (RLS) method is adopted for online parameter estimation. The approach was validated on experimental data measured from an 18650-type Graphite

  18. Characterizing aging effects of lithium ion batteries by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeltzsch, Uwe; Kanoun, Olfa; Traenkler, Hans-Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for characterizing aging effects of portable secondary batteries online because it provides information about different aging mechanisms. However, application of impedance spectroscopy 'in the field' has some higher requirements than for laboratory experiments. It requires a fast impedance measurement process, an accurate model applicable with several batteries and a robust method for model parameter estimation. In this paper, we present a method measuring impedance at different frequencies simultaneously. We propose to use a composite electrode model, capable to describe porous composite electrode materials. A hybrid method for parameter estimation based on a combination of evolution strategy and Levenberg-Marquardt method allowed a robust and fast parameter calculation. Based on this approach, an experimental investigation of aging effects of a lithium ion battery was carried out. After 230 discharge/charge cycles, the battery showed a 14% decreased capacity. Modeling results show that series resistance, charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient changed thereby their values by approximately 60%. A single frequency impedance measurement, usually carried out at 1 kHz, delivers only information about series resistance. Impedance spectroscopy allows additionally the estimation of charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient. This fact and the high sensitivity of model parameters to capacity change prove that impedance spectroscopy together with an accurate modeling deliver information that significantly improve characterization of aging effects

  19. Characterizing aging effects of lithium ion batteries by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeltzsch, Uwe [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe.troeltzsch@unibw-muenchen.de; Kanoun, Olfa [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Traenkler, Hans-Rolf [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2006-01-20

    Impedance spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for characterizing aging effects of portable secondary batteries online because it provides information about different aging mechanisms. However, application of impedance spectroscopy 'in the field' has some higher requirements than for laboratory experiments. It requires a fast impedance measurement process, an accurate model applicable with several batteries and a robust method for model parameter estimation. In this paper, we present a method measuring impedance at different frequencies simultaneously. We propose to use a composite electrode model, capable to describe porous composite electrode materials. A hybrid method for parameter estimation based on a combination of evolution strategy and Levenberg-Marquardt method allowed a robust and fast parameter calculation. Based on this approach, an experimental investigation of aging effects of a lithium ion battery was carried out. After 230 discharge/charge cycles, the battery showed a 14% decreased capacity. Modeling results show that series resistance, charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient changed thereby their values by approximately 60%. A single frequency impedance measurement, usually carried out at 1 kHz, delivers only information about series resistance. Impedance spectroscopy allows additionally the estimation of charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient. This fact and the high sensitivity of model parameters to capacity change prove that impedance spectroscopy together with an accurate modeling deliver information that significantly improve characterization of aging effects.

  20. Modeling, design, fabrication and experimentation of a GaN-based, 63Ni betavoltaic battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Munson, C., IV; Gaimard, Q.; Merghem, K.; Sundaram, S.; Rogers, D. J.; de Sanoit, J.; Voss, P. L.; Ramdane, A.; Salvestrini, J. P.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2018-01-01

    GaN is a durable, radiation hard and wide-bandgap semiconductor material, making it ideal for usage with betavoltaic batteries. This paper describes the design, fabrication and experimental testing of 1 cm2 GaN-based betavoltaic batteries (that achieve an output power of 2.23 nW) along with a full model that accurately simulates the device performance which is the highest to date (to the best of our knowledge) for GaN-based devices with a 63Ni source.

  1. Artificial neural network simulation of battery performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Gorman, C.C.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    Although they appear deceptively simple, batteries embody a complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes. While the discrete engineering characteristics of a battery such as the physical dimensions of the individual components, are relatively straightforward to define explicitly, their myriad chemical and physical processes, including interactions, are much more difficult to accurately represent. Within this category are the diffusive and solubility characteristics of individual species, reaction kinetics and mechanisms of primary chemical species as well as intermediates, and growth and morphology characteristics of reaction products as influenced by environmental and operational use profiles. For this reason, development of analytical models that can consistently predict the performance of a battery has only been partially successful, even though significant resources have been applied to this problem. As an alternative approach, the authors have begun development of a non-phenomenological model for battery systems based on artificial neural networks. Both recurrent and non-recurrent forms of these networks have been successfully used to develop accurate representations of battery behavior. The connectionist normalized linear spline (CMLS) network has been implemented with a self-organizing layer to model a battery system with the generalized radial basis function net. Concurrently, efforts are under way to use the feedforward back propagation network to map the {open_quotes}state{close_quotes} of a battery system. Because of the complexity of battery systems, accurate representation of the input and output parameters has proven to be very important. This paper describes these initial feasibility studies as well as the current models and makes comparisons between predicted and actual performance.

  2. Degradation Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Lifetime Models and Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications...... is their higher cost—in comparison with other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods—combined with performance-degradation uncertainties. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper operation of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime...... of the Li-ion battery and its degradation behavior is required. Thus, this paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behavior of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Li-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured...

  3. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Modeling the SEI-formation on graphite electrodes in liFePO4 batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Danilov, D.L.; Zhang, Zhongru; Chen, H.; Yang, Y.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2015-01-01

    An advanced model is proposed, describing the capacity losses of C6/LiFePO4 batteries under storage and cycling conditions. These capacity losses are attributed to the growth of a Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) at the surface of graphite particles in the negative electrode. The model assumes the

  5. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO 2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented. (topical review)

  6. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  7. An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack state-of-charge plays a very important role for electric vehicles, which directly reflects the behavior of battery pack usage. However, the inconsistency of battery makes the estimation of battery pack state-of-charge different from single cell. In this paper, to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge on-line, the definition of battery pack is proposed, and the relationship between the total available capacity of battery pack and single cell is put forward to analyze the energy efficiency influenced by battery inconsistency, then a lumped parameter battery model is built up to describe the dynamic behavior of battery pack. Furthermore, the extend Kalman filter-unscented Kalman filter algorithm is developed to identify the parameters of battery pack and forecast state-of-charge concurrently. The extend Kalman filter is applied to update the battery pack parameters by real-time measured data, while the unscented Kalman filter is employed to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by experiments operated on the lithium-ion battery under constant current condition and the dynamic stress test profiles. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack state-of-charge with high accuracy. - Highlights: • A novel space state equation is built to describe the pack dynamic behavior. • The dual filters method is used to estimate the pack state-of-charge. • Battery inconsistency is considered to analyze the pack usage efficiency. • The accuracy of the proposed method is verified under different conditions.

  8. Application of spouted bed elutriation in the recycling of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuol, Daniel A.; Toniasso, Camila; Jiménez, Bernardo M.; Meili, Lucas; Dotto, Guilherme L.; Tanabe, Eduardo H.; Aguiar, Mônica L.

    2015-02-01

    The growing environmental concern, associated with the continuous increase in electronic equipment production, has induced the development of new technologies to recycle the large number of spent batteries generated in recent years. The amount of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) tends to grow over the next years. These batteries are composed by valuable metals, such as Li, Co, Cu and Al, which can be recovered. Thus, the present work is carried out in two main steps: In the first step, a characterization of the LIBs is performed. Batteries from different brands and models are dismantled and their components characterized regarding to the chemical composition and main phases. In the second step, a sample of LIBs is shredded and the different materials present are separated by spouted bed elutriation. The results show that spouted bed elutriation is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain the separation of the different materials (polymers, metals, active electrode materials) present in spent LIBs.

  9. A low pressure bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golben, M.; Nechev, K.; DaCosta, D.H.; Rosso, M.J.

    1997-12-01

    Ergenics is developing a low pressure high power rechargeable battery for electric vehicles and other large battery applications. The Hy-Stor{trademark} battery couples a bipolar nickel-hydrogen electrochemical system with the high energy storage density of metal hydride technology. In addition to its long cycle life, high specific power, and energy density, this battery offers safety and economic advantages over other rechargeable batteries. Results from preliminary testing of the first Hy-Stor battery are presented.

  10. Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of Lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium-ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process can be used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model. In the proposed...... methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests are considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. The methodology proposes also a lifetime model verification stage, where Lithium-ion battery cells are tested at normal operating conditions using an application...

  11. A dynamic model-based estimate of the value of a vanadium redox flow battery for frequency regulation in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Webber, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model is implemented to describe the dynamic voltage of a vanadium flow battery. • The model is used with optimization to maximize the utility of the battery. • A vanadium flow battery’s value for regulation service is approximately $1500/kW. - Abstract: Building on past work seeking to value emerging energy storage technologies in grid-based applications, this paper introduces a dynamic model-based framework to value a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) participating in Texas’ organized electricity market. Our model describes the dynamic behavior of a VRFB system’s voltage and state of charge based on the instantaneous charging or discharging power required from the battery. We formulate an optimization problem that incorporates the model to show the potential value of a VRFB used for frequency regulation service in Texas. The optimization is implemented in Matlab using the large-scale, interior-point, nonlinear optimization algorithm, with the objective function gradient, nonlinear constraint gradients, and Hessian matrix specified analytically. Utilizing market prices and other relevant data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), we find that a VRFB system used for frequency regulation service could be worth approximately $1500/kW

  12. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  13. Electric circuit modeling of lithium-sulfur batteries during discharging state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are characterized by having very good performance in terms of efficiency, lifetime, and selfdischarge, which allowed them to become the major player in the electric vehicle applications. However, they were not able to totally overcome the EV range anxiety. Thus, research...... is carried out nowadays to develop batteries with even higher gravimetric energy density, which should allow a substantial range increase. One of the technologies, which should be able to meet the range requirements is the Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery. Thanks to the extensive research and development...... static and pulse discharge profiles, showing a good accuracy in predicting the voltage of the tested Li-S battery cell....

  14. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  15. Multi-physics Modeling for Improving Li-Ion Battery Safety; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Yang, C.

    2015-04-21

    Battery performance, cost, and safety must be further improved for larger market share of HEVs/PEVs and penetration into the grid. Significant investment is being made to develop new materials, fine tune existing ones, improve cell and pack designs, and enhance manufacturing processes to increase performance, reduce cost, and make batteries safer. Modeling, simulation, and design tools can play an important role by providing insight on how to address issues, reducing the number of build-test-break prototypes, and accelerating the development cycle of generating products.

  16. Electric batteries. Fundamental principles and theory, present state of the art of technology and trends of development. 3. rev. and enlarged ed. Batterien. Grundlagen und Theorie, aktueller technischer Stand und Entwicklungstendenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiehne, H.A.; Berndt, D.; Boettger, K.; Fischer, W.; Franke, H.; Friedheim, G.; Koethe, H.K.; Krakowski, H.; Middendorf, E.; Preuss, P.

    1988-01-01

    This volume gives a comprehensive survey of the present state of the electrochemical power storage with special consideration of their technical characteristics of application. The volume is structured as follows: 1) Electrochemical energy storage, general fundamentals; 2) Batteries for electric-powered industrial trucks; 2a) Energy supply concepts for driverless industrial trucks; 3) Batteries for electric-powered road vehicles; 4) Battery-fed electric drive from the user's point of view (=charging, maintenance); 5) Secured power supply with electric batteries; 6) Batteries for stationary power supplies; 7) Operation and use of batteries for a large-scale consumer (emergency power supplies for communication equipment of the Deutsche Bundespost); 8) Starter batteries of vehicles; 9) High-energy batteries (e.g. Zn/Cl/sub 2/-, Na/S-, Li/FeS-cells, fuel cells); 10) Solar-electric power supply with batteries; 11) Charging methods and charging technique; 12) Technology of battery chargers and current transformer, monitoring methods; 13) Standards and regulations for batteries and battery systems. (MM) With 192 figs.

  17. Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  18. Data-driven battery product development: Turn battery performance into a competitive advantage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal [Voltaiq, Inc.

    2016-04-19

    Poor battery performance is a primary source of user dissatisfaction across a broad range of applications, and is a key bottleneck hindering the growth of mobile technology, wearables, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage. Engineering battery systems is difficult, requiring extensive testing for vendor selection, BMS programming, and application-specific lifetime testing. This work also generates huge quantities of data. This presentation will explain how to leverage this data to help ship quality products faster using fewer resources while ensuring safety and reliability in the field, ultimately turning battery performance into a competitive advantage.

  19. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  20. Online state of charge and model parameter co-estimation based on a novel multi-timescale estimator for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Wai, Nyunt; Tseng, King Jet

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Battery model parameters and SOC co-estimation is investigated. • The model parameters and OCV are decoupled and estimated independently. • Multiple timescales are adopted to improve precision and stability. • SOC is online estimated without using the open-circuit cell. • The method is robust to aging levels, flow rates, and battery chemistries. - Abstract: A key function of battery management system (BMS) is to provide accurate information of the state of charge (SOC) in real time, and this depends directly on the precise model parameterization. In this paper, a novel multi-timescale estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and SOC for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) in real time. The model parameters and OCV are decoupled and estimated independently, effectively avoiding the possibility of cross interference between them. The analysis of model sensitivity, stability, and precision suggests the necessity of adopting different timescales for each estimator independently. Experiments are conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method. Results reveal that the model parameters are online adapted accurately thus the periodical calibration on them can be avoided. The online estimated terminal voltage and SOC are both benchmarked with the reference values. The proposed multi-timescale estimator has the merits of fast convergence, high precision, and good robustness against the initialization uncertainty, aging states, flow rates, and also battery chemistries.

  1. Modeling the degradation mechanisms of C6/LiFePO4 batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Danilov, D.L.; Zwikirsch, B.; Fichtner, M.; Yang, Y.; Eichel, R.A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental electrochemical model is developed, describing the capacity fade of C6/LiFePO4 batteries as a function of calendar time and cycling conditions. At moderate temperatures the capacity losses are mainly attributed to Li immobilization in Solid-Electrolyte-Interface (SEI) layers at the

  2. Adaptive on-line prediction of the available power of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Wladislaw; Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a new approach for prediction of the available power of a lithium-ion battery pack is presented. It is based on a nonlinear battery model that includes current dependency of the battery resistance. It results in an accurate power prediction not only at room temperature, but also at lower temperatures at which the current dependency is substantial. The used model parameters are fully adaptable on-line to the given state of the battery (state of charge, state of health, temperature). This on-line adaption in combination with an explicit consideration of differences between characteristics of individual cells in a battery pack ensures an accurate power prediction under all possible conditions. The proposed trade-off between the number of used cell parameters and the total accuracy as well as the optimized algorithm results in a real-time capability of the method, which is demonstrated on a low-cost 16 bit microcontroller. The verification tests performed on a software-in-the-loop test bench system with four 40 Ah lithium-ion cells show promising results.

  3. A holistic aging model for Li(NiMnCo)O2 based 18650 lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstieg, Johannes; Käbitz, Stefan; Ecker, Madeleine; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge on lithium-ion battery aging and lifetime estimation is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction in high-priced goods like electric mobility. This paper illustrates the parameterization of a holistic aging model from accelerated aging tests. More than 60 cells of the same type are tested to analyze different impact factors. In calendar aging tests three temperatures and various SOC are applied to the batteries. For cycle aging tests especially different cycle depths and mean SOC are taken into account. Capacity loss and resistance increase are monitored as functions of time and charge throughput during the tests. From these data physical based functions are obtained, giving a mathematical description of aging. To calculate the stress factors like temperature or voltage, an impedance based electric-thermal model is coupled to the aging model. The model accepts power and current profiles as input, furthermore an ambient air temperature profile can be applied. Various drive cycles and battery management strategies can be tested and optimized using the lifetime prognosis of this tool. With the validation based on different realistic driving profiles and temperatures, a robust foundation is provided.

  4. Particle-filtering-based estimation of maximum available power state in Lithium-Ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos-Mellado, Claudio; Orchard, Marcos E.; Kazerani, Mehrdad; Cárdenas, Roberto; Sáez, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Approach to estimate the state of maximum power available in Lithium-Ion battery. • Optimisation problem is formulated on the basis of a non-linear dynamic model. • Solutions of the optimisation problem are functions of state of charge estimates. • State of charge estimates computed using particle filter algorithms. - Abstract: Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are important for applications related to both microgrids and electric vehicles. If BESS are used as the main energy source, then it is required to include adequate procedures for the estimation of critical variables such as the State of Charge (SoC) and the State of Health (SoH) in the design of Battery Management Systems (BMS). Furthermore, in applications where batteries are exposed to high charge and discharge rates it is also desirable to estimate the State of Maximum Power Available (SoMPA). In this regard, this paper presents a novel approach to the estimation of SoMPA in Lithium-Ion batteries. This method formulates an optimisation problem for the battery power based on a non-linear dynamic model, where the resulting solutions are functions of the SoC. In the battery model, the polarisation resistance is modelled using fuzzy rules that are function of both SoC and the discharge (charge) current. Particle filtering algorithms are used as an online estimation technique, mainly because these algorithms allow approximating the probability density functions of the SoC and SoMPA even in the case of non-Gaussian sources of uncertainty. The proposed method for SoMPA estimation is validated using the experimental data obtained from an experimental setup designed for charging and discharging the Lithium-Ion batteries.

  5. A three-dimensional model for negative half cell of the vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiangkun; Zhang Huamin; Xing Feng

    2011-01-01

    A stationary, isothermal, three-dimensional model for negative half cell of the vanadium redox flow battery is developed, which is based on the comprehensive conservation laws, such as charge, mass and momentum, together with a kinetic model for reaction involving vanadium species. The model is validated against the results calculated by the available two-dimensional model. With the given geometry of the negative half cell, the distributions of velocity, concentration, overpotential and transfer current density in the sections that are perpendicular and parallel to the applied current are studied. It is shown that the distribution of the electrolyte velocity in the electrode has significant impact on the distribution of concentration, overpotential and transfer current density. The lower velocity in the electrode will cause the higher overpotential, further result in the side reaction and corrosion of key materials locally. The development of the design of the vanadium redox flow battery is discussed, and the further research is proposed.

  6. Thermal modeling of cylindrical LiFePO4 batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadman Rad, M.; Danilov, D.L.; Baghalha, M.; Kazemeini, M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal management of Li-ion batteries is important because of the high energy content and the risk of rapid temperature development in the high current range. Reliable and safe operation of these batteries is seriously endangered by high temperatures. It is important to have a simple but accurate

  7. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  8. Temperature dependent power capability estimation of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Zhang, Weige; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The power capability of lithium-ion batteries affects the safety and reliability of hybrid electric vehicles and the estimate of power by battery management systems provides operating information for drivers. In this paper, lithium ion manganese oxide batteries are studied to illustrate the temperature dependency of power capability and an operating map of power capability is presented. Both parametric and non-parametric models are established in conditions of temperature, state of charge, and cell resistance to estimate the power capability. Six cells were tested and used for model development, training, and validation. Three samples underwent hybrid pulse power characterization tests at varied temperatures and were used for model parameter identification and model training. The other three were used for model validation. By comparison, the mean absolute error of the parametric model is about 29 W, and that of the non-parametric model is around 20 W. The mean relative errors of two models are 0.076 and 0.397, respectively. The parametric model has a higher accuracy in low temperature and state of charge conditions, while the non-parametric model has better estimation result in high temperature and state of charge conditions. Thus, two models can be utilized together to achieve a higher accuracy of power capability estimation. - Highlights: • The temperature dependency of power capability of lithium-ion battery is investigated. • The parametric and non-parametric power capability estimation models are proposed. • An exponential function is put forward to compensate the effects of temperature. • A comparative study on the accuracy of two models using statistical metrics is presented.

  9. Control strategies and cycling demands for Li-ion storage batteries in residential micro-cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Kenney, B.; MacNeil, D.D.; Armstrong, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Canadian home energy system modeled with PV, ICE CHP, battery and power grid. • Battery function is modeled on fundamental electrochemical principles. • Techno-economics of control strategies assessed. • Impact of control strategies battery cycles is developed for wear analysis. • Non-monotonic nature of battery cycles with transient renewables is discussed. - Abstract: Energy storage units have become important components in residential micro-cogeneration (MCG) systems. As MCG systems are often connected to single residences or buildings in a wide variety of settings, they are frequently unique and highly customized. Lithium-ion batteries have recently gained some profile as energy storage units of choice, because of their good capacity, high efficiency, robustness and ability to meet the demands of typical residential electrical loads. In the present work, modeled scenarios are explored which examine the performance of a MCG system with an internal combustion engine, photovoltaic input and a Li-ion storage battery. An electricity demand profile from new data collected in Ottawa, Canada is used to provide a full year energy use context for the analyses. The demands placed on the battery are examined to assess the suitability of the battery size and performance, as well as control related functionalities which reveal significantly varying battery use, and led to a quantitative expression for equivalent cycles. The energy use simulations are derived from electrochemical fundamentals adapted for a larger battery pack. Simulation output provides the basis for techno-economic commentary on how to assess large-scale Li-ion batteries for effective electrical storage purposes in MCG systems, and the impact of the nature of the control strategy on the battery service life

  10. Can innovative business models overcome resistance to electric vehicles? Better Place and battery electric cars in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budde Christensen, Thomas; Wells, Peter; Cipcigan, Liana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the geographical and policy context for an emergent business model from Better Place to deliver battery electric car mobility in Denmark. It argues that the combination of radically different technologies and a highly complex multi-agency operating environment theoretically provide the conditions and requirements for such an emergent business model. While focused on battery electric cars, renewable energy generation and smart grids, the paper has wider applicability to an understanding of the interplay between place, innovation and sustainability which suggests that diverse solutions are likely to be the characteristic solution rather than ubiquity and standardization. The paper argues, however, that the innovative business model, the deployment of electric vehicles, and the use of renewable energy systems, in this case largely based on wind power, while mutually supportive and contributing to wider policy aims with respect to the reduction of carbon emissions, may still fail in the face of entrenched practices. At the theoretical level it is concluded that theorization of business models needs a broader perspective beyond the typical ‘value creation, value capture’ rubric to better understand the wider role such models have in meeting societal goals, and to understand the structural impediments to organizational and technical innovation. - Highlights: ► We explore the context for an innovative emergent business model to deliver battery electric car mobility in Denmark. ► We explore the interplay between battery electric cars, renewable energy generation and smart grids. ► We discuss the integration of electric cars in energy systems based on renewable energy sources. ► We discuss the likely success of the Better Place business model.

  11. Optimised control between fuel cell and battery in 'zero emission' fuel cell drives; Optimierung der Regelung zwischen Brennstoffzelle und Batterie in 'Zero-Emission' Brennstoffzellen-Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herb, F.; Jossen, A. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Ulm (Germany); Frank, A. [Univ. Ulm (Germany); Nitsche, C. [Mercedes-Benz Technology GmbH, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The contribution investigates the effects of various hybridisation strategies for fuel cell hybrid vehicles on the life of the fuel cell and the high-voltage battery and on hydrogen consumption on the basis of different driving cycles. The hybridisation strategies focus on the control of the power distribution of the fuel cell and battery. The investigation was carried out using a specially vehicle simulation model and vehicle data of the Advisor model. Quality parametersdefined for the life of the fuel cell and battery are presented in a diagram. Further, the influence of a degraded fuel cell on the control efficiency was investigated. For this, a fuel cell model was established on the basis of artificial neuronal networks based on real driving data, which was integrated in the vehicle model. The changes are discussed on the basis of the dependence of the quality parameters on the various control parameters. (orig.)

  12. Report of NPSAT1 Battery Thermal Contact Resistance Testing, Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    interface through use of the Siemens NX I-DEAS thermal model generator ( TMG ) software. Once the orbital parameters are defined, the appropriate interface...I-DEAS TMG software. For the case when the battery is mounted to the boundary condition plate an additional ‘null’ element was created to work

  13. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  14. Transient thermal analysis of a lithium-ion battery pack comparing different cooling solutions for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, Armando; Maheshwari, Arpit; Destro, Matteo; Santarelli, Massimo; Carello, Massimiliana

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An experimental set-up is designed and developed for thermal characterization of a Li-ion battery. •Heat generation and internal resistance profile at various C-rates (1C, 2C, 5C and 8C) are studied. •Heat entropic coefficient and internal resistance determination with temperature dependence were performed. •A battery thermal model is developed and used in a CFD-3D software for cooling methods analysis. -- Abstract: This paper presents a computational modeling approach to characterize the internal temperature distribution within a Li-Ion battery pack. In the mathematical formulation both entropy-based and irreversible-based heat generation have been considered; combined with CFD software in order to simulate the temperature distribution and evolution in a battery pack. A prismatic Li-ion phosphate battery is tested under constant current discharge/charge rates of 1C, 2C, 5C and 8C. Model parameters (in particular, the entropic heat coefficient and the internal resistance) needed for the calibration of the model are determined using experimentation. The model is then used to simulate two different strategies for the thermal control of a battery pack in case of car application: an air-cooling and a liquid-cooling strategy. The simulation has highlighted the pros and cons of the two strategies, allowing a good understanding of the needs during the process of battery pack design and production.

  15. A Novel Grouping Method for Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries Based on a Fractional Joint Kalman Filter and a New Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel grouping method for lithium iron phosphate batteries. In this method, a simplified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS model is utilized to describe the battery characteristics. Dynamic stress test (DST and fractional joint Kalman filter (FJKF are used to extract battery model parameters. In order to realize equal-number grouping of batteries, a new modified K-means clustering algorithm is proposed. Two rules are designed to equalize the numbers of elements in each group and exchange samples among groups. In this paper, the principles of battery model selection, physical meaning and identification method of model parameters, data preprocessing and equal-number clustering method for battery grouping are comprehensively described. Additionally, experiments for battery grouping and method validation are designed. This method is meaningful to application involving the grouping of fresh batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and screening of aged batteries for recycling.

  16. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Seok Lee; Jin-Hak Kim; Shin-Young Cho; Il-Oun Lee

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT) system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless b...

  17. A Comparative Study Based on the Least Square Parameter Identification Method for State of Charge Estimation of a LiFePO4 Battery Pack Using Three Model-Based Algorithms for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Zahid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage management for electric vehicles (EV and hybrid EV is the most critical and enabling technology since the dawn of electric vehicle commercialization. A battery system is a complex electrochemical phenomenon whose performance degrades with age and the existence of varying material design. Moreover, it is very tedious and computationally very complex to monitor and control the internal state of a battery’s electrochemical systems. For Thevenin battery model we established a state-space model which had the advantage of simplicity and could be easily implemented and then applied the least square method to identify the battery model parameters. However, accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of a battery, which depends not only on the battery model but also on highly accurate and efficient algorithms, is considered one of the most vital and critical issue for the energy management and power distribution control of EV. In this paper three different estimation methods, i.e., extended Kalman filter (EKF, particle filter (PF and unscented Kalman Filter (UKF, are presented to estimate the SoC of LiFePO4 batteries for an electric vehicle. Battery’s experimental data, current and voltage, are analyzed to identify the Thevenin equivalent model parameters. Using different open circuit voltages the SoC is estimated and compared with respect to the estimation accuracy and initialization error recovery. The experimental results showed that these online SoC estimation methods in combination with different open circuit voltage-state of charge (OCV-SoC curves can effectively limit the error, thus guaranteeing the accuracy and robustness.

  18. Thermal stability and modeling of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, Gerardine Gabriela

    2000-10-01

    First-principles mathematical models were developed to examine the effect of the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles on the performance of a lithium foil cell. Two different models were developed: the chemical potential model (CPM) that includes the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles and the diffusion model (DIM) that does not include the interactions. Significant differences in the thermal and electrochemical performance of the cell were observed between the two approaches. The temperature of the cell predicted by the DFM is higher than the one predicted by the CPM at a given capacity. The discharge time of the cell predicted by the DFM is shorter than the one predicted by the CPM. The results indicate that the cell needs to be modeled using the CPM approach especially at high discharge rates. An evaluation of the numerical techniques, control volume formulation (CVF) and finite difference method (FDM), used for the models was performed. It is shown that the truncation error is the same for both methods when the boundary conditions are of the Dirichlet type, the system of equations are linear and represented in Cartesian coordinates. A new technique to analyze the accuracy of the methods is presented. The only disadvantage of the FDM is that it failed to conserve mass for a small number of nodes when both boundary conditions include a derivative term whereas the CVF did conserve mass for these cases. However, for a large number of nodes the FDM provides mass conservation. It is important to note that the CVF has only (DeltaX) order of accuracy for a Neumann type boundary condition whereas the FDM has (DeltaX) 2 order. The second topic of this dissertation presents a study of the thermal stability of LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to perform the study of the electrolyte. For first time, the effect of different variables on its thermal stability

  19. A physics-based fractional order model and state of energy estimation for lithium ion batteries. Part II: Parameter identification and state of energy estimation for LiFePO4 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Pan, Ke; Fan, Guodong; Lu, Rengui; Zhu, Chunbo; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Canova, Marcello

    2017-11-01

    State of energy (SOE) is an important index for the electrochemical energy storage system in electric vehicles. In this paper, a robust state of energy estimation method in combination with a physical model parameter identification method is proposed to achieve accurate battery state estimation at different operating conditions and different aging stages. A physics-based fractional order model with variable solid-state diffusivity (FOM-VSSD) is used to characterize the dynamic performance of a LiFePO4/graphite battery. In order to update the model parameter automatically at different aging stages, a multi-step model parameter identification method based on the lexicographic optimization is especially designed for the electric vehicle operating conditions. As the battery available energy changes with different applied load current profiles, the relationship between the remaining energy loss and the state of charge, the average current as well as the average squared current is modeled. The SOE with different operating conditions and different aging stages are estimated based on an adaptive fractional order extended Kalman filter (AFEKF). Validation results show that the overall SOE estimation error is within ±5%. The proposed method is suitable for the electric vehicle online applications.

  20. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  1. A comparative study and validation of state estimation algorithms for Li-ion batteries in battery management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee Barillas, Joaquín; Li, Jiahao; Günther, Clemens; Danzer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Description of state observers for estimating the battery’s SOC. • Implementation of four estimation algorithms in a BMS. • Reliability and performance study of BMS regarding the estimation algorithms. • Analysis of the robustness and code properties of the estimation approaches. • Guide to evaluate estimation algorithms to improve the BMS performance. - Abstract: To increase lifetime, safety, and energy usage battery management systems (BMS) for Li-ion batteries have to be capable of estimating the state of charge (SOC) of the battery cells with a very low estimation error. The accurate SOC estimation and the real time reliability are critical issues for a BMS. In general an increasing complexity of the estimation methods leads to higher accuracy. On the other hand it also leads to a higher computational load and may exceed the BMS limitations or increase its costs. An approach to evaluate and verify estimation algorithms is presented as a requisite prior the release of the battery system. The approach consists of an analysis concerning the SOC estimation accuracy, the code properties, complexity, the computation time, and the memory usage. Furthermore, a study for estimation methods is proposed for their evaluation and validation with respect to convergence behavior, parameter sensitivity, initialization error, and performance. In this work, the introduced analysis is demonstrated with four of the most published model-based estimation algorithms including Luenberger observer, sliding-mode observer, Extended Kalman Filter and Sigma-point Kalman Filter. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are used to verify the real time functionality of the BMS. The results show that a simple estimation method like the sliding-mode observer can compete with the Kalman-based methods presenting less computational time and memory usage. Depending on the battery system’s application the estimation algorithm has to be selected to fulfill the

  2. Diagnosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries State-of-Health based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have developed into a popular energy storage choice for a wide range of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy storage technologies. Besides modelling the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries, it has become of huge...... interest to accurately diagnose their state-of-health (SOH). At present, Lithium-ion batteries are diagnosed by performing capacity or resistance (current pulse) measurements; however, in the majority of the cases, these measurements are time consuming and result in changing the state of the battery...... as well. This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique for SOH diagnosis of Lithium-ion battery cells, instead of using the aforementioned techniques, since this new method allows for online and direct measurement of the battery cell response in any working...

  3. Optimization of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Hydrogen generation

    OpenAIRE

    Wrang, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the modelling and optimal control of energy storage systems, in this study a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. Such a battery can be introduced in the electrical grid to be charged when demand is low and discharged when demand is high, increasing the overall efficiency of the network while reducing costs and emission of greenhouse gases. The model of the battery proposed in this study is less complex than the majority of models on batteries and energy storage systems found in literatur...

  4. Rapid Estimation Method for State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Continual Variable Order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the fractional order model has been employed to state of charge (SOC estimation. The non integer differentiation order being expressed as a function of recursive factors defining the fractality of charge distribution on porous electrodes. The battery SOC affects the fractal dimension of charge distribution, therefore the order of the fractional order model varies with the SOC at the same condition. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the SOC. A fractional continuous variable order model is used to characterize the fractal morphology of charge distribution. The order identification results showed that there is a stable monotonic relationship between the fractional order and the SOC after the battery inner electrochemical reaction reaches balanced. This feature makes the proposed model particularly suitable for SOC estimation when the battery is in the resting state. Moreover, a fast iterative method based on the proposed model is introduced for SOC estimation. The experimental results showed that the proposed iterative method can quickly estimate the SOC by several iterations while maintaining high estimation accuracy.

  5. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  6. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV. The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identified and optimized using the numerically nonlinear least squares algorithm, based on an experimental data set. By means of the optimized model, an adaptive Luenberger observer is built to estimate online the SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack. The observer gain is adaptively adjusted using a stochastic gradient approach so as to reduce the error between the estimated battery output voltage and the filtered battery terminal voltage measurement. Validation results show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack without a heavy computational load.

  7. Battery parameterisation based on differential evolution via a boundary evolution strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangya

    2014-01-01

    Attention has been given to the battery modelling in the electric engineering field following the current development of renewable energy and electrification of transportation. The establishment of the equivalent circuit model of the battery requires data preparation and parameterisation. Besides, as the equivalent circuit model is an abstract map of the battery electric characteristics, the determination of the possible ranges of parameters can be a challenging task. In this paper, an efficient yet easy to implement method is proposed to parameterise the equivalent circuit model of batteries utilising the advances of evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Differential evolution (DE) is selected and modified to parameterise an equivalent circuit model of lithium-ion batteries. A boundary evolution strategy (BES) is developed and incorporated into the DE to update the parameter boundaries during the parameterisation. The method can parameterise the model without extensive data preparation. In addition, the approach can also estimate the initial SOC and the available capacity. The efficiency of the approach is verified through two battery packs, one is an 8-cell battery module and one from an electrical vehicle.

  8. A brief review on key technologies in the battery management system of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Peng, Qiao; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Batteries have been widely applied in many high-power applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, where a suitable battery management system (BMS) is vital in ensuring safe and reliable operation of batteries. This paper aims to give a brief review on several key technologies of BMS, including battery modelling, state estimation and battery charging. First, popular battery types used in EVs are surveyed, followed by the introduction of key technologies used in BMS. Various battery models, including the electric model, thermal model and coupled electro-thermal model are reviewed. Then, battery state estimations for the state of charge, state of health and internal temperature are comprehensively surveyed. Finally, several key and traditional battery charging approaches with associated optimization methods are discussed.

  9. Non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries based on the control-oriented electrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Zhengyu; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries is proposed. •A close-loop observer of lithium deposition status is constructed based on the SP2D model. •The charging current is modified online using the feedback of the lithium deposition status. •The algorithm can shorten the charging time and can be used for charging from different initial SOCs. •The post-mortem observation and degradation tests show that no lithium deposition occurs during fast charging. -- Abstract: Fast charging is critical for the application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Conventional fast charging algorithms may shorten the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries and induce safety problems, such as internal short circuit caused by lithium deposition at the negative electrode. In this paper, a novel, non-destructive model-based fast charging algorithm is proposed. The fast charging algorithm is composed of two closed loops. The first loop includes an anode over-potential observer that can observe the status of lithium deposition online, whereas the second loop includes a feedback structure that can modify the current based on the observed status of lithium deposition. The charging algorithm enhances the charging current to maintain the observed anode over-potential near the preset threshold potential. Therefore, the fast charging algorithm can decrease the charging time while protecting the health of the battery. The fast charging algorithm is validated on a commercial large-format nickel cobalt manganese/graphite cell. The results showed that 96.8% of the battery capacity can be charged within 52 min. The post-mortem observation of the surface of the negative electrode and degradation tests revealed that the fast charging algorithm proposed here protected the battery from lithium deposition.

  10. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  11. Electrochemical modeling and performance evaluation of a new ammonia-based battery thermal management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    The operating temperatures of lithium ion battery packs in electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles need to be maintained in an optimum range for better performance and longer battery life. This paper proposes a new battery pack cooling system that utilizes the low saturation temperature of the fuel in ammonia based future hybrid electric vehicles. In the proposed cooling system, the batteries are partially submerged in to the liquid ammonia, and the liquid ammonia cools the battery by absorbing the heat and evaporating and the ammonia vapor cools the part of the battery not covered by liquid ammonia. The relationships between the performance of the battery cooling system and the maximum temperature (and the temperature distribution) in the battery are investigated for practical applications. The effect of the length of the battery that is submerged in to the liquid ammonia on the thermal performance of battery is studied and evaluated. The present results show that the proposed ammonia based cooling system offers a unique opportunity to maintain the operating temperature of the battery in an optimum range for consecutive charging and discharging phases at a high rate of 7.5C.

  12. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...

  13. Dynamic modelling of hydrogen evolution effects in the all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.A.; Al-Fetlawi, H.; Walsh, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    A model for hydrogen evolution in an all-vanadium redox flow battery is developed, coupling the dynamic conservation equations for charge, mass and momentum with a detailed description of the electrochemical reactions. Bubble formation at the negative electrode is included in the model, taking into account the attendant reduction in the liquid volume and the transfer of momentum between the gas and liquid phases, using a modified multiphase-mixture approach. Numerical simulations are compared to experimental data for different vanadium concentrations and mean linear electrolyte flow rates, demonstrating good agreement. Comparisons to simulations with negligible hydrogen evolution demonstrate the effect of gas evolution on the efficiency of the battery. The effects of reactant concentration, flow rate, applied current density and gas bubble diameter on hydrogen evolution are investigated. Significant variations in the gas volume fraction and the bubble velocity are predicted, depending on the operating conditions.

  14. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  15. Electrochemical-mechanical coupled modeling and parameterization of swelling and ionic transport in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Daniel; Hanselmann, Nina; Arzberger, Arno; Reinshagen, Holger; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Bund, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    The intercalation and aging induced volume changes of lithium-ion battery electrodes lead to significant mechanical pressure or volume changes on cell and module level. As the correlation between electrochemical and mechanical performance of lithium ion batteries at nano and macro scale requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, physical modeling accounting for chemical and mechanical phenomena during operation is very useful for the battery design. Since the introduced fully-coupled physical model requires proper parameterization, this work also focuses on identifying appropriate mathematical representation of compressibility as well as the ionic transport in the porous electrodes and the separator. The ionic transport is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using symmetric pouch cells comprising LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode, graphite anode and polyethylene separator. The EIS measurements are carried out at various mechanical loads. The observed decrease of the ionic conductivity reveals a significant transport limitation at high pressures. The experimentally obtained data are applied as input to the electrochemical-mechanical model of a prismatic 10 Ah cell. Our computational approach accounts intercalation induced electrode expansion, stress generation caused by mechanical boundaries, compression of the electrodes and the separator, outer expansion of the cell and finally the influence of the ionic transport within the electrolyte.

  16. Phase diagram, thermodynamic investigations, and modelling of systems relevant to lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertauer, Siegfried; Beutl, Alexander; Flanorfer, Hans; Henriques, David; Giel, Hans; Markus, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on two consecutive joint projects titled ''Experimental Thermodynamics and Phase Relations of New Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries'', which were performed in the framework of the WenDeLIB 1473 priority program ''Materials with new Design for Lithium Ion Batteries''. Hundreds of samples were synthesized using experimental techniques specifically developed to deal with highly reactive lithium and lithium-containing compounds to generate electrochemical, phase diagram and crystal structure data in the Cu-Li, Li-Sn, Li-Sb, Cu-Li-Sn, Cu-Li-Sb and selected oxide systems. The thermochemical and phase diagram data were subsequently used to develop self-consistent thermodynamic descriptions of several binary systems. In the present contribution, the experimental techniques, working procedures, results and their relevance to the development of new electrode materials for lithium ion batteries are discussed and summarized. The collaboration between the three groups has resulted in more than fifteen (15) published articles during the six-year funding period.

  17. Phase diagram, thermodynamic investigations, and modelling of systems relevant to lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuertauer, Siegfried; Beutl, Alexander; Flanorfer, Hans [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry - Functional Materials; Li, Dajian; Cupid, Damian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP); Henriques, David; Giel, Hans; Markus, Thorsten [Mannheim Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Inst. for Thermo- and Fluiddynamics

    2017-11-15

    This article reports on two consecutive joint projects titled ''Experimental Thermodynamics and Phase Relations of New Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries'', which were performed in the framework of the WenDeLIB 1473 priority program ''Materials with new Design for Lithium Ion Batteries''. Hundreds of samples were synthesized using experimental techniques specifically developed to deal with highly reactive lithium and lithium-containing compounds to generate electrochemical, phase diagram and crystal structure data in the Cu-Li, Li-Sn, Li-Sb, Cu-Li-Sn, Cu-Li-Sb and selected oxide systems. The thermochemical and phase diagram data were subsequently used to develop self-consistent thermodynamic descriptions of several binary systems. In the present contribution, the experimental techniques, working procedures, results and their relevance to the development of new electrode materials for lithium ion batteries are discussed and summarized. The collaboration between the three groups has resulted in more than fifteen (15) published articles during the six-year funding period.

  18. Effect of battery longevity on costs and health outcomes associated with cardiac implantable electronic devices: a Markov model-based Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Jordana K; Lau, Edmund C; Patel, Jasmine D; Klenk, Juergen A; Greenspon, Arnold J

    2017-11-01

    The effects of device and patient characteristics on health and economic outcomes in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are unclear. Modeling can estimate costs and outcomes for patients with CIEDs under a variety of scenarios, varying battery longevity, comorbidities, and care settings. The objective of this analysis was to compare changes in patient outcomes and payer costs attributable to increases in battery life of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D). We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model simulation to follow patients through primary implant, postoperative maintenance, generator replacement, and revision states. Patients were simulated in 3-month increments for 15 years or until death. Key variables included Charlson Comorbidity Index, CIED type, legacy versus extended battery longevity, mortality rates (procedure and all-cause), infection and non-infectious complication rates, and care settings. Costs included procedure-related (facility and professional), maintenance, and infections and non-infectious complications, all derived from Medicare data (2004-2014, 5% sample). Outcomes included counts of battery replacements, revisions, infections and non-infectious complications, and discounted (3%) costs and life years. An increase in battery longevity in ICDs yielded reductions in numbers of revisions (by 23%), battery changes (by 44%), infections (by 23%), non-infectious complications (by 10%), and total costs per patient (by 9%). Analogous reductions for CRT-Ds were 23% (revisions), 32% (battery changes), 22% (infections), 8% (complications), and 10% (costs). Based on modeling results, as battery longevity increases, patients experience fewer adverse outcomes and healthcare costs are reduced. Understanding the magnitude of the cost benefit of extended battery life can inform budgeting and planning decisions by healthcare providers and insurers.

  19. Battery-Aware Scheduling of Mixed Criticality Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    . Mixed criticality and soft real-time systems may accept deadline violations and therefore enable trade-offs and evaluation of performance by criteria such as the number of tasks that can be completed with a given battery. We model a task set in combination with the kinetic battery model as a stochastic...

  20. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...

  1. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  2. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  3. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  4. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  5. Modeling the degradation mechanisms of C6/LiFePO4 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongjiang; Danilov, Dmitri L.; Zwikirsch, Barbara; Fichtner, Maximilian; Yang, Yong; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Notten, Peter H. L.

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental electrochemical model is developed, describing the capacity fade of C6/LiFePO4 batteries as a function of calendar time and cycling conditions. At moderate temperatures the capacity losses are mainly attributed to Li immobilization in Solid-Electrolyte-Interface (SEI) layers at the anode surface. The SEI formation model presumes the availability of an outer and inner SEI layers. Electron tunneling through the inner SEI layer is regarded as the rate-determining step. The model also includes high temperature degradation. At elevated temperatures, iron dissolution from the positive electrode and the subsequent metal sedimentation on the negative electrode influence the capacity loss. The SEI formation on the metal-covered graphite surface is faster than the conventional SEI formation. The model predicts that capacity fade during storage is lower than during cycling due to the generation of SEI cracks induced by the volumetric changes during (dis)charging. The model has been validated by cycling and calendar aging experiments and shows that the capacity loss during storage depends on the storage time, the State-of-Charge (SoC), and temperature. The capacity losses during cycling depend on the cycling current, cycling time, temperature and cycle number. All these dependencies can be explained by the single model presented in this paper.

  6. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Thermal management of electric vehicle`s batteries using phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafalovich, A.; Longardner, W.; Keller, G.; Schmidter, T.C. [SHAPE, Inc., Indianapolis (United States); Fleming, F. [Hawker Energy Products Ltd, Newport (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    SHAPE, Inc. (USA) and Hawker Energy Products Ltd. (UK) have successfully developed a passive thermal management system for sealed lead acid batteries featuring Phase Change Materials (PCM`s). The system utilizes a reversible, high energy density PCM with a transition temperature that is comparable to the optimum operating temperature of lead acid batteries. SHAPE`s thermal storage, containing non-toxic, non-hazardous, non-flammable PCM, absorbs excess heat generated by a battery and thus provides a substantial improvement in thermal stability, operating performance, and battery life. This thermal management system also assists in maintaining higher battery temperatures in cold weather environments. A mathematical model has been developed to accurately predict the thermal behavior of a battery, with and without PCM, during cycling. The results of this model have been verified through experimental battery cycling as well as through actual battery testing. The success of the model permits analysis of a thermally managed battery through an extreme range of ambient temperatures (-40 deg C to 40 deg C). (orig.)

  8. Performance of lead-acid batteries. Experimental study and discharge process modelling; Desempenho de baterias chumbo-acido. Estudo experimental e modelamento do processo de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, G; Bottura, C P [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, M G [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    Commercial lead-acid batteries performance when continuously discharge is valued in this work. The model relating battery capacity and discharge current is confirmed through the analysis of experimental results relating voltage to time for various discharge currents. Such model was determined for the tested batteries and can be interpreted in terms of diffusional limitations and plate passivation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  9. State of Charge and State of Health Estimation of AGM VRLA Batteries by Employing a Dual Extended Kalman Filter and an ARX Model for Online Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Tham Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are key issues for the application of batteries, especially the absorbent glass mat valve regulated lead-acid (AGM VRLA type batteries used in the idle stop start systems (ISSs that are popularly integrated into conventional engine-based vehicles. This is due to the fact that SOC and SOH estimation accuracy is crucial for optimizing battery energy utilization, ensuring safety and extending battery life cycles. The dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF, which provides an elegant and powerful solution, is widely applied in SOC and SOH estimation based on a battery parameter model. However, the battery parameters are strongly dependent on operation conditions such as the SOC, current rate and temperature. In addition, battery parameters change significantly over the life cycle of a battery. As a result, many experimental pretests investigating the effects of the internal and external conditions of a battery on its parameters are required, since the accuracy of state estimation depends on the quality of the information regarding battery parameter changes. In this paper, a novel method for SOC and SOH estimation that combines a DEKF algorithm, which considers hysteresis and diffusion effects, and an auto regressive exogenous (ARX model for online parameters estimation is proposed. The DEKF provides precise information concerning the battery open circuit voltage (OCV to the ARX model. Meanwhile, the ARX model continues monitoring parameter variations and supplies information on them to the DEKF. In this way, the estimation accuracy can be maintained despite the changing parameters of a battery. Moreover, online parameter estimation from the ARX model can save the time and effort used for parameter pretests. The validation of the proposed algorithm is given by simulation and experimental results.

  10. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  11. Nickel-hydrogen battery; Nikkeru/suiso batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwajima, S. [National Space Development Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In artificial satellites, electric power is supplied from batteries loaded on them, when sun light can not be rayed on the event of equinoxes. Thus, research and development was started as early as 1970s for light and long-life batteries. Nickel-hydrogen batteries have been used on practical satellites since middle of 1980s. Whereas the cathode reaction of this battery is the same as that of a conventional nickel-cadmium battery, the anode reaction is different in that it involves decomposition and formation of water, generating hydrogen and consuming it. Hydrogen is stored in a state of pressurized gas within the battery vessel. The shape of this vessel is of a bomb, whose size for the one with capacity of 35 Ah is 8cm in diameter and 18cm in length. On a satellite, this one is assembled into a set of 16 ones. National Space Development Agency of Japan has been conducting the evaluation test for nickel-hydrogen batteries in a long term range. It was made clear that the life-determinant factor is related to the inner electrode, not to the vessel. Performance data on long-term endurance of materials to be used have been accumulated also in the agency. 2 figs.

  12. Impedance based time-domain modeling of lithium-ion batteries: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantenbein, Sophia; Weiss, Michael; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a novel lithium-ion cell model, which simulates the current voltage characteristic as a function of state of charge (0%-100%) and temperature (0-30 °C). It predicts the cell voltage at each operating point by calculating the total overvoltage from the individual contributions of (i) the ohmic loss η0, (ii) the charge transfer loss of the cathode ηCT,C, (iii) the charge transfer loss and the solid electrolyte interface loss of the anode ηSEI/CT,A, and (iv) the solid state and electrolyte diffusion loss ηDiff,A/C/E. This approach is based on a physically meaningful equivalent circuit model, which is parametrized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and time domain measurements, covering a wide frequency range from MHz to μHz. The model is exemplarily parametrized to a commercial, high-power 350 mAh graphite/LiNiCoAlO2-LiCoO2 pouch cell and validated by continuous discharge and charge curves at varying temperature. For the first time, the physical background of the model allows the operator to draw conclusions about the performance-limiting factor at various operating conditions. Not only can the model help to choose application-optimized cell characteristics, but it can also support the battery management system when taking corrective actions during operation.

  13. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is solved. Through analyzing the nonlinear vibration response characteristics, one kind of dual-mode adaptive hybrid control strategy based on H∞ control and unbalance displacement feed-forward compensation control is presented and a real-time switch controller is designed. The reliable hybrid control is implemented, and the stability in the process of real-time switch is solved. The results of this project can provide important basic theory support for the research of vehicle maglev flywheel battery control system.

  14. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  15. An integrated model of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Ingersoll, D.; O`Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jain, M.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-06-08

    The desire to reduce the time and cost of design engineering on new components or to validate existing designs in new applications is stimulating the development of modeling and simulation tools. The authors are applying a model-based design approach to low and moderate rate versions of the Li/SOCl{sub 2} D-size cell with success. Three types of models are being constructed and integrated to achieve maximum capability and flexibility in the final simulation tool. A phenomenology based electrochemical model links performance and the cell design, chemical processes, and material properties. An artificial neural network model improves computational efficiency and fills gaps in the simulation capability when fundamental cell parameters are too difficult to measure or the forms of the physical relationships are not understood. Finally, a PSpice-based model provides a simple way to test the cell under realistic electrical circuit conditions. Integration of these three parts allows a complete link to be made between fundamental battery design characteristics and the performance of the rest of the electrical subsystem.

  16. Classification of robotic battery service systems for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing examples of prototypes of ground-based robotic platforms used as a landing site for unmanned aerial vehicles are considered. In some cases, they are equipped with a maintenance mechanism for the power supply module. The main requirements for robotic multi-copter battery maintenance systems depending on operating conditions, required processing speed, operator experience and other parameters are analyzed. The key issues remain questions of the autonomous landing of the unmanned aerial vehicles on the platform and approach to servicing battery. The existing prototypes of service robotic platforms are differed in the complexity of internal mechanisms, speed of service, algorithms of joint work of the platform and unmanned aerial vehicles during the landing and maintenance of the battery. The classification of robotic systems for servicing the power supply of multi-copter batteries criteria is presented using the following: the type of basing, the method of navigation during landing, the shape of the landing pad, the method of restoring the power supply module. The proposed algorithmic model of the operation of battery power maintenance system of the multi-copter on ground-based robotic platform during solving the target agrarian problem is described. Wireless methods of battery recovery are most promising, so further development and prototyping of a wireless charging station for multi-copter batteries will be developed.

  17. The NEWMEDS rodent touchscreen test battery for cognition relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvoslef-Eide, M; Mar, A C; Nilsson, S R O; Alsiö, J; Heath, C J; Saksida, L M; Robbins, T W; Bussey, T J

    2015-11-01

    The NEWMEDS initiative (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia, http://www.newmeds-europe.com ) is a large industrial-academic collaborative project aimed at developing new methods for drug discovery for schizophrenia. As part of this project, Work package 2 (WP02) has developed and validated a comprehensive battery of novel touchscreen tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia. This article provides a review of the touchscreen battery of tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia and highlights validation data presented in several primary articles in this issue and elsewhere. The battery consists of the five-choice serial reaction time task and a novel rodent continuous performance task for measuring attention, a three-stimulus visual reversal and the serial visual reversal task for measuring cognitive flexibility, novel non-matching to sample-based tasks for measuring spatial working memory and paired-associates learning for measuring long-term memory. The rodent (i.e. both rats and mice) touchscreen operant chamber and battery has high translational value across species due to its emphasis on construct as well as face validity. In addition, it offers cognitive profiling of models of diseases with cognitive symptoms (not limited to schizophrenia) through a battery approach, whereby multiple cognitive constructs can be measured using the same apparatus, enabling comparisons of performance across tasks. This battery of tests constitutes an extensive tool package for both model characterisation and pre-clinical drug discovery.

  18. Computational model of 18650 lithium-ion battery with coupled strain rate and SOC dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Wang, Xinyi; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An anisotropic model to describe mechanical behaviors of LIB is established. • SOC dependency is included in the mechanical model of the jellyroll. • Dynamic effect is considered in the model for LIB. - Abstract: Highly nonlinear structures and constituent materials and hazardous experiment situations have resulted in a pressing need for a numerical mechanical model for lithium-ion battery (LIB). However, such a model is still not well established. In this paper, an anisotropic homogeneous model describing the jellyroll and the battery shell is established and validated through compression, indentation, and bending tests at quasi-static loadings. In this model, state-of-charge (SOC) dependency of the LIB is further included through an analogy with the strain-rate effect. Moreover, with consideration of the inertia and strain-rate effects, the anisotropic homogeneous model is extended into the dynamic regime and proven capable of predicting the dynamic response of the LIB using the drop-weight test. The established model may help to predict extreme cases with high SOCs and crashing speeds with an over 135% improved accuracy compared to traditional models. The established coupled strain rate and SOC dependencies of the numerical mechanical model for the LIB aims to provide a solid step toward unraveling and quantifying the complicated problems for research on LIB mechanical integrity.

  19. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off-line recharging and on-line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm-sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  20. Mars Express Lithium Ion Batteries Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now more than 12 years in orbit, Mars Express battery telemetry during some of the deepest discharge cycles has been analysed with the help of the ESTEC lithium ion cell model. The best-fitting model parameter sets were then used to predict the energy that is expected to be available before the battery voltage drops below the minimum value that can support the power bus. This allows mission planners to determine what future power profiles could be supported without risk of entering safe mode. It also gives some more insights into the ageing properties of these batteries.

  1. Lithium-air batteries: survey on the current status and perspectives towards automotive applications from a battery industry standpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Myounggu; Sun, Heeyoung; Lee, Hyungbok; Lee, Junesoo [Battery R and D, SK Innovation, Wonchon-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaephil [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Li-air rechargeable batteries theoretically have advantages from both secondary batteries and fuel cells, which can be viewed as the best technological blends for automotive applications resolving the so called mileage anxiety problem due to the limited driving range of electrical vehicles based upon Li-ion batteries; this problem is rooted in the intrinsically small energy density of Li-ion batteries. This very scientific trait of Li-air batteries, which is apparently suited to the requirements of batteries for future electric vehicles, has induced quite a strong surge of research recently. This occurrence has motivated the authors to undertake a thorough review in an effort to understand the current status of Li-air battery related technologies. A comprehensive survey from a battery industry standpoint has been conducted on the fundamentals of chemistry, utilized Li-air cell configurations (or types) vs. performance, and major components comprising Li-air batteries using various sources of previously published peer-reviewed journal papers, book chapters, patents, and industrial reports. The survey results are presented here. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. A novel health indicator for on-line lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yapeng; Huang, Miaohua; Chen, Yupu; Tao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life (RUL) plays an important role in an intelligent battery management system. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting RUL. However, on-line measurement of capacity and internal resistance are hardly realizable due to the not fully charged and discharged condition and the extremely expensive cost, respectively. Therefore, there is a great need to find an optional way to deal with this plight. In this work, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation modeling and RUL prediction. Moreover, Box-Cox transformation is employed to improve HI performance. Then Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to evaluate the similarity between real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. Next, both simple statistical regression technique and optimized relevance vector machine are employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The correlation analyses and prediction results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed HI for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.

  3. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Ning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effective method to solve this problem. Furthermore, the effects of price of electricity, price of battery package, life cycle of battery package, cost of battery-swapping devices and infrastructure, and driving mileage per day on the benefits of value holders are analyzed, which provide theoretical and practical reference for the deployment of electric vehicles, for the national subsidy criteria adjusment, technological innovation instruction, commercial mode selection, and infrastructure construction.

  4. Direct battery-driven solar LED lighting using constant-power control

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsu, Po-Chien; Tseng, Wei-Min; Wu, Min-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    A direct battery-driven LED lighting technique using constant-power control is proposed in the present study. A system dynamics model of LED luminaire was derived and used in the design of the feedback constant-power control system. The test result

  5. A multilayer electro-thermal model of pouch battery during normal discharge and internal short circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mingbiao; Bai, Fanfei; Song, Wenji; Lv, Jie; Lin, Shili

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 2D network equivalent circuit considers the interplay of cell units. • The temperature non-uniformity Φ of multilayer model is bigger than that of lumped model. • The temperature non-uniformity is quantified and the reason of non-uniformity is analyzed. • Increasing the thermal conductivity of the separator can effectively relieve the heat spot effect of ISC. - Abstract: As the electrical and thermal characteristic will affect the batteries’ safety, performance, calendar life and capacity fading, an electro-thermal coupled model for pouch battery LiFePO_4/C is developed in normal discharge and internal short circuit process. The battery is discretized into many cell elements which are united as a 2D network equivalent circuit. The electro-thermal model is solved with finite difference method. Non-uniformity of current distribution and temperature distribution is simulated and the result is validated with experiment data at various discharge rates. Comparison of the lumped model and the multilayer structure model shows that the temperature non-uniformity Φ of multilayer model is bigger than that of lumped model and shows more precise. The temperature non-uniformity is quantified and the reason of non-uniformity is analyzed. The electro-thermal model can also be used to guide the safety design of battery. The temperature of the ISC element near tabs is the highest because the equivalent resistance of the external circuit (not including the ISC element) is the smallest when the resistance of cell units is small. It is found that increasing the thermal conductivity of integrated layer can effectively relieve the heat spot effect of ISC.

  6. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW--hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas

  7. A chemo-mechanical model coupled with thermal effect on the hollow core–shell electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrode is a key component to remain durability and safety of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries. Li-ion insertion/removal and thermal expansion mismatch may induce high stress in electrode during charging and discharging processes. In this paper, we present a continuum model based on COMSOL Multiphysics software, which involves thermal, chemical and mechanical behaviors of electrodes. The results show that, because of diffusion-induced stress and thermal mismatch, the electrode geometry plays an important role in diffusion kinetics of Li-ions. A higher local compressive stress results in a lower Li-ion concentration and thus a lower capacity when a particle is embedded another, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Keywords: Lithium-ion battery, Diffusion-induced stress, COMSOL, Chemo-mechanical, Electrode

  8. Real-time monitoring of capacity loss for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Bhattarai, Arjun; Zou, Changfu; Meng, Shujuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2018-06-01

    The long-term operation of the vanadium redox flow battery is accompanied by ion diffusion across the separator and side reactions, which can lead to electrolyte imbalance and capacity loss. The accurate online monitoring of capacity loss is therefore valuable for the reliable and efficient operation of vanadium redox flow battery system. In this paper, a model-based online monitoring method is proposed to detect capacity loss in the vanadium redox flow battery in real time. A first-order equivalent circuit model is built to capture the dynamics of the vanadium redox flow battery. The model parameters are online identified from the onboard measureable signals with the recursive least squares, in seeking to keep a high modeling accuracy and robustness under a wide range of working scenarios. Based on the online adapted model, an observer is designed with the extended Kalman Filter to keep tracking both the capacity and state of charge of the battery in real time. Experiments are conducted on a lab-scale battery system. Results suggest that the online adapted model is able to simulate the battery behavior with high accuracy. The capacity loss as well as the state of charge can be estimated accurately in a real-time manner.

  9. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Yan, Zexiong; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  10. Wheelchair batteries. II: Capacity, sizing, and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauzlarich, J J

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of lead-acid batteries for wheelchairs in terms of a new empirical equation for the capacity, application of the Palmgren-Miner Rule for sizing the battery, and the effect of depth of discharge on the life cycles is presented. A brief section about selecting an economical battery for an electric wheelchair is included.

  11. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-06-01

    Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.

  12. Lithium-Ion Battery Storage for the Grid—A Review of Stationary Battery Storage System Design Tailored for Applications in Modern Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems have gained increasing interest for serving grid support in various application tasks. In particular, systems based on lithium-ion batteries have evolved rapidly with a wide range of cell technologies and system architectures available on the market. On the application side, different tasks for storage deployment demand distinct properties of the storage system. This review aims to serve as a guideline for best choice of battery technology, system design and operation for lithium-ion based storage systems to match a specific system application. Starting with an overview to lithium-ion battery technologies and their characteristics with respect to performance and aging, the storage system design is analyzed in detail based on an evaluation of real-world projects. Typical storage system applications are grouped and classified with respect to the challenges posed to the battery system. Publicly available modeling tools for technical and economic analysis are presented. A brief analysis of optimization approaches aims to point out challenges and potential solution techniques for system sizing, positioning and dispatch operation. For all areas reviewed herein, expected improvements and possible future developments are highlighted. In order to extract the full potential of stationary battery storage systems and to enable increased profitability of systems, future research should aim to a holistic system level approach combining not only performance tuning on a battery cell level and careful analysis of the application requirements, but also consider a proper selection of storage sub-components as well as an optimized system operation strategy.

  13. Emergency power supply with batteries. Notstromversorgung mit Batterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings volume contains the wording of the following 15 papers presented at the symposium: 'The physical chemistry of power sources'; 'Conventional and sealed maintenance-free Pb batteries'; 'Open and gas-tight Ni/Cd batteries'; 'Advances in the development and acceptance of primary and secondary lithium systems'; 'Metal-hydrogen, especially nickel oxide-hydrogen, a new battery system'; 'The storage systems zinc-bromine and zinc-chlorine'; 'High temperature batteries'; 'Material problems of lead batteries and fuel cells'; 'DIN/VDE 0510, safety specifications for batteries and battery systems'; 'Frequency control, immediate reserve and peak load compensation with large battery systems in electric utilities'; 'Versatile emergency power supply at the Bundesanstalt fuer Flugsicherung'; 'Batteries used by the Bundeswehr'; 'Batteries in the service of the Deutsche Bundesbahn'; 'State of the art and development of opto- and micro-electronics and their power supply'; 'Experience and requirements of the Deutsche Bundespost on central and decentralized battery systems'. The proceedings also contain the wording of the discussions following the papers.

  14. On-line parameter, state-of-charge and aging estimation of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-line model identification method for Li-ion battery parameters that combines high accuracy and low computational complexity. Experimental results show that modeling errors are smaller than 1% throughout the feasible operating range. The identified model is used in a state

  15. Quantification and modeling of mechanical degradation in lithium-ion batteries based on nanoscale imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Simon; Pietsch, Patrick; Brandt, Ben-Elias; Baade, Paul; De Andrade, Vincent; De Carlo, Francesco; Wood, Vanessa

    2018-06-14

    Capacity fade in lithium-ion battery electrodes can result from a degradation mechanism in which the carbon black-binder network detaches from the active material. Here we present two approaches to visualize and quantify this detachment and use the experimental results to develop and validate a model that considers how the active particle size, the viscoelastic parameters of the composite electrode, the adhesion between the active particle and the carbon black-binder domain, and the solid electrolyte interphase growth rate impact detachment and capacity fade. Using carbon-silicon composite electrodes as a model system, we demonstrate X-ray nano-tomography and backscatter scanning electron microscopy with sufficient resolution and contrast to segment the pore space, active particles, and carbon black-binder domain and quantify delamination as a function of cycle number. The validated model is further used to discuss how detachment and capacity fade in high-capacity materials can be minimized through materials engineering.

  16. Analysis of On-Board Photovoltaics for a Battery Electric Bus and Their Impact on Battery Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Mallon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-duty electric powertrains provide a potential solution to the high emissions and low fuel economy of trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. However, the cost, weight, and lifespan of electric vehicle batteries limit the implementation of such vehicles. This paper proposes supplementing the battery with on-board photovoltaic modules. In this paper, a bus model is created to analyze the impact of on-board photovoltaics on electric bus range and battery lifespan. Photovoltaic systems that cover the bus roof and bus sides are considered. The bus model is simulated on a suburban bus drive cycle on a bus route in Davis, CA, USA for a representative sample of yearly weather conditions. Roof-mounted panels increased vehicle driving range by 4.7% on average annually, while roof and side modules together increased driving range by 8.9%. However, variations in weather conditions meant that this additional range was not reliably available. For constant vehicle range, rooftop photovoltaic modules extended battery cycle life by up to 10% while modules on both the roof and sides extended battery cycle life by up to 19%. Although side-mounted photovoltaics increased cycle life and range, they were less weight- and cost-effective compared to the roof-mounted panels.

  17. Multikilowatt hydrogen-nickel oxide battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of the H2-NiO battery for terrestrial applications was assessed. A multicell design approach that differs significantly from the aerospace individual pressure vessel was used. A number of experimental 100-Ah cells were built to evaluate the new design concepts and components. The experimental cells provided the input needed for a multicell battery design. It is found that new multicell H2-NiO battery has a number of potential advantages for aerospace applications such as the manned space station. The advantages are discussed, and a design concept is presented for a multikilowatt battery in a lightweight pressure vessel.

  18. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  19. A multiscale-compatible approach in modeling ionic transport in the electrolyte of (Lithium ion) batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, A.; Grazioli, D.; Geers, M.G.D.; Danilov, D.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach in modeling the ionic transport in the electrolyte of Li-ion batteries is here resented. Diffusion and migration processes govern the transport of ions in solution in the absence of onvection. In the porous electrode theory [1] it is common to model these processes via mass balance

  20. Using smartphone batteries as an urban thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Arjan; Pape, Jan-Jaap; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Van Delden, Aarnout; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2017-04-01

    Taking meteorological measurements in the urban environment is notoriously difficult due to the complex geometry at street and neighbourhood level. Traditional weather stations are absent in cities because of WMO regulations, so urban data has to come from typically expensive measurement-networks, or short intensive campaigns. While traditional measurements are scarce, there is an abundance of smart devices in cities: the well-known Internet of Things. It is for these reasons that crowdsourcing data has an enormous potential in cities, to deliver vast quantities of data without the maintenance costs of a measurement network. A promising source of potentially valuable data is the smartphone, because of its ubiquity and the many sensors most newer phone models now possess. Since most people nowadays have a smartphone, and carry it around wherever they go, data logged by the phone can be used to estimate the urban air temperature.