WorldWideScience

Sample records for battery charging experience

  1. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  2. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  3. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  4. Design and Experiment of Nonlinear Observer with Adaptive Gains for Battery State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is an important evaluation index for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs. This paper proposes a nonlinear observer with a new adaptive gain structure for SOC estimation based on a second-order RC model. It is able to dynamically adjust the gains and obtain a better balance between convergence speed and estimation accuracy with less computational time. A sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the uniform asymptotic stability of the observer, and its robustness with respect to disturbances and uncertainties is analyzed with the help of input-to-state stability (ISS theory. A selection guide of the observer gains in practical application is presented. The estimation accuracy and convergence rate of the observer are evaluated and compared with those of extended Kalman filter (EKF based on multi-temperature datasets from two different types of LIB cells. The robustness against different disturbances and uncertainties that may appear in a real vehicle is validated and discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed observer is capable of achieving better performance with less computational time in comparison to EKF for different types of LIB cells under various working conditions. The observer is also capable of estimating SOC accurately for real life conditions according to the validation results of datasets from a battery management system (BMS in an EV battery pack. Furthermore, the observer is simple enough, and is suitable for implementation on embedded hardware for LIB cells of EVs.

  5. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  6. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  7. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  8. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Seok Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless battery charging system can implement easily most other charging profiles. In this paper, the proposed wireless battery charging system is implemented and the feasibility is verified experimentally according to constant-current constant-voltage charging profile or multi-step current charging profile.

  9. Battery selection for space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  10. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  11. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  12. Enhancing the Charging Power of Quantum Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaioli, Francesco; Pollock, Felix A; Binder, Felix C; Céleri, Lucas; Goold, John; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan

    2017-04-14

    Can collective quantum effects make a difference in a meaningful thermodynamic operation? Focusing on energy storage and batteries, we demonstrate that quantum mechanics can lead to an enhancement in the amount of work deposited per unit time, i.e., the charging power, when N batteries are charged collectively. We first derive analytic upper bounds for the collective quantum advantage in charging power for two choices of constraints on the charging Hamiltonian. We then demonstrate that even in the absence of quantum entanglement this advantage can be extensive. For our main result, we provide an upper bound to the achievable quantum advantage when the interaction order is restricted; i.e., at most k batteries are interacting. This constitutes a fundamental limit on the advantage offered by quantum technologies over their classical counterparts.

  13. Battery materials for ultrafast charging and discharging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byoungwoo; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2009-03-12

    The storage of electrical energy at high charge and discharge rate is an important technology in today's society, and can enable hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and provide back-up for wind and solar energy. It is typically believed that in electrochemical systems very high power rates can only be achieved with supercapacitors, which trade high power for low energy density as they only store energy by surface adsorption reactions of charged species on an electrode material. Here we show that batteries which obtain high energy density by storing charge in the bulk of a material can also achieve ultrahigh discharge rates, comparable to those of supercapacitors. We realize this in LiFePO(4) (ref. 6), a material with high lithium bulk mobility, by creating a fast ion-conducting surface phase through controlled off-stoichiometry. A rate capability equivalent to full battery discharge in 10-20 s can be achieved.

  14. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  15. Battery Aging, Battery Charging and the Kinetic Battery Model : A First Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Bertrand, Nathalie; Bortolussi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are omnipresent and will be used more and more, for instance for wearables devices, electric vehicles or domestic energy storage. However, batteries can deliver power only for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to

  16. Optimizing small wind turbine performance in battery charging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouilhet, Stephen; Muljadi, Eduard; Holz, Richard; Gevorgian, Vahan

    1995-05-01

    Many small wind turbine generators (10 kW or less) consist of a variable speed rotor driving a permanent magnet synchronous generator (alternator). One application of such wind turbines is battery charging, in which the generator is connected through a rectifier to a battery bank. The wind turbine electrical interface is essentially the same whether the turbine is part of a remote power supply for telecommunications, a standalone residential power system, or a hybrid village power system, in short, any system in which the wind generator output is rectified and fed into a DC bus. Field experience with such applications has shown that both the peak power output and the total energy capture of the wind turbine often fall short of expectations based on rotor size and generator rating. In this paper, the authors present a simple analytical model of the typical wind generator battery charging system that allows one to calculate actual power curves if the generator and rotor properties are known. The model clearly illustrates how the load characteristics affect the generator output. In the second part of this paper, the authors present four approaches to maximizing energy capture from wind turbines in battery charging applications. The first of these is to determine the optimal battery bank voltage for a given WTG. The second consists of adding capacitors in series with the generator. The third approach is to place an optimizing DC/DC voltage converter between the rectifier and the battery bank. The fourth is a combination of the series capacitors and the optimizing voltage controller. They also discuss both the limitations and the potential performance gain associated with each of the four configurations.

  17. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  18. Model Predictive Control-Based Fast Charging for Vehicular Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Battery fast charging is one of the most significant and difficult techniques affecting the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs. In this paper, we propose a fast charge framework based on model predictive control, with the aim of simultaneously reducing the charge duration, which represents the out-of-service time of vehicles, and the increase in temperature, which represents safety and energy efficiency during the charge process. The RC model is employed to predict the future State of Charge (SOC. A single mode lumped-parameter thermal model and a neural network trained by real experimental data are also applied to predict the future temperature in simulations and experiments respectively. A genetic algorithm is then applied to find the best charge sequence under a specified fitness function, which consists of two objectives: minimizing the charging duration and minimizing the increase in temperature. Both simulation and experiment demonstrate that the Pareto front of the proposed method dominates that of the most popular constant current constant voltage (CCCV charge method.

  19. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  20. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-05-03

    Utilization of public charging infrastructure is heavily dependent on user-specific travel behavior. The availability of fast chargers can positively affect the utility of battery electric vehicles, even given infrequent use. Estimated utilization rates do not appear frequent enough to significantly impact battery life. Battery thermal management systems are critical in mitigating dangerous thermal conditions on long distance tours with multiple fast charge events.

  1. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  2. Results of cycling with battery charging management; Resultats de cyclage avec gestion de charge au niveau batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verniolle, J.; Fernandez, C. [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    In order to investigate the charging mode of an in-series assembly of lithium-carbon battery cells, a test has been performed on 5 commercial cells (18650) of 0.95 Ah nominal capacity. Results show that it is possible to cycle the cells at 80% of their output capacities during more than 2000 cycles. The management of the battery consists in maintaining a constant battery voltage as soon as a cell reaches its limit voltage during constant current charging. The initial dispersion of cells has been maintained practically constant during the cycling and the charge state of all cells has decreased progressively. (J.S.)

  3. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gas turbine driven generator set, must have apparatus to automatically maintain the battery fully... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING...

  4. Improved Control of Charging Voltage for Li-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Paul; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2006-01-01

    The protocol for charging a lithium-ion battery would be modified, according to a proposal, to compensate for the internal voltage drop (charging current internal resistance of the battery). The essence of the modification is to provide for measurement of the internal voltage drop and to increase the terminal-voltage setting by the amount of the internal voltage drop. Ordinarily, a lithium-ion battery is charged at constant current until its terminal voltage attains a set value equal to the nominal full-charge potential. The set value is chosen carefully so as not to exceed the lithium-plating potential, because plated lithium in metallic form constitutes a hazard. When the battery is charged at low temperature, the internal voltage drop is considerable because the electrical conductivity of the battery electrolyte is low at low temperature. Charging the battery at high current at any temperature also gives rise to a high internal voltage drop. In some cases, the internal voltage drop can be as high as 1 volt per cell. Because the voltage available for charging is less than the terminal voltage by the amount of the internal voltage drop, the battery is not fully charged (see figure), even when the terminal voltage reaches the set value. In the modified protocol, the charging current would be periodically interrupted so that the zero-current battery-terminal voltage indicative of the state of charge could be measured. The terminal voltage would also be measured at full charging current. The difference between the full-current and zero-current voltages would equal the internal voltage drop. The set value of terminal voltage would then be increased beyond the nominal full-charge potential by the amount of the internal voltage drop. This adjustment would be performed repeatedly, in real time, so that the voltage setting would track variations in the internal voltage drop to afford full charge without risk of lithium plating. If the charging current and voltage settings

  5. Wind driven mobile charging of automobile battery- A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of ...

  6. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Yan, Zexiong; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  7. Charging system and method for multicell storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jay A.

    1978-01-01

    A battery-charging system includes a first charging circuit connected in series with a plurality of battery cells for controlled current charging. A second charging circuit applies a controlled voltage across each individual cell for equalization of the cells to the fully charged condition. This controlled voltage is determined at a level above the fully charged open-circuit voltage but at a sufficiently low level to prevent corrosion of cell components by electrochemical reaction. In this second circuit for cell equalization, a transformer primary receives closely regulated, square-wave voltage which is coupled to a plurality of equal secondary coil windings. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel to each cell of a series-connected pair of cells through half-wave rectifiers and a shared, intermediate conductor.

  8. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    , and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...... the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power...... of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same...

  9. Circuit with a Switch for Charging a Battery in a Battery Capacitor Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor); Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A circuit for charging a battery combined with a capacitor includes a power supply adapted to be connected to the capacitor, and the battery. The circuit includes an electronic switch connected to the power supply. The electronic switch is responsive to switch between a conducting state to allow current and a non-conducting state to prevent current flow. The circuit includes a control device connected to the switch and is operable to generate a control signal to continuously switch the electronic switch between the conducting and non-conducting states to charge the battery.

  10. PIC BASED SOLAR CHARGING CONTROLLER FOR BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs Jaya N. Ingole; Mrs Dr. Madhuri A. Choudhary; Dr. R.D. Kanphade

    2012-01-01

    Solar resource is unlimited the government is trying to implement the use of Solar panels as an energy source in rural and sub urban areas for lighting the street lights, but the battery used to store the power gets affected due to overcharge & discharges. This paper presents the use of PIC16F72 based solar charger controller for controlling the overcharging and discharging of a solar cell. It works by continuously optimizing the interface between the solar array and battery. First, the varia...

  11. Electric vehicle battery model identification and state of charge estimation in real world driving cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Fotouhi, Abbas; Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a study demonstrating a new method of state-of-charge (SoC) estimation for batteries in real-world electric vehicle applications. This method combines realtime model identification with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In the study, investigations were carried down on a small-scale battery pack. An equivalent circuit network model of the pack was developed and validated using pulse-discharge experiments. The pack was then subjected to demands representing...

  12. Adaptive State of Charge Estimation for Li-Ion Batteries Based on an Unscented Kalman Filter with an Enhanced Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC of batteries is one of the key problems in a battery management system. This paper proposes an adaptive SOC estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter algorithms for lithium (Li-ion batteries. First, an enhanced battery model is proposed to include the impacts due to different discharge rates and temperatures. An adaptive joint estimation of the battery SOC and battery internal resistance is then presented to enhance system robustness with battery aging. The SOC estimation algorithm has been developed and verified through experiments on different types of Li-ion batteries. The results indicate that the proposed method provides an accurate SOC estimation and is computationally efficient, making it suitable for embedded system implementation.

  13. Rechargeable, silver-zinc battery conditioner/monitor unit and state-of-charge indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Unit automatically charges batteries to desired state-of-charge levels, monitors functional battery parameter data both on meters and printer, and automatically activates alarm in event of battery malfunctions. Unit consists of state-of-charge indicator panel, control panel, monitor panel, power panel, charging-current power supply, and load panel.

  14. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  15. Management of deep brain stimulator battery failure: battery estimators, charge density, and importance of clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihan Fakhar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator. METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY. RESULTS: The mean charge density for treatment of Parkinson's disease was 7.2 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 3.82, for dystonia was 17.5 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 8.53, for essential tremor was 8.3 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.85, and for OCD was 18.0 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.35. There was a significant relationship between charge density and battery life (r = -.59, p<.001, as well as total power and battery life (r = -.64, p<.001. The UF estimator (r = .67, p<.001 and the Medtronic helpline (r = .74, p<.001 predictions of battery life were significantly positively associated with actual battery life. Battery status indicators on Soletra and Kinetra were poor predictors of battery life. In 38 cases, the symptoms improved following a battery change, suggesting that the neurostimulator was likely responsible for symptom worsening. For these cases, both the UF estimator and the Medtronic helpline were significantly correlated with battery life (r = .65 and r = .70, respectively, both p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Battery estimations, charge density, total power and clinical symptoms were important factors. The observation of clinical worsening that was rescued following neurostimulator replacement reinforces the notion that changes in clinical symptoms can be associated with battery drain.

  16. Bipolar Transistors Can Detect Charge in Electrostatic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, L.

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors is described that can be used in various electrostatic experiments. Its behaviour enables us to elucidate links between 'static electricity' and electric currents. In addition it allows us to relate the sign of static charges to the sign of the terminals of an ordinary battery. (Contains 7 figures…

  17. ?Just-in-Time? Battery Charge Depletion Control for PHEVs and E-REVs for Maximum Battery Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Conventional methods of vehicle operation for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles first discharge the battery to a minimum State of Charge (SOC) before switching to charge sustaining operation. This is very demanding on the battery, maximizing the number of trips ending with a depleted battery and maximizing the distance driven on a depleted battery over the vehicle s life. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the number of trips ending with a deeply discharged battery and also eliminate the need for extended driving on a depleted battery. An optimum SOC can be maintained for long battery life before discharging the battery so that the vehicle reaches an electric plug-in destination just as the battery reaches the minimum operating SOC. These Just-in-Time methods provide maximum effective battery life while getting virtually the same electricity from the grid.

  18. ETK's experience in the application of VRLA batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, I. [Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Zagreb (Croatia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of the company Ericsson Nikola Tesla (ETK) in the application of VRLA batteries. After a short comment on conventional lead acid batteries, the paper explains the reasons for introduction of VRLA batteries and presents our experience considering their quality, performance, hydrogen evolution, safety, service life etc. Stress is put on some internal and external factors which affect useful life, such as positive grid corrosion, ambient temperature and charging voltage. ETK also gained experience in relation to adaptation of some UPS systems to VRLA batteries. The article concludes with the list of important advantages and disadvantages of VRLA batteries compared with the flooded ones. (orig.)

  19. Adiabatic and Nonadiabatic Charge Transport in Li-S Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Haesun; Kumar, Nitin; Melander, Marko

    2017-01-01

    The insulating nature of the redox end members in Li-S batteries, -S and Li2S, has the potential to limit the capacity and efficiency of this emerging energy storage system. Nevertheless, the mechanisms responsible for ionic and electronic transport in these materials remain a matter of debate...... studies, we conclude that low equilibrium carrier concentrations are responsible for sluggish charge transport in -S and Li2S. Thus, a potential strategy for improving the performance of Li-S batteries is to increase the concentrations of holes in these redox end members....

  20. State of charge estimation for lithium-ion pouch batteries based on stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Yu, Chenchen; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang

    2017-01-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is one of the important tasks of battery management system (BMS). Being different from other researches, a novel method of SOC estimation for pouch lithium-ion battery cells based on stress measurement is proposed. With a comprehensive experimental study, we find that, the stress of the battery during charge/discharge is composed of the static stress and the dynamic stress. The static stress, which is the measured stress in equilibrium state, corresponds to SOC, this phenomenon facilitates the design of our stress-based SOC estimation. The dynamic stress, on the other hand, is influenced by multiple factors including charge accumulation or depletion, current and historical operation, thus a multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established. Based on the relationship between static stress and SOC, as well as the dynamic stress modeling, the SOC estimation method is founded. Experimental results show that the stress-based method performs well with a good accuracy, and this method offers a novel perspective for SOC estimation. - Highlights: • A State of Charge estimator based on stress measurement is proposed. • The stress during charge and discharge is investigated with comprehensive experiments. • Effects of SOC, current, and operation history on battery stress are well studied. • A multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established.

  1. Battery pack state of charge balancing algorithm for cascaded H-Bridge multilevel converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan; Schaltz, Erik

    2016-01-01

    is not in linear relation with the State Of Charge (SOC) of the entire battery; thus, the balancing becomes more cumbersome. A method to balance the SOC of the battery packs in a system using cascaded H-Bridge is proposed in this paper. The method uses nearest level control followed by sorting and selection based......For most of the Multilevel Converter (MC) applications a commonly discussed issue is the maintenance of balance between the energy storage elements from the SubModules (SM). In applications where a battery pack is also part of the SM storage, such as STATCOMs or motor drives, the SM voltage...... on the SOC of the battery packs. Based on the simulation results the number of switching is reduced considerably compared to the method where the phase shifted PWM is used. In addition, the time needed to achieve the balanced SOC is also reduced. The proposed method has been verified through experiments...

  2. Design and Comparative Study of Three Photovoltaic Battery Charge Control Algorithms in MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the design of a three stage solar battery charge controller and a comparative study of this charge control technique with three conventional solar battery charge control techniques such as 1. Constant Current (CC) charging, 2. Two stage constant current constant voltage (CC-CV) charging technique. The analysis and the comparative study of the aforesaid charging techniques are done in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Here the practical data used to simulate the charge control a...

  3. Enhanced coulomb counting method for estimating state-of-charge and state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kong Soon; Moo, Chin-Sien; Chen, Yi-Ping; Hsieh, Yao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    The coulomb counting method is expedient for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries with high charging and discharging efficiencies. The charging and discharging characteristics are investigated and reveal that the coulomb counting method is convenient and accurate for estimating the SOC of lithium-ion batteries. A smart estimation method based on coulomb counting is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy. The corrections are made by considering the charging and operating efficiencies. Furthermore, the state-of-health (SOH) is evaluated by the maximum releasable capacity. Through the experiments that emulate practical operations, the SOC estimation method is verified to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy.

  4. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  5. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  6. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Camacho Oscar Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid.

  7. Microprocessor controlled pulse charge and testing of batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerezov, A.; Gishin, S.; Ivanov, Ratcho; Savov, S.

    2002-01-01

    The principle of the developed new method for pulse charge of batteries with microprocessor control of the electrochemical processes is the use of current pulses with microprocessor control of the period and the amplitude according to the dynamically changing state of the electrochemical system. In order to realize the method described above a programmable current source was developed. It is connected with a Personal Computer via RS232 standard serial interface in order to control the electrochemical processes. The parameters to be set, the graphical presentation of the pulse current and tension, the used quantity of electricity and electrical energy for every pulse and for the process as a hole are shown on the PC display. In order to test dry-charged and wet-charged batteries a specialized current generator was developed. It is connected also with a Personal Computer via R5232 standard serial interface in order to con-trol the testing of the starting capability of the batteries according to the requirements of the Bulgarian State Standard Ell 60095-1. (Author)

  8. Computationally efficient methods for state of charge approximation and performance measure calculation in series-connected battery equalization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiji; Zhang, Liang; Han, Yehui

    2015-07-01

    The battery system plays an important role in a number of modern power applications. In practice, cell charge imbalance is a very common issue in battery system operations, which may cause serious problems in power efficiency, equipment reliability and safety, etc. To analyze the performance of battery equalization systems, physical experiments with actual devices and computer simulations based on circuit models are typically used. These approaches, however, may be time-consuming and energy-inefficient for larger-scale systems. In this paper, based on the proposed mathematical model for series-connected battery equalization systems, we develop an analytical algorithm to approximate the state of charge (SOC) of battery cells at any time instant during the equalization process, and derive the formulas to calculate critical performance measures of the system. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out to justify the accuracy of the algorithm and formulas developed. In addition, the proposed methods use much less computational time as compared to computer simulations.

  9. Development of a Microcontroller-based Battery Charge Controller for an Off-grid Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rina, Z. S.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rojan, M. A.; Zaman, I.

    2017-08-01

    A development of a microcontroller-based charge controller for a 12V battery has been explained in this paper. The system is designed based on a novel algorithm to couple existing solar photovoltaic (PV) charging and main grid supply charging power source. One of the main purposes of the hybrid charge controller is to supply a continuous charging power source to the battery. Furthermore, the hybrid charge controller was developed to shorten the battery charging time taken. The algorithm is programmed in an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller that monitors the battery voltage and generates appropriate commands for the charging power source selection. The solar energy is utilized whenever the solar irradiation is high. The main grid supply will be only consumed whenever the solar irradiation is low. This system ensures continuous charging power supply and faster charging of the battery.

  10. Implementation of partial briquette blending in top charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S.H.; Dash, P.S.; Sharma, R.; Jena, D.N.; David, T.S.; Deshpande, D.P. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Successful implementation of particle briquette blending in top charged batteries of Tata Steel resulted in higher oven throughput, hence coke productivity accompanied with improvement in the quality of resultant coke with respect to CSR. This is as a result of the intensive research work done in the laboratory in the past as well as the actual plant trials carried out later to assess the efficiency of the partial briquette blending technique. The paper describes briefly the results obtained during the plant trials and the benefit accrued. Although the plant has started using only 1 to 2% of coal briquettes in the charge owing to the limited capacity of the briquetting unit available at present, R & D results had shown that there is a potential to go up to 30% briquette usage. This method, in the long run, would also enable use of non-coking/weakly coking coals in the form of briquettes in the top charged batteries. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  12. Modeling charge polarization voltage for large lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polarization voltage of the lithium-ion battery is an important parameter that has direct influence on battery performance. The paper aims to analyze the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of currents, initial SOC of the battery on charge polarization voltage are investigated, which is approximately linear function of charge current. The change of charge polarization voltage is also analyzed with the gradient analytical method in the SOC domain. The charge polarization model with two RC networks is presented, and parts of model parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance are estimated by both EIS method and battery constant current testing method. Findings: This paper reveals that the Ohmic resistance accounts for much contribution to battery total polarization compared to charge transfer impedance. Practical implications: Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the model with the proposed identification method, which provides the foundation for battery charging optimization. Originality/value: The paper analyzed the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data, presented a charge polarization model with two RC networks, and estimated parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance.

  13. Analysis of effective pulse current charging method for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, N.; Hafiz, S.; Arianto, S.; Yuono, R. Y.; Astuti, E. T.; Prihandoko, B.

    2017-04-01

    Pulse charging methods has been developed as one of the fast charging methods for Lithium ion battery. This technique applies the continuous constant current pulse with certain pulse width until the battery fully charged. In this research, four Lithium polymer batteries of same type and capacity were used and subjected by several current pulses as a variable. The phenomenon of capacity loss as an effect of charging method was analysed every ten charge-discharge cycles. Four batteries were charged using constant current (1C) for 30 minutes to fill half of the total capacity, which then continued by pulse current of different pulse width in order to reach full capacity of each battery. Constant current charging for one hour was also applied to each battery as a comparison with that of pulse current charging data. The similar degradation patterns on battery capacity were observed. Nevertheless, the percentage of capacity loss is different. In conclusion, this method can be considered as one of the effective charging method, owing to the smallest capacity loss and shorter charging time.

  14. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    -depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves...

  15. Modelling Inductive Charging of Battery Electric Vehicles using an Agent-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ul Abedin, Zain; Waraich, Rashid Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) could help to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and emissions from transportation and as such increase energy security and foster sustainable use of energy resources. However a major barrier to the introduction of BEVs is their limited battery capacity and long charging durations. To address these issues of BEVs several solutions are proposed such as battery swapping and fast charging stations. However apart from these stationary modes of c...

  16. Lithium-ion battery aging mechanisms and life model under different charging stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Caiping; Zhang, Weige; Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The charging time-consuming and lifespan of lithium-ion batteries have always been the bottleneck for the tremendous application of electric vehicles. In this paper, cycle life tests are conducted to reveal the influence of different charging current rates and cut-off voltages on the aging mechanism of batteries. The long-term effects of charging current rates and cut-off voltages on capacity degradation and resistance increase are compared. The results show that there exists a critical charging current and a critical charging cut-off voltage. When the charging stress exceeds the critical value, battery degradation speed will be greatly accelerated. Furthermore, battery aging mechanisms at various charging currents and cut-off voltages are investigated using incremental capacity analysis. It is indicated that charging current and cut-off voltage should be reduced to retard battery degradation when the battery degrades to a certain extent. The time when the loss of electrode material accelerates is taken as the crisis to reduce charging current and the time when the loss of lithium inventory accelerates is taken as the crisis to reduce charging cut-off voltage. Moreover, an experiential model quantitatively describing the relationship between capacity degradation rate and charging stresses at different aging states is established.

  17. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...... controllers. Local controllers implement these functions, which include PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, battery charging/discharging control, voltage control of DC bus for high-frequency inverter, and onboard battery charging control. By optimizing and matching parameters of transmitting...

  18. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center; Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  19. Online Reliable Peak Charge/Discharge Power Estimation of Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate peak power estimation of a battery pack is essential to the power-train control of electric vehicles (EVs. It helps to evaluate the maximum charge and discharge capability of the battery system, and thus to optimally control the power-train system to meet the requirement of acceleration, gradient climbing and regenerative braking while achieving a high energy efficiency. A novel online peak power estimation method for series-connected lithium-ion battery packs is proposed, which considers the influence of cell difference on the peak power of the battery packs. A new parameter identification algorithm based on adaptive ratio vectors is designed to online identify the parameters of each individual cell in a series-connected battery pack. The ratio vectors reflecting cell difference are deduced strictly based on the analysis of battery characteristics. Based on the online parameter identification, the peak power estimation considering cell difference is further developed. Some validation experiments in different battery aging conditions and with different current profiles have been implemented to verify the proposed method. The results indicate that the ratio vector-based identification algorithm can achieve the same accuracy as the repetitive RLS (recursive least squares based identification while evidently reducing the computation cost, and the proposed peak power estimation method is more effective and reliable for series-connected battery packs due to the consideration of cell difference.

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  1. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  2. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  3. Effects of variability and rate on battery charge storage and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena Marie

    The growing prevalence of hybrid and electric vehicles, intermittent renewable energy sources, and other complex power systems has triggered a rapid increase in demand for energy storage. Unlike portable electronic devices, whose batteries can be recharged according to a pre-determined protocol simply by plugging them into the wall, many of these applications are characterized by highly variable charge and demand profiles. The central objective of this work is to assess the impact of power distribution and frequency on battery behavior in order to improve overall system efficiency and lifespan in these variable power applications. We first develop and experimentally verify a model to describe the trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored to assess how varying power input affects battery efficiency. This relationship is influenced both by efficiency losses at high powers and by premature voltage cutoffs, which contribute to incomplete battery charging and discharging. We experimentally study the impact of variable power on battery aging in lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium-ion and lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a case study we focus on off-grid wind systems, and analyze the impact of both power distribution and frequency on charge acceptance and degradation in each of these chemistries. We suggest that lithium iron phosphate batteries may be more suitable for off-grid electrification projects than standard lead-acid batteries. We experimentally assess the impact of additional variable charging parameters on battery performance, including the interplay between efficiency, frequency of power oscillations, state-of-charge, incomplete charging and path dependence. We develop a frequency-domain model for hybrid energy storage systems that couples non-stationary frequency analysis of variable power signals to a frequency-based metric for energy storage device performance. The experimental and modeling work developed herein can be utilized to

  4. Study on the Optimal Charging Strategy for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The charging method of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs significantly affects its commercial application. This paper aims to make three contributions to the existing literature. (1 In order to achieve an efficient charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries with shorter charging time and lower charring loss, the trade-off problem between charging loss and charging time has been analyzed in details through the dynamic programing (DP optimization algorithm; (2 To reduce the computation time consumed during the optimization process, we have proposed a database based optimization approach. After off-line calculation, the simulation results can be applied to on-line charge; (3 The novel database-based DP method is proposed and the simulation results illustrate that this method can effectively find the suboptimal charging strategies under a certain balance between the charging loss and charging time.

  5. Unbiased, complete solar charging of a neutral flow battery by a single Si photocathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedege, Kristina; Bae, Dowon; Dražević, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Solar redox flow batteries have attracted attention as a possible integrated technology for simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. In this work, we review current efforts to design aqueous solar flow batteries in terms of battery electrolyte capacity, solar conversion efficiency...... and depth of solar charge. From a materials cost and design perspective, a simple, cost-efficient, aqueous solar redox flow battery will most likely incorporate only one semiconductor, and we demonstrate here a system where a single photocathode is accurately matched to the redox couples to allow...... for a complete solar charge. The single TiO2 protected Si photocathode with a catalytic Pt layer can fully solar charge a neutral TEMPO-sulfate/ferricyanide battery with a cell voltage of 0.35 V. An unbiased solar conversion efficiency of 1.6% is obtained and this system represents a new strategy in solar RFBs...

  6. Battery charge and health state monitoring via ultrasonic guided-wave-based methods using built-in piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladpli, Purim; Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Nardari, Raphael; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a novel scalable and field-deployable framework for monitoring lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH), based on ultrasonic guided waves using low-profile built-in piezoelectric transducers. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated through experiments using surface-mounted piezoelectric disc transducers on commercial Li-ion pouch batteries. Pitch-catch guided-wave propagation is performed in synchronization with electrical charge and discharge cycling, and cycle life testing. Simple time-domain analysis shows strong and repeatable correlation between waveform signal parameters, and battery SoC and SoH. The correlation thus provides a building block for constructing a technique for accurate real-time monitoring of battery charge and health states using ultrasonic guided-wave signals. Moreover, capacity-differential signal analysis reveals the underlying physical changes associated with cyclic electrochemical activities and phase transitioning. This finding allows accurate pinpointing of the root cause of capacity fade and mechanical degradation. The results of this study indicate that the use of guided waves can potentially offer a new avenue for in-situ characterization of Li-ion batteries, providing insight on the complex coupling between electrochemistry and mechanics, heretofore not fully understood within the scientific community.

  7. ANALYSIS OF A COMMERCIAL PORTABLE LITHIUM-ION BATTERY UNDER LOW CURRENT CHARGE-DISCHARGE CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany Pires da Silva

    Full Text Available The dependence between the transferred charge and the corresponding transference time to charge and discharge a portable cell phone Li-ion battery (LiCoO2/C under cycles of low intensity currents was studied in detail. The voltage curve profile between 3.0 and 4.2 V and the charging and discharging time are strongly influenced by the applied current intensity. A linear dependence between the stored and extracted charges, into and from the battery, with the intensity of applied current was also observed. Allometric equations were found to describe the correlation between the charge transference time and the applied current intensity to charge and discharge the battery.

  8. A superconcentrated ether electrolyte for fast-charging Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Yaegashi, Makoto; Abe, Takeshi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2013-12-11

    We have found ultrafast Li(+) intercalation into graphite in a superconcentrated ether electrolyte, even exceeding that in a currently used commercial electrolyte. This discovery is an important breakthrough toward fast-charging Li-ion batteries far beyond present technologies.

  9. Management System for Large Li-Ion Battery Packs with a New Adaptive Multistage Charging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Velho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide diversity of existing technologically mature batteries, lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries have become popular because of their longevity, high energy density, high efficiency and lack of memory effect. Differential charging of cells with age has turned balancing management systems into an important research subject. This paper proposes a new battery management system (BMS to improve the capacity usage and lifespan of large Li-ion battery packs and a new charging algorithm based on the traditional multistage method. The main advantages of the proposed system are its versatility and ability to implement different charging and balancing methods in a very accessible way. The combination of charging methods with balancing methods represents an evolution when compared with other works in the literature.

  10. Supercapacitor performance evaluation in replacing battery based on charging and discharging current characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A.; Siahaan, S.; Mubarakah, N.; Suherman

    2018-02-01

    Supercapacitor is a new device of energy storage, which has much difference between ordinary capacitors and batteries. Supercapacitor have higher capacitance and energy density than regular capacitors. The supercapacitor also has a fast charging time, as well as a long life. To be used as a battery replacement please note the internal parameters of the battery to be replaced. In this paper conducted a simulation study to utilize supercapacitor as a replacement battery. The internal parameters of the battery and the supercapacitor are obtained based on the characteristics of charging and discharging current using a predefined equivalent circuit model. The battery to be replaced is a 12-volt lead-acid type, 6.5 Ah which is used on motorcycles with 6A charging and discharging currents. Super capacitor replacement capacitor is a capacity of 1600F, 2.7V which is connected in series as many as 6 pieces with 16.2 volt terminal voltage and charging current 12A. To obtain the same supercapacitor characteristic as the battery characteristic to be replaced, modification of its internal parameters is made. The results show that the super-capacitor can replace the battery function for 1000 seconds.

  11. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  12. Modelling Inductive Charging of Battery Electric Vehicles using an Agent-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Ul Abedin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of battery electric vehicles (BEVs could help to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and emissions from transportation and as such increase energy security and foster sustainable use of energy resources. However a major barrier to the introduction of BEVs is their limited battery capacity and long charging durations. To address these issues of BEVs several solutions are proposed such as battery swapping and fast charging stations. However apart from these stationary modes of charging, recently a new mode of charging has been introduced which is called inductive charging. This allows charging of BEVs as they drive along roads without the need of plugs, using induction. But it is unclear, if and how such technology could be utilized best. In order to investigate the possible impact of the introduction of such inductive charging infrastructure, its potential and its optimal placement, a framework for simulating BEVs using a multi-agent transport simulation was used. This framework was extended by an inductive charging module and initial test runs were performed. In this paper we present the simulation results of these preliminary tests together with analysis which suggests that battery sizes of BEVs could be reduced even if inductive charging technology is implemented only at a small number of high traffic volume links. The paper also demonstrates that our model can effectively support policy and decision making for deploying inductive charging infrastructure.

  13. A Wearable Wireless Energy Link for Thin-Film Batteries Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Monti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless charger for low capacity thin-film batteries is presented. The proposed device consists of a nonradiative wireless resonant energy link and a power management unit. Experimental data referring to a prototype operating in the ISM band centered at 434 MHz are presented and discussed. In more detail, in order to facilitate the integration into wearable accessories (such as handbags or suitcases, the prototype of the wireless energy link was implemented by exploiting a magnetic coupling between two planar resonators fabricated by using a conductive fabric on a layer of leather. From experimental data, it is demonstrated that, at 434 MHz, the RF-to-RF power transfer efficiency of the link is approximately 69.3%. As for the performance of the system as a whole, when an RF power of 7.5 dBm is provided at the input port, a total efficiency of about 29.7% is obtained. Finally, experiments performed for calculating the charging time for a low capacity thin-film battery demonstrated that, for RF input power higher than 6 dBm, the time necessary for recharging the battery is lower than 50 minutes.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  15. A Hydrogen-Evolving Hybrid-Electrolyte Battery with Electrochemical/Photoelectrochemical Charging from Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhaoyu; Li, Panpan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-02-08

    Decoupled hydrogen and oxygen production were successfully embedded into an aqueous dual-electrolyte (acid-base) battery for simultaneous energy storage and conversion. A three-electrode configuration was adopted, involving an electrocatalytic hydrogen-evolving electrode as cathode, an alkaline battery-type or capacitor-type anode as shuttle, and a charging-assisting electrode for electro-/photoelectrochemically catalyzing water oxidation. The conceptual battery not only synergistically outputs electricity and chemical fuels with tremendous specific energy and power densities, but also supports various approaches to be charged by pure or solar-assisted electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    the experimental conditions. Several ICA research studies have been performed on various Li-ion chemistries and several mathematical approaches have been employed to obtain the differential curves, with most studies however to be focused on a cell level analysis. In the present work, we have performed an in......-depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves......Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) is a method used to investigate the capacity state of health of batteries by tracking the electrochemical properties of the cell. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage, for a full or a partial cycle regarding...

  17. Optimal Battery Charging, Part 1: Minimizing Time-to-Charge, Energy Loss, and Temperature Rise for OCV-Resistance Battery Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    Ni/MH batteries, J. Power Sources (September 2004) 180e185. [21] T. Ikeya, N. Sawada, S. Takagi, J. Murakami , K. Kobayashi, et al., Multi-step constant...1998) 101e107. [22] T. Ikeya, N. Sawada, J. Murakami , K. Kobayashi, et al., Multi-step constant- current charging method for an electric vehicle

  18. A Review on Battery Charging and Discharging Control Strategies: Application to Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Banguero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage has become a fundamental component in renewable energy systems, especially those including batteries. However, in charging and discharging processes, some of the parameters are not controlled by the battery’s user. That uncontrolled working leads to aging of the batteries and a reduction of their life cycle. Therefore, it causes an early replacement. Development of control methods seeks battery protection and a longer life expectancy, thus the constant-current–constant-voltage method is mostly used. However, several studies show that charging time can be reduced by using fuzzy logic control or model predictive control. Another benefit is temperature control. This paper reviews the existing control methods used to control charging and discharging processes, focusing on their impacts on battery life. Classical and modern methods are studied together in order to find the best approach to real systems.

  19. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  20. Performance of Li-Ion Cells Under Battery Voltage Charge Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A study consisting of electrochemical characterization and Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) cycling of Li-Ion cells from three vendors was initiated in 1999 to determine the cycling performance and to infuse the new technology in the future NASA missions. The 8-cell batteries included in this evaluation are prismatic cells manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances Company (MSA), cylindrical cells manufactured by SAFT and prismatic cells manufactured by Yardney Technical Products, Inc. (YTP). The three batteries were cycle tested in the LEO regime at 40% depth of discharge, and under a charge control technique that consists of battery voltage clamp with a current taper. The initial testing was conducted at 20 C; however, the batteries were cycled also intermittently at low temperatures. YTP 20 Ah cells consisted of mixed-oxide (Co and Ni) positive, graphitic carbon negative, LIPF6 salt mixed with organic carbonate solvents. The battery voltage clamp was 32 V. The low temperature cycling tests started after 4575 cycles at 20 C. The cells were not capable of cycling. at low temperature since the charge acceptance at battery level was poor. There was a cell in the battery that showed too high an end-of-charge (EOC) voltage thereby limiting the ability to charge the rest of the cells in the battery. The battery has completed 6714 cycles. SAFT 12 Ah cells consisted of mixed-oxide (Co and NO positive, graphitic carbon negative, LiPF6 salt mixed with organic carbonate solvents. The battery voltage clamp was for 30.8 V. The low temperature cycling tests started after 4594 cycles at 20 C. A cell that showed low end of discharge (EOD) and EOC voltages and three other cells that showed higher EOC voltages limited the charge acceptance at the selected voltage limit during charge. The cells were capable of cycling at 10 C and 0 C but the charge voltage limit had to be increased to 34.3 V (4.3 V per cell). The low temperature cycling may have induced poor chargeability since the voltage had to

  1. Application Solar Energy for Charging Battery Mobile Phone

    OpenAIRE

    Elmahdi, Mohamed Abdulhadi; Suparman, Sudjito; Pramono, Sholeh Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. A photovoltaic cell, commonly called a solar cell or PV, is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical power. A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or recharge able battery by forcing an electric current through it. Digital devices, especially mobile phones, need electricity that can be obtained from local electricity station converted into direct current using propri...

  2. Functional Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymeric Layer as a Charge Barrier in Li–S Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jing-Kai

    2018-01-04

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) polymeric layers are capable of separating gases and molecules based on the reported size exclusion mechanism. What is equally important but missing today is an exploration of the 2D layers with charge functionality, which enables applications using the charge exclusion principle. This work demonstrates a simple and scalable method of synthesizing a free-standing 2D coordination polymer Zn2(benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 at the air–water interface. The hydroxyl (−OH) groups are stoichiometrically coordinated and implement electrostatic charges in the 2D structures, providing powerful functionality as a charge barrier. Electrochemical performance of the Li–S battery shows that the Zn2(benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 coordination polymer layers efficiently mitigate the polysulfide shuttling effects and largely enhance the battery capacity and cycle performance. The synthesis of the proposed coordination polymeric layers is simple, scalable, cost saving, and promising for practical use in batteries.

  3. Design and Experimental Results of Battery Charging System for Microgrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunggyu Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many countries have paid attention to renewable energy due to fossil fuel crisis and its related environmental pollution. In particular, following the government supply business for renewable energy industry, the private sectors drive the stable power supply by using renewable sources for both microgrid system and standalone application. Battery charging and discharging control system of microgrid system are critical to extend lifetime of standalone photovoltaic system. Corresponding to this demand, this paper presents the development of battery charging and discharging system based on battery modeling, SOC (state of charge estimation, and its implementation for 5 kW. As a result, the conversion efficiency shows 96.35% with over 95% charging performance.

  4. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  5. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  6. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  7. Battery State-of-Charge and Parameter Estimation Algorithm Based on Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stjepan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical battery is the most widely used energy storage technology, finding its application in various devices ranging from low power consumer electronics to utility back-up power. All types of batteries show highly non-linear behaviour in terms of dependence of internal parameters...... on operating conditions, momentary replenishment and a number of past charge/discharge cycles. A good indicator for the quality of overall customer service in any battery based application is the availability and reliability of these informations, as they point out important runtime variables...... such as the actual state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). Therefore, a modern battery management systems (BMSs) should incorporate functions that accommodate real time tracking of these nonlinearities. For that purpose, Kalman filter based algorithms emerged as a convenient solution due to their ability...

  8. Extended Kalman Filter with a Fuzzy Method for Accurate Battery Pack State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sepasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the world moves toward greenhouse gas reduction, there is increasingly active work around Li-ion chemistry-based batteries as an energy source for electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and smart grids. In these applications, the battery management system (BMS requires an accurate online estimation of the state of charge (SOC in a battery pack. This estimation is difficult, especially after substantial battery aging. In order to address this problem, this paper utilizes SOC estimation of Li-ion battery packs using a fuzzy-improved extended Kalman filter (fuzzy-IEKF for Li-ion cells, regardless of their age. The proposed approach introduces a fuzzy method with a new class and associated membership function that determines an approximate initial value applied to SOC estimation. Subsequently, the EKF method is used by considering the single unit model for the battery pack to estimate the SOC for following periods of battery use. This approach uses an adaptive model algorithm to update the model for each single cell in the battery pack. To verify the accuracy of the estimation method, tests are done on a LiFePO4 aged battery pack consisting of 120 cells connected in series with a nominal voltage of 432 V.

  9. Mikhailov's experiments on detection of magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1988-01-01

    In a reanalysis of Mikhailov's experiments, it is argued that observations of magnetic charge g = (1/2)(1/137)(1/3)e on ferromagnetic aerosols are incorrect. Future experiments of the type conducted by Mikhailov must take into an account the component of particle velocity orthogonal to E and H. It is shown that Mikhailov's data are consistent with the existence of a Dirac unit of magnetic charge g = (137/2)e found in meson spectroscopy

  10. Kalman filtering state of charge estimation for battery management system based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network battery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Long; Wang Junping; Chen Quanshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel extended Kalman Filtering SOC estimation method based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) battery model is proposed. ► The SFNN which has filtering effect on noisy input can model the battery nonlinear dynamic with high accuracy. ► A robust parameter learning algorithm for SFNN is studied so that the parameters can converge to its true value with noisy data. ► The maximum SOC estimation error based on the proposed method is 0.6%. - Abstract: Extended Kalman filtering is an intelligent and optimal means for estimating the state of a dynamic system. In order to use extended Kalman filtering to estimate the state of charge (SOC), we require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of battery pack. In this paper, we propose a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) instead of the traditional neural network that has filtering effect on noisy input to model the battery nonlinear dynamic. Then, the paper studies the extended Kalman filtering SOC estimation method based on a SFNN model. The modeling test is realized on an 80 Ah Ni/MH battery pack and the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle is used to verify the SOC estimation method. The maximum SOC estimation error is 0.6% compared with the real SOC obtained from the discharging test.

  11. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  12. An Electric taxi fleet charging system using second life electric car batteries simulation and economical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The industrial car manufacturers see in the high battery price an im-portant obstacle for an electric vehicle mass selling, thus mass production. There-fore, in order to find some cost relieves and better selling opportunities, they look and push forward to find profitable second battery uses. This study presents a sim-ulation and an economical approach for an electric taxi fleet charging system, us-ing these “old” electric car batteries, implemented in the city of Barcelona. The simulation w...

  13. Monitoring and control system of charging batteries connected to a photovoltaic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzkowski, Adam; Leoniuk, Katarzyna; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Budzynski, Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the off-grid photovoltaic system consisting of a PV panel, MMPT charge controller and battery is described. The realization of a laboratory stand for charging or discharging batteries is presented. Original monitoring and control system, which is based on LabVIEW software and LabJack DAQ device, has been built. Data acquisition part, arithmetic part and front panel of program created in LabVIEW are described. Some problems with implementation of this system, providing the monitoring of electrical parameters, are mentioned.

  14. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-07-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g -1 ). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li + ) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li + and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries.

  15. Performance characteristics of a battery charger and state-of-charge indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D.; Klein, J.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charge/state of charge indicator (BC/SCI) system for electric vehicle use was developed. The original and subsequent objectives for the BC/SCI and the rationale for those objectives are described. The requirements generated from the objectives are listed and a description of the BC/SCI is provided. The power section problem, the tests, and the test results are discussed.

  16. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  17. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  18. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  19. Influence of operating parameters on coke end temperature in stamp charged batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, U.S.; Sarkar, P.; Deshpande, D.P. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    Coke end temperature (CET) indicates the final temperature of coke mass after pushing it out from the oven and before quenching and thus is an indicator of the preparedness of the coke. Analysis of plant data from stamp charged batteries at Tata Steel show that it depends on coal blend characteristics and battery conditions. Increased input coal ash, its crushing fineness and volatile matters increases but the moisture decreases it. The heating rate, battery and regenerator temperatures all increase the coke end temperature. The present paper documents that observations on parameters influencing coke end temperature under stamp charged conditions and attempts to hypothesise the possible explanation for the results obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  1. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  2. Design Considerations for Wireless Charging Systems with an Analysis of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three criteria, including charging time, effective charging capacity and charging energy efficiency, are introduced to evaluate the CC (constant current and CC/CV (constant current/constant voltage charging strategies. Because the CC strategy presents a better performance and most resonant topologies have the CC characteristic, the CC strategy is more suitable for the design of wireless charging systems than the CC/CV strategy. Then, the state space model of the receiver is built to study the system dynamic characteristics, and the design of nonuse output filter capacitors is proposed, which can improve the system power density and avoid the drop in efficiency caused by capacitor degradation. At last, an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS based analysis method is introduced to validate that the design without output filter capacitors has no effects on the battery characteristics when the charging frequency is higher than 460 Hz. A prototype is fabricated to verify our research results.

  3. Evaluation of a new charge algorithm for a lead-acid battery with gelled electrolyte using a 96V gel cell 4 as a test battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dieter K.

    1989-10-01

    A summary is reported of test results obtained utilizing the new UAH charge algorithm for Lead-Acid batteries with gelled electrolyte. The battery performance data for a 96V Phase 4 Gel/Cell battery pack was tested in a Jet Industries Electrica vehicle. It was shown that the new charge concept is sound although there can be problems with batteries that are highly imbalanced and where excessive electronic noise is experienced on the electronic signal feed-back line that carries the voltage sensor signals from the battery. Additional work is needed to add intelligence to the charge algorithm in terms of a better ability to extract the beginning of gas development from the voltage spread function. This can probably be accomplished by scanning the voltages more often and including that data into the function analysis by adding software filters. The Phase 4 Gel/Cell battery performance was found to be about 20 percent lower than that of the Phase 3 Gel/Cell battery. Problems with cell valve leakage were encountered in the Phase 4 Gel/Cell that pose a threat to battery life although so far no battery module has been lost.

  4. Method of estimating the State-of-Charge and of the use time left of a rechageable battery, and apparatus for executing such a method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Hendrik Johannes; Pop, V.; Notten, Petrus Henricus Laurentius

    2006-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of estimating the state-of-charge of a rechargeable battery, taking into account the factors battery spread and ageing. The method comprises the steps of: determining the starting state-of-charge of the battery by measuring the voltage across the battery and converting this

  5. Polyoxometalate active charge-transfer material for mediated redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Hudak, Nicholas; Staiger, Chad; Pratt, Harry

    2017-01-17

    Redox flow batteries including a half-cell electrode chamber coupled to a current collecting electrode are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, a separator is coupled to the half-cell electrode chamber. The half-cell electrode chamber comprises a first redox-active mediator and a second redox-active mediator. The first redox-active mediator and the second redox-active mediator are circulated through the half-cell electrode chamber into an external container. The container includes an active charge-transfer material. The active charge-transfer material has a redox potential between a redox potential of the first redox-active mediator and a redox potential of the second redox-active mediator. The active charge-transfer material is a polyoxometalate or derivative thereof. The redox flow battery may be particularly useful in energy storage solutions for renewable energy sources and for providing sustained power to an electrical grid.

  6. Performance of Li-Ion Cells Under Battery Voltage Charge Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2002-01-01

    Li-ion cells manufactured by YTP, SAFT, and MSA have completed 6714, 6226, and 3441 cycles, respectively. An increase in the charge voltage limit was required in all cases to maintain the discharge voltage. SAFT and MSA cells were capable of cycling at -10 C and 0 C with an increase in the charge voltage limit, whereas Yardney cells could not be cycled. Reconditioning improved the discharge voltage of SAFT and MSA cells; it is important to note that the effect has been temporary as in Ni-H and Ni-Cd batteries. It was demonstrated that the charge operation with VT clamp at battery rather than at cell level is feasible. Continuation of testing depends on the health of the cells and on the funding situation.

  7. Sacrificial salts: Compensating the initial charge irreversibility in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmukaraj, Devaraj; Grugeon, Sylvie; Laruelle, Stephane; Douglade, Gregory; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Armand, Michel [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France)

    2010-10-15

    Lithium salts enlisting azide, oxocarbons, dicarboxylates and hydrazides have been identified as a practical mean to compensate the irreversible capacity loss of LIBs negative electrodes. During the first charge, the anion loses electrons and converts to gaseous N{sub 2}, CO or CO{sub 2}, within an acceptable potential range (3 to 4.5 V). We report an electrochemical study on these easily accessible 'sacrificial salts'. (author)

  8. Sunlight-charged electrochromic battery based on hybrid film of tungsten oxide and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Liu, Jingrong; Lei, Yanhua; Liu, Tao; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2018-05-01

    Electrochromic (EC) energy storage devices that could realize the multifunctional integration of energy storage and electrochromism have gained much recent attention. Herein, an EC battery based on the hybrid film of W18O49 and polyaniline (PANI) is developed and assembled, which integrates energy storage and EC functions in one device. The W18O49/PANI-EC battery delivers a discharging capacity of 52.96 mA h g-1, which is about two times higher than that of the W18O49-EC battery. Sunlight irradiation could greatly promote the oxidation reactions of both W18O49 and PANI during the charging process of the W18O49/PANI-EC battery, thus effectively accelerating the charging rate. This work provides a green, convenient, environmentally friendly, and cost-free charging strategy for the EC energy systems and could further advance the development of the multifunctional EC devices based on the organic/inorganic composites.

  9. A method for state-of-charge estimation of Li-ion batteries based on multi-model switching strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Build a multi-model switching SOC estimate method for Li-ion batteries. • Build an improved interpretative structural modeling method for model switching. • The feedback strategy of bus delay is applied to improve the real-time performance. • The EKF method is used for SOC estimation to improve the estimated accuracy. - Abstract: The accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation and real-time performance are critical evaluation indexes for Li-ion battery management systems (BMS). High accuracy algorithms often take long program execution time (PET) in the resource-constrained embedded application systems, which will undoubtedly lead to the decrease of the time slots of other processes, thereby reduce the overall performance of BMS. Considering the resource optimization and the computational load balance, this paper proposes a multi-model switching SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries. Four typical battery models are employed to build a close-loop SOC estimation system. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is employed to eliminate the effect of the current noise and improve the accuracy of SOC. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are conducted to verify the accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that accurate estimation results and reasonable PET can be obtained by the proposed method

  10. Improved extended Kalman filter for state of charge estimation of battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-06-01

    It is difficult to model the behavior of the battery pack accurately due to the electrochemical characteristics variations among cells of a battery pack. As a result, accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimation for the battery pack is a case provocation. The estimation process poses more challenges after substantial battery aging. This paper tries to estimate the SOC of a Li-ion battery pack for an electrical vehicle using improved extended Kalman filter (IEKF) which benefits from considering aging phenomenon in the electrical model of cells. In order to assemble a battery pack, we find cells with similar electrochemical characteristics. Model adaptive algorithm is applied on the corresponding cells of a string to minimize cell-to-cell variation's effect. During the operation, the values of electrical model of each cell are updated by the same algorithm to compensate aging effects on SOC estimation error. The mean value of updated cell's model is used for a single unit cell model of the pack used at IEKF to achieve more accurate SOC estimation. The algorithm's fast response and low computational burden, makes on-board estimation practical. The experimental results reveal that the proposed approach's SOC and voltage estimation errors do not exceed 1.5%.

  11. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Batteries using lithium (Li) metal as anodes are considered promising energy storage systems because of their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with dendrite growth along with limited cycle life, especially at high charge current densities, hinder their practical uses. Here we report that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as an additive in LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-solvent-based electrolytes significantly enhances the charging capability and cycling stability of Li metal batteries. In a Li metal battery using a 4-V Li-ion cathode at a moderately high loading of 1.75mAh cm(-2), a cyclability of 97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles along with very limited increase in electrode overpotential is accomplished at a charge/discharge current density up to 1.75 mA cm(-2). The fast charging and stable cycling performances are ascribed to the generation of a robust and conductive solid electrolyte interphase at the Li metal surface and stabilization of the Al cathode current collector.

  12. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  13. Kalman-variant estimators for state of charge in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.; Fotouhi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are now commercially available, offering high specific energy density, low production costs and high safety. However, there is no commercially-available battery management system for them, and there are no published methods for determining state of charge in situ....... This paper describes a study to address this gap. The properties and behaviours of lithium-sulfur are briefly introduced, and the applicability of ‘standard’ lithium-ion state-of-charge estimation methods is explored. Open-circuit voltage methods and ‘Coulomb counting’ are found to have a poor fit...... for lithium-sulfur, and model-based methods, particularly recursive Bayesian filters, are identified as showing strong promise. Three recursive Bayesian filters are implemented: an extended Kalman filter (EKF), an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and a particle filter (PF). These estimators are tested through...

  14. Efficient Charging of Li-Ion Batteries with Pulsed Output Current of Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiong; Liu, Mengmeng; Li, Linxuan; Zhang, Chi; Pang, Yaokun; Jiang, Chunyan; Shao, Lihua; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a promising mechanical energy harvesting technology, but its pulsed output and the instability of input energy sources make associated energy-storage devices necessary for real applications. In this work, feasible and efficient charging of Li-ion batteries by a rotating TENG with pulsed output current is demonstrated. In-depth discussions are made on how to maximize the power-storage efficiency by achieving an impedance match between the TENG and a battery with appropriate design of transformers. With a transformer coil ratio of 36.7, ≈72.4% of the power generated by the TENG at 250 rpm can be stored in an LiFePO 4 -Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 battery. Moreover, a 1 h charging of an LiCoO 2 -C battery by the TENG at 600 rpm delivers a discharge capacity of 130 mAh, capable of powering many smart electronics. Considering the readily scale-up capability of the TENG, promising applications in personal electronics can be anticipated in the near future.

  15. Efficient Charging of Li‐Ion Batteries with Pulsed Output Current of Triboelectric Nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiong; Liu, Mengmeng; Li, Linxuan; Zhang, Chi; Pang, Yaokun; Jiang, Chunyan; Shao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a promising mechanical energy harvesting technology, but its pulsed output and the instability of input energy sources make associated energy‐storage devices necessary for real applications. In this work, feasible and efficient charging of Li‐ion batteries by a rotating TENG with pulsed output current is demonstrated. In‐depth discussions are made on how to maximize the power‐storage efficiency by achieving an impedance match between the TENG and a battery with appropriate design of transformers. With a transformer coil ratio of 36.7, ≈72.4% of the power generated by the TENG at 250 rpm can be stored in an LiFePO4–Li4Ti5O12 battery. Moreover, a 1 h charging of an LiCoO2–C battery by the TENG at 600 rpm delivers a discharge capacity of 130 mAh, capable of powering many smart electronics. Considering the readily scale‐up capability of the TENG, promising applications in personal electronics can be anticipated in the near future. PMID:27774382

  16. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  18. Small wind generators for battery charging in Peru and Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, S. [Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) have developed a small wind generator (SWG) intended primarily for battery charging in Peru and Sri Lanka. The project is funded mainly by the Department for International Development (DfID) and aims to provide rural households and communities who do not have access to mains electricity with a form of electrification. This paper reports on progress to date and is correct at the time of going to press, but subsequent changes to specifications may occur. (Author)

  19. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Vukić, Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process migh...

  20. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal battery is an attractive energy storage system owing to the ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential of Li metal anode. However, safety concern associated with dendrite growth and limited cycle life especially at a high charge current density are two critical challenges hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report for the first time that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as additive in the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-based electrolyte can significantly enhance the charging capability and the long-term cycle life of Li metal batteries with a moderately high cathode loading of 1.75 mAh cm-2. Unprecedented stable-cycling (97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles) along with very limited increase in electrode over-potential has been achieved at a high current density of 1.75 mA cm-2. This unparalleled fast charging and stable cycling performance is contributed from both the stabilized Al cathode current collector, and, more importantly, the robust and conductive SEI layer formed on Li metal anode in the presence of the LiPF6 additive.

  1. Structural Change of Carbon Anode in a Lithium-ion Battery Product Associated with Charging Process Observed by Neutron Transmission Bragg-edge Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Takashi; Narita, Yuki; Sato, Hirotaka; Ohnuma, Masato; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    Spectroscopic neutron Bragg-edge imaging was performed to study a lithium-ion battery (LIB) product. This non-destructive neutron imaging method is suitable for the evaluation of industrial products, but presents some difficulties for application to multicomponent products. The LIB includes a strong neutron scatterer and an absorber, and is thus a suitable test case for the use of neutron imaging in actual product measurement. In this study, we analyzed the variation of the graphite anode structure with changes in the battery charge level. The experiments were carried out using the compact neutron source at the Hokkaido University neutron source facility (HUNS). To eliminate the effect of scattered neutron contamination, we first determined the distance between the sample and detector required to reduce this effect to under 1%. Using this separation, the charge level dependence of the anode structure was measured. The graphite {002} Bragg-edge could be recognized on the neutron transmission spectra. The Bragg-edge was shifted and broadened with increasing battery charge. The edge was consistent with the existence of multiple graphite structural stages. The layer spacing distribution images for different charge levels showed the inhomogeneous fluctuation on the LIB lattice plane. Based on the images the fraction of the graphite structural stages were analyzed. The ratio of each stage varied with the charge level, and the ideal intercalation structure, in which the graphite layers are stuffed with Li-ions, was found to be minor in the final charging state.

  2. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  3. Joint Estimation of the Electric Vehicle Power Battery State of Charge Based on the Least Squares Method and the Kalman Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An estimation of the power battery state of charge (SOC is related to the energy management, the battery cycle life and the use cost of electric vehicles. When a lithium-ion power battery is used in an electric vehicle, the SOC displays a very strong time-dependent nonlinearity under the influence of random factors, such as the working conditions and the environment. Hence, research on estimating the SOC of a power battery for an electric vehicle is of great theoretical significance and application value. In this paper, according to the dynamic response of the power battery terminal voltage during a discharging process, the second-order RC circuit is first used as the equivalent model of the power battery. Subsequently, on the basis of this model, the least squares method (LS with a forgetting factor and the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF algorithm are used jointly in the estimation of the power battery SOC. Simulation experiments show that the joint estimation algorithm proposed in this paper has higher precision and convergence of the initial value error than a single AUKF algorithm.

  4. Multi-functional Converter with Integrated Motor Control, Battery Charging and Active Module Balancing for Electric Vehicular Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and the acoustical noise generated by refuse lorries, electrification of the waste compactor unit is a very promising solution. For the electrical energy storage Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology has been selected with potential for reducing the cost...... used successfully in HVDC/FACTS and large drive applications. In this paper the use of MMC for a battery driven waste compactor unit addressed with integrated functionality including: motor driver, battery charge and active balancing is presented. The challenges addressed here are related to the design...... of control strategy and current ripple reduction through the battery for life time extension....

  5. Online available capacity prediction and state of charge estimation based on advanced data-driven algorithms for lithium iron phosphate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhongwei; Yang, Lin; Cai, Yishan; Deng, Hao; Sun, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The key technology of a battery management system is to online estimate the battery states accurately and robustly. For lithium iron phosphate battery, the relationship between state of charge and open circuit voltage has a plateau region which limits the estimation accuracy of voltage-based algorithms. The open circuit voltage hysteresis requires advanced online identification algorithms to cope with the strong nonlinear battery model. The available capacity, as a crucial parameter, contributes to the state of charge and state of health estimation of battery, but it is difficult to predict due to comprehensive influence by temperature, aging and current rates. Aim at above problems, the ampere-hour counting with current correction and the dual adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithms are combined to estimate model parameters and state of charge. This combination presents the advantages of less computation burden and more robustness. Considering the influence of temperature and degradation, the data-driven algorithm namely least squares support vector machine is implemented to predict the available capacity. The state estimation and capacity prediction methods are coupled to improve the estimation accuracy at different temperatures among the lifetime of battery. The experiment results verify the proposed methods have excellent state and available capacity estimation accuracy. - Highlights: • A dual adaptive extended Kalman filter is used to estimate parameters and states. • A correction term is introduced to consider the effect of current rates. • The least square support vector machine is used to predict the available capacity. • The experiment results verify the proposed state and capacity prediction methods.

  6. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic route guidance, which can help EV drivers to search for the optimal energy-efficient routes and to reduce the risk of running out of electricity before arriving at the destination or charging station. Firstly, by analyzing the variation characteristics of power consumption rate with initial SOC and microscopic driving parameters (instantaneous speed and acceleration, a set of energy consumption rate models are established according to different operation modes. Then, the SOC estimation model is proposed based on the presented EV power consumption model. Finally, by comparing the estimated SOC with the measured SOC, the proposed SOC estimation method is proved to be highly accurate and effective, which can be well used in EV route planning and navigation systems.

  7. On state-of-charge determination for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimation of state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery through its life remains challenging in battery research. Although improved precisions continue to be reported at times, almost all are based on regression methods empirically, while the accuracy is often not properly addressed. Here, a comprehensive review is set to address such issues, from fundamental principles that are supposed to define SOC to methodologies to estimate SOC for practical use. It covers topics from calibration, regression (including modeling methods) to validation in terms of precision and accuracy. At the end, we intend to answer the following questions: 1) can SOC estimation be self-adaptive without bias? 2) Why Ah-counting is a necessity in almost all battery-model-assisted regression methods? 3) How to establish a consistent framework of coupling in multi-physics battery models? 4) To assess the accuracy in SOC estimation, statistical methods should be employed to analyze factors that contribute to the uncertainty. We hope, through this proper discussion of the principles, accurate SOC estimation can be widely achieved.

  8. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Charging operation with high energy efficiency for electric vehicle valve-regulated lead-acid battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae Res. Lab., Lithium Battery Project, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power Co., Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst. Inc., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power Co., Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    A new, high-energy-efficiency charging operation with as little amount of overcharge as possible is proposed to improve the energy efficiency and the cycle life for an EV valve-regulated lead-acid battery. Under this operation, the EV battery system is charged with 105% of amount of the preceding discharge five out of six times and once with 115% in order that it is fully charged. The cycle lives were estimated using a valve-regulated lead-acid battery system of 12 modules connected in series, by SFUDS79 pattern discharging and measurement of the amount of discharge every 50 cycles. Three-step constant current charging with 115% of amount of the preceding discharge required more than 5 h with the final charging step of more than 210 min, with coulomb efficiency of only 87% and energy efficiency of 74%. On the other hand, under the high-energy-efficiency charging operation, three-step charging with 105% shortens the final charging time to 132 min. It was completed in less than 4 h with coulomb and energy efficiency of 95% and 84%, respectively. This operation increased the energy efficiency from 74% to 83% on average in six charging, and extended the cycle life by about 30% to more than 400 cycles. Decreasing the amount of charge by as much as possible suppressed the corrosion of the grids in the positive plate and the heat evolution in batteries due to shortening of the final charging step. Although the high-energy-efficiency charging operation led to the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} at the upper part of the negative plate, possibly due to the decreasing amount of overcharge, this operation could prolong the cycle life. Full charging once every six times is though to be effective in suppressing degradation caused by the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} in the negative plate due to the shortage of charge. (orig.)

  10. Technical and legal considerations and solutions in the area of battery charging for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The issue of protecting health of residents of urbanized areas from the effect of excessive particulate matter and toxic components of car exhaust gases imposes the need of introduction of clean electric vehicles to the market. The increasing market availability of electric vehicles, especially in the segment of short-range (neighborhood) vehicles is followed by development of new and advanced infrastructure solutions. This also applies to the increasingly popular hybrid vehicles PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles). However, problems with the existing designs are primarily associated with limited driving range on a single battery charge, the density of charging stations in urban and suburban area, energy system efficiency due to increased electricity demand and the unification of solutions for charging stations, on-board chargers and the necessary accessories. Technical solutions are dependent on many factors, including the type and size of battery in the vehicle and access to power grid with increased load capacity. The article discusses the legal and technical actions outlined in the above directions. It shows the available and planned solutions in this area.

  11. On the aggregate grid load imposed by battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the problem of estimating the aggregate load imposed on the power grid by the battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The article begins by generating a set of representative daily trips using (i) the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and (ii) a Markov chain model of both federal and naturalistic drive cycles. A multi-objective optimizer then uses each of these trips, together with PHEV powertrain and battery degradation models, to optimize both PHEV daily energy cost and battery degradation. The optimizer achieves this by varying (i) the amounts of charge obtained from the grid by each PHEV, and (ii) the timing of this charging. The article finally computes aggregate PHEV power demand by accumulating the charge patterns optimized for individual PHEV trips. The results of this aggregation process show a peak PHEV load in the early morning (between 5.00 and 6.00 a.m.), with approximately half of all PHEVs charging simultaneously. The ability to charge at work introduces smaller additional peaks in the aggregate load pattern. The article concludes by exploring the sensitivity of these results to the relative weighting of the two optimization objectives (energy cost and battery health), battery size, and electricity price.

  12. Identifying Potential Markets for Behind-the-Meter Battery Energy Storage: A Survey of U.S. Demand Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group, Montpelier, Vermont

    2017-08-07

    This paper presents the first publicly available comprehensive survey of the magnitude of demand charges for commercial customers across the United States -- a key predictor of the financial performance of behind-the-meter battery storage systems. Notably, the analysis estimates that there are nearly 5 million commercial customers in the United States who can subscribe to retail electricity tariffs that have demand charges in excess of $15 per kilowatt (kW), over a quarter of the 18 million commercial customers in total in the United States. While the economic viability of installing battery energy storage must be determined on a case-by-case basis, high demand charges are often cited as a critical factor in battery project economics. Increasing use of demand charges in utility tariffs and anticipated future declines in storage costs will only serve to unlock additional markets and strengthen existing ones.

  13. Processes involved in charging of discharged lead-acid battery electrodes by pulse methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers/DQ/UFSCar, C.P. 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil); de Souza, L.M.M.; Impinnisi, P.R.; de Andrade, J. [Group of Battery and Cells/DPMA-LACTEC/Centro Politecnico da UFPR, C.P. 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba (PR) (Brazil)

    2006-08-25

    In general, a relatively large part of the PbSO{sub 4} of lead-acid battery electrode discharge products can be seen as particles at the end of the discharge and thus their reduction, on the negative electrode, or oxidation, on the positive electrode, must involve the dissolution of the Pb{sup 2+}. In this paper, the processes occurring on flat negative electrodes during the galvanostatic charge transients are studied in detail, especially in relation to where and how much the PbSO{sub 4} and Pb{sup 2+} are reduced. The understanding of these processes is fundamental for the understanding of any pulse charging process. Thus, it is shown for a single discharge/charge cycle, that during the charging process a disruption of the PbSO{sub 4} film, giving rise to a continuous glued non-disrupted film and to a disrupted film attached by surface tension forces to the electrode surface can occur. Further, it is shown that the amount of disruption depends on the charging current conditions and it decreases with decreasing charging currents. It is also demonstrated that the reduction of the Pb{sup 2+} dissolved from the disrupted particles takes place simultaneously to the reduction of the non-disrupted glued part of the film. On the basis of these facts, it is finally shown, for the case of multiple discharge/charge cycles, how the charge associated with the disrupted film changes with cycling and why and how it is possible to determine the amount disrupted PbSO{sub 4} film formed. (author)

  14. The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility due to factors including driver range anxiety and access to charging infrastructure. In this paper we apply NREL's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to range anxiety and different charging infrastructure scenarios, including variable time schedules, power levels, and locations (home, work, and public installations). We find that the effects of range anxiety can be significant, but are reduced with access to additional charging infrastructure. We also find that (1) increasing home charging power above that provided by a common 15 A, 120 V circuit offers little added utility, (2) workplace charging offers significant utility benefits to select high mileage commuters, and (3) broadly available public charging can bring many lower mileage drivers to near-100% utility while strongly increasing the achieved miles of high mileage drivers.

  15. Approximation to the Modelling of Charge and Discharge Processes in Electrochemical Batteries by Integral Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balenzategui, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    A new way for the modelling of the charge and discharge processes in electrochemical batteries based on the use of integral equations is presented. The proposed method models the charge curves by the so called fractional or cumulative integrals of a certain objective function f(t) that must be sought. The charge figures can be easily fitted by breaking down this objective function as the addition of two different Lorentz type functions: the first one is associated to the own charge process and the second one to the overcharge process. The method allows calculating the starting voltage for overcharge as the intersection between both functions. The curve fitting of this model to different experimental charge curves, by using the Marquart algorithm, has shown very accurate results. In the case of discharge curves, two possible methods for modelling purposes are suggested, well by using the same kind of integral equations, well by the simple subtraction of an objective function f(t) from a constant value V O D. Many other aspects for the study and analysis of this method in order to improve its results in further developments are also discussed. (Author) 10 refs

  16. Determination of Top Quark charge in CDF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednar, Peter [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problematic of top quark charge measurement in CDF experiment at Fermilab. The goal is to determine if the top quark observed on Tevatron experiments is the Standard Model particle with the predicted charge 2/3 or it is some exotic 4th generation quark with the charge of -4/3 as suggested by some alternative theories.

  17. The reaction current distribution in battery electrode materials revealed by XPS-based state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Alexander J; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-07-28

    Morphologically complex electrochemical systems such as composite or nanostructured lithium ion battery electrodes exhibit spatially inhomogeneous internal current distributions, particularly when driven at high total currents, due to resistances in the electrodes and electrolyte, distributions of diffusion path lengths, and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Measuring and controlling these distributions is interesting from both an engineering standpoint, as nonhomogenous currents lead to lower utilization of electrode material, as well as from a fundamental standpoint, as comparisons between theory and experiment are relatively scarce. Here we describe a new approach using a deliberately simple model battery electrode to examine the current distribution in a electrode material limited by poor electronic conductivity. We utilize quantitative spatially resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the spatial distribution of the state-of-charge of a V2O5 model electrode as a proxy measure for the current distribution on electrodes discharged at varying current densities. We show that the current at the electrode-electrolyte interface falls off with distance from the current collector, and that the current distribution is a strong function of total current. We compare the observed distributions with a simple analytical model which reproduces the dependence of the distribution on total current, but fails to predict the correct length scale. A more complete numerical simulation suggests that dynamic changes in the electronic conductivity of the V2O5 concurrent with lithium insertion may contribute to the differences between theory and experiment. Our observations should help inform design criteria for future electrode architectures.

  18. Influence of Battery Parametric Uncertainties on the State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-Based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Jinhao, Meng; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    to describe the battery dynamics. The SOC estimation method proposed in this paper is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and nonlinear battery model which was parameterized using extended laboratory tests performed on several 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries. The developed...

  19. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  20. High-Power Collective Charging of a Solid-State Quantum Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Dario; Campisi, Michele; Andolina, Gian Marcello; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Quantum information theorems state that it is possible to exploit collective quantum resources to greatly enhance the charging power of quantum batteries (QBs) made of many identical elementary units. We here present and solve a model of a QB that can be engineered in solid-state architectures. It consists of N two-level systems coupled to a single photonic mode in a cavity. We contrast this collective model ("Dicke QB"), whereby entanglement is genuinely created by the common photonic mode, to the one in which each two-level system is coupled to its own separate cavity mode ("Rabi QB"). By employing exact diagonalization, we demonstrate the emergence of a quantum advantage in the charging power of Dicke QBs, which scales like √{N } for N ≫1 .

  1. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  2. New battery model considering thermal transport and partial charge stationary effects in photovoltaic off-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Gorrachategui, Iván; Bernal, Carlos; Oyarbide, Estanis; Garayalde, Erik; Aizpuru, Iosu; Canales, Jose María; Bono-Nuez, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The optimization of the battery pack in an off-grid Photovoltaic application must consider the minimum sizing that assures the availability of the system under the worst environmental conditions. Thus, it is necessary to predict the evolution of the state of charge of the battery under incomplete daily charging and discharging processes and fluctuating temperatures over day-night cycles. Much of previous development work has been carried out in order to model the short term evolution of battery variables. Many works focus on the on-line parameter estimation of available charge, using standard or advanced estimators, but they are not focused on the development of a model with predictive capabilities. Moreover, normally stable environmental conditions and standard charge-discharge patterns are considered. As the actual cycle-patterns differ from the manufacturer's tests, batteries fail to perform as expected. This paper proposes a novel methodology to model these issues, with predictive capabilities to estimate the remaining charge in a battery after several solar cycles. A new non-linear state space model is proposed as a basis, and the methodology to feed and train the model is introduced. The new methodology is validated using experimental data, providing only 5% of error at higher temperatures than the nominal one.

  3. Online Estimation of Model Parameters and State of Charge of LiFePO4 Batteries Using a Novel Open-Circuit Voltage at Various Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an online estimation of the model parameters and state of charge (SOC of lithium iron phosphate batteries in electric vehicles. A widely used SOC estimator is based on the dynamic battery model with predeterminate parameters. However, model parameter variances that follow with their varied operation temperatures can result in errors in estimating battery SOC. To address this problem, a battery online parameter estimator is presented based on an equivalent circuit model using an adaptive joint extended Kalman filter algorithm. Simulations based on actual data are established to verify accuracy and stability in the regression of model parameters. Experiments are also performed to prove that the proposed estimator exhibits good reliability and adaptability under different loading profiles with various temperatures. In addition, open-circuit voltage (OCV is used to estimate SOC in the proposed algorithm. However, the OCV based on the proposed online identification includes a part of concentration polarization and hysteresis, which is defined as parametric identification-based OCV (OCVPI. Considering the temperature factor, a novel OCV–SOC relationship map is established by using OCVPI under various temperatures. Finally, a validating experiment is conducted based on the consecutive loading profiles. Results indicate that our method is effective and adaptable when a battery operates at different ambient temperatures.

  4. Overview of Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Methods for State-of-Charge Estimation in Electrical Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhao Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As a critical indictor in the Battery Management System (BMS, State of Charge (SOC is closely related to the reliable and safe operation of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries. Model-based methods are an effective solution for accurate and robust SOC estimation, the performance of which heavily relies on the battery model. This paper mainly focuses on battery modeling methods, which have the potential to be used in a model-based SOC estimation structure. Battery modeling methods are classified into four categories on the basis of their theoretical foundations, and their expressions and features are detailed. Furthermore, the four battery modeling methods are compared in terms of their pros and cons. Future research directions are also presented. In addition, after optimizing the parameters of the battery models by a Genetic Algorithm (GA, four typical battery models including a combined model, two RC Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM, a Single Particle Model (SPM, and a Support Vector Machine (SVM battery model are compared in terms of their accuracy and execution time.

  5. Battery Charge Affects the Stability of Light Intensity from Light-emitting Diode Light-curing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtaksin, A; Leevailoj, C

    This study investigated the influence of battery charge levels on the stability of light-emitting diode (LED) curing-light intensity by measuring the intensity from fully charged through fully discharged batteries. The microhardness of resin composites polymerized by the light-curing units at various battery charge levels was measured. The light intensities of seven fully charged battery LED light-curing units-1) LY-A180, 2) Bluephase, 3) Woodpecker, 4) Demi Plus, 5) Saab II, 6) Elipar S10, and 7) MiniLED-were measured with a radiometer (Kerr) after every 10 uses (20 seconds per use) until the battery was discharged. Ten 2-mm-thick cylindrical specimens of A3 shade nanofilled resin composite (PREMISE, Kerr) were prepared per LED light-curing unit group. Each specimen was irradiated by the fully charged light-curing unit for 20 seconds. The LED light-curing units were then used until the battery charge fell to 50%. Specimens were prepared again as described above. This was repeated again when the light-curing units' battery charge fell to 25% and when the light intensity had decreased to 400 mW/cm 2 . The top/bottom surface Knoop hardness ratios of the specimens were determined. The microhardness data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey test at a significance level of 0.05. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine significant correlations between surface hardness and light intensity. We found that the light intensities of the Bluephase, Demi Plus, and Elipar S10 units were stable. The intensity of the MiniLED unit decreased slightly; however, it remained above 400 mW/cm 2 . In contrast, the intensities of the LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II units decreased below 400 mW/cm 2 . There was also a significant decrease in the surface microhardnesses of the resin composite specimens treated with MiniLED, LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II. In conclusion, the light intensity of several LED light-curing units decreased as the battery was

  6. Electrochemical characterization of sulfur with low depth of charge/discharge in lithium sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhigao; Wang, Shengping; Dong, Kang; Dai, Yu; Lei, Xinrong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The charge/discharge electrochemical window of Li-S batteries is limited to a narrow range (1.95-2.45 V). • In this narrow electrochemical window, the electrochemical reactions only occur in the liquid phase. • This narrow electrochemical window provides improved capacity performance and cycling performance. - Abstract: In this research, a narrow charge/discharge electrochemical window is enforced for lithium sulfur batteries. In this way, the active material of the electrode (which is sulfur in the initial state) is limited to Li 2 S 8 and Li 2 S 3 , leading the electrochemical reactions to take place in the liquid phase and thereby improving the capacity performance and cycling performance. After 50 cycles at a current density of 0.1 mA cm −2 , the specific capacity obtained using a narrow electrochemical window (1.95-2.45 V) (490 mAh g −1 ) was greater than that obtained using a wide electrochemical window (1.7-2.8 V) (435 mAh g −1 ). This finding demonstrates the feasibility of improving the electrochemical performance by employing a suitable electrochemical window to restrain the phase transformation to the middle liquid phase.

  7. Photovoltaic battery charging stations for sustainable off-grid rural electrification in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, C.M.; Acebedo, I.P.; Gudoy, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Mariano Marcos State University-Affiliated Non Conventional Energy Center (MMSU-ANEC) in partnership with the Energy Management Bureau-Renewable Energy Management Division, Department of Energy implemented the Barangay Electrification Program (BEP) of the government in the off-grid rural areas at the northern Philippines from 1995-2004 with a common vision of promoting the use of new and renewable energy systems for rural electrification in order to spur development in the far-flung, off-grid rural areas. Such activity of the MMSU-ANEC on BEP used modified and improved Photovoltaic battery charging stations (PVBCS) to energize households and augment their livelihood in collaboration with the local government units and the beneficiaries. Socioeconomic and environmental impacts using long-range energy alternative planning or LEAP software showed that PVBCS are indispensable, feasible, economical, environmental-friendly and sustainable renewable energy resources systems in off-grid areas. Improvement of a locally-made battery charging unit (patent applied at IPO, Manila) which is cheaper and comparable than the imported unit, enabling project implementation strategies in community organizing and lessons learned during the implementation of BEP are also presented. Such improvement of the PVBCS is considered an innovative advancement in renewable energy that can be commercialized towards a sustainable agro-industrial development in far-flung, off-grid rural areas, among other applications for rural electrification and power generation using clean and environment-friendly sustainable technologies. (author)

  8. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    OpenAIRE

    Shane Phelan; Paula Meehan; Stephen Daniels

    2013-01-01

    Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further ...

  10. Active-charging based powertrain control in series hybrid electric vehicles for efficiency improvement and battery lifetime extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a powertrain control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) based on the integrated design of an active charging scenario and fixed-boundary-layer sliding mode controllers (FBLSMCs). An optimized charging curve for the battery is predetermined rather than subject to engine output and vehicle power demand, which is a total inverse of normal SHEV powertrain control process. This is aimed to remove surge and high-frequency charge current, keep the battery staying in a high state-of-charge (SOC) region and avoid persistently-high charge power, which are positive factors to battery lifetime extension. Then two robust chattering-free FBLSMCs are designed to locate the engine operation in the optimal efficiency area. One is in charge of engine speed control, and the other is for engine/generator torque control. Consequently, not only fuel economy is improved but also battery life expectancy could be extended. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm the validity and application feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  11. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  12. Fabrication of solid-state secondary battery using semiconductors and evaluation of its charge/discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Atsuya; Sasaki, Akito; Hirabayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Shuichi; Aoki, Katsuaki; Kataoka, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Koji; Yabuhara, Hidehiko; Ito, Takahiro; Takagi, Shigeyuki

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion batteries have attracted interest for use as storage batteries. However, the risk of fire has not yet been resolved. Although solid Li-ion batteries are possible alternatives, their performance characteristics are unsatisfactory. Recently, research on utilizing the accumulation of carriers at the trap levels of semiconductors has been performed. However, the detailed charge/discharge characteristics and principles have not been reported. In this report, we attempted to form new n-type oxide semiconductor/insulator/p-type oxide semiconductor structures. The battery characteristics of these structures were evaluated by charge/discharge measurements. The obtained results clearly indicated the characteristics of rechargeable batteries. Furthermore, the fabricated structure accumulated an approximately 5000 times larger number of carriers than a parallel plate capacitor. Additionally, by constructing circuit models based on the experimental results, the charge/discharge mechanisms were considered. This is the first detailed experimental report on a rechargeable battery that operates without the double injection of ions and electrons.

  13. Estimation of State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in HEV Using Robust Extended Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman M. Sharkh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A robust extended Kalman filter (EKF is proposed as a method for estimation of the state of charge (SOC of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An equivalent circuit model of the battery, including its electromotive force (EMF hysteresis characteristics and polarization characteristics is used. The effect of the robust EKF gain coefficient on SOC estimation is analyzed, and an optimized gain coefficient is determined to restrain battery terminal voltage from fluctuating. Experimental and simulation results are presented. SOC estimates using the standard EKF are compared with the proposed robust EKF algorithm to demonstrate the accuracy and precision of the latter for SOC estimation.

  14. A New Method for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Square Root Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is a key parameter for lithium-ion battery management systems. The square root cubature Kalman filter (SRCKF algorithm has been developed to estimate the SOC of batteries. SRCKF calculates 2n points that have the same weights according to cubature transform to approximate the mean of state variables. After these points are propagated by nonlinear functions, the mean and the variance of the capture can achieve third-order precision of the real values of the nonlinear functions. SRCKF directly propagates and updates the square root of the state covariance matrix in the form of Cholesky decomposition, guarantees the nonnegative quality of the covariance matrix, and avoids the divergence of the filter. Simulink models and the test bench of extended Kalman filter (EKF, Unscented Kalman filter (UKF, cubature Kalman filter (CKF and SRCKF are built. Three experiments have been carried out to evaluate the performances of the proposed methods. The results of the comparison of accuracy, robustness, and convergence rate with EKF, UKF, CKF and SRCKF are presented. Compared with the traditional EKF, UKF and CKF algorithms, the SRCKF algorithm is found to yield better SOC estimation accuracy, higher robustness and better convergence rate.

  15. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Fan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error.

  16. About the Territorial Potential of the Construction of Battery-Charging Stations for Autonomous Electric Motor Vehicles in the Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilova Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main current trends in the development of electric motor vehicles with "zero emission" as well as the battery-charging stations concerned. The study is based on a preliminary comparative analysis of the RF regions with respect to five indices (average per capita income, number of private cars in the region, air pollution level, provision of the region with power supply and the potential use of local renewable energy resources, and it gives some recommendations on the prospects of possible construction of battery-charging stations in the regions.

  17. State-of-charge inconsistency estimation of lithium-ion battery pack using mean-difference model and extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Gao, Wenkai; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Zhou, Long; Han, Xuebing

    2018-04-01

    State-of-charge (SOC) inconsistency impacts the power, durability and safety of the battery pack. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the SOC inconsistency of the battery pack with good accuracy. We explore a novel method for modeling and estimating the SOC inconsistency of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack with low computation effort. In this method, a second-order RC model is selected as the cell mean model (CMM) to represent the overall performance of the battery pack. A hypothetical Rint model is employed as the cell difference model (CDM) to evaluate the SOC difference. The parameters of mean-difference model (MDM) are identified with particle swarm optimization (PSO). Subsequently, the mean SOC and the cell SOC differences are estimated by using extended Kalman filter (EKF). Finally, we conduct an experiment on a small Li-ion battery pack with twelve cells connected in series. The results show that the evaluated SOC difference is capable of tracking the changing of actual value after a quick convergence.

  18. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV. The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identified and optimized using the numerically nonlinear least squares algorithm, based on an experimental data set. By means of the optimized model, an adaptive Luenberger observer is built to estimate online the SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack. The observer gain is adaptively adjusted using a stochastic gradient approach so as to reduce the error between the estimated battery output voltage and the filtered battery terminal voltage measurement. Validation results show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack without a heavy computational load.

  19. On the Static Accuracy of Charge-Discharge Units Intended for Electrical Tests of High Capacity Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Lobanov, D. K.; Kopylov, E. A.; Balakirev, R. V.; Fedchenko, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    Performing of the cycle testing according to the principles of Dynamic Stress Test can significantly reduce the overall time of development and production of batteries, which in turn allows reducing the cost of designing and testing of the spacecraft power systems. Performing of Dynamic Stress Test require special charge-discharge units that allows to perform a full cycle of electrical tests of batteries, including cyclic testing. Providing the required accuracy of measurement and stabilization of certain attributes of Li-ion battery operating modes is one of the problems that arise during thedevelopment of such charge-discharge units. The following attributes are of particular interest: charge and discharge currents, discharge powers, battery voltages. Analysis of the charge-discharge unit as a control system allows evaluating the steady-state stabilization error of the required attributes of the developed device. Moreover, using a digital integrator in the control system of the charge-discharge unit allows providing specified values of steady-state stabilization error of required attributes in different test modes.

  20. Development, modeling and research of the system of automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a hybrid engine of a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Sizov, Y.; Kim, M.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the topical problem of developing effective means of monitoring and leveling the charge state of batteries in a power unit of hybrid and electric cars. A system for automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a combined power plant, the originality of which is protected by the Russian Federation patent, is developed and described. A distinctive feature of the device is the possibility of using it both in conditions of charging (power consumption) and in operating conditions (energy recovery). The device is characterized by high reliability, simplicity of the circuit-making solution, low self-consumption and low cost. To test the efficiency of the proposed device, its computer simulation and experimental research were carried out. As a result of multi factorial experiment, a regression equation has been obtained which makes it possible to judge the high efficiency of detecting the degree of inhomogeneity of controlled batteries with respect to the parameters of an equivalent replacement circuit: voltage, internal resistance and capacitance in the magnitude of the obtained coefficients of influence of each of these factors, and also take into account the effects of their pair interactions.

  1. In-Use Fleet Evaluation of Fast-Charge Battery Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy; Leslie

    2016-06-27

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2015, NREL launched an in-service evaluation of 12 battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge BEBs and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation. To date, NREL researchers have analyzed more than 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. Foothill Transit purchased the BEBs with grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration's Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Program.

  2. DC Fast-Charging Stations for EVs Controlled by a Local Battery Storage in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    of EVs and their charging systems are going through a series of changes. This paper addresses the design of a new DC Fast Charging Station (DCFCS) for EVs coupled with a local Battery Energy Storage (BES) by using the IEC 15118, which provides a communication interface among different actors. DCFCS...... is equipped with a bidirectional AC/DC converter for feeding power back to the grid, two lithium batteries and a DC/DC converter. The proposed solution decreases the charging time of EVs and facilitates the integration of fast chargers in existing low voltage (LV) grids. The charging station can also be used...... as a multifunctional grid-utility for ancillary services such as primary frequency control, load levelling and congestion management....

  3. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  4. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process might be successfully approximated with both an exponential and the second order polynomial function. On all the occasions analyzed, values of the adjusted coefficient of determination were greater than 0.995. The charging process of the deeply discharged batteries was successfully approximated with the exponential function; the measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination being nearly 0.95. Apart from the high measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination, polynomial approximations of the second and third order did not provide satisfactory results regarding the interpolation of the battery charging characteristics. A possibility for a practical implementation of the procured regression functions in uninterruptible power supply systems was described.

  5. Power system operation with battery charge/discharge scheduling based on interval analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Masuta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of photovoltaic (PV generation forecasts in economic load dispatching control, which includes the unit commitment of conventional power plants, is essential to ensure the economic performance and the reliability of power systems. In the previous study, we developed a day-ahead charge and discharge scheduling method of battery energy storage systems based on interval analysis using prediction intervals of a PV generation forecast; this interval forecast considers forecast errors and gives not only the forecasted output but also the possible range of the actual output with a certain confidence. In this study, we evaluate the proposed scheduling method by numerical simulations in terms of the power system supply and demand operation.

  6. State of charge classification for lithium-ion batteries using impedance based features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Felder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the electrification of the drive train of passenger cars takes place, and the task of obtaining precise knowledge about the condition of the on board batteries gains importance. Due to a flat open circuit voltage (OCV to state of charge (SoC characteristic of lithium ion batteries, methods employed in applications with other cell chemistries cannot be adapted. Exploiting the higher significance of the impedance for state estimation for that chemistry, new impedance based features are proposed by this work. To evaluate the suitability of these features, simulations have been conducted using a simplified on-board power supply net as excitation source. The simulation outcome has been investigated regarding the cross correlation factor rxy and in a polynomial regression scenario. The results of the simulations show a best case error below 1 % SoC, which is 3 percentage points lower than using terminal voltage and impedance. When increasing the measurement uncertainty, the difference remains around 2 percent points.

  7. A Novel Active Online State of Charge Based Balancing Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs during Fast Charging Process in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudong Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-uniformity of Lithium-ion cells in a battery pack is inevitable and has become the bottleneck to the pack capacity, especially in the fast charging process. Therefore, a balancing approach is essentially required. This paper proposes an active online cell balancing approach in a fast charging process using the state of charge (SOC as balancing criterion. The goal of this approach is to complete pack balancing within the limited charging time. An adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF is applied to estimate the pack cell SOC during the charging process to obtain accurate results under modeling errors and measurement noises. To implement the proposed AEKF, only one additional current sensor is required to obtain the current of each cell required for the SOC estimation. An experimental platform is established to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed balancing approach with the SOC as a balancing criterion can overcome the challenges of non-uniformity and flat voltage plateau and charge more capacity into a LiFePO4 battery pack than those with the terminal voltage as a balancing criterion in the fast charging process.

  8. Experiment and simulation of a LiFePO4 battery pack with a passive thermal management system using composite phase change material and graphite sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-02-01

    A passive thermal management system (TMS) for LiFePO4 battery modules using phase change material (PCM) as the heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise is developed. Expanded graphite matrix and graphite sheets are applied to compensate low thermal conductivity of PCM and improve temperature uniformity of the batteries. Constant current discharge and mixed charge-discharge duties were applied on battery modules with and without PCM on a battery thermal characteristics test platform. Experimental results show that PCM cooling significantly reduces the battery temperature rise during short-time intense use. It is also found that temperature uniformity across the module deteriorates with the increasing of both discharge time and current rates. The maximum temperature differences at the end of 1C and 2C-rate discharges are both less than 5 °C, indicating a good performance in battery thermal uniformity of the passive TMS. Experiments on warm-keeping performance show that the passive TMS can effectively keep the battery within its optimum operating temperature for a long time during cold weather uses. A three dimensional numerical model of the battery pack with the passive TMS was conducted using ANSYS Fluent. Temperature profiles with respect to discharging time reveal that simulation shows good agreement with experiment at 1C-discharge rate.

  9. Online model-based estimation of state-of-charge and open-circuit voltage of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongwen; Zhang, Xiaowei; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Yongli; Guo, Hongqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of a lithium-ion battery, based on an online identification of its open-circuit voltage (OCV), according to the battery’s intrinsic relationship between the SOC and the OCV for application in electric vehicles. Firstly an equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is employed modeling the polarization characteristic and the dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery, the corresponding equations are built to describe its electric behavior and a recursive function is deduced for the online identification of the OCV, which is implemented by a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with an optimal forgetting factor. The models with different RC networks are evaluated based on the terminal voltage comparisons between the model-based simulation and the experiment. Then the OCV-SOC lookup table is built based on the experimental data performed by a linear interpolation of the battery voltages at the same SOC during two consecutive discharge and charge cycles. Finally a verifying experiment is carried out based on nine Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedules. It indicates that the proposed method can ensure an acceptable accuracy of SOC estimation for online application with a maximum error being less than 5.0%. -- Highlights: ► An equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is built for lithium-ion batteries. ► A recursive function is deduced for the online estimation of the model parameters like OCV and R O . ► The relationship between SOC and OCV is built with a linear interpolation method by experiments. ► The experiments show the online model-based SOC estimation is reasonable with enough accuracy.

  10. Semiconduction properties of some polyene-iodine charge-transfer complexes and their application in solid-state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S.; Pal, P.; Misra, T.N. (Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Spectroscopy)

    1993-03-01

    The conjugated polyenes [beta]-carotene, lutein, retinoic acid and [beta]-apo-8'-carotenal are shown to form charge-transfer (CT) complexes with the electron acceptor iodine. The conductivity increases by several orders of magnitude and the activation energy decreases on CT complex formation. Using these complexes as cathodic material, batteries with the configuration Mg/(polyene-iodine CT complex)/graphite are developed. Different battery parameters are evaluated. The effects of ambient temperature and humidity on battery performance are also studied. Results show that a [beta]-apo-8'-carotenal-1[sub 2] based battery has the maximum power density and longest self-life and is suitable for use as a micro-electronic gadget energizer. (author)

  11. Evolution of Surface Temperature of a 13 Amp Hour Nano Lithium-Titanate Battery Cell under Fast Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    is to study the surface temperature evolution of a 13 Ah Nano Lithium-Titanate battery cell for the usage of rechargeable energy storage system under fast charging conditions. The nominal voltage of the cell is 2.26V and the nominal capacity is 13.4 Ah. In this research, contact thermocouples were employed...

  12. Physical characterization of the charging process of a Li-ion battery and prediction of Li plating by electrochemical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, N.; Knosp, B.; Desprez, P.; Lapicque, F.; Raël, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with occurrence of lithium plating on the negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries, a significant ageing phenomenon known to damage lithium-ion battery performances. Charge transfer process, one of the two different steps of the process of Li insertion in the negative active material being the cause of this ageing, was considered here to be the limiting process. This transfer occurs at short-time scales. The second process, the diffusion of lithium in the solid insertion compound, occurring at relatively long-time scales, has not been fully examined here. The aim of this paper was to develop a new method to evaluate the maximal rate of a charge pulse solicitation to prevent this ageing phenomenon. The approach relies on the use of a fundamental model of lithium ion battery with coupled mass and charge transfer. To validate the method, 2 s microcycles have been performed on a commercial VL41M SAFT cell. Theoretical and experimental works led to the maximum current density to be applied without undesired Li deposition, depending on the state of charge (SOC). The abacus established for the cell of interest can orient further specifications for suitable use of the battery.

  13. Charge Management in LISA Pathfinder: The Continuous Discharging Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Becca Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Test mass charging is a significant source of excess force and force noise in LISA Pathfinder (LPF). The planned design scheme for mitigation of charge induced force noise in LISA is a continuous discharge by UV light illumination. We report on analysis of a charge management experiment on-board LPF conducted during December 2016. We discuss the measurement of test mass charging noise with and without continuous UV illumination, in addition to the dynamic response in the continuous discharge scheme. Results of the continuous discharge system will be discussed for their application to operating LISA with lower test mass charge.

  14. A contact-less method to evaluate the state of charge of nickel batteries using Foucault's eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, V.; Metrot, A.; Willmann, P.

    A nickel hydroxide electrode and a commercial battery have been studied by a new and contact-less impedance method, based on Foucault's eddy currents, with the aim of determining their state of charge. Four different current line distributions have been employed and the impedance versus time graphs obtained show a linear variation of this impedance during charge and discharge for all configurations. This new method allows the determination of the state of charge and, furthermore some "artifacts" obvious on these graphs may be useful to detect a deterioration of the studied material.

  15. Charge Equalization Controller Algorithm for Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems: Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an accurate model of a charge equalization controller (CEC that manages individual cell monitoring and equalizing by charging and discharging series-connected lithium-ion (Li-ion battery cells. In this concept, an intelligent control algorithm is developed to activate bidirectional cell switches and control direct current (DC–DC converter switches along with pulse width modulation (PWM generation. Individual models of an electric vehicle (EV-sustainable Li-ion battery, optimal power rating, a bidirectional flyback DC–DC converter, and charging and discharging controllers are integrated to develop a small-scale CEC model that can be implemented for 10 series-connected Li-ion battery cells. Results show that the charge equalization controller operates at 91% efficiency and performs well in equalizing both overdischarged and overcharged cells on time. Moreover, the outputs of the CEC model show that the desired balancing level occurs at 2% of state of charge difference and that all cells are operated within a normal range. The configuration, execution, control, power loss, cost, size, and efficiency of the developed CEC model are compared with those of existing controllers. The proposed model is proven suitable for high-tech storage systems toward the advancement of sustainable EV technologies and renewable source of applications.

  16. Développement d'un régulateur de charge / décharge de batterie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we present the development work of a 24 V or 12 V battery regulator in a low power wind system. This regulator allows battery protection from overcharging and deep discharging. In addition, it makes to protect the wind mill against the strong winds. It is controlled by microcontroller PIC 16F778A. This function ...

  17. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Y Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind power producers can schedule the battery energy storage for the next day in order to maximize the profit. In addition, by taking into account the expenses of using batteries, the proposed charging/discharging scheme is able to avoid the detrimental operation of battery energy storage which can lead to a significant reduction of battery lifetime, i.e., uneconomical operation. The problem is formulated in a dynamic programming framework and solved by a dynamic programming backward algorithm. The proposed scheme is then applied to the study cases, and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  18. Estimating Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge and Parameters Using a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Diab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time determination of battery parameters is challenging because batteries are non-linear, time-varying systems. The transient behaviour of lithium-ion batteries is modelled by a Thevenin-equivalent circuit with two time constants characterising activation and concentration polarization. An experimental approach is proposed for directly determining battery parameters as a function of physical quantities. The model’s parameters are a function of the state of charge and of the discharge rate. These can be expressed by regression equations in the model to derive a continuous-discrete extended Kalman estimator of the state of charge and of other parameters. This technique is based on numerical integration of the ordinary differential equations to predict the state of the stochastic dynamic system and the corresponding error covariance matrix. Then a standard correction step of the extended Kalman filter (EKF is applied to increase the accuracy of estimated parameters. Simulations resulting from this proposed estimator model were compared with experimental results under a variety of operating scenarios—analysis of the results demonstrate the accuracy of the estimator for correctly identifying battery parameters.

  19. Failure mode of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries under high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Haigh, N. P.; Phyland, C. G.; Urban, A. J.

    Within the next decade, there will be major changes in automotive technology with the introduction of several new features which will increase significantly the on-board power requirements. This high power demand is beyond the capability of present 14 V alternators and thus a 42 V power network is to be adopted. The new 'PowerNet' requires the lead-acid battery to be capable of providing a large number of shallow discharge-charge cycles at a high rate. High-rate discharge is necessary for engine cranking and power assist, while high-rate charge is associated with regenerative braking. The battery will operate at these high rates in a partial-state-of-charge condition, so-called HRPSoC duty. Under simulated HRPSoC duty, it is found that the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery fails prematurely due to the progressive accumulation of lead sulfate mainly on the surfaces of the negative plates. This is because the lead sulfate cannot be converted efficiently back to sponge lead during charging either from the engine or from regenerative braking. Eventually, the layer of lead sulfate develops to such extent that the effective surface area of the plate is reduced markedly and the plate can no longer deliver the high cranking-current demanded by the automobile. A mechanistic analysis of battery operation during HRPSoC duty shows that high-rate discharge is the key factor responsible for the build-up of the lead sulfate layer. Such discharge causes a compact layer of tiny lead sulfate crystals to form on the surface of the negative plate and subsequent charging gives rise to an early evolution of hydrogen. Hydrogen evolution is further exacerbated when a high charging current is used.

  20. Online Identification with Reliability Criterion and State of Charge Estimation Based on a Fuzzy Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of state of charge (SOC estimation, the Kalman filter has been widely used for many years, although its performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the battery model as well as the noise covariance. The Kalman gain determines the confidence coefficient of the battery model by adjusting the weight of open circuit voltage (OCV correction, and has a strong correlation with the measurement noise covariance (R. In this paper, the online identification method is applied to acquire the real model parameters under different operation conditions. A criterion based on the OCV error is proposed to evaluate the reliability of online parameters. Besides, the equivalent circuit model produces an intrinsic model error which is dependent on the load current, and the property that a high battery current or a large current change induces a large model error can be observed. Based on the above prior knowledge, a fuzzy model is established to compensate the model error through updating R. Combining the positive strategy (i.e., online identification and negative strategy (i.e., fuzzy model, a more reliable and robust SOC estimation algorithm is proposed. The experiment results verify the proposed reliability criterion and SOC estimation method under various conditions for LiFePO4 batteries.

  1. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  2. Transportation Safety of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries - A Feasibility Study of Storing at Very Low States of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Chevalier, Julie; Chouchelamane, Gael H; McGordon, Andrew; Low, John; Jennings, Paul

    2017-07-11

    In freight classification, lithium-ion batteries are classed as dangerous goods and are therefore subject to stringent regulations and guidelines for certification for safe transport. One such guideline is the requirement for batteries to be at a state of charge of 30%. Under such conditions, a significant amount of the battery's energy is stored; in the event of mismanagement, or indeed an airside incident, this energy can lead to ignition and a fire. In this work, we investigate the effect on the battery of removing 99.1% of the total stored energy. The performance of 8Ah C 6 /LiFePO 4 pouch cells were measured following periods of calendar ageing at low voltages, at and well below the manufacturer's recommended value. Battery degradation was monitored using impedance spectroscopy and capacity tests; the results show that the cells stored at 2.3 V exhibited no change in cell capacity after 90 days; resistance rise was negligible. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that there was no significant copper dissolution. To test the safety of the batteries at low voltages, external short-circuit tests were performed on the cells. While the cells discharged to 2.3 V only exhibited a surface temperature rise of 6 °C, cells at higher voltages exhibited sparks, fumes and fire.

  3. Rapid Estimation Method for State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Continual Variable Order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the fractional order model has been employed to state of charge (SOC estimation. The non integer differentiation order being expressed as a function of recursive factors defining the fractality of charge distribution on porous electrodes. The battery SOC affects the fractal dimension of charge distribution, therefore the order of the fractional order model varies with the SOC at the same condition. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the SOC. A fractional continuous variable order model is used to characterize the fractal morphology of charge distribution. The order identification results showed that there is a stable monotonic relationship between the fractional order and the SOC after the battery inner electrochemical reaction reaches balanced. This feature makes the proposed model particularly suitable for SOC estimation when the battery is in the resting state. Moreover, a fast iterative method based on the proposed model is introduced for SOC estimation. The experimental results showed that the proposed iterative method can quickly estimate the SOC by several iterations while maintaining high estimation accuracy.

  4. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  5. A data-driven based adaptive state of charge estimator of lithium-ion polymer battery used in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Rui; Sun, Fengchun; Gong, Xianzhi; Gao, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A lumped parameter battery model against different battery aging levels is proposed. • The RLS based method is used to identify the parameter of battery model in real-time. • A data-driven based adaptive SoC estimator is developed by RLS and AEKF algorithm. • The robustness of the SoC estimator against varying loading profiles is evaluated. • The robustness of the SoC estimator against different aging levels is evaluated. - Abstract: An accurate State of Charge (SoC) estimation method is one of the most significant and difficult techniques to promote the commercialization of electric vehicles. The paper attempts to make three contributions. (1) Through the recursive least square algorithm based identification method, the parameter of the lumped parameter battery model can be updated at each sampling interval with the real-time measurement of battery current and voltage, which is called the data-driven method. Note that the battery model has been improved with a simple electrochemical equation for describing the open circuit voltage against different aging levels and SoC. (2) Through the real-time updating technique of model parameter, a data-driven based adaptive SoC estimator is established with an adaptive extended Kalman filter. It has the potential to overcome the estimation error against battery degradation and varied operating environments. (3) The approach has been verified by different loading profiles of various health states of Lithium-ion polymer battery (LiPB) cells. The results indicate that the maximum estimation errors of voltage and SoC are less than 1% and 1.5% respectively

  6. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Samaras, Constantine; Hauffe, Richard; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  7. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...... module is established based on the relationship between SOC (State of Charge) and OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) which is obtained from the battery charge and discharge test curves. A hierarchical control structure is proposed to realize different operating modes. The decoupled current control scheme...

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Novel DC Fast-Charging Station with a Local Battery Storage for EVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    models by increasing the size of the batteries. To satisfy EV load demand of the new EV models in urban areas the public DC Fast-Charging Station (DCFCS) is indispensable to recharge EVs rapidly. The introduction of the Battery Energy Storage within the DCFCSs is considered in this paper an alternative...... and decrease the connection fees. Finally, an economic evaluation is done to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the DCFCSs. The proposed approach considers various technical and economic issues, such as cost of installation, connection fees and life cycle cost of the batteries....... The proposed cost-benefit analysis can be used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of DCFCS in large scale....

  9. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status. PMID:26911922

  10. On-board adaptive model for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on Kalman filter with proportional integral-based error adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of battery-powered electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery plays a critical role in the reliability of vehicle system. In order to provide timely management and protection for battery systems, it is necessary to develop a reliable battery model and accurate battery parameters estimation to describe battery dynamic behaviors. Therefore, this paper focuses on an on-board adaptive model for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a first-order equivalent circuit battery model is employed to describe battery dynamic characteristics. Then, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide good initial values of model parameters to ensure filter stability and reduce the convergence time. Thirdly, an extended-Kalman-filter (EKF) is applied to on-line estimate battery SOC and model parameters. Considering that the EKF is essentially a first-order Taylor approximation of battery model, which contains inevitable model errors, thus, a proportional integral-based error adjustment technique is employed to improve the performance of EKF method and correct model parameters. Finally, the experimental results on lithium-ion batteries indicate that the proposed EKF with proportional integral-based error adjustment method can provide robust and accurate battery model and on-line parameter estimation.

  11. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Malikova, V.; Weber, H.

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  12. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Charge-Discharge Cycles on Lithium Ion Batteries using 7Li Stray-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joel A.; Dugar, Sneha; Zhong, Guiming; Dalal, Naresh S.; Zheng, Jim P.; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive method for in situ monitoring of electrochemical processes involved in charge/discharge cycling of batteries. Determining how the electrochemical processes become irreversible, ultimately resulting in degraded battery performance, will aid in developing new battery materials and designing better batteries. Here we introduce the use of an alternative in situ diagnostic tool to monitor the electrochemical processes. Utilizing a very large field-gradient in the fringe field of a magnet, stray-field-imaging (STRAFI) technique significantly improves the image resolution. These STRAFI images enable the real time monitoring of the electrodes at a micron level. It is demonstrated by two prototype half-cells, graphite∥Li and LiFePO4∥Li, that the high-resolution 7Li STRAFI profiles allow one to visualize in situ Li-ions transfer between the electrodes during charge/discharge cyclings as well as the formation and changes of irreversible microstructures of the Li components, and particularly reveal a non-uniform Li-ion distribution in the graphite. PMID:24005580

  13. A PSO-Optimized Fuzzy Logic Control-Based Charging Method for Individual Household Battery Storage Systems within a Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-consumption of household photovoltaic (PV storage systems has become profitable for residential owners under the trends of limited feed-in power and decreasing PV feed-in tariffs. For individual PV-storage systems, the challenge mainly lies in managing surplus generation of battery and grid power flow, ideally without relying on error-prone forecasts for both generation and consumption. Considering the large variation in power profiles of different houses in a neighborhood, the strategy is also supposed to be beneficial and applicable for the entire community. In this study, an adaptable battery charging control strategy is designed in order to obtain minimum costs for houses without any meteorological or load forecasts. Based on fuzzy logic control (FLC, battery state-of-charge (SOC and the variation of SOC (∆SOC are taken as input variables to dynamically determine output charging power with minimum costs. The proposed FLC-based algorithm benefits from the charging battery as much as possible during the daytime, and meanwhile properly preserves the capacity at midday when there is high possibility of curtailment loss. In addition, due to distinct power profiles in each individual house, input membership functions of FLC are improved by particle swarm optimization (PSO to achieve better overall performance. A neighborhood with 74 houses in Germany is set up as a scenario for comparison to prior studies. Without forecasts of generation and consumption power, the proposed method leads to minimum costs in 98.6% of houses in the community, and attains the lowest average expenses for a single house each year.

  14. Charge mechanism analysis of lithium ion secondary battery. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubobuchi, Kei; Imai, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Redox reaction behaviors of a lithium ion secondary battery were investigated by K-edge in-situ XANES and L-edge XANES measurements combined with ab initio XANES simulation. During the charge process, the shape of K-edge XANES spectra was found to change, suggesting contribution of Mn 3d electron to charge and discharge. The detailed analysis based on first-principles electronic structure calculation and ab initio XANES simulation, however, indicated that valence change of Mn is little and rather O largely contribute to the reaction. (author)

  15. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  16. A novel multi-model probability battery state of charge estimation approach for electric vehicles using H-infinity algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng; Mu, Hao; Xiong, Rui; Shen, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-model probability battery SOC fusion estimation approach was proposed. • The linear matrix inequality-based H∞ technique is employed to estimate the SOC. • The Bayes theorem has been employed to realize the optimal weight for the fusion. • The robustness of the proposed approach is verified by different batteries. • The results show that the proposed method can promote global estimation accuracy. - Abstract: Due to the strong nonlinearity and complex time-variant property of batteries, the existing state of charge (SOC) estimation approaches based on a single equivalent circuit model (ECM) cannot provide the accurate SOC for the entire discharging period. This paper aims to present a novel SOC estimation approach based on a multiple ECMs fusion method for improving the practical application performance. In the proposed approach, three battery ECMs, namely the Thevenin model, the double polarization model and the 3rd order RC model, are selected to describe the dynamic voltage of lithium-ion batteries and the genetic algorithm is then used to determine the model parameters. The linear matrix inequality-based H-infinity technique is employed to estimate the SOC from the three models and the Bayes theorem-based probability method is employed to determine the optimal weights for synthesizing the SOCs estimated from the three models. Two types of lithium-ion batteries are used to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the accuracy and reliability of the SOC estimation against uncertain battery materials and inaccurate initial states.

  17. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries using the open-circuit voltage at various ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Yinjiao; He, Wei; Pecht, Michael; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An offline OCV–SOC–temperature table was established to infer battery SOC. • A temperature-based model was developed to estimate SOC at different temperatures. • The algorithm for SOC estimation was verified by dynamic current load. • The robustness of the approach was validated by different initial SOC values. - Abstract: Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the accuracy of battery SOC estimation, which is critical for remaining driving range prediction of electric vehicles (EVs) and optimal charge/discharge control of batteries. A widely used method to estimate SOC is based on an online inference of open-circuit voltage (OCV). However, the fact that the OCV–SOC is dependent on ambient temperature can result in errors in battery SOC estimation. To address this problem, this paper presents an SOC estimation approach based on a temperature-based model incorporated with an OCV–SOC–temperature table. The unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) was applied to tune the model parameters at each sampling step to cope with various uncertainties arising from the operation environment, cell-to-cell variation, and modeling inaccuracy. Two dynamic tests, the dynamic stress test (DST) and the federal urban driving schedule (FUDS), were used to test batteries at different temperatures. Then, DST was used to identify the model parameters while FUDS was used to validate the performance of the SOC estimation. The estimation was made covering the major working range from 25% to 85% SOC. The results indicated that our method can provide accurate SOC estimation with smaller root mean squared errors than the method that does not take into account ambient temperature. Thus, our approach is effective and accurate when battery operates at different ambient temperatures. Since the developed method takes into account the temperature factor as well as the complexity of the model, it could be effectively applied in battery management systems for

  18. High-Capacity Sodium Peroxide Based NaO2 Batteries with Low Charge Overpotential via a Nanostructured Catalytic Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lu; Zhang, Dongzhou [Partnership; Lei, Yu [Department; Yuan, Yifei; Wu, Tianpin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2018-01-05

    The superoxide based Na-O-2 battery has circumvented the issue of large charge overpotential in Li-O-2 batteries; however, the one-electron process leads to limited capacity. Herein, a sodium peroxide based low-overpotential (similar to 0.5 V) Na-O-2 battery with a capacity as high as 7.5 mAh/cm(2) is developed with Pd nanoparticles as catalysts on the cathode.

  19. A combination Kalman filter approach for State of Charge estimation of lithium-ion battery considering model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanwen; Wang, Chao; Gong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation plays an important role in battery electric vehicles. This paper makes two contributions to the existing literature. (1) A recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor has been presented to update the model parameters close to the real value more quickly. (2) The statistical information of the innovation sequence obeying chi-square distribution has been introduced to identify model uncertainty, and a novel combination algorithm of strong tracking unscented Kalman filter and adaptive unscented Kalman filter has been developed to estimate SOC (State of Charge). Experimental results indicate that the novel algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery SOC against initial SOC errors and voltage sensor drift. A comparison with the unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms and adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed SOC estimation method has better accuracy, robustness and convergence behavior. - Highlights: • Recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor is presented. • The innovation obeying chi-square distribution is used to identify uncertainty. • A combination Karman filter approach for State of Charge estimation is presented. • The performance of the proposed method is verified by comparison results.

  20. Fading Kalman filter-based real-time state of charge estimation in LiFePO4 battery-powered electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, KaiChin; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Duong, Van-Huan; See, Khay Wai; Zhang, Peng; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time battery model parameters and SoC estimation with novel method is proposed. • Cascading filtering stages are used for parameters identification and SoC estimation. • Optimized fading Kalman filter is implemented for SoC estimation. • Accurate SoC estimation is validated in UDDS load profile experiment. • This approach is suitable for BMS in EV applications due to its simplicity. - Abstract: A novel online estimation technique for estimating the state of charge (SoC) of a lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) battery has been developed. Based on a simplified model, the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery is estimated through two cascaded linear filtering stages. A recursive least squares filter is employed in the first stage to dynamically estimate the battery model parameters in real-time, and then, a fading Kalman filter (FKF) is used to estimate the OCV from these parameters. FKF can avoid the possibility of large estimation errors, which may occur with a conventional Kalman filter, due to its capability to compensate any modeling error through a fading factor. By optimizing the value of the fading factor in the set of recursion equations of FKF with genetic algorithms, the errors in estimating the battery’s SoC in urban dynamometer driving schedules-based experiments and real vehicle driving cycle experiments were below 3% compared to more than 9% in the case of using an ordinary Kalman filter. The proposed method with its simplified model provides the simplicity and feasibility required for real-time application with highly accurate SoC estimation.

  1. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g?1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposit...

  2. Experiments with Charge Indicator Based on Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Leos; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors described recently enables us to perform a number of experiments suitable for high-school physics. Several such experiments are presented and discussed in this paper as well as some features of the indicator important for its use in schools, namely its sensitivity and robustness, i.e. the…

  3. Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.

  4. A novel thermal management system for improving discharge/charge performance of Li-ion battery packs under abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shashank; Kapoor, Ajay; Shen, Weixiang

    2018-02-01

    Parasitic load, which describes electrical energy consumed by battery thermal management system (TMS), is an important design criterion for battery packs. Passive TMSs using phase change materials (PCMs) are thus generating much interest. However, PCMs suffer from low thermal conductivities. Most current thermal conductivity enhancement techniques involve addition of foreign particles to PCMs. Adding foreign particles increases effective thermal conductivity of PCM-systems but at expense of their latent heat capacity. This paper presents an alternate approach for improving thermal performance of PCM-based TMSs. The introduced technique involves placing battery cells in a vertically inverted position within the battery-pack. It is demonstrated through experiments that inverted cell-layout facilitates build-up of convection current in the pack, which in turn minimises thermal variations within the PCM matrix by enabling PCM mass transfer between the top and the bottom regions of the battery pack. The proposed system is found capable of maintaining tight control over battery cell temperature even during abusive usage, defined as high-rate repetitive cycling with minimal rest periods. In addition, this novel TMS can recover waste heat from PCM-matrix through thermoelectric devices, thereby resulting in a negative parasitic load for TMS.

  5. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    The primary focus of this work has been to develop high-energy capacity batteries capable of undergoing multiple electron charge transfer redox reactions to address the growing demand for improved electrical energy storage systems that can be applied to a range of applications. As the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the Earth's atmosphere, the effects on climate change become increasingly apparent. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. electric power sector is responsible for the release of 2,039 million metric tons of CO2 annually, equating to 39% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Both nationally and abroad, there are numerous issues associated with the generation and use of electricity aside from the overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels and the subsequent carbon emissions, including reliability of the grid and the utilization of renewable energies. Renewable energy makes up a relatively small portion of total energy contributions worldwide, accounting for only 13% of the 3,955 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity produced each year, as reported by the EIA. As the demand to reduce our dependence on fossils fuels and transition to renewable energy sources increases, cost effective large-scale electrical energy storage must be established for renewable energy to become a sustainable option for the future. A high capacity energy storage system capable of leveling the intermittent nature of energy sources such as solar, wind, and water into the electric grid and provide electricity at times of high demand will facilitate this transition. In 2008, the Licht Group presented the highest volumetric energy capacity battery, the vanadium diboride (VB2) air battery, exceedingly proficient in transferring eleven electrons per molecule. This body of work focuses on new developments to this early battery such as fundamentally understanding the net discharge mechanism of the system, evaluation of the properties and

  6. Battery Failure on the Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bromaghim, Daron

    2001-01-01

    .... Although a final cause of the battery failure was not definitized, the data collected on-orbit, from ground tests, and from previous programs suggest a combination of effects that ultimately led...

  7. A model-based adaptive state of charge estimator for a lithium-ion battery using an improved adaptive particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Min; Guo, Hui; Cao, Binggang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved adaptive particle swarm filter method. • The SoC estimation method for the battery based on the adaptive particle swarm filter is presented. • The algorithm is validated by the case study of different aged extent batteries. • The effectiveness and applicability of the algorithm are validated by the LiPB batteries. - Abstract: Obtaining accurate parameters, state of charge (SoC) and capacity of a lithium-ion battery is crucial for a battery management system, and establishing a battery model online is complex. In addition, the errors and perturbations of the battery model dramatically increase throughout the battery lifetime, making it more challenging to model the battery online. To overcome these difficulties, this paper provides three contributions: (1) To improve the robustness of the adaptive particle filter algorithm, an error analysis method is added to the traditional adaptive particle swarm algorithm. (2) An online adaptive SoC estimator based on the improved adaptive particle filter is presented; this estimator can eliminate the estimation error due to battery degradation and initial SoC errors. (3) The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using various initial states of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cells and lithium-ion polymer (LiPB) batteries. The experimental analysis shows that the maximum errors are less than 1% for both the voltage and SoC estimations and that the convergence time of the SoC estimation decreased to 120 s.

  8. A Novel Methodology for Estimating State-Of-Charge of Li-Ion Batteries Using Advanced Parameters Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Safwat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available State-of-charge (SOC estimations of Li-ion batteries have been the focus of many research studies in previous years. Many articles discussed the dynamic model’s parameters estimation of the Li-ion battery, where the fixed forgetting factor recursive least square estimation methodology is employed. However, the change rate of each parameter to reach the true value is not taken into consideration, which may tend to poor estimation. This article discusses this issue, and proposes two solutions to solve it. The first solution is the usage of a variable forgetting factor instead of a fixed one, while the second solution is defining a vector of forgetting factors, which means one factor for each parameter. After parameters estimation, a new idea is proposed to estimate state-of-charge (SOC of the Li-ion battery based on Newton’s method. Also, the error percentage and computational cost are discussed and compared with that of nonlinear Kalman filters. This methodology is applied on a 36 V 30 A Li-ion pack to validate this idea.

  9. Multi-step constant-current charging method for electric vehicle, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries during night time for load-levelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power, Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power, Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power, Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power, Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power, Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power, Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power, Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the popularization of electric vehicles (EVs), the conditions for charging EV batteries with available current patterns should allow complete charging in a short time, i.e., less than 5 to 8 h. Therefore, in this study, a new charging condition is investigated for the EV valve-regulated lead/acid battery system, which should allow complete charging of EV battery systems with multi-step constant currents in a much shorter time with longer cycle life and higher energy efficiency compared with two-step constant-current charging. Although a high magnitude of the first current in the two-step constant-current method prolongs cycle life by suppressing the softening of positive active material, too large a charging current magnitude degrades cells due to excess internal evolution of heat. A charging current magnitude of approximately 0.5 C is expected to prolong cycle life further. Three-step charging could also increase the magnitude of charging current in the first step without shortening cycle life. Four-or six-step constant-current methods could shorten the charging time to less than 5 h, as well as yield higher energy efficiency and enhanced cycle life of over 400 cycles compared with two-step charging with the first step current of 0.5 C. Investigation of the degradation mechanism of the batteries revealed that the conditions of multi-step constant-current charging suppressed softening of positive active material and sulfation of negative active material, but, unfortunately, advanced the corrosion of the grids in the positive plates. By adopting improved grids and cooling of the battery system, the multistep constant-current method may enhance the cycle life. (orig.)

  10. Internal potential mapping of charged solid-state-lithium ion batteries using in situ Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hideki; Ishida, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Yoichiro; Ito, Daigo; Fujita, Daisuke

    2017-01-05

    Solid-state-lithium ion batteries (SS-LIBs) are a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage devices. Novel methods for characterizing electrochemical reactions occurring during battery operation at the nanoscale are highly required for understanding the fundamental working principle and improving the performance of the devices. In this work, we combined Ar ion milling under non-atmospheric conditions with in situ cross-sectional Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) for direct imaging of the internal electrical potential distribution of the SS-LIBs. We succeeded in the direct visualization of the change in the potential distribution of a cathode composite electrode (a mixture of the active materials, solid electrolytes, and conductive additives) arising from battery charging (electrochemical reaction). The observed results provided several insights into battery operation, such as the behavior of Li ions and inhomogeneity of electrochemical reactions in the electrode. Our method paves the way to characterize the fundamental aspects of SS-LIBs for the improvement of device performance, including the evaluation of the distribution of the Li ion depleted regions, visualization of the conductive paths, and analysis of the cause of degradation.

  11. A New Method for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Strong Tracking Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of state of charge (SOC is a crucial evaluation index in a battery management system (BMS. The value of SOC indicates the remaining capacity of a battery, which provides a good guarantee of safety and reliability of battery operation. It is difficult to get an accurate value of the SOC, being one of the inner states. In this paper, a strong tracking cubature Kalman filter (STCKF based on the cubature Kalman filter is presented to perform accurate and reliable SOC estimation. The STCKF algorithm can adjust gain matrix online by introducing fading factor to the state estimation covariance matrix. The typical second-order resistor-capacitor model is used as the battery’s equivalent circuit model to dynamically simulate characteristics of the battery. The exponential-function fitting method accomplishes the task of relevant parameters identification. Then, the developed STCKF algorithm has been introduced in detail and verified under different operation current profiles such as Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. Making a comparison with extended Kalman filter (EKF and CKF algorithm, the experimental results show the merits of the STCKF algorithm in SOC estimation accuracy and robustness.

  12. A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Gong, Xianzhi; Mi, Chunting Chris; Sun, Fengchun

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven based approach for the estimation of the state of charge (SoC) of multiple types of lithium ion battery (LiB) cells with adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF). A modified second-order RC network based battery model is employed for the state estimation. Based on the battery model and experimental data, the SoC variation per mV voltage for different types of battery chemistry is analyzed and the parameters are identified. The AEKF algorithm is then employed to achieve accurate data-driven based SoC estimation, and the multi-parameter, closed loop feedback system is used to achieve robustness. The accuracy and convergence of the proposed approach is analyzed for different types of LiB cells, including convergence behavior of the model with a large initial SoC error. The results show that the proposed approach has good accuracy for different types of LiB cells, especially for C/LFP LiB cell that has a flat open circuit voltage (OCV) curve. The experimental results show good agreement with the estimation results with maximum error being less than 3%.

  13. Understanding colloidal charge renormalization from surface chemistry: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, T.; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, M.; Sticher, H.; Schurtenberger, P.; D'Aguanno, B.; Klein, R.

    1994-12-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stern capacitance) are determined from fits of a Stern layer model to the titration data. We find strong evidence that the dissociation of protons is the only specific adsorption process. Effective particle charges are determined by fits of integral equation calculations of the polydisperse static structure factor to the static light scattering data. A generalization of the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model including the dissociation of the acidic surface groups and the autodissociation of water is used to predict effective particle charges from the surface chemical parameters determined by the titration experiments. We find that the light scattering data are best described by a model where a small fraction of the ionizable surface sites are sulfate groups which are completely dissociated at moderate pH. These effective charges are comparable to the predictions by a basic cell model where charge regulation is absent.

  14. Proton Charge Radius (PRad) Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C.; Gao, H.

    2016-03-01

    The puzzle of proton charge radius was recently raised by the measurement of muonic hydrogen Lamb shift at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), whose results were seven standard deviations smaller than the CODATA recommended value. To investigate this discrepancy, the PRad experiment was proposed and approved at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The experiment will extract the proton charge radius with a sub-percent accuracy by measuring the cross-sections of unpolarized electronproton elastic scattering in an unprecedented low Q2 region (2×10-4 GeV2/c2).

  15. Proton Charge Radius (PRad Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The puzzle of proton charge radius was recently raised by the measurement of muonic hydrogen Lamb shift at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, whose results were seven standard deviations smaller than the CODATA recommended value. To investigate this discrepancy, the PRad experiment was proposed and approved at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab. The experiment will extract the proton charge radius with a sub-percent accuracy by measuring the cross-sections of unpolarized electronproton elastic scattering in an unprecedented low Q2 region (2×10−4 GeV2/c2.

  16. Electrostatic Model Applied to ISS Charged Water Droplet Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Daan; Schaub, Hanspeter; Pettit, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatic force can be used to create novel relative motion between charged bodies if it can be isolated from the stronger gravitational and dissipative forces. Recently, Coulomb orbital motion was demonstrated on the International Space Station by releasing charged water droplets in the vicinity of a charged knitting needle. In this investigation, the Multi-Sphere Method, an electrostatic model developed to study active spacecraft position control by Coulomb charging, is used to simulate the complex orbital motion of the droplets. When atmospheric drag is introduced, the simulated motion closely mimics that seen in the video footage of the experiment. The electrostatic force's inverse dependency on separation distance near the center of the needle lends itself to analytic predictions of the radial motion.

  17. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  18. Patient experiences with involuntary out-of-network charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyanko, Kelly A; Pong, Denise D; Bahan, Kathleen; Curry, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    Approximately 40 percent of individuals using out-of-network physicians experience involuntary out-of-network care, leading to unexpected and sometimes burdensome financial charges. Despite its prevalence, research on patient experiences with involuntary out-of-network care is limited. Greater understanding of patient experiences may inform policy solutions to address this issue. To characterize the experiences of patients who encountered involuntary out-of-network physician charges. Qualitative study using 26 in-depth telephone interviews with a semi-structured interview guide. Participants were a purposeful sample of privately insured adults from across the United States who experienced involuntary out-of-network care. They were diverse with regard to income level, education, and health status. Recurrent themes were generated using the constant comparison method of data analysis by a multidisciplinary team. Four themes characterize the perspective of individuals who experienced involuntary out-of-network physician charges: (1) responsibilities and mechanisms for determining network participation are not transparent; (2) physician procedures for billing and disclosure of physician out-of-network status are inconsistent; (3) serious illness requiring emergency care or hospitalization precludes ability to choose a physician or confirm network participation; and (4) resources for mediation of involuntary charges once they occur are not available. Our data reveal that patient education may not be sufficient to reduce the prevalence and financial burden of involuntary out-of-network care. Participants described experiencing involuntary out-of-network health care charges due to system-level failures. As policy makers seek solutions, our findings suggest several potential areas of further consideration such as standardization of processes to disclose that a physician is out-of-network, holding patients harmless not only for out-of-network emergency room care but also for

  19. The correlation of the properties of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolytes with the discharge-charge performances of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhonglin; Duan, Donghong; Sun, Yanbo; Wei, Guoqiang; Hao, Xiaogang; Liu, Shibin; Han, Yunxia; Meng, Weijuan

    2016-10-01

    Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs), such as PYR13TFSI, PYR14TFSI, and PYR1(2O1)TFSI, exhibit high thermal and electrochemical stability with wide electrochemical windows as electrolytes for application to rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, several fundamental properties of three ILs are measured: the ionic conductivity, oxygen solubility, and oxygen diffusion coefficient. The oxygen electro-reduction kinetics is characterized using cyclic voltammetry. The performances of Li-O2 batteries with these IL electrolytes are also investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results demonstrate that the PYR1(2O1)TFSI electrolyte battery has a higher first-discharge voltage than the PYR13TFSI electrolyte and PYR14TFSI electrolyte batteries. Both PYR13TFSI- and PYR1(2O1)TFSI-based batteries exhibit higher first-discharge capacities and better cycling stabilities than the PYR14TFSI-based battery for 30 cycles. A theoretical analysis of the experimental results shows that the diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in the electrolyte remarkably affect the discharge capacity and cycling stability of the batteries. Particularly, the oxygen diffusion coefficient of the IL electrolyte can effectively facilitate the electrochemical oxygen electro-reduction reaction and oxygen concentration distribution in the catalyst layers of air electrodes. The oxygen diffusion coefficient and oxygen solubility improvements of IL electrolytes can enhance the discharge-charge performances of Li-O2 batteries.

  20. Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Chaoui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS, along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC. Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.

  1. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling

  2. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling.

  3. An Adaptive Gain Nonlinear Observer for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of charge (SOC is important for the safety and reliability of battery operation since it indicates the remaining capacity of a battery. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC, because the SOC cannot be directly measured by a sensor. In this paper, an adaptive gain nonlinear observer (AGNO for SOC estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs is proposed. The second-order resistor–capacitor (2RC equivalent circuit model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of a LIB, based on which the state equations are derived to design the AGNO for SOC estimation. The model parameters are identified using the exponential-function fitting method. The sixth-order polynomial function is used to describe the highly nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV and the SOC. The convergence of the proposed AGNO is proved using the Lyapunov stability theory. Two typical driving cycles, including the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC and Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS are adopted to evaluate the performance of the AGNO by comparing with the unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm. The experimental results show that the AGNO has better performance than the UKF algorithm in terms of reducing the computation cost, improving the estimation accuracy and enhancing the convergence ability.

  4. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  5. Enhanced online model identification and state of charge estimation for lithium-ion battery with a FBCRLS based observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Meng, Shujuan; Xiong, Binyu; Ji, Dongxu; Tseng, King Jet

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated online model identification and SOC estimate is explored. • Noise variances are online estimated in a data-driven way. • Identification bias caused by noise corruption is attenuated. • SOC is online estimated with high accuracy and fast convergence. • Algorithm comparison shows the superiority of proposed method. - Abstract: State of charge (SOC) estimators with online identified battery model have proven to have high accuracy and better robustness due to the timely adaption of time varying model parameters. In this paper, we show that the common methods for model identification are intrinsically biased if both the current and voltage sensors are corrupted with noises. The uncertainties in battery model further degrade the accuracy and robustness of SOC estimate. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel technique which integrates the Frisch scheme based bias compensating recursive least squares (FBCRLS) with a SOC observer for enhanced model identification and SOC estimate. The proposed method online estimates the noise statistics and compensates the noise effect so that the model parameters can be extracted without bias. The SOC is further estimated in real time with the online updated and unbiased battery model. Simulation and experimental studies show that the proposed FBCRLS based observer effectively attenuates the bias on model identification caused by noise contamination and as a consequence provides more reliable estimate on SOC. The proposed method is also compared with other existing methods to highlight its superiority in terms of accuracy and convergence speed.

  6. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  7. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  8. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-González, Enrique; Carstensen, Jürgen; Föll, Helmut

    2013-02-22

    Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  9. Charge/discharge characteristics of sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite with different sulfur content in carbonate based electrolyte for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; He Xiangming; Li Jianjun; Chen Min; Gao Jian; Jiang Changyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite shows good performance. ► Stable cycling capacity over 700 mAh g −1 of the composite. ► Close to 100% utilization of elemental sulfur. ► Capacity retention over 97% after 80 cycles. ► Average capacity degradation rate less than 0.03% per cycle. - Abstract: The charge/discharge characteristics of sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite (SPAN) cathodes with different sulfur content in conventional carbonate based electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries have been investigated. The good performance of SPAN in the carbonate based electrolyte indicates a material difference between SPAN and elemental sulfur/carbon composite materials. The SPAN with sulfur contents of 33.7%, 42.0% and 46.3% are prepared by control of heating time. The SPAN with sulfur content of 42.0% shows the best electrochemical performance, it can deliver stable cycling capacity over 700 mAh g −1 , and keep capacity retention over 97% after 80 cycles in the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF 6 /EC + DEC. The average capacity degradation rate is less than 0.03% per cycle excluding the first discharge capacity. Prototype 100 mAh Li/SPAN cell is assembled, showing energy density of 437 Wh kg −1 excluding the weight of package and capacity retention of 90.4% after 30 cycles at 100% depth of discharge. This study demonstrates that the sulfurized polyacrylonitrile composite in the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF 6 /EC + DEC is a promising battery chemistry, which materials are abundant, of low cost and easily available, to fabricate Li/SPAN batteries, paving an alternative avenue to develop high performance lithium batteries for energy storage and vehicular application.

  10. Impedance measurements on lead-acid batteries for state-of-charge, state-of-health and cranking capability prognosis in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Holger; Bohlen, Oliver; Buller, Stephan; De Doncker, Rik W.; Fricke, Birger; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Linzen, Dirk; Thele, Marc; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Various attempts have been made to use impedance measurements for online analysis and offline modelling of lead-acid batteries. This presentation gives an overview on the latest and successful approaches based on impedance measurements to assess state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and cranking capability of lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, it is shown that impedance data can serve as a basis for dynamic battery models for the simulation of vehicle power-supply systems. The methods and procedures aim for a reliable prediction of battery performance in electric vehicles, hybrid cars and classical automotive applications. Although, it will become obvious that impedance measurements give valuable information on the battery state, typically the information needs to be combined with other conventional algorithms or self-learning tools to achieve reliable and stable results for real-world applications.

  11. On-line parameter, state-of-charge and aging estimation of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-line model identification method for Li-ion battery parameters that combines high accuracy and low computational complexity. Experimental results show that modeling errors are smaller than 1% throughout the feasible operating range. The identified model is used in a state

  12. A Novel Observer for Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation in Electric Vehicles Based on a Second-Order Equivalent Circuit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation can prolong lithium-ion battery life and improve its performance in practice. This paper proposes a new method for SOC estimation. The second-order resistor-capacitor (2RC equivalent circuit model (ECM is applied to describe the dynamic behavior of lithium-ion battery on deriving state space equations. A novel method for SOC estimation is then presented. This method does not require any matrix calculation, so the computation cost can be very low, making it more suitable for hardware implementation. The Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS, The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC, and the West Virginia Suburban Driving Schedule (WVUSUB experiments are carried to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the SOC estimation error can converge to 3% error boundary within 30 seconds when the initial SOC estimation error is 20%, and the proposed method can maintain an estimation error less than 3% with 1% voltage noise and 5% current noise. Further, the proposed method has excellent robustness against parameter disturbance. Also, it has higher estimation accuracy than the extended Kalman filter (EKF, but with decreased hardware requirements and faster convergence rate.

  13. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J.; Djekic, S.; Haeffner, H.; Hermanspahn, N.; Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G.; Moore, R.; Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G.; Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J.; Weber, C.; Werth, G.

    2001-01-01

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy

  14. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  15. A Real-Time Joint Estimator for Model Parameters and State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1 In view of the model-based SoC estimation flow diagram, the n-order resistance-capacitance (RC battery model is proposed and expected to accurately simulate the battery’s major time-variable, nonlinear characteristics. Then, the mathematical equations for model parameter identification and SoC estimation of this model are constructed. (2 The Akaike information criterion is used to determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision for the n-order RC battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order RC battery model is thought to be the best based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC values. (3 The real-time joint estimator for the model parameter and SoC is constructed, and the application based on two battery types indicates that the proposed SoC estimator is a closed-loop identification system where the model parameter identification and SoC estimation are corrected mutually, adaptively and simultaneously according to the observer values. The maximum SoC estimation error is less than 1% for both battery types, even against the inaccurate initial SoC.

  16. Performance Analysis of Machine-Learning Approaches for Modeling the Charging/Discharging Profiles of Stationary Battery Systems with Non-Uniform Cell Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandha Kumar Kandasamy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of Stationary Battery Systems (SBS connected to various power distribution networks across the world has increased drastically. The increase in the integration of renewable energy sources is one of the major contributors to the increase in the number of SBS. SBS are also used in other applications such as peak load management, load-shifting, voltage regulation and power quality improvement. Accurately modeling the charging/discharging characteristics of such SBS at various instances (charging/discharging profile is vital for many applications. Capacity loss due to the aging of the batteries is an important factor to be considered for estimating the charging/discharging profile of SBS more accurately. Empirical modeling is a common approach used in the literature for estimating capacity loss, which is further used for estimating the charging/discharging profiles of SBS. However, in the case of SBS used for renewable integration and other grid related applications, machine-learning (ML based models provide extreme flexibility and require minimal resources for implementation. The models can even leverage existing smart meter data to estimate the charging/discharging profile of SBS. In this paper, an analysis on the performance of different ML approaches that can be applied for lithium iron phosphate battery systems and vanadium redox flow battery systems used as SBS is presented for the scenarios where the aging of individual cells is non-uniform.

  17. Effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shiro; Tabata, Sei-ichiro; Matsui, Shohei; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    The effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on the interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries (LPB) has been studied in detail. A cross-linked comb-copolymer, consisting of ethylene oxide (EO), 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether (MEEGE), and allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), was used as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). LiCoO 2 composite cathodes were fabricated using binder comb-copolymers, consisting of EO and MEEGE with different compositions. Ionic conductivity of the SPE, and the interfacial charge transfer processes between the SPE and metallic lithium and between the SPE and the composite cathode at several cathode potentials versus Li/Li + , were electrochemically explored. With increasing MEEGE composition in the binder copolymers, the interfacial resistances between the SPE and the composite cathode appreciably decreased. As the result, discharge capacity of the LPB also enhanced with increasing the MEEGE composition. The introduction of the branched-side-chains to the polymer backbone to the binder polymers for the composite cathodes caused to facilitate the interfacial charge transport processes, while the introduction had also been found to be very effective in terms of the enhancement of ionic conductivity of SPE

  18. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    KAUST Repository

    Moia, Davide

    2017-11-28

    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient transport of electronic charge via the conjugated polymer backbones, allowed the films to maintain constant capacity at high charge and discharge rates (>1000 C-rate). The electrodes also show good stability during electrochemical cycling (less than 30% decrease in capacity over >1000 cycles) and an output voltage up to 1.4 V. The performance of these semiconducting polymers with polar side-chains demonstrates the potential of this material class for fast-charging, water based electrochemical energy storage devices.

  19. Stability Analysis for Li-Ion Battery Model Parameters and State of Charge Estimation by Measurement Uncertainty Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of model parameters and state of charge (SoC is crucial for the lithium-ion battery management system (BMS. In this paper, the stability of the model parameters and SoC estimation under measurement uncertainty is evaluated by three different factors: (i sampling periods of 1/0.5/0.1 s; (ii current sensor precisions of ±5/±50/±500 mA; and (iii voltage sensor precisions of ±1/±2.5/±5 mV. Firstly, the numerical model stability analysis and parametric sensitivity analysis for battery model parameters are conducted under sampling frequency of 1–50 Hz. The perturbation analysis is theoretically performed of current/voltage measurement uncertainty on model parameter variation. Secondly, the impact of three different factors on the model parameters and SoC estimation was evaluated with the federal urban driving sequence (FUDS profile. The bias correction recursive least square (CRLS and adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF algorithm were adopted to estimate the model parameters and SoC jointly. Finally, the simulation results were compared and some insightful findings were concluded. For the given battery model and parameter estimation algorithm, the sampling period, and current/voltage sampling accuracy presented a non-negligible effect on the estimation results of model parameters. This research revealed the influence of the measurement uncertainty on the model parameter estimation, which will provide the guidelines to select a reasonable sampling period and the current/voltage sensor sampling precisions in engineering applications.

  20. Thailand's solar white elephants: an analysis of 15 yr of solar battery charging programmes in northern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2004-04-01

    The use of decentralised renewable energy technologies to provide rural electrification in developing countries has been a common topic of analysis and policy debate for more than two decades. Unfortunately, a lack of empirical evidence about the field performance of these technologies is a significant barrier to making sound policy decisions about them. Compounded by minimal information sharing between stakeholders, this situation has frequently allowed duplication of inefficient policies. This issue is addressed here by providing empirical evidence gathered from field visits and interviews about the largest government subsidised solar battery charging programme in the world. This analysis highlights the different policies of departments responsible and discusses them with specific attention to their technical, social and economic components. Field study results from over 50 villages in the north of Thailand suggest about 60% of these systems are no longer operational. Many of the technical failures observed are attributed to social factors, as well as flawed implementation strategies. (author)

  1. Investigating the error sources of the online state of charge estimation methods for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2018-02-01

    Sate of charge (SOC) estimation is generally acknowledged as one of the most important functions in battery management system for lithium-ion batteries in new energy vehicles. Though every effort is made for various online SOC estimation methods to reliably increase the estimation accuracy as much as possible within the limited on-chip resources, little literature discusses the error sources for those SOC estimation methods. This paper firstly reviews the commonly studied SOC estimation methods from a conventional classification. A novel perspective focusing on the error analysis of the SOC estimation methods is proposed. SOC estimation methods are analyzed from the views of the measured values, models, algorithms and state parameters. Subsequently, the error flow charts are proposed to analyze the error sources from the signal measurement to the models and algorithms for the widely used online SOC estimation methods in new energy vehicles. Finally, with the consideration of the working conditions, choosing more reliable and applicable SOC estimation methods is discussed, and the future development of the promising online SOC estimation methods is suggested.

  2. Assessment of the use of vanadium redox flow batteries for energy storage and fast charging of electric vehicles in gas stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Álvaro; Brito, F.P.; Martins, Jorge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Monteiro, Vitor; Afonso, João L.; Ferreira, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A network of conveniently located fast charging stations is one of the possibilities to facilitate the adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs). This paper assesses the use of fast charging stations for EVs in conjunction with VRFBs (Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries). These batteries are charged during low electricity demand periods and then supply electricity for the fast charging of EVs during day, thus implementing a power peak shaving process. Flow batteries have unique characteristics which make them especially attractive when compared with conventional batteries, such as their ability to decouple rated power from rated capacity, as well as their greater design flexibility and nearly unlimited life. Moreover, their liquid nature allows their installation inside deactivated underground gas tanks located at gas stations, enabling a smooth transition of gas stations' business model towards the emerging electric mobility paradigm. A project of a VRFB system to fast charge EVs taking advantage of existing gas stations infrastructures is presented. An energy and cost analysis of this concept is performed, which shows that, for the conditions tested, the project is technologically and economically viable, although being highly sensitive to the investment costs and to the electricity market conditions. - Highlights: • Assessment of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery use for EV fast charge in gas stations. • This novel system proposal allows power peak shaving and use of deactivated gas tanks. • Philosophy allows seamless business transition towards the Electric Mobility paradigm. • Project is technologically and economically viable, although with long payback times. • Future Cost cuts due to technology maturation will consolidate project attractiveness.

  3. Research of Ve current charge interactions in the NOMAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manola-Poggioli, E.

    1996-01-01

    Written during the two first years of the NOMAD experiment working, this thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, a partly equipped detector gives the 1994's results. It allows to identify and to select the NOMAD main interactions (muon neutrino charging current (CC) interactions) in the target. Thank to a events selection, the origin of the produced electrons is studied to better understand simulation's programs. In the second part, neutrino-electron CC interactions represent the main background noise to the oscillations research in the electronic mode. Electrons identification's algorithms are developed and inelastic interactions kinematic properties of electron neutrinos are discussed. (TEC). 57 refs., 72 figs., 18 tabs

  4. A New Vehicle-to-Grid System for Battery Charging exploiting IoT protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachechi, Alessio; Mainetti, Luca; Palano, Laura; Patrono, Luca; Stefanizzi, Luigi; Vergallo, Roberto; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2015-03-17

    The continuously rising demand for electricity has prompted governments and industries to research more effective energy management systems. The Internet of Things paradigm is a valuable add-on for controlling and managing the energy appliances such as Plug-in Electrical Vehicles (PEV) charging stations. In this paper, we present a Demand Response implementation for PEV charging stations able to use Wireless Sensor Network technologies based on the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). We developed a self-service kiosk system by which the user can autonomously swipe his/her credit card and choose the charging station to enable. When a user plugs his/her vehicle to the station, s/he subscribes his availability to share a portion of its energy. When the grid requests a contribution from the PEVs, the kiosk sends a CoAP message to the available stations and the energy flow is inverted (Vehicle-to-Grid). At the end of the charging process, the user's credit card gets charged with a discounted bill.

  5. Second-Order Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Observer for State of Charge Determination Based on a Dynamic Resistance Li-Ion Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A second-order discrete-time sliding mode observer (DSMO-based method is proposed to estimate the state of charge (SOC of a Li-ion battery. Unlike the first-order sliding mode approach, the proposed method eliminates the chattering phenomenon in SOC estimation. Further, a battery model with a dynamic resistance is also proposed to improve the accuracy of the battery model. Similar to actual battery behavior, the resistance parameters in this model are changed by both the magnitude of the discharge current and the SOC level. Validation of the dynamic resistance model is performed through pulse current discharge tests at two different SOC levels. Our experimental results show that the proposed estimation method not only enhances the estimation accuracy but also eliminates the chattering phenomenon. The SOC estimation performance of the second-order DSMO is compared with that of the first-order DSMO.

  6. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  7. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  8. Demand Profile Study of Battery Electric Vehicle under Different Charging Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guang Ya; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    An increased research on electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) deals with their flexible use in electric power grids. Several research projects on smart grids and electric mobility are now looking into realistic models representing the behavior of an EV during charging...

  9. Charge/discharge characteristics of synthetic carbon anode for lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, K.; Mabuchi, A.; Fujimoto, H.; Kasuh, T.

    Recent studies on carbon anodes for lithium secondary batteries have revealed that the electrochemical performances of carbon anodes largely depend on the nature of carbon precursors, heat-treatment condition, structural characteristics of carbons, and so on. In order to clarify the relationship between the carbon structures and electrochemical properties, several kinds of model carbons with different structures were synthesized from three types of pure compounds, acenaphthylene, coronene and phenolphthalein, and their electrochemical characteristics were investigated. As a result, all the model carbons carbonized at 800 °C demonstrate higher capacities than the theoretical one (372 Ah kg -1). Moreover, the structures of the carbons synthesized from the admixtures of acenaphthylene and phenolphthalein were determined by the dominant component, acenaphthylene or phenolphthalein and their discharge capacities were also determined by the corresponding concentration in the carbon mixture.

  10. Physics of charged cosmic rays with the AMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialle, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The electrically charged cosmic rays contain very important information about the mechanisms of stars and galaxies and about primordial universe which cannot be found elsewhere. The AMS experiment aims at searching for primordial antimatter, non-baryonic dark matter, and at measuring with high statistics and high accuracy the electrically charged cosmic ray particles and light nuclei in the extraterrestrial space beyond the atmosphere. AMS is the first magnetic spectrometer which will be flown in space. It will be installed for 3 years on the international space station (ISS) in 2003. A test flight with the space shuttle DISCOVERY took place in June 1998 with a first detector and gave many results: best limit on the existence of antinuclei, fluxes of protons, leptons, and helium nuclei above the geomagnetic threshold, existence of a secondary flux below the geomagnetic threshold. These results are described below. The physics goal and perspectives for AMS on the space station with an improved detector are described as well. (author)

  11. The CHarged ANTIcounter for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Paglia, C.; Palladino, V.; Napolitano, M.; Saracino, G.; Roscilli, L.; Tagnani, D.

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN aims at the very challenging task of measuring with 10% relative error the Branching Ratio of the ultra-rare decay K + → π + v , which is expected to occur only in about 8 out of 10 11 kaon decays. This will be achieved by means of an intense hadron beam, an accurate kinematical reconstruction and a redundant veto system for identifying and suppressing all spurious events. In particular, beam induced background, caused by inelastic interactions of the hadron beam with the Si based detector which measures kaon momentum (the so called Gigatracker, GTK) can mimic the signal in case only one pion is detected downstream. To suppress this background we have designed the so called CHarged ANTIcounter (CHANTI) i.e. a series of six guard counters, to be operated in vacuum and covering a wide angular region downstream the last GTK station. CHANTI must have time resolution ∼ 1 ns, must be highly efficient in detecting charged particles and must cope with rates which in the inner part can...

  12. Monitoring and control system for the charging of batteries in photovoltaic applications; Sistema para monitorizar y controlar la carga de baterias en aplicaciones fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega S, Cesar A; Pacheco A, Maria Jojutla; Orozco V, Jaime A; Cristin V, Miguel A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The appropriate monitoring and control of the charging of lead-acid (LAB) batteries is an increasing necessity in an industry that demands systems with low maintenance costs and high availability. The problem of extending the batteries useful life becomes more complex when the batteries are charged through photovoltaic panels. The purpose of the present article is to offer the description of the system for monitoring and control for the charging of batteries developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). This system performs a continuous monitoring of the charging state of the battery and of the main operation parameters. With the extracted information of the data, the fine tuning algorithm control can be made. The data are acquired in a personal computer through a serial connection. Once stored, they are presented to the user in a graphical way so that they can be analyzed. [Spanish] El adecuado monitoreo y control de carga de baterias plomo-acido (BPA) es una necesidad creciente en una industria que demanda sistemas con bajos costos de mantenimiento y alta disponibilidad. El problema de extender la vida util de las baterias se vuelve mas complejo cuando las baterias son cargadas a traves de paneles fotovoltaicos. La intencion del presente articulo es ofrecer la descripcion del sistema para monitoreo y control de carga de baterias desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Este sistema realiza un monitoreo continuo del estado de carga de la bateria y de los principales parametros de operacion. Con la informacion extraida de los datos, se puede hacer la sintonizacion fina del algoritmo de control. Los datos se adquieren en una computadora personal a traves de un enlace serial. Una vez almacenados, se presentan al usuario de manera grafica para que puedan ser analizados.

  13. Physics of charged cosmic rays with the AMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialle, J.P.

    2000-04-01

    The AMS experiment aims at searching for primordial antimatter, non-baryonic dark matter, and measuring with high statistics and high accuracy the electrically charged cosmic ray particles and light nuclei in the extraterrestrial space beyond the atmosphere. AMS is the first magnetic spectrometer which will be flown in space. It will be installed for 3 years on the international space station (ISS) in 2003. A test flight with the space shuttle DISCOVERY took place in June 1998 with a first detector and gave many results: best limit on the existence of antinuclei, fluxes of protons, leptons, and helium nuclei above the geomagnetic threshold, existence of a secondary flux below the geomagnetic threshold. These results are described below. The physics goal and perspectives for AMS on the space station with an improved detector are described as well. (author)

  14. Comparison of Nonlinear Filtering Methods for Estimating the State of Charge of Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation is of great significance for the lithium-ion battery to ensure its safety operation and to prevent it from overcharging or overdischarging. To achieve reliable SoC estimation for Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery cell, three filtering methods have been compared and evaluated. A main contribution of this study is that a general three-step model-based battery SoC estimation scheme has been proposed. It includes the processes of battery data measurement, parametric modeling, and model-based SoC estimation. With the proposed general scheme, multiple types of model-based SoC estimators have been developed and evaluated for battery management system application. The detailed comparisons on three advanced adaptive filter techniques, which include extend Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, and adaptive extend Kalman filter (AEKF, have been implemented with a Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model-based SoC estimation approach with AEKF algorithm, which uses the covariance matching technique, performs well with good accuracy and robustness; the mean absolute error of the SoC estimation is within 1% especially with big SoC initial error.

  15. New Avenue for Limiting Degradation in NanoLi4Ti5O12for Ultrafast-Charge Lithium-Ion Batteries: Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Jean-Christophe; Asakawa, Yuichiro; Beaupré, Mélanie; Vieillette, René; Laul, Dharminder; Trudeau, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2017-12-13

    Lithium titanium oxide (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 )-based cells are a very promising battery technology for ultrafast-charge-discharge and long-cycle-life batteries. However, the surface reactivity of lithium titanium oxide in the presence of organic electrolytes continues to be a problem that may cause expansion of pouch cells. In this study, we report on the development of a simple and economical grafting method for forming hybrid polymer-Li 4 Ti 15 O 12 nanoparticles, which can be successfully applied in lithium-ion batteries. This method utilizes a low-cost and scalable hydrophobic polymer that is applicable in industrial processes. The hybrid materials demonstrated exceptional capability for preventing the degradation of cells in accelerated aging and operating over 150 cycles at 1C and 45 °C.

  16. Charge-discharge mechanisms of Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode materials in Li-batteries - studied by operando PXD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Daniel Risskov; Mathiesen, Jette Katja; Henriksen, Christian

    potential and high theoretical capacity (197 mAh g-1) . The material exhibits distinct potential plateaus during Li-extraction for the crystallographic distinct lithium ions, which is typically a sign of a multiphase system where each phase determines the potential2. In this work, we wished to explore...... of their safety, cost, energy density and rate performance. Herein lie the demand for new electrode materials that can provide the required battery properties. Monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) is a well-known candidate as a cathode material in rechargeable Li-batteries, showing good cyclic stability, high operating...... the following: •Is it possible to correlate the features seen in the charge/discharge curves with changes in the crystal structure of LVP? Is operando synchrotron PXD a suitable tool in this investigation? •Changes in the used potential window are known to significantly influence the performance of the battery...

  17. The CHarged ANTIcounter for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, F.; Corradi, G.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Paglia, C.; Palladino, V.; Napolitano, M.; Saracino, G.; Roscilli, L.; Tagnani, D.

    The NA62 experiment at CERN aims at the very challenging task of measuring with 10% relative error the Branching Ratio of the ultra-rare decay K+→ π+v ?, which is expected to occur only in about 8 out of 1011 kaon decays. This will be achieved by means of an intense hadron beam, an accurate kinematical reconstruction and a redundant veto system for identifying and suppressing all spurious events. In particular, beam induced background, caused by inelastic interactions of the hadron beam with the Si based detector which measures kaon momentum (the so called Gigatracker, GTK) can mimic the signal in case only one pion is detected downstream. To suppress this background we have designed the so called CHarged ANTIcounter (CHANTI) i.e. a series of six guard counters, to be operated in vacuum and covering a wide angular region downstream the last GTK station. CHANTI must have time resolution ∼ 1 ns, must be highly efficient in detecting charged particles and must cope with rates which in the inner part can be some kHz/cm2. We have adopted a solution based on triangularly shaped scintillator bars coupled with fast wave-length shifting fibers and individually read by means of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The full scale prototype of one counter has been built and tested using a prototype front end electronic board which allows fast amplification and individual channel fine bias setting with O(mV) resolution and 0.1% stability. We show first results on the response of the detector to minimum ionizing particles as well as on its time resolution, which are well in line with the specifications.

  18. Atomic charges of sulfur in ionic liquids: experiments and calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Richard M; Rowe, Rebecca; Matthews, Richard P; Clough, Matthew T; Ashworth, Claire R; Brandt, Agnieszka; Corbett, Paul J; Palgrave, Robert G; Smith, Emily F; Bourne, Richard A; Chamberlain, Thomas W; Thompson, Paul B J; Hunt, Patricia A; Lovelock, Kevin R J

    2017-12-14

    Experimental near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra, X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra and Auger electron spectra are reported for sulfur in ionic liquids (ILs) with a range of chemical structures. These values provide experimental measures of the atomic charge in each IL and enable the evaluation of the suitability of NEXAFS spectroscopy and XPS for probing the relative atomic charge of sulfur. In addition, we use Auger electron spectroscopy to show that when XPS binding energies differ by less than 0.5 eV, conclusions on atomic charge should be treated with caution. Our experimental data provides a benchmark for calculations of the atomic charge of sulfur obtained using different methods. Atomic charges were computed for lone ions and ion pairs, both in the gas phase (GP) and in a solvation model (SMD), with a wide range of ion pair conformers considered. Three methods were used to compute the atomic charges: charges from the electrostatic potential using a grid based method (ChelpG), natural bond orbital (NBO) population analysis and Bader's atoms in molecules (AIM) approach. By comparing the experimental and calculated measures of the atomic charge of sulfur, we provide an order for the sulfur atoms, ranging from the most negative to the most positive atomic charge. Furthermore, we show that both ChelpG and NBO are reasonable methods for calculating the atomic charge of sulfur in ILs, based on the agreement with both the XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy results. However, the atomic charges of sulfur derived from ChelpG are found to display significant, non-physical conformational dependence. Only small differences in individual atomic charge of sulfur were observed between lone ion (GP) and ion pair IL(SMD) model systems, indicating that ion-ion interactions do not strongly influence individual atomic charges.

  19. A nanoview of battery operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen Brian

    2016-01-01

    The redox-active materials in lithium-ion batteries have relatively poor electronic and ionic conduction and may experience stress from charge-discharge volume changes, so their formulation into structures with nanosized features is highly desirable. On page 566 of this issue, Lim et al. (1...

  20. Understanding colloidal charge renormilization from surface chemistry : experiment and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gisler, Thomas; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, Michal; Sticher, Hans; Schurtenberger, Peter; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Klein, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stem capacitance) are determined from tits of a Stem ...

  1. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Quiroga-González; Jürgen Carstensen; Helmut Föll

    2013-01-01

    Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001%) over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity...

  2. On the complex ageing characteristics of high-power LiFePO4/graphite battery cells cycled with high charge and discharge currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groot, Jens; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are known to undergo complex ageing processes, where the operating conditions have a profound and non-linear effect on both calendar life and cycle life. This is especially a challenge for the automotive industry, where the requirements on product lifetime and reliability...... are demanding. The aim of the present work is to quantify the ageing in terms of capacity fade and impedance growth as a function of operating conditions typical to high-power automotive applications; high charge and discharge rate, elevated temperatures and wide state-of-charge windows. The cycle life of 34...

  3. A comparative study of three model-based algorithms for estimating state-of-charge of lithium-ion batteries under a new combined dynamic loading profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fangfang; Xing, Yinjiao; Wang, Dong; Tsui, Kwok-Leung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different model-based filtering algorithms for SOC estimation are compared. • A combined dynamic loading profile is proposed to evaluate the three algorithms. • Robustness against uncertainty of initial states of SOC estimators are investigated. • Battery capacity degradation is considered in SOC estimation. - Abstract: Accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation is critical for the safety and reliability of battery management systems in electric vehicles. Because SOC cannot be directly measured and SOC estimation is affected by many factors, such as ambient temperature, battery aging, and current rate, a robust SOC estimation approach is necessary to be developed so as to deal with time-varying and nonlinear battery systems. In this paper, three popular model-based filtering algorithms, including extended Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, and particle filter, are respectively used to estimate SOC and their performances regarding to tracking accuracy, computation time, robustness against uncertainty of initial values of SOC, and battery degradation, are compared. To evaluate the performances of these algorithms, a new combined dynamic loading profile composed of the dynamic stress test, the federal urban driving schedule and the US06 is proposed. The comparison results showed that the unscented Kalman filter is the most robust to different initial values of SOC, while the particle filter owns the fastest convergence ability when an initial guess of SOC is far from a true initial SOC.

  4. A data-driven adaptive state of charge and power capability joint estimator of lithium-ion polymer battery used in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Rui; Sun, Fengchun; He, Hongwen; Nguyen, Trong Duy

    2013-01-01

    An accurate SoC (state of charge) and SoP (state of power capability) joint estimator is the most significant techniques for electric vehicles. This paper makes two contributions to the existing literature. (1) A data-driven parameter identification method has been proposed for accurately capturing the real-time characteristic of the battery through the recursive least square algorithm, where the parameter of the battery model is updated with the real-time measurements of battery current and voltage at each sampling interval. (2) An adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithm based multi-state joint estimator has been developed in accordance with the relationship of the battery SoC and its power capability. Note that the SoC and SoP can be predicted accurately against the degradation and various operating environments of the battery through the data-driven parameter identification method. The robustness of the proposed data-driven joint estimator has been verified by different degradation states of lithium-ion polymer battery cells. The result indicates that the estimation errors of voltage and SoC are less than 1% even if given a large erroneous initial state of joint estimator, which makes the SoP estimate more accurate and reliable for the electric vehicles application. - Highlights: • A data-driven parameter identification method is developed by RLS algorithm. • An adaptive multi-state joint estimator of the battery is developed by AEKF algorithm. • A data-driven SoC and SoP joint estimator is developed with the real-time measurement. • Robustness of the joint estimator is verified by different aging states of LiPB cells

  5. A method of computer modelling the lithium-ion batteries aging process based on the experimental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerepicki, A.; Koniak, M.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a method of modelling the processes of aging lithium-ion batteries, its implementation as a computer application and results for battery state estimation. Authors use previously developed behavioural battery model, which was built using battery operating characteristics obtained from the experiment. This model was implemented in the form of a computer program using a database to store battery characteristics. Batteries aging process is a new extended functionality of the model. Algorithm of computer simulation uses a real measurements of battery capacity as a function of the battery charge and discharge cycles number. Simulation allows to take into account the incomplete cycles of charge or discharge battery, which are characteristic for transport powered by electricity. The developed model was used to simulate the battery state estimation for different load profiles, obtained by measuring the movement of the selected means of transport.

  6. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  7. Two-Stage Battery Energy Storage System (BESS in AC Microgrids with Balanced State-of-Charge and Guaranteed Small-Signal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage battery energy storage system (BESS is implemented to enhance the operation condition of conventional battery storage systems in a microgrid. Particularly, the designed BESS is composed of two stages, i.e., Stage I: integration of dispersed energy storage units (ESUs using parallel DC/DC converters, and Stage II: aggregated ESUs in grid-connected operation. Different from a conventional BESS consisting of a battery management system (BMS and power conditioning system (PCS, the developed two-stage architecture enables additional operation and control flexibility in balancing the state-of-charge (SoC of each ESU and ensures the guaranteed small-signal stability, especially in extremely weak grid conditions. The above benefits are achieved by separating the control functions between the two stages. In Stage I, a localized power sharing scheme based on the SoC of each particular ESU is developed to manage the SoC and avoid over-charge or over-discharge issues; on the other hand, in Stage II, an additional virtual impedance loop is implemented in the grid-interactive DC/AC inverters to enhance the stability margin with multiple parallel-connected inverters integrating at the point of common coupling (PCC simultaneously. A simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is established, and simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed BESS architecture and the corresponding control diagram.

  8. Operational experience with nanocoulomb bunch charges in the Cornell photoinjector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bartnik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of 9–9.5 MeV electron beams produced in the dc-gun based Cornell photoinjector is given for bunch charges ranging from 20 pC to 2 nC. Comparison of the measured emittances and longitudinal current profiles to optimized 3D space charge simulations yields excellent agreement for bunch charges up to 1 nC when the measured laser distribution is used to generate initial particle distributions in simulation. Analysis of the scaling of the measured emittance with bunch charge shows that the emittance scales roughly as the square root of the bunch charge up to 300 pC, above which the trend becomes linear. These measurements demonstrate that the Cornell photoinjector can produce cathode emittance dominated beams meeting the emittance and peak current specifications for next generation free electron lasers operating at high repetition rate. In addition, the 1 and 2 nC results are relevant to the electron ion collider community.

  9. Operational experience with nanocoulomb bunch charges in the Cornell photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, Adam; Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan; Cultera, Luca; Dunham, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    Characterization of 9-9.5 MeV electron beams produced in the dc-gun based Cornell photoinjector is given for bunch charges ranging from 20 pC to 2 nC. Comparison of the measured emittances and longitudinal current profiles to optimized 3D space charge simulations yields excellent agreement for bunch charges up to 1 nC when the measured laser distribution is used to generate initial particle distributions in simulation. Analysis of the scaling of the measured emittance with bunch charge shows that the emittance scales roughly as the square root of the bunch charge up to 300 pC, above which the trend becomes linear. These measurements demonstrate that the Cornell photoinjector can produce cathode emittance dominated beams meeting the emittance and peak current specifications for next generation free electron lasers operating at high repetition rate. In addition, the 1 and 2 nC results are relevant to the electron ion collider community.

  10. The Mechanical Response of Multifunctional Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo

    The current state of the art in the field of the mechanical behavior of electric vehicle (EV) battery cells is limited to quasi-static analysis. The lack of published data in the dynamic mechanical behavior of EV battery cells blinds engineers and scientists with the uncertainty of what to expect when EVs experience such unexpected events as intrusions to their battery systems. To this end, the recent occurrences of several EVs catching fire after hitting road debris even make this topic timelier. In order to ensure the safety of EV battery, it is critical to develop quantitative understanding of battery cell mechanical behavior under dynamic compressive loadings. Specifically, the research focuses on the dynamic mechanical loading effect on the standard "18650" cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells. In the study, the force-displacement and voltage-displacement behavior of the battery cells were analyzed experimentally at two strain rates, two state-of-charges, and two unit-cell configurations. The results revealed the strain rate sensitivity of their mechanical responses with the solid sacrificial elements. When the hollow sacrificial cells are used, on the other hand, effect was negligible up to the point of densification strength. Also, the high state-of-charge appeared to increase the stiffness of the battery cells. The research also revealed the effectiveness of the sacrificial elements on the mechanical behavior of a unit cell that consists of one battery cell and six sacrificial elements. The use of the sacrificial elements resulted in the delayed initiation of electric short circuit. Based on the analysis of battery behavior at the cell level, granular battery assembly, a battery pack, was designed and fabricated. The behavior of the granular battery assembly was analyzed both quasistatically and dynamically. Building on the results of the research, various research plans were proposed. Through conducting the research, we sought to answer the following

  11. Experiments on Ion Space-Charge Neutralization with Pulsed Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Herleb, U

    1996-01-01

    The method of space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated with electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes has been experimentally investigated. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source may be increased by one order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant than for low charge states. For $Al^(7+)$ ions from an aluminium target a charge enhancement by a factor of 4 has been achieved by electron beam focusing.

  12. Experiments on Ion Beam Space-Charge Neutralization with Pulsed Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Herleb, U

    1998-01-01

    Space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated by electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes has been experimentally investigated. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source can be increased by an order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant than for low charge states. A charge enhancement factor of four has been achieved by neutralization with pulsed electron beams for Al7+ ions generated from an aluminium target.

  13. Space-Charge Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Franchetti, Giuliano; Hofmann, I; Martini, M; Métral, E; Qiang, J; Ryne, D; Steerenberg, R; CFA Beam Dynamics Workshop “High Intensity and Brightness Hadron Beams”

    2005-01-01

    Benchmarking of the simulation codes used for the design of the next generation of high beam power accelerators is of paramount importance due to the very demanding requirements on the level of beam losses. This is usually accomplished by comparing simulation results against available theories, and more importantly, against experimental observations. To this aim, a number of well-defined test cases, obtained by accurate measurements made in existing machines, are of great interest. Such measurements have been made in the CERN Proton Synchrotron to probe three space-charge effects: (i) transverse emittance blow-up due to space-charge induced crossing of the integer or half-integer stop-band, (ii) space-charge and octupole driven resonance trapping, and (iii) intensity-dependent emittance transfer between the two transverse planes. The last mechanism is discussed in detail in this paper and compared to simulation predictions.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Electrochemical Impedance of Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries with Measurement of Charge-discharge Curves by Wavelet Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masayuki; Ueno, Masaki; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Shitanda, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Wavelet transformation (WT) was used to obtain electrochemical impedance (EI) from time domain data. • Complex Morlet mother wavelet was employed to transform current and voltage time series from time domain to frequency domain. • An analytical method to determine EI of LIRB at arbitrary state of charge was proposed. • EI of LIRB was determined at arbitrary state of charge without stopping galvanostatic polarization for charge and discharge. - Abstract: A new analytical method was developed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) at an arbitrary state of charge (SOC). Wavelet transformation (WT) is one of the waveform analysis methods, which allows the determination of frequency domain data as a function of time. The frequency domain data are obtained by convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data via the WT. A complex Morlet mother wavelet is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The time series data of input current and output voltage signals are recorded by superimposing the double pulse current as an input signal to constant charge current for the charge of LIRB without stopping galvanostatic polarization. The double pulse current is composed of symmetrical positive and negative square waves. In this case, the SOC of LIRB is not affected by the input signal because the total amount of charge calculated from double pulse current is 0C. The impedance spectrum of LIRB at SOC 25% is determined in the frequency range from 0.1 to 100 Hz during charge/discharge cycles without stopping galvanostatic polarization for the charge/discharge.

  15. “Wine-Dark Sea” in an Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Jinhua [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Jeffrey A. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Shkrob, Ilya A. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vijayakumar, M. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pan, Baofei [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, Zheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Milshtein, Jarrod D. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liao, Chen [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jun [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, Jeffery S. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Brushett, Fikile R. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Zhang, Lu [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wei, Xiaoliang [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    Redox-active organic materials (ROMs) have shown great promise for redox flow battery applications but generally encounter limited cycling efficiency and stability at relevant redox material concentrations in nonaqueous systems. Here we report a new heterocyclic organic anolyte molecule, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, that has high solubility, a low redox potential, and fast electrochemical kinetics. Coupling it with a benchmark catholyte ROM, the nonaqueous organic flow battery demonstrated significant improvement in cyclable redox material concentrations and cell efficiencies compared to the state-of-the-art nonaqueous systems. Especially, this system produced exceeding cyclability with relatively stable efficiencies and capacities at high ROM concentrations (>0.5 M), which is ascribed to the highly delocalized charge densities in the radical anions of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, leading to good chemical stability. As a result, this material development represents significant progress toward promising next-generation energy storage.

  16. Comparisons of Modeling and State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Order and Integral Order Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxin Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly manage lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles (EVs, it is essential to build the battery model and estimate the state of charge (SOC. In this paper, the fractional order forms of Thevenin and partnership for a new generation of vehicles (PNGV models are built, of which the model parameters including the fractional orders and the corresponding resistance and capacitance values are simultaneously identified based on genetic algorithm (GA. The relationships between different model parameters and SOC are established and analyzed. The calculation precisions of the fractional order model (FOM and integral order model (IOM are validated and compared under hybrid test cycles. Finally, extended Kalman filter (EKF is employed to estimate the SOC based on different models. The results prove that the FOMs can simulate the output voltage more accurately and the fractional order EKF (FOEKF can estimate the SOC more precisely under dynamic conditions.

  17. The interaction between theory and experiment in charge density analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The field of x-ray charge density analysis has gradually morphed into an area benefiting from the strong interactions between theoreticians and experimentalists, leading to new concepts on chemical bonding and of intermolecular interactions in condensed phases. Some highlights of the developments culminating in the 2013 Aminoff Award are described in this paper. (comment)

  18. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Maria; Versolato, Oscar; Windberger, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H2 partial pressure of about 10−15 mbar...

  19. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in high capacity and low density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and molecular layer MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using MLD to examine how surface modification could stabilize silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries, researchers discovered a new reaction precursor that leads to a flexible surface coating that accommodates volumetric expansion of silicon electrodes.

  20. Using atmospheric pressure tendency to optimise battery charging in o-grid hybrid wind-diesel systems for telecoms

    OpenAIRE

    Phelan, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their lifetime. Operating these generators at partial load is inefficient and over time physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration,which is the combination of multiple energy sources, uses a battery bank which powers the telecoms load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery ban...

  1. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, R. [CES - Consulting and Engineering Services, Heidelberg (Germany); Cramer, G.; Toenges, K.H. [SMA Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these `Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)` have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  2. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  3. Formation of Li3O4 nano particles in the discharge products of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries leads to lower charge overvoltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Xu, A; Zhao, T S

    2015-11-28

    Density functional theory calculations are made for bulk thermodynamic properties and surface energies of Li2O2, a primary discharge product, and Li3O4, a possible byproduct in the discharge products, of the non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. Results show that the standard formation Gibbs free energy of bulk Li3O4 is marginally higher than that of Li2O2, but the surface energy of Li3O4 is much lower. Low surface energy results in both lowered nucleation energy and formation Gibbs free energy in the nanometer regime, allowing the Li3O4 nano particles to nucleate ahead of Li2O2 during the discharge process and to exist stably when particle sizes are smaller than about 40 nm. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) image of Li3O4 crystals is simulated and compared with the measured STEM image of the discharge product particles. The consistency between the simulated and measured STEM images suggests that the Li3O4 phase can exist stably as a discharge product. The energy profile of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring on the most abundant surfaces of Li3O4 is also calculated. The predicted overpotential for the OER on the {0001} surface (0.30 V) shows a good agreement with experimental data. The presence of more electronically conductive Li3O4 nano particles in the primary discharge product Li2O2 tends to decrease the charge overvoltage of the batteries, explaining why the lower voltage area (<3.5 V) was widely observed during the charging of the batteries. An increase in the oxygen pressure or a decrease in temperature enhances the stability of the Li3O4 phase and increase the proportion of the Li3O4 phase in the discharge products, consequently leading to a lower overall charge overvoltage.

  4. Impact of a 12-volt Lead Acid Battery State-of-Charge on the Performance of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Santanu Prasad; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    In most of the Automotive Air Conditioning Systems (AACSs) though the compressor is powered by the car engine, the evaporator blower and the condenser fan are run by an alternator. Further, this alternator is powered from engine shaft. If there is any fault in the alternator that must drop the output voltage. This variation in output voltage can be achieved from a car battery by regulating its charging current. Owing to this, a stationary test rig for an AACS is developed with all actual auto...

  5. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  6. Development of Pseudocapacitive Properties in Nanostructured LiMn2O4 as a Fast Charging Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesel, Benjamin

    Pseudocapacitive materials provide a high energy density solution to fast charging, long cycle life energy storage. This work explores the pseudocapacitive characteristics and attempts to optimize nanostructured LiMn2O 4 for use as a cathode material in fast charging, long cycle lifetime lithium ion batteries. Because slow kinetics in traditional batteries is linked to long lithium ion diffusion lengths through micron sized grains, the key to achieving pseudocapacitance in most materials is through nanostructuring to reduced diffusion distance. One of the most effective methods for producing nanostructures is through nanocrystal/polymer templating, which produces a porous structure with interconnected nanoscale walls capable of intercalating lithium ions at pseudocapactive rates. To make a full pseudocapacitive lithium ion battery a reality, however, a pseudocapacitive material of each electrode type, anode and cathode, must be paired. To date, many pseudocapacitive materials have been identified, but nearly all of them are redox active in a voltage range more suitable for anode materials. Recently, we identified a pseudocapacitive cathode material, nanostructured LiMn2O4 which shows impressive rate capabilities. Unfortunately, the improvements came at the cost of energy density, which decreased significantly with decreasing crystallite size. Kinetics for different crystallite sizes, however, increased suddenly below a certain critical crystallite size. We found that this critical crystallite size, below which pseudocapacitance occurred, was linked to a suppression of phase transition in nanoscale LiMn2O4. To address the capacity loss due to dissolution in high surface area nanostructured LiMn 2O4 powders, a sol-gel templating method which formed dissolution resistant surfaces was employed. The resulting materials had long needle-like morphology and showed higher capacity and less dissolution than a similarly sized material synthesized with a different structure

  7. A worldwide experience of the management of battery failures and chronic device retrieval of the Nanostim leadless pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Knops, Reinoud; Atwater, Brett; Neuzil, Petr; Ip, John; Gonzalez, Elkin; Friedman, Paul; Defaye, Pascal; Exner, Derek; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Doshi, Rahul; Sperzel, Johannes; Reddy, Vivek

    2017-12-01

    The Nanostim leadless pacemaker (LP) met the primary endpoints in an investigational device exemption trial, and was shown to be fully retrievable percutaneously. In October 2016, St Jude Medical issued a worldwide alert of a battery malfunction that caused lost pacing output and LP communication. To report the battery failure mechanism and incidence and the worldwide patient management, including device retrieval experiences. The affected LP battery is a custom lithium-carbon monofluoride cell. These were returned after failure and underwent analysis assessing electronics and battery performance. Data were collected in ongoing clinical studies when LPs were abandoned or retrieved. Of 1423 LPs implanted worldwide, there were 34 battery failures, occurring at 2.9 ± 0.4 years with no instances of associated patient injury. Analysis of returned batteries revealed an increase in battery resistance caused by insufficient electrolyte availability at the cathode/anode interface. A total of 66 of 73 retrieval attempts were successful (90.4%; implant duration range: 0.2-4.0 years). The LP docking button was inaccessible in 6 patients, and the docking button detached from the LP during retrieval in 1 patient. There was 1 case of arteriovenous fistula and another case of the LP docking button migrating into the pulmonary artery. There were also 115 non-LP retrieval patients after the advisory who received an additional pacemaker, with no adverse device-to-device interactions reported. As with standard pacers, LPs can have critical battery failures. Chronic retrieval of LPs is safe and efficacious. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  9. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  10. All Charged Up!--Experimenting with Static Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Build-up of static electricity happens readily when the air is cold and dry and is a common part of life. There are lots of ways to make students aware of static electricity--and many things one can teach them about its applications in today's industry. In this article, the author describes examples and experiments that will bring static…

  11. The In-Orbit Battery Reconditioning Experience On Board the Orion 1 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, S. A.; Daughtridge, S.; Johnson, P. J.; King, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    The Orion 1 spacecraft is a three-axis stabilized geostationary earth orbiting commercial communications satellite which was launched on November 29, 1994 aboard an Atlas II launch vehicle. The power subsystem is a dual bus, dual battery semi-regulated system with one 78 Ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen battery per bus. The batteries were built and tested by Eagle Picher Industries, Inc., of Joplin, MO and were integrated into the spacecraft by its manufacturer, Matra Marconi Space UK Ltd. This paper presents the results obtained during the first four in-orbit reconditioning cycles and compares the battery performance to ground test data. In addition, the on-station battery management strategy and implementation constraints are described. Battery performance has been nominal throughout each reconditioning cycle and subsequent eclipse season.

  12. Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Chen, Xilin; Mei, Donghai; Bowden, Mark E.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries with conventional LiPF6-carbonate electrolytes have been reported to fail quickly at charging current densities of about 1.0 mA cm-2 and above. In this work, we demonstrate the rapid charging capability of the Li||LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells enabled by a dual-salt electrolyte of LiTFSI-LiBOB in a carbonate solvent mixture. It is found that the thickness of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode largely increases with increasing charging current density. However, the cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte significantly outperforms those using the LiPF6 electrolyte at high charging current densities. At the charging current density of 1.50 mA cm-2, the Li||NCA cells with the dual-salt electrolyte can still deliver a discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles, while those with the LiPF6 electrolyte start to show fast capacity fading after the 30th cycle and only exhibit a low capacity of 25 mAh g-1 and a low retention of 15% after 100 cycles. The reasons for the good chargeability and cycling stability of the cells using LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte can be attributed to the good film-formation ability of the electrolyte on lithium metal anode and the highly conductive nature of the sulfur-rich interphase layer.

  13. Mass and charge transport relevant to the formation of toroidal lithium peroxide nanoparticles in an aprotic lithium-oxygen battery: An experimental and theoretical modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiangyi; Amine, Rachid; Lau, Kah Chun; Lu, Jun; Zhan, Chun; Curtiss, Larry A.; Hallaj, Said Al; Chaplin, Brian P.; Amine, Khalil

    2017-12-01

    The discharge and charge mechanisms of rechargeable Li-O-2 batteries have been the subject of extensive investigation recently. However, they are not fully understood yet. Here we report a systematic study of the morphological transition of Li2O2 from a single crystalline structure to a toroid like particle during the discharge-charge cycle, with the help of a theoretical model to explain the evolution of the Li2O2 at different stages of this process. The model suggests that the transition starts in the first monolayer of Li2O2, and is subsequently followed by a transition from particle growth to film growth if the applied current exceeds the exchange current for the oxygen reduction reaction in a Li-O-2 cell. Furthermore, a sustainable mass transport of the diffusive active species (e.g., O-2 and Li+) and evolution of the underlying interfaces are critical to dictate desirable oxygen reduction (discharge) and evolution (charge) reactions in the porous carbon electrode of a Li-O-2 cell.

  14. Improving cycle life of layered lithium transition metal oxide (LiMO2) based positive electrodes for Li ion batteries by smart selection of the electrochemical charge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Evertz, Marco; Streipert, Benjamin; Wagner, Ralf; Nowak, Sascha; Cekic Laskovic, Isidora; Winter, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Increasing the specific energy of a lithium ion battery and maintaining its cycle life is a predominant goal and major challenge for electrochemical energy storage applications. Focusing on the positive electrode as the specific energy bottleneck, cycle life characteristics of promising layered oxide type active materials (LiMO2) has been thoroughly investigated. Comparing the variety of LiMO2 compositions, it could be shown that the "Ni-rich" (Ni ≥ 60% for M in LiMO2) electrodes expectably revealed best performance compromises between specific energy and cycle life at 20 °C, but only LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622) could also maintain sufficient cycle performance at elevated temperatures. Focusing on NMC622, it could be demonstrated that the applied electrochemical conditions (charge capacity, delithiation amount) in the formation cycles significantly influence the subsequent cycling performance. Moreover, the insignificant transition metal dissolution, demonstrated by means of total X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, and unchanged lithiation degree in the discharged state, determined by the measurement of the Li+ content by means of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) technique, pointed to a delithiation (charge) hindrance capacity fade mechanism. Considering these insights, thoughtful modifications of the electrochemical charge conditions could significantly prolong the cycle life.

  15. Eight years of experience with valve-regulated batteries for automotive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Yasuda, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Horie, S.; Kanetsuki, K.

    In 1985, Matsushita developed a valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) battery with an expanded grid for automotive use. Since 1989, these batteries have been adopted as original equipment for cars. To take full advantage of their benefits, the batteries are installed away from the engine compartment, for example, in the boot of the car. Despite a steady market for automotive VRLA batteries, there are still a few problems that accompany their use. These must be solved in order to enhance reliability and improve customer satisfaction. The major areas of concern are life at high temperature, and recovery after over-discharge and long standing. Work in these areas is reported here.

  16. Real Experiments versus Phet Simulations for Better High-School Students' Understanding of Electrostatic Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajredini, Fadil; Izairi, Neset; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence of computer simulations (virtual experiments) on one hand and real experiments on the other hand on the conceptual understanding of electrical charging. The investigated sample consists of students in the second year (10th grade) of three gymnasiums in Macedonia. There were two experimental groups and one…

  17. Cherenkov angle and charge reconstruction with the RICH detector of the AMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barão, F; Borges, J; Gonçalves, P; Pimenta, M; Pérez, I

    2003-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment to be installed on the International Space Station will be equipped with a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, for measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. In this note, two possible methods for reconstructing the Cherenkov angle and the electric charge with the RICH are discussed. A Likelihood method for the Cherenkov angle reconstruction was applied leading to a velocity determination for protons with a resolution of around 0.1%. The existence of a large fraction of background photons which can vary from event to event implied a charge reconstruction method based on an overall efficiency estimation on an event-by-event basis.

  18. CHANTI: a Fast and Efficient Charged Particle Veto Detector for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00293636; Capussela, T.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Mirra, M.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Roscilli, L.; Vanzanella, A.; Corradi, G.; Tagnani, D.; Paglia, U.

    2016-03-29

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  19. Conceptual design of a device for charging PIG's batteries, using the hydraulic energy from the flow in pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ricardo E.; Dutra, Max S. [Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Graduate and Research Studies (COPPE-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Program], e-mail: rramirez@ufrj.br, e-mail: max@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Some actual projects deal with development of PIGs with speed control for liquid pipelines, with the possibility of controlled displacement including counter flow locomotion, in order to inspect and service in 'unpiggable lines' and flexible lines. In this case, it is normal to carry energy consumption greater than the energy disposable in the batteries. This work proposes a device composed by a turbine and an electric generator; presents a preliminary mechanical design of the turbine for the specific requirements of the application like internal pressure inside the line, a range of relative velocities between the PIG and the pipeline and adequate material for the environmental conditions. One of the priority requirements is that the geometric form of the turbine and generator mate with a proposed form of the PIG minimizing the pressure drop in the line for the different work conditions. The electric design defines the magnets characteristics, geometric forms, dimensions and number of turns to obtain the required voltage and power for charging a nominal pack of batteries. (author)

  20. Cell design and image analysis for in situ Raman mapping of inhomogeneous state-of-charge profiles in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuyu; Yan, Min; Hamers, Robert J.

    2017-06-01

    The study of inhomogeneous battery failure processes requires proper tools with high spatial resolving power. Here we describe a simple way to adapt industry-standard coin cells to enable in situ Raman mapping of lithium-ion battery materials. We describe the important cell design parameters and validate that the design achieves a uniform potential distribution within the region probed by Raman. We further validate that the cell yields electrical performance characteristics equivalent to a standard, non-modified coin cell. Using this cell, we probe the local charging profiles of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 ("NMC") particles during cycling and demonstrate the ability to achieve spatial maps of the Raman spectra. In order to reduce the effects of local topography, we further analyze these data by numerically extracting the local frequency of the A1g vibrational mode, which is sensitive to the local extent of lithiation, and producing spatial maps of the local frequency of the A1g mode. This work demonstrates a way to collect and analyze high quality in situ spectra with an easy-to-implement cell design that can be applied to a wide range of electrode materials.

  1. A Novel Intelligent Method for the State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using a Discrete Wavelet Transform-Based Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Cui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC estimation is becoming increasingly important, along with electric vehicle (EV rapid development, while SOC is one of the most significant parameters for the battery management system, indicating remaining energy and ensuring the safety and reliability of EV. In this paper, a hybrid wavelet neural network (WNN model combining the discrete wavelet transform (DWT method and adaptive WNN is proposed to estimate the SOC of lithium-ion batteries. The WNN model is trained by Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M algorithm, whose inputs are processed by discrete wavelet decomposition and reconstitution. Compared with back-propagation neural network (BPNN, L-M based BPNN (LMBPNN, L-M based WNN (LMWNN, DWT with L-M based BPNN (DWTLMBPNN and extend Kalman filter (EKF, the proposed intelligent SOC estimation method is validated and proved to be effective. Under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC, the mean absolute error and maximum error can be reduced to 0.59% and 3.13%, respectively. The characteristics of high accuracy and strong robustness of the proposed method are verified by comparison study and robustness evaluation results (e.g., measurement noise test and untrained driving cycle test.

  2. Lithium-ion battery state of function estimation based on fuzzy logic algorithm with associated variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, L.; Yang, F.; Shi, Y. F.; He, H. L.

    2017-11-01

    Many occasions related to batteries demand to know how much continuous and instantaneous power can batteries provide such as the rapidly developing electric vehicles. As the large-scale applications of lithium-ion batteries, lithium-ion batteries are used to be our research object. Many experiments are designed to get the lithium-ion battery parameters to ensure the relevance and reliability of the estimation. To evaluate the continuous and instantaneous load capability of a battery called state-of-function (SOF), this paper proposes a fuzzy logic algorithm based on battery state-of-charge(SOC), state-of-health(SOH) and C-rate parameters. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is suitable for battery SOF estimation.

  3. Ultrafast-Charging and Long-Life Li-Ion Battery Anodes of TiO2-B and Anatase Dual-Phase Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaikai; Li, Baohua; Wu, Junxiong; Kang, Feiyu; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2017-10-18

    Ideal lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) should possess a high power density, be charged extremely fast (e.g., 100C), and have a long service life. To achieve them all, all battery components, including anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes should have excellent structural and functional characteristics. The present work reports ultrafast-charging and long-life LIB anodes made from TiO 2 -B/anatase dual-phase nanowires. The dual-phase nanowires are fabricated with anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles through a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal process, which can be easily scaled up for mass production. The anodes exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with reversible capacities of ∼225, 172, and 140 mAh g -1 at current rates of 1C, 10C, and 60C, respectively. They deliver exceptional capacity retention of not less than 126 and 93 mAh g -1 after 1000 cycles at 60C and 100C, respectively, potentially worthwhile for high-power applications. These values are among the best when the high-rate capabilities are compared with the literature data for similar TiO 2 -based anodes. The Ragone plot confirms both the exceptionally high energy and power densities of the devices prepared using the dual-phase nanowires. The electrochemical tests and operando Raman spectra present fast electrochemical kinetics for both Li + and electron transports in the TiO 2 dual-phase nanowires than in anatase nanoparticles due to the excellent Li + diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of nanowires.

  4. An Experiment on the Strong Interactions of Charged Hyperons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this experiment is to study @S*, @X* and @W* diffractive production in @X|-N collisions. Incident @X|- at a mean momentum of 118~GeV/c are tagged by a differential Cherenkov counter (DISC). The resonance decay products are analysed by a double stage magnetic spectrometer equipped with multiwire proportional chambers and drift chambers, a multicell Cherenkov counter and two complementary neutral particle detectors, a liquid argon calorimeter for @g and neutron detection and a lead glass bl wide angle @g rays. A multiplicity counter (M) and two hodoscopes of scintillators (H2 and H3) are used in the trigger. Hyperon radiative decays are also being studied with the same apparatus. The scattering target is taken out and appropriate trigger conditions are used. For the @S|+~@A~p@g decay mode, the polarity of the hyperon channel is reversed and the @S|+'s are identified by the DISC. For the @L~@A~n@g decay mode, @X|-~@A~@L@p|- decays occuring between the B and D chambers provide a source of @L's of...

  5. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    OpenAIRE

    Moia, Davide; Giovannitti, Alexander; Szumska, Anna A.; Schnurr, Martin; Rezasoltani, Elham; Maria, Iuliana P.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient t...

  6. Charge collection in the Silicon Drift Detectors of the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Batigne, G; Beolé, S; Biolcati, E; Cerello, P; Coli, S; Corrales Morales, Y; Crescio, E; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Lea, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Mazza, G; Ortona, G; Prino, F; Ramello, L; Rashevsky, A; Riccati, L; Rivetti, A; Senyukov, S; Siciliano, M; Sitta, M; Subieta, M; Toscano, L; Tosello, F

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study of charge collection efficiency has been performed on the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) of the ALICE experiment. Three different methods to study the collected charge as a function of the drift time have been implemented. The first approach consists in measuring the charge at different injection distances moving an infrared laser by means of micrometric step motors. The second method is based on the measurement of the charge injected by the laser at fixed drift distance and varying the drift field, thus changing the drift time. In the last method, the measurement of the charge deposited by atmospheric muons is used to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the drift time. The three methods gave consistent results and indicated that no charge loss during the drift is observed for the sensor types used in 99% of the SDD modules mounted on the ALICE Inner Tracking System. The atmospheric muons have also been used to test the effect of the zero-suppression applied to reduce the d...

  7. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  8. Hazard detection in noise-related incidents - the role of driving experience with battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocron, Peter; Bachl, Veronika; Früh, Laura; Koch, Iris; Krems, Josef F

    2014-12-01

    The low noise emission of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has led to discussions about how to address potential safety issues for other road users. Legislative actions have already been undertaken to implement artificial sounds. In previous research, BEV drivers reported that due to low noise emission they paid particular attention to pedestrians and bicyclists. For the current research, we developed a hazard detection task to test whether drivers with BEV experience respond faster to incidents, which arise due to the low noise emission, than inexperienced drivers. The first study (N=65) revealed that BEV experience only played a minor role in drivers' response to hazards resulting from low BEV noise. The tendency to respond, reaction times and hazard evaluations were similar among experienced and inexperienced BEV drivers; only small trends in the assumed direction were observed. Still, both groups clearly differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios and responded accordingly. In the second study (N=58), we investigated additionally if sensitization to low noise emission of BEVs had an effect on hazard perception in incidents where the noise difference is crucial. Again, participants in all groups differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios. Even though trends in response rates and latencies occurred, experience and sensitization to low noise seemed to only play a minor role in detecting hazards due to low BEV noise. An additional global evaluation of BEV noise further suggests that even after a short test drive, the lack of noise is perceived more as a comfort feature than a safety threat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Li2O2@Li2CO3 Interfaces on Charge Transport in Nonaqueous Li−Air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Hummelshøj, Jens S.

    2015-01-01

    vacancies accumulate at the peroxide part of the interface during charge, reducing the coherent electron transport by two to three orders of magnitude compared with pristine Li2O2. During discharge, Li2O2@Li2CO3 interfaces may, however, provide an alternative in-plane channel for fast electron polaron...

  10. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  11. Observation of the charge neutrality of the ions from target short-pulse laser interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuike, Kazuhito

    2003-01-01

    Intended to simulate the early stage of the plasma (preformed plasma) formation in the higher (10 20 W cm -2 ) intensity experiments (in which the plasma density profile rules laser absorption thus conversion efficiency from laser into hot electrons, ions and x-rays) experiments using solid target were done under a peak intensity (main laser pulse) of up to ∼10 15 W cm -2 and pre-pulse and pedestal intensity of ∼10 3 times lower than main pulse. With pedestal, significant enhancement of laser absorption was observed with pedestal condition. Charge neutralization of the ions from the plasma was measured by biased charge collectors. Earlier part of the ion were almost un-neutralized in with or without pedestal condition, and the later part of the ions (≤ few keV) were partially neutralized (≥40%). These not-perfect charge neutralization results is different from the longer nano-seconds pulse experimental results. (author)

  12. The Shortest Path Problems in Battery-Electric Vehicle Dispatching with Battery Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minfang Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles play a key role for developing an eco-sustainable transport system. One critical component of an electric vehicle is its battery, which can be quickly charged or exchanged before it runs out. The problem of electric vehicle dispatching falls into the category of the shortest path problem with resource renewal. In this paper, we study the shortest path problems in (1 electric transit bus scheduling and (2 electric truck routing with time windows. In these applications, a fully-charged battery allows running a limited operational distance, and the battery before depletion needs to be quickly charged or exchanged with a fully-charged one at a battery management facility. The limited distance and battery renewal result in a shortest path problem with resource renewal. We develop a label-correcting algorithm with state space relaxation to find optimal solutions. In the computational experiments, real-world road geometry data are used to generate realistic travel distances, and other types of data are obtained from the real world or randomly generated. The computational results show that the label-correcting algorithm performs very well.

  13. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  14. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  15. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are

  16. Hunting the Charged Higgs Boson with Lepton Signatures in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)702233; Collot, Johann; Ellert, Mattias

    This thesis presents searches for a charged Higgs boson ($H^\\pm$) in proton-proton collisions with center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV, using data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Multiple search channels are used with the common characteristic of at least one charged lepton (electron or muon) that effectively reduces the multi-jet background and is used for efficient triggering. Charged Higgs bosons decaying to a tau lepton and a neutrino are searched for using final states with two charged leptons, or one charged lepton and a hadronically decaying tau. A significant background originates from quark- or gluon-initiated jets that may be misidentified as hadronic tau decays. Methods to estimate this background are presented, including a largely data-driven matrix method. Signal processes with a charged Higgs boson mass below or above that of the top quark are considered. With the dataset collected at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated...

  17. The study of effect of solid electrolyte on charge-discharge characteristics of thin-film lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaletskiy, L. A.; Lebedev, M. E.; Mironenko, A. A.; Naumov, V. V.; Novozhilova, A. V.; Fedorov, I. S.; Rudy, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    Results of studies of the solid electrolyte effect on capacitance of thin-film electrodes on the basis of Si-O-Al and VxOy nanocomposites are presented. The studies were carried out by comparing the charge-discharge characteristics of two pairs of the identical electrodes, one of which was covered by LiPON film, within prototypes with two lithium electrodes - the counter and the reference electrode.

  18. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery... must be as close as possible to the engine or engines. (c) Small batteries. Small size battery... and, for a lead-acid battery, the fully charged specific gravity value. This information must be...

  19. Charged Higgs boson searches and SemiConductor Tracker commissioning for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mohn, Bjarte Alsaker

    The ATLAS (A Toroidal Lhc ApparatuS) experiment is one of four major experiments presently being installed at the upcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) outside Geneva. In this thesis we present work done on both the simulation of the ATLAS physics potential for a charged Higgs boson and the construction of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) - a subdetector within the ATLAS Inner Detector. The discovery of a charged Higgs boson would be an unambiguous sign of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) and it is thus of great interest to study the ATLAS potential for a charged Higgs discovery. Two such studies have been conducted for this thesis. In the first study a large-mass-splitting Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is assumed in which the charged Higgs boson decays into a W boson and a neutral Higgs may receive a large branching ratio.We conclude, however, that charged Higgs searches in this decay channel are made difficult by a large irreducible SM ba...

  20. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-09-14

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation "beyond-lithium" battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new "multivalent ion" battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), or La(3+) ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni(2+) ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni(2+) ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg(-1), close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).

  1. A Comparative Study Based on the Least Square Parameter Identification Method for State of Charge Estimation of a LiFePO4 Battery Pack Using Three Model-Based Algorithms for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Zahid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage management for electric vehicles (EV and hybrid EV is the most critical and enabling technology since the dawn of electric vehicle commercialization. A battery system is a complex electrochemical phenomenon whose performance degrades with age and the existence of varying material design. Moreover, it is very tedious and computationally very complex to monitor and control the internal state of a battery’s electrochemical systems. For Thevenin battery model we established a state-space model which had the advantage of simplicity and could be easily implemented and then applied the least square method to identify the battery model parameters. However, accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of a battery, which depends not only on the battery model but also on highly accurate and efficient algorithms, is considered one of the most vital and critical issue for the energy management and power distribution control of EV. In this paper three different estimation methods, i.e., extended Kalman filter (EKF, particle filter (PF and unscented Kalman Filter (UKF, are presented to estimate the SoC of LiFePO4 batteries for an electric vehicle. Battery’s experimental data, current and voltage, are analyzed to identify the Thevenin equivalent model parameters. Using different open circuit voltages the SoC is estimated and compared with respect to the estimation accuracy and initialization error recovery. The experimental results showed that these online SoC estimation methods in combination with different open circuit voltage-state of charge (OCV-SoC curves can effectively limit the error, thus guaranteeing the accuracy and robustness.

  2. Intercalating Ti2Nb14O39Anode Materials for Fast-Charging, High-Capacity and Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunfu; Deng, Shengjue; Kautz, David J; Xu, Zhihao; Liu, Tao; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning; Lin, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Ti-Nb-O binary oxide materials represent a family of promising intercalating anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In additional to their excellent capacities (388-402 mAh g -1 ), these materials show excellent safety characteristics, such as an operating potential above the lithium plating voltage and minimal volume change. Herein, this study reports a new member in the Ti-Nb-O family, Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 , as an advanced anode material. Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 porous spheres (Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S) exhibit a defective shear ReO 3 crystal structure with a large unit cell volume and a large amount of cation vacancies (0.85% vs all cation sites). These morphological and structural characteristics allow for short electron/Li + -ion transport length and fast Li + -ion diffusivity. Consequently, the Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S material delivers significant pseudocapacitive behavior and excellent electrochemical performances, including high reversible capacity (326 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C), high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (87.5%), safe working potential (1.67 V vs Li/Li + ), outstanding rate capability (223 mAh g -1 at 40 C) and durable cycling stability (only 0.032% capacity loss per cycle over 200 cycles at 10 C). These impressive results clearly demonstrate that Ti 2 Nb 14 O 39 -S can be a promising anode material for fast-charging, high capacity, safe and stable lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamical observation of lithium insertion/extraction reaction during charge-discharge processes in Li-ion batteries by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyamada, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with solid electrolytes are expected to be the next generation devices to overcome serious issues facing conventional LIBs with liquid electrolytes. However, the large Li-ion transfer resistance at the electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces causes low power density and prevents practical use. In-situ-formed negative electrodes prepared by decomposing the solid electrolyte Li(1+x+3z)Alx(Ti,Ge)(2-x)Si(3z)P(3-z)O12 (LASGTP) with an excess Li-ion insertion reaction are effective electrodes providing low Li-ion transfer resistance at the interfaces. Prior to our work, however, it had still been unclear how the negative electrodes were formed in the parent solid electrolytes. Here, we succeeded in dynamically visualizing the formation by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope mode (SR-TEM-EELS). The Li-ions were gradually inserted into the solid electrolyte region around 400 nm from the negative current-collector/solid-electrolyte interface in the charge process. Some of the ions were then extracted in the discharge process, and the rest were diffused such that the distribution was almost flat, resulting in the negative electrodes. The redox reaction of Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) in the solid electrolyte was also observed in situ during the Li insertion/extraction processes. The in situ SR-TEM-EELS revealed the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in solid-state batteries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Extracting lunar dust parameters from image charge signals produced by the Lunar Dust Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.; Kempf, S.; Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector used to characterize the lunar dust exosphere generated by the impacts of large interplanetary particles and meteor streams (Horanyi et al., 2015). In addition to the mass and speed of these lofted particles, LDEX is sensitive to their charge. The resulting signatures of impact events therefore provide valuable information about not only the ambient plasma environment, but also the speed vectors of these dust grains. Here, impact events produced from LDEX's calibration at the Dust Accelerator Laboratory are analyzed using an image charge model derived from the electrostatic simulation program, Coulomb. We show that parameters such as dust grain speed, size, charge, and position of entry into LDEX can be recovered and applied to data collected during LADEE's seven-month mission.

  5. Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in pPb collisions with CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhoudunming; CMS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations relative to the event plane in AA collisions have been suggested as providing evidence for the chiral magnetic effect (CME) caused by local strong parity violation. However, the observation of the CME remains inconclusive because of several possible sources of background correlations that may account for part or all of the observed signals. This talk will present the first application of three-particle, charge-dependent azimuthal correlation analysis in proton-nucleus collisions, using pPb data collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV. The differences found in comparing same and opposite sign correlations are studied as a function of event multiplicity and the pseudorapidity gap between two of the particles detected in the CMS tracker detector. After selecting events with comparable charge-particle multiplicities, the results for pPb collisions are found to be similar to those for PbPb collisions collected at the same collision energy. With a reduced magnetic field strength and a random field orientation in high multiplicity pPb events, the CME contribution to any charge separation signal is expected to be much smaller than found in peripheral PbPb events. These results pose a challenge for the interpretation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in heavy ion collisions in terms of the chiral magnetic effect.

  6. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... cell container is breached. The problems that lithium-battery users experience raise concerns about the... gases that may escape from any lithium battery may damage surrounding structure or any adjacent systems...- retention ability or other damage due to prolonged storage at a low state-of-charge. Precautions should be...

  7. A Review of Approaches for the Design of Li-Ion BMS Estimation Functions Revue de différentes approches pour l’estimation de l’état de charge de batteries Li-ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Domenico D.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at comparing different approaches for the estimation of the state of charge of lithium-ion batteries. The main advantages as well as the critical points of the considered techniques are analyzed, highlighting the impact of the cell model precision and complexity on the estimator performance. Among others, the electrical equivalent circuit based technique is selected for further development. The results of a complete procedure from the cell characterization to the online estimation are illustrated. The experimental tests based on the data collected on batteries testing facilities of IFP Energies nouvelles show that the proposed strategy allows a satisfying state of charge real time estimation. Cet article vise à comparer différentes approches pour l’estimation de l’état de charge pour les batteries Li-ion. Les principaux avantages ainsi que les points critiques des différentes techniques sont analysés, en soulignant l’impact de la complexité et de la précision du modèle sur les performances de l’estimateur. La procédure complète, allant de la caractérisation de la cellule jusqu’à l’estimation en ligne de l’état de charge, est présentée pour la modélisation par circuit électrique équivalent. Les tests expérimentaux sur la base des données acquises au laboratoire batteries d’IFP Energies nouvelles montrent que cette stratégie permet d’obtenir un estimateur en temps réel de l’état de charge présentant de bonnes performances.

  8. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  9. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  10. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  11. Numerical experiments on charging of a spherical body in a plasma with Maxwellian distributions of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovsky, Victor L.; Kiselyov, Alexander A.

    2017-12-01

    New results of numerical simulation of collisionless plasma perturbation caused by a sphere absorbing electrons and ions are presented. Consideration is given to nonstationary phenomena accompanying the process of charging as well as to plasma steady state reached at long times. Corresponding asymptotic values of charges of the sphere and trapped-ion cloud around it have been found along with self-consistent electric field pattern depending on parameters of the unperturbed plasma. It is established that contribution of the trapped ions to screening of the charged sphere can be quite significant, so that the screening becomes essentially nonlinear in nature. A simple interconnection between the sphere radius, electron and ion Debye lengths has been revealed as the condition for maximum trapped-ion effect. Kinetic structure of the space charge induced in the plasma is discussed with relation to the specific form of the unperturbed charged particle distribution functions.

  12. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  13. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Observer with Grey Prediction for the Estimation of the State-of-Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state-of-charge (SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries that combines a fuzzy sliding mode observer (FSMO with grey prediction. Unlike the existing methods based on a conventional first-order sliding mode observer (SMO and an adaptive gain SMO, the proposed method eliminates chattering in SOC estimation. In this method, which uses a fuzzy inference system, the gains of the SMO are adjusted according to the predicted future error and present estimation error of the terminal voltage. To forecast the future error value, a one-step-ahead terminal voltage prediction is obtained using a grey predictor. The proposed estimation method is validated through two types of discharge tests (a pulse discharge test and a random discharge test. The SOC estimation results are compared to the results of the conventional first-order SMO-based and the adaptive gain SMO-based methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only reduces chattering, but also improves estimation accuracy.

  14. Modelling of an advanced charging system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Jaafar, Abdul; Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-03-01

    Climate Change is recognized as one of the greatest environmental problem facing the World today and it has long been appreciated by governments that reducing the impact of the internal combustion (IC) engine powered motor vehicle has an important part to play in addressing this threat. In Malaysia, IC engine powered motor vehicle accounts almost 90% of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the emission is paramount, as Malaysia has pledged to reduce 40% of CO2 intensity by 2020 from 2005 level by 25% of improvement in average fuel consumption. The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the initiatives. However in terms of percentage, the electric vehicles have not been commonly used by people nowadays and one of the reasons is lack in charging infrastructure especially when cars are on the road. The aim of this study is to simulate and model an advanced charging system for the charging infrastructure of EVs/HEVs all over the nation with slow charging mode with charging current 25 A, medium charging mode with charging current 50 A and fast charging mode with charging current 100 A. The slow charging mode is proposed for residence, medium charging mode for office parking lots, and fast charging mode is called fast charging track for charging station on road. With three modes charger topology, consumers could choose a suitable mode for their car based on their need. The simulation and experiment of advanced charging system has been conducted on a scale down battery pack of nominal voltage of 3.75 V and capacity of 1020 mAh. Result shows that the battery could be charging less than 1 hour with fast charging mode. However, due to limitation of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) power grid, the maximum 50 A current is considered to be the optimized passive mode for the EV’s battery charging system. The developed advanced charger prototype performance has been compared with the simulation result and conventional charger performance, the

  15. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SZYMBORSKI,JOSEPH; HUNT,GEORGE; TSAGALIS,ANGELO; JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    2000-06-08

    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  16. QED in highly-charged high Z ions - experiments at the storage ring ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    A survey on the fundamental structure aspects of very heavy few -electron ions, in particular H-like systems, is presented. Special emphasis is given to contribution from quantum-electro-dynamics at strong central potentials. The technical possibilities to produce highly-charged heavy ions are reviewed and the ground-state Lamb-shift experiments performed at the heavy ion storage ring ESR are summarized. A short outlook on further developments in this field is added. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs

  17. BOREX: Solar neutrino experiment via weak neutral and charged currents in boron-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, T.; Mitchell, J.W.; Raghavan, P.

    1989-01-01

    Borex, and experiment to observe solar neutrinos using boron loaded liquid scintillation techniques, is being developed for operation at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. It aims to observe the spectrum of electron type 8 B solar neutrinos via charged current inverse β-decay of 11 B and the total flux solar neutrinos regardless of flavor by excitation of 11 B via the weak neutral current. 14 refs

  18. Reconstruction of charged particle trajectories in multiwire proportional chambers at the BM@N experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenivenko, V.V.; Pal'chik, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    The algorithm for track reconstruction in the multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) of the BM@N experiment is described. Beam tracks before the interaction with the target and trajectories of charged particles after the interaction are reconstructed using Nuclotron experimental data with deuteron and carbon beams colliding with the carbon and copper targets. Trajectories are extrapolated to the interaction point and to the drift chambers. Efficiencies of MWPCs have been obtained. Beam parameters (transverse dimensions, the angular spread) have been measured. [ru

  19. Self-balancing feature of Lithium-Sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2017-01-01

    -of-charge (SOC) levels, which leads to the energy dissipation of cells with higher charge. In an operation of series-connected Li-S cells, the shuttle mechanism results into a self-balancing effect which is studied here. A model for prediction of the self-balancing effect is proposed in this work......The Li-S batteries are a prospective battery technology, which despite to its currently remaining drawbacks offers useable performance and interesting features. The polysulfide shuttle mechanism, a characteristic phenomenon for the Li-S batteries, causes a significant self-discharge at higher state...... and it is validated by experiments. Our results confirm the self-balancing feature of Li-S cells and illustrate their dependence on various conditions such as temperature, charging limits and idling time at high SOC....

  20. Probing the Complexities of Structural Changes in Layered Oxide Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries during Fast Charge-Discharge Cycling and Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enyuan; Wang, Xuelong; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2018-02-20

    The rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) is the most promising energy storage system to power electric vehicles with high energy density and long cycling life. However, in order to meet customers' demands for fast charging, the power performances of current LIBs need to be improved. From the cathode aspect, layer-structured cathode materials are widely used in today's market and will continue to play important roles in the near future. The high rate capability of layered cathode materials during charging and discharging is critical to the power performance of the whole cell and the thermal stability is closely related to the safety issues. Therefore, the in-depth understanding of structural changes of layered cathode materials during high rate charging/discharging and the thermal stability during heating are essential in developing new materials and improving current materials. Since structural changes take place from the atomic level to the whole electrode level, combination of characterization techniques covering multilength scales is quite important. In many cases, this means using comprehensive tools involving diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging to differentiate the surface from the bulk and to obtain structural/chemical information with different levels of spatial resolution. For example, hard X-ray spectroscopy can yield the bulk information and soft X-ray spectroscopy can give the surface information; X-ray based imaging techniques can obtain spatial resolution of tens of nanometers, and electron-based microcopy can go to angstroms. In addition to challenges associated with different spatial resolution, the dynamic nature of structural changes during high rate cycling and heating requires characterization tools to have the capability of collecting high quality data in a time-resolved fashion. Thanks to the advancement in synchrotron based techniques and high-resolution electron microscopy, high temporal and spatial resolutions can now be achieved. In

  1. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  2. GEM detector performance and efficiency in Proton Charge Radius (PRad) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinzhan; PRad Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The PRad experiment (E12-11-106) was performed in 2016 at Jefferson Lab in Hall B. It aims to investigate the proton charge radius puzzle through electron proton elastic scattering process. The experiment used a non-magnetic spectrometer method, and reached a very small ep scattering angle and thus an unprecedented small four-momentum transfer squared region, Q2 from 2 ×10-4 to 0.06(GeV / c) 2 . PRad experiment was designed to measure the proton charge radius within a sub-percent precision. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors have contributed to reach the experimental goal. A pair of large area GEM detectors, and a large acceptance, high resolution calorimeter(HyCal) were utilized in the experiment to detect the scattered electrons. The precision requirements of the experiment demands a highly accurate understanding of efficiency and stability of GEM detectors. In this talk, we will present the preliminary results on the performance and efficiency of GEM detectors. This work is supported in part by NSF MRI award PHY-1229153, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-07ER41528, No. DE-FG02-03ER41240 and Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory.

  3. Experiments with highly-charged heavy-ions performed at the storage ring ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    The new heavy ion accelerator facility SIS/ESR was inaugurated in April 1990. During 1991 the experimental storage ring, ESR, has been commissioned. Highly-charged heavy ions from O 8+ up to Bi 82+ were successfully accumulated, cooled, and stored in the ring. Now all highly-charged, heavy ions can be provided for experiments at comfortable storage times and at energies roughly between 100 and 500 MeV/u. A report on the achievements and on the first experimental results will be given. For the experiments, special emphasis is put on capture processes in the electron cooler, i.e. on radiative and dielectronic recombination processes as well as on capture events of bound target electrons from a gas jet. In this case, the capture leads either directly (REC) or by cascading to X-ray emission, which is also exploited for a precision spectroscopy of the structure of the heaviest ions. Another exciting topic is the radioactive decay of highly charged ions: For instance the β-decay into bound atomic states, which is not possible for neutral atoms, was studied for stored naked Dy ions. (orig.)

  4. Performance of Automotive SLI Battery under Constant Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this project, a cost-effective 12V battery charge controller was developed to implement constant current constant voltage charge algorithm in small-sized stand-alone solar PV systems. The algorithm was tested on automotive SLI battery instead of deep-cycle PV battery to further reduce overall system cost. The battery ...

  5. First charged current data from the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinknecht, K.

    1977-01-01

    The CDHS Collaboration has analyzed data taken in the CERN narrow-band antineutrino and neutrino beams. From 12000 antineutrino and 36000 neutrino charged current events at neutrino energies between 30 GeV and 200 GeV, we obtain the average inelasticity and the cross-section ratio sigma antisub(ν)/sigmasub(ν) as a function of neutrino energy. On the basis of these data we cannot confirm the high y anomaly observed by previous experiments at Fermilab. Instead, the measured average inelasticity in anti neutrino reactions and the ratio of charged current total cross-sections sigma anti sub(ν)/sigma%sub(ν) are compatible with no energy variation within their errors in the energy range 30 + . (orig.) [de

  6. Why a noninteracting model works for shot noise in fractional charge experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, D. E.; Heiblum, Moty

    2017-03-01

    A fractional quasiparticle charge is a manifestation of strong interactions in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Nevertheless, shot noise of quasiparticles is well described by a formula, derived for noninteracting charges. We explain the success of that formula by proving that in the limits of strong and weak backscattering it holds irrespectively of microscopic details in weakly and strongly interacting systems alike. The derivation relies only on principles of statistical mechanics. We also derive an approximate model-independent formula for shot noise in the regime of intermediate backscattering. The equation is numerically close to the standard "noninteracting" fitting formula but suggests a different physical interpretation of the experimental results. We verify our theoretical predictions with a shot-noise experiment at the filling factor 3 /5 .

  7. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.

    1983-03-01

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10 - 7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/ 2 /2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  9. Determination of the elementary charge and the quantum metrological triangle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltin, N.; Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), 78 - Trappes (France)

    2009-06-15

    The elementary charge e is of fundamental importance in physics. The determination of its value, which is closely linked to progress of the measurement techniques, started in the beginning of the twentieth century and is still on-going. Today, in the frame of the CODATA adjustment, the evaluation of the fundamental constant, e, is derived from a complex calculation and is no more related to a single experiment. But the development of single electron tunneling (SET) devices, started in the early nineties, has opened the path towards modern metrological systems as quantum current sources. Thus a new direct determination of e is possible by implementing an electron pump and the set-up of the quantum metrological triangle (QMT) in combination with the experiments linking mechanical and electrical units. Furthermore, we show how the QMT experiment can contribute to the establishment of a new system of units based on fundamental constants of physics. (authors)

  10. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  11. Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in pPb collisions with CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Zhoudunming

    2017-01-01

    Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations relative to the event plane in AA collisions have been suggested as providing evidence for the chiral magnetic effect (CME) caused by local strong parity violation. However, the observation of the CME remains inconclusive because of several possible sources of background correlations that may account for part or all of the observed signals. This talk will present the first application of three-particle, charge-dependent azimuthal correlation analysis in proton-nucleus collisions, using pPb data collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The differences found in comparing same and opposite sign correlations are studied as a function of event multiplicity and the pseudorapidity gap between two of the particles detected in the CMS tracker detector. After selecting events with comparable charge-particle multiplicities, the results for pPb collisions are found to be similar to those for PbPb collisions collected at the same collision energy. ...

  12. Recent results on charge-parity symmetry violation at the Belle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, G.R.; Sevior, M.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N.; Varvell, K.; Bakich, A.; Peak, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The observation of large Charge-Parity, CP, symmetry violation in the decay of B mesons has recently been reported by the Belle collaboration. Belle is an international collaboration of 54 institutes from 13 countries. The Belle experiment studies the decay of B B meson pairs produced at the KEKB B factory in Tsukuba, Japan. This presentation will include a survey of recent measurements by Belle, including the latest measurement of the CP violation parameter, sin2φ 1 . The Australian contribution to the construction and maintenance of the Belle detector will also be presented - including the assembly of detector modules for the recent upgrade of the Belle Silicon Vertex Detector

  13. Charge asymmetry dependence of anisotropic flow in pPb and PbPb collisions with the CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Eon; CMS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the linear dependence found for the elliptic flow harmonic of both positive or negative charged particles as a function of event charge asymmetry is predicted by the phenomenon known as the Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) due to its induced electric quadrupole moment. Here, the event charge asymmetry Ach is defined as N+-N-/N++N-, where N+ and N- are the number of positive and negative charged particles, respectively. However, other scenarios are also possible and may provide alternative explanations for the experimental results. New measurements of elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow for positive and negative charged particles as a function of Ach in pPb and PbPb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV are presented, using data collected by the CMS experiment during the LHC runs 1 and 2. The slopes and intercepts of the charged-dependent vn harmonics vs. Ach are directly compared for pPb and PbPb collisions with similar charged-particle multiplicities, where a strong CMW effect is not expected in very high multiplicity pPb events. Moreover, a comparison is made of the slope parameters between v2 and v3 harmonics normalized by the inclusive charge particle vn in PbPb collisions as a function of centrality. These results provide a means to discriminate between the CMW and other scenarios such as local charge conservation as possible explanations for the observed charge dependent behavior.

  14. Lithium-ion Battery Electrothermal Model, Parameter Estimation, and Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Orcioni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The market for lithium-ion batteries is growing exponentially. The performance of battery cells is growing due to improving production technology, but market request is growing even more rapidly. Modeling and characterization of single cells and an efficient simulation environment is fundamental for the development of an efficient battery management system. The present work is devoted to defining a novel lumped electrothermal circuit of a single battery cell, the extraction procedure of the parameters of the single cell from experiments, and a simulation environment in SystemC-WMS for the simulation of a battery pack. The electrothermal model of the cell was validated against experimental measurements obtained in a climatic chamber. The model is then used to simulate a 48-cell battery, allowing statistical variations among parameters. The different behaviors of the cells in terms of state of charge, current, voltage, or heat flow rate can be observed in the results of the simulation environment.

  15. Study of nonstandard charged-current interactions at the MOMENT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Zhang, Yibing

    2018-02-01

    MuOn-decay MEdium baseline NeuTrino beam experiment (MOMENT) is a next-generation accelerator neutrino experiment, which can be used to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model. We try to simulate neutrino oscillations confronting charged-current and nonstandard neutrino interactions (CC-NSIs) at MOMENT. These NSIs could alter neutrino production and detection processes and interfere with neutrino oscillation channels. We separate a perturbative discussion of oscillation channels at near and far detectors, and analyze parameter correlations with the impact of CC-NSIs. Taking δc p and θ23 as an example, we find that CC-NSIs can induce bias in precision measurements of standard oscillation parameters. In addition, a combination of near and far detectors using Gd-doped water Cherenkov technology at MOMENT is able to provide good constraints of CC-NSIs happening to the neutrino production and detection processes.

  16. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  17. Lead/acid battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, J. E.; Lam, L. T.; Peters, K.; Prengaman, R. D.; Valeriote, E. M.

    Following the schedule of previous Asian Battery Conferences, the Proceedings closed with an expert panel of battery scientists and technologists who answered questions put by the assembled delegates. The subjects under consideration were as follows. Grid alloys: grain structure of lead-calcium and lead-calcium-tin alloys; dross problems; control of calcium content; cast-on-strap; terminal-post attack; porosity/acid-wicking problems; effect of silver; lead-cadmium alloys. Leady oxide: α-PbO:β-PbO ratio; influence on plate-processing and battery performance. Paste-mixing and curing: influence of amorphous material. Plate formation: black/powdery plates; effect of acid concentration; charge level. Valve-regulated batteries: mass balances; grid thickness; shelf life. Battery charging: overcharge effects; fast charging; temperature effects; string configurations; sodium sulfate additive.

  18. Compatibility study towards monolithic self-charging power unit based on all-solid thin-film solar module and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbaumhüter, Florian; Agbo, Solomon N.; Tsai, Chih-Long; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Rau, Uwe; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the development of a monolithic integrated all-solid-state self-rechargeable power unit, we perform a V-I characteristics compatibility study for the integration of such a device having a thin-film silicon multi-junction photovoltaic (PV) module and a thin-film solid Li//lithium phosphorus oxynitride//LiCoO2 battery. The battery and PV module are connected to mimic a monolithic module-to-storage cell device and the performance of this device in various temperature conditions has been tested. Few issues regarding the matching of the battery and PV module characteristics are identified for improvement. The concept of the integrated all-solid-state PV-battery solution appears viable especially in three-terminal device configuration.

  19. In Situ Powder Diffraction Studies of Electrode Materials in Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeraj; Pang, Wei Kong; Guo, Zaiping; Peterson, Vanessa K

    2015-09-07

    The ability to directly track the charge carrier in a battery as it inserts/extracts from an electrode during charge/discharge provides unparalleled insight for researchers into the working mechanism of the device. This crystallographic-electrochemical information can be used to design new materials or modify electrochemical conditions to improve battery performance characteristics, such as lifetime. Critical to collecting operando data used to obtain such information in situ while a battery functions are X-ray and neutron diffractometers with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to capture complex and subtle structural changes. The number of operando battery experiments has dramatically increased in recent years, particularly those involving neutron powder diffraction. Herein, the importance of structure-property relationships to understanding battery function, why in situ experimentation is critical to this, and the types of experiments and electrochemical cells required to obtain such information are described. For each battery type, selected research that showcases the power of in situ and operando diffraction experiments to understand battery function is highlighted and future opportunities for such experiments are discussed. The intention is to encourage researchers to use in situ and operando techniques and to provide a concise overview of this area of research. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1983-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandems in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S 6 - 16 + on He and Ar at 6-20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl 16 + + Ar collisions at 20, 10 and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed

  1. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandens in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S/sup 6-16+/ on He and Ar at 6 to 20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl/sup 16 +/ + Ar collisions at 20, 10, and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed.

  2. Charge exchange during pion-nucleon scattering at low energy: experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernin, Pascal

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis lies within the frame of a more general study of pion-nucleon scattering according to the following processes: π + p → π + p; π - p → π - p; π - p → π 0 n. It more precisely addresses the last reaction, so-called charge exchange. Pion-nucleon interactions are described by phase shifts of scattering waves. But the measurement of one of these phase shifts (that of the S wave) requires very low energy pions, and could not have been performed until now with a good precision. In order to fill this gap, the author performed charge exchange experiments at 180 deg. and for energies of 22.6, 33.9 and 42.6 MeV. After a recall on involved theoretical data, the author describes the experimental setup, and reports the detailed study of problems raised by neutron detection. He shows that the analysis of experimental data allows (a 3 - a 1 ) to be obtained with a precision which, without being as high as desired, is nevertheless satisfying [fr

  3. On-Orbit NiH2 Battery Performance and Problem Solving on the APEX Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Machlis, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics eXperiments (APEX) spacecraft, launched in August 1994, contained an Electrical Power Subsystem which included two 10 Common Pressure Vessel nickel hydrogen batteries manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. The spacecraft bus has fully supported over 18 months of on-orbit payload operations, well exceeding the mission requirement. Over the duration of the mission, three fundamentally different battery charging algorithms were used, as necessitat...

  4. Online state-of-health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiwei; Gao, Mingyu; Ma, Guojin; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Sanxin

    2014-12-01

    Li-ion batteries are widely used in energy storage systems, electric vehicles, communication systems, etc. The State of Health (SOH) of batteries is of great importance to the safety of these systems. This paper presents a novel online method for the estimation of the SOH of Lithium (Li)-ion batteries based on Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs). The structure of the DBN model is built according to the experience of experts, with the state of charges used as hidden states and the terminal voltages used as observations in the DBN. Parameters of the DBN model are learned based on training data collected through Li-ion battery aging experiments. A forward algorithm is applied for the inference of the DBN model in order to estimate the SOH in real-time. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient in estimating the SOH of Li-ion batteries.

  5. Aproximation to the Modelling of Charge and Discharge Processes in Electrochemical Batteries by Integral Equation; Aproximacion al Modelo de los Procesos de Carga y Descarga en Baterias Electroquimicas mediante Ecuaciones Integrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui, J. L. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A new way for the modelling of the charge and discharge processes in electrochemical batteries based on the use of integral equations is presented. The proposed method models the charge curves by by the so called fractional or cumulative integrals of a certain objective function f(t) that must be sought. The charge figures can be easily fitted by breaking down this objective function as the addition of two different Lorentz-type functions: the first one is associated to the own charge process and the second one to the overcharge process. The method allows calculating the starting voltage for overcharge as the intersection between both functions. The curve fitting of this model to different experimental charge curves, by using the Marquardt algorithm, has shown very accurate results. In the case of discharge curves, two possible methods for modelling purposes are suggested, well by using the same kind of integral equations, well by the simple subtraction of an objective function f(t) from a constant value V{sub o}D. Many other aspects for the study and analysis of this method in order to improve its results in further developments are also discussed. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. Charged particle multiplicity and correlations in heavy ion collisions in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    "Zabinski, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Since the start of LHC the ATLAS experiment has collected data from pp, PbPb and recently pPb collisions. In this talk two topics from the heavy ion programme are presented. The first of them is the multiplicity of charged particles in PbPb collisions studied as a function centrality. In such collisions very high pseudorapidity particle density is obtained, reaching 1738 $pm$ 76 at $eta sim 0$. For the pPb collisions the latest analysis of two-particle correlations is presented. The "ridge" observed in pp events with large multiplicities is present also in central pPb collisions selected by large $Sigma E_{T}$ at the Pb fragmentation side. In the azimuthal correlation for $2 < Deltaeta < 5$ two components can be extracted. Assuming that in the peripheral collisions only the correlation due to momentum conservation effects are present, in the central collisions additional quadruple modulation component can be identified.

  7. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction. Batteries play an important role as energy storage devices for renewable energy sources, electric vehicle and many other applications. A battery bank is interfaced to load through a power converter, which controls ...

  8. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Battery impedance can provide valuable insight into the condition of the battery. Commercially available impedance measurement instruments are expensive. Hence their direct use in a battery management system is not justifiable. In this work, a 3-kW bi-directional converter for charging and discharging a batterybank has ...

  9. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  10. Battery-powered pulsed high density inductively coupled plasma source for pre-ionization in laboratory astrophysics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vernon H; Bellan, Paul M

    2015-07-01

    An electrically floating radiofrequency (RF) pre-ionization plasma source has been developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and to access new experimental regimes in the Caltech laboratory astrophysics experiments. The source uses a customized 13.56 MHz class D RF power amplifier that is powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 3-6 kV with the electrodes of the high voltage pulsed power experiments. The amplifier, which is capable of 3 kW output power in pulsed (<1 ms) operation, couples electrical energy to the plasma through an antenna external to the 1.1 cm radius discharge tube. By comparing the predictions of a global equilibrium discharge model with the measured scalings of plasma density with RF power input and axial magnetic field strength, we demonstrate that inductive coupling (rather than capacitive coupling or wave damping) is the dominant energy transfer mechanism. Peak ion densities exceeding 5 × 10(19) m(-3) in argon gas at 30 mTorr have been achieved with and without a background field. Installation of the pre-ionization source on a magnetohydrodynamically driven jet experiment reduced the breakdown time and jitter and allowed for the creation of hotter, faster argon plasma jets than was previously possible.

  11. Battery-powered pulsed high density inductively coupled plasma source for pre-ionization in laboratory astrophysics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2015-07-01

    An electrically floating radiofrequency (RF) pre-ionization plasma source has been developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and to access new experimental regimes in the Caltech laboratory astrophysics experiments. The source uses a customized 13.56 MHz class D RF power amplifier that is powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 3-6 kV with the electrodes of the high voltage pulsed power experiments. The amplifier, which is capable of 3 kW output power in pulsed (<1 ms) operation, couples electrical energy to the plasma through an antenna external to the 1.1 cm radius discharge tube. By comparing the predictions of a global equilibrium discharge model with the measured scalings of plasma density with RF power input and axial magnetic field strength, we demonstrate that inductive coupling (rather than capacitive coupling or wave damping) is the dominant energy transfer mechanism. Peak ion densities exceeding 5 × 1019 m-3 in argon gas at 30 mTorr have been achieved with and without a background field. Installation of the pre-ionization source on a magnetohydrodynamically driven jet experiment reduced the breakdown time and jitter and allowed for the creation of hotter, faster argon plasma jets than was previously possible.

  12. [The battery of tests for behavioral phenotyping of aging animals in the experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Ya V; Komleva, Yu K; Lopatina, O L; Volkova, V V; Chernykh, A I; Shabalova, A A; Semenchukov, A A; Olovyannikova, R Ya; Salmina, A B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a battery of tests to study social and cognitive impairments for behavioral phenotyping of aging experimental animals with physiological neurodegeneration. Object of the study were outbred CD1 mice in the following groups: 1st group - 12-month old male mice (physiological aging); 2nd group - 2-month old male mice (control group). Social recognition test, elevated plus maze test (EPM), open field test, light-dark box test, and Fear conditioning protocol were used to estimate the neurological status of experimental animals. We found that aging male mice in a contrast to young ones have demonstrated lower social interest to female mice in the social recognition task. EPM and light-dark box tests showed increased level of anxiety in the group of aged mice comparing to the control group. Fear conditioning protocol revealed impairment of associative learning and memory in the group of aged mice, particularly, fear memory consolidation was dramatically suppressed. Analysis of behavioral factors, social interactions and anxiety level in the experimental mice has confirmed age-related neurodegeneration in the 1st group. We found that the most informative approach to identifying neurological impairments in aging mice (social interaction deficit, limitation of interests, increased level of anxiety) should be based on the open field test light-dark box test, and Fear conditioning protocol. Such combination allows obtaining new data on behavioral alterations in the age-associated of neurodegeneration and to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of age-related brain pathology.

  13. Secondary alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  14. The Qweak Experiment: First Determination of the Weak Charge of the Proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargiantoulakis, Emmanouil [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The $Q_{weak}$ Collaboration has completed a challenging measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton ($\\vec{e}$p) scattering at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The initial result reported here is extracted from the commissioning part of the experiment, constituting about 4% of the full data set. The parity-violating asymmetry at a low momentum transfer $Q^2$=0.025 GeV$^2$ is $A_{ep}$ = -279 $\\pm$ 35 (stat) $\\pm$ 31 (syst) ppb, which is the smallest and most precise asymmetry ever measured in $\\vec{e}$p scattering. This result allowed the first determination of the weak charge of the proton $Q_W^p$ from a global fit of parity-violating elastic scattering (PVES) results from nuclear targets, where earlier data at higher $Q^2$ constrain uncertainties of hadronic structure. The value extracted from the global fit is $Q_W^p$ (PVES) = 0.064 $\\pm$ 0.012, in agreement with the standard model prediction $Q_W^p$ (SM) = 0.0710 $\\pm$ 0.0007. The neutral weak charges of up and down quarks are extracted from a combined fit of the PVES results with a previous atomic parity violation (APV) measurement on $^{133}$Cs. The analysis of the full $Q_{weak}$ data is ongoing and expected to yield a value for the asymmetry within 10 ppb of precision. Because of the suppression of $Q_W^p$, such a high precision measurement will place significant constraints to models of physics beyond the standard model.

  15. Some important aspects of the amplitude, charge and shape analog signals digitization in nuclear physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, Z.

    1995-01-01

    One of the fundamental reasons of the special requirements concerning analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) used in nuclear experimental physics, especially in nuclear spectroscopy, in comparison to the conventional ADC's is a fact that they are utilized for continuous distribution measurements which are the nuclear radiation spectra. The ADC's used for distribution registration in form of amplitude or charge histogram spectra should have the differential linearity of two orders of magnitude better than that for conventional ADC's. Moreover, the problem of achievement the acceptable differential linearity (as well as stability) in nuclear spectroscopy is much more complicated because high resolution and high speed of the converters are also required. The first requirement comes out from application of semiconductor detectors, the second one comes from the statistical character of the nuclear processes, as well as, a necessity of collection of huge amount of nuclear data - often in a short time. In this report the influence of the specific needs of the nuclear experiments on the conversion methods selection and construction principles of the pulse ADC's is analyzed. Focus is taken on these ADC's which are used mainly to digital amplitude and charge detector signals measurements in nuclear spectroscopy. Based on the chosen examples of different types of ADC's it is shown how to obtain the required metrological parameters by using enlarged converter's structures and proper choice of the electronics components. In addition, a problem of the detector signals shape measurements in particle physics using the high speed flash ADC's is also discussed. (author). 196 refs, 99 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Functional Assessment of Battery Management System Tested on Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulator renders possible to conduct on-line tests on Battery Management Systems (BMSs) with an emulated battery pack instead of a real one. In this case, the BMS can be repeatedly evaluated under the exact same experimental scenarios, with safety and accuracy......, or under a flexible and beyond the normal operation area range, with less cost and time efforts. For this purpose, a multi-cell Li-ion battery pack consisting of 32 cells in series has been implemented and validated based on experimental results, converted into C code and emulated through the HIL simulator....... The BMS under test is interacting in real-time with the emulated battery pack and several of its functions such as current, voltage and State of Charge (SOC) estimation are evaluated. Also, passive balancing experiments are conducted during charging in order to assess different balancing settings...

  17. In Situ High Resolution Synchrotron X-Ray Powder Diffraction Studies of Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amri, Mahrez; Fitch, Andy; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Lithium ion battery technology is the heart in operating modern technology devices such as mobile phones and laptops. However, as our society is moving towards the utilization of sustainable energy sources, batteries can be foreseen to become an even more important part of the energy infrastructure...... materials [3]. We report results from the first in situ time resolved high resolution powder diffraction experiments at beamline ID22/31 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF. We follow the structural changes during charge of commercial LiFePO4 based battery materials using the Rietveld...

  18. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  19. A novel on-board state-of-charge estimation method for aged Li-ion batteries based on model adaptive extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-01-01

    A battery management system needs to have an accurate inline estimation of SOC for each individual cell in the battery pack. This estimation process poses challenges after substantial battery aging. This article presents a novel method based on model adaptive extended Kalman filter (MAEKF) to estimate SOC for Li-ion batteries. Sensitivity analysis of the electrical model verifies that the accuracy of SOC estimated by EKF is sensitive to resistors used in the cell's electrical model. In order to get the best estimation, values of resistors are obtained in an optimization process in the MAEKF. This method uses the fact of two sudden changes in the cell's voltage derivative with respect to time while discharging current is constant. These two points are assumed as reference points in which their SOC can be determined from cell's chemistry. The optimization algorithm uses the derivative of the cell's measured terminal voltage to allocate SOC of 92% and 15% for two reference points in the Vcell equation and updates cell's electrical model. The algorithm's process is fast and computationally inexpensive, making on-board estimation practical. The obtained results demonstrate that by using this method the estimated SOC error for aged Li-ion cells does not exceed 4%.

  20. "Wine-Dark Sea" in an Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao; Huang, Jinhua; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Vijayakumar, M.; Walter, Eric; Pan, Baofei; Yang, Zheng; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Li, Bin; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Moore, Jeffery S.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Zhang, Lu; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-04-19

    A highly soluble, readily accessible, redox-active organic material, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, is demonstrated as a novel anolyte material to enable exceptional cyclability in a full-cell organic redox flow battery. This material discovery represents a significant progress toward promising next-generation energy storage.

  1. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dens...

  2. Effect of additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrodes during formation and partial state of charge operation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivík, P.; Micka, Karel; Bača, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 209, JUL 1 2012 (2012), s. 15-19 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : load acid battery electrodes * Doping with carbon * PSoC cycling Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.675, year: 2012

  3. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  4. SOC Estimation of Power Battery Design on Constant-current Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Zhigang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the electric car’s power battery (VRLA battery cell as the research object, for real-time monitoring problem of power battery's state of charge (SOC and remaining time, The system adopts micro control unit (MCU 89S51 and AD974 to control battery discharge in constant current, Through the measurement of a periodic, get Series of working voltage, using phase-slope calculation method at this time calculating the battery's SOC and remaining time. Through the experiment, this estimation method proved the feasibility of the dynamic working point can be mapped to the static working point, and the largest relative error is no more than 7 %. For further improving the measurement accuracy and reducing error, Through the software can realize appropriate correction and compensation of temperature, aging and other interference factors. Error analysis results show that this method has small error, high measurement accuracy.

  5. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  6. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at cern

    CERN Document Server

    Mirra, Marco

    This work has been performed into the frame of the NA62 experiment at CERN that aims at measuring the Branching-Ratio of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+→π+ nu nubar with 10% uncertainty - using an unseparated kaon beam of 75GeV/c - in order to test the Standard Model (SM), to look for physics beyond SM and to measure the |Vtd| element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) flavor mixing matrix. Backgrounds, which are up to 10^10 times higher than the signal, will be suppressed by an accurate measurement of the momentum of the K+ (with a silicon beam tracker named GigaTracker) and the π+ (with a straw tracker) and by a complex system of particle identification and veto detectors. A critical background can be induced by inelastic interactions of the hadron beam with the GigaTracker. Pions produced in these interactions, emitted at low angle, can reach the straw tracker and mimic a kaon decay in the fiducial region, if no other track is detected. In order to suppress this background a CHarged track ANTIcounter ...

  7. Influence of displacement gradients on the interpretation of charged particle simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Guthrie, G.L.

    1975-08-01

    Neutron flux and spectrum gradients are negligible within a single grain of structural materials in fusion reactors. In charged particle simulation, however, substantial gradients exist in the flux of displaced atoms (dpa) along the ion path, which is typically several microns or less in length. In interpretation of such experiments, one must account for the influence of variables that are atypical of the simulated environment. Experimental and modeling studies show that dpa gradients lead to gradients in microstructure, which in turn modify the effect of diffusion on the effective growth environment of voids and other defects. For some ions, these effects are overwhelmed by a phenomenon designated the ''internal temperature shift.'' Although the physical temperature is relatively invariant along the ion path, the temperature regime of swelling shifts as the displacement rate changes. The swelling vs. depth profile is altered substantially from that expected from the dpa profile, and the type of modification is dependent on the relation of the irradiation temperature to the peak swelling temperature at the mean displacement flux. Swelling profiles for a variety of simulations were analyzed and found to include the influence of surface denuded zones, incubation effects, diffusion, swelling-generated stresses and internal temperature shifts. The impact of the latter imposes restrictions on the interpretation of step height measurements and full range intercorrelations for high energy ions

  8. A preliminary result of the second np charge symmetry breaking experiment at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Abegg, R.; Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Davis, C.A.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Gan, L.; Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Healey, D.C.; Helmer, R.; Kolb, N.; Korkmaz, E.a.; Lee, L.; Levy, C.D.P.; Li, J.; Miller, C.A.; Opper, A.K.; Page, S.A.; Postma, H.; Ramsay, W.D.; Soukup, J.; Stinson, G.M.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Zelenski, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    TRIUMF experiment 369, a measurement of charge symmetry breaking in np elastic scattering at 350 MeV, has completed data taking. Scattering asymmetries were measured with a polarized (unpolarized) neutron beam incident on an unpolarized (polarized) frozen spin target. Coincident scattered neutrons and recoil protons were detected by a mirror symmetric detection system in the center of mass angle range from 50 degree--90 degree. A preliminary result for the difference of the zero-crossing angles, where analyzing powers cross zero, is Δθ cm =0.48 degree ±0.08 degree(stat.)±0.08 degree(syst.) based on fits over the angle range 55.8 degree ≤θ cm ≤85.4 degree. The difference of the analyzing powers ΔA≡A n -A p , where the subscripts denote polarized nucleons, was deduced with dA/dθ cm =-1.47x10 -2 deg -1 from phase shift analyses to be [71±12(stat.)±12(syst.)]x10 -4 . It is expected that when all data are analyzed a statistical accuracy of about 7x10 -4 in ΔA will be achieved. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. Charged particle multiplicity and correlations in heavy ion collisions in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zabinski, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Since the start of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the ATLAS experiment has collected data from $p+p$, Pb+Pb and recently $p$+Pb collisions. In this paper two topics from the heavy ion programme are presented. The first of them is the multiplicity of charged particles in Pb+Pb collisions studied as a function of centrality. In such collisions very high pseudorapidity particle density is obtained, reaching 1738 $\\pm 76$ at $\\eta \\approx0$. For the $p$+Pb collisions the latest analysis of two-particle correlations is presented. The "ridge" observed in pp events with large multiplicities is present also in central $p$+Pb collisions selected by large $\\Sigma E_{T}$ measured at the Pb fragmentation side. In the azimuthal correlation for $2<|\\Delta \\eta|< 5$ two components can be extracted. Assuming that in the peripheral collisions only the correlation due to momentum conservation effects are present, in the central collisions additional quadruple modulation component can be identified.

  10. Simulation and experiment of thermal energy management with phase change material for ageing LiFePO4 power battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Zhang Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study the thermal energy management performance of ageing LiFePO 4 power battery. → 3-D modules of single cell and battery pack are formulated according to the experimental results. → Thermal resistance in the battery cell leaded to an inevitable temperature difference. → It is necessary to improve the thermal conductivity and lower the melting point of phase change material. → Thermal conductivity of phase change material and battery exist an effective proportion. - Abstract: Thermal energy management performance of ageing commercial rectangular LiFePO 4 power batteries using phase change material (PCM) and thermal behavior related to thermal conductivity between the PCM and the cell are discussed in this paper. The heat sources are simplified according to the experimental results of the cells discharged at 35 A (∼5 C). 3-D modules of a single cell and battery pack are formulated, respectively. The results show that the thermal resistance in the cell leads to an inevitable temperature difference. It is necessary to improve the thermal conductivity and to lower the melting point of the PCM for heat transfer enhancement. The PCM with a melting point lower than 45 deg. C will be more effective for heat dissipation, with a desired maximum temperature below 50 deg. C. The temperature difference in the whole unit before PCM melting will be decreased significantly. In addition, a proper k PCM :k c is necessary for a well designed battery thermal energy management system.

  11. Electric motorcycle charging station powered by solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwattanapong, Akarawat; Chantharasenawong, Chawin

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a design and verification of an off-grid photovoltaic system (PVS) for electric motorcycle charging station to be located in King’s Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand. The system is designed to work independently (off-grid) and it must be able to fully charge the batteries of a typical passenger electric motorcycle every evening. A 1,000W Toyotron electric motorcycle is chosen for this study. It carries five units of 12.8V 20Ah batteries in series; hence its maximum energy requirement per day is 1,200Wh. An assessment of solar irradiation data and the Generation Factor in Bangkok, Thailand suggests that the charging system consists of one 500W PV panel, an MPPT charge controller, 48V 150Ah battery, a 1,000W DC to AC inverter and other safety devices such as fuses and breakers. An experiment is conducted to verify the viability of the off-grid PVS charging station by collecting the total daily energy generation data in the raining season and winter. The data suggests that the designed off-grid solar power charging station for electric motorcycle is able to supply sufficient energy for daily charging requirements.

  12. Power capability evaluation for lithium iron phosphate batteries based on multi-parameter constraints estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Rui; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai; Ling, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The battery power capability is intimately correlated with the climbing, braking and accelerating performance of the electric vehicles. Accurate power capability prediction can not only guarantee the safety but also regulate driving behavior and optimize battery energy usage. However, the nonlinearity of the battery model is very complex especially for the lithium iron phosphate batteries. Besides, the hysteresis loop in the open-circuit voltage curve is easy to cause large error in model prediction. In this work, a multi-parameter constraints dynamic estimation method is proposed to predict the battery continuous period power capability. A high-fidelity battery model which considers the battery polarization and hysteresis phenomenon is presented to approximate the high nonlinearity of the lithium iron phosphate battery. Explicit analyses of power capability with multiple constraints are elaborated, specifically the state-of-energy is considered in power capability assessment. Furthermore, to solve the problem of nonlinear system state estimation, and suppress noise interference, the UKF based state observer is employed for power capability prediction. The performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by experiments under different dynamic characterization schedules. The charge and discharge power capabilities of the lithium iron phosphate batteries are quantitatively assessed under different time scales and temperatures.

  13. Study of the top quark electric charge at the cdf experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the top quark electric charge using the jet charge tagging method on events containing a single lepton collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab between February 2002 and February 2010 at the center-of-mass energy ps = 1.96 TeV . There are three main components to this measurement: determining the charge of the W (using the charge of the lepton), pairing the W with the b-jet to ensure that they are from the same top decay branch and finally determining the charge of the b-jet using the Jet Charge algorithm. We found, on a sample of 5.6 fb -1 of data, that the p-value under the standard model hypothesis is equal to 13.4%, while the p-value under the exotic model hypothesis is equal to 0.014%. Using the a priori criteria generally accepted by the CDF collaboration, we can say that the result is consistent with the standard model, while we exclude an exotic quark hypothesis with 95% confidence. Using the Bayesian approach, we obtain for the Bayes factor (2 · ln(BF)) a value of 19.6, that favors very strongly the SM hypothesis over the XM one. The presented method has the highest sensitivity to the top quark electric charge among the presented so far top quark charge analysis. (author)

  14. Study of the top quark electric charge at the CDF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Pavol [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the top quark electric charge using the jet charge tagging method on events containing a single lepton collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab between February 2002 and February 2010 at the center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. There are three main components to this measurement: determining the charge of the W (using the charge of the lepton), pairing the W with the b-jet to ensure that they are from the same top decay branch and finally determining the charge of the b-jet using the Jet Charge algorithm. We found, on a sample of 5.6 fb-1 of data, that the p-value under the standard model hypothesis is equal to 13.4%, while the p-value under the exotic model hypothesis is equal to 0.014%. Using the a priori criteria generally accepted by the CDF collaboration, we can say that the result is consistent with the standard model, while we exclude an exotic quark hypothesis with 95% confidence. Using the Bayesian approach, we obtain for the Bayes factor (2ln(BF)) a value of 19.6, that favors very strongly the SM hypothesis over the XM one. The presented method has the highest sensitivity to the top quark electric charge among the presented so far top quark charge analysis.

  15. Charge Density Quantification of Polyelectrolyte Polysaccharides by Conductometric Titration: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Stefano; Mora, Luigi; Capretti, Giorgio; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    An easy analytical method for determination of the charge density of polyelectrolytes, including polysaccharides and other biopolymers, is presented. The basic principles of conductometric titration, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as well as in colloid and interface science, were adapted to quantify the charge densities of a…

  16. Control and operation of power sources in a medium-voltage direct-current microgrid for an electric vehicle fast charging station with a photovoltaic and a battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Triviño, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández-Ramírez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Although electric vehicles (EVs) are experiencing a considerable upsurge, the technology associated with them is still under development. This study focused on the control and operation of a medium-voltage direct-current (MVDC) microgrid with an innovative decentralized control system, which was used as a fast charging station (FCS) for EVs. The FCS was composed of a photovoltaic (PV) system, a Li-ion battery energy storage system (BESS), two 48 kW fast charging units for EVs, and a connection to the local grid. With this configuration and thanks to its decentralized control, the FCS was able to work as a stand-alone system most of the time though with occasional grid support. This paper presents a new decentralized energy management system (EMS) with two options to control the power sources of the FCS. The choice of the power source depends on the MVDC bus voltage, the state-of-charge (SOC) of the BESS, and the control option of the EMS. This control was tested by simulating the FCS, when connected to several EVs and under different sun irradiance conditions. Simulation results showed that the FCS operated smoothly and effectively, which confirms the feasibility of using this technology in EVs. - Highlights: • This paper studies a MVDC microgrid for fast charging station of EV. • It is composed of a PV system, a BESS, two EV charging stations and a grid connection. • A decentralized control scheme is applied to control the power sources. • The MVDC bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system. • The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system and control under study.

  17. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in top-antitop quark production with the CDF II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, Julia; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2006-12-01

    The Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab) operates the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, the is therefore the only collider which is today able to produce the heaviest known particle, the top quark. The top quark was discovered at the Tevatron by the CDF and D0 collaborations in 1995. At the Tevatron, most top quarks are produced via the strong interaction, whereby quark-antiquark annihilation dominates with 85%, and gluon fusion contributes with 15%. Considering next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions in the cross section of top-antitop quark production, leads to a slight positive asymmetry in the differential distribution of the production angle {alpha} of the top quarks. This asymmetry is due to the interference of certain NLO contributions. The charge asymmetry A in the cosine of {alpha} is predicted [14] to amount to 4-6%. Information about the partonic rest frame, necessary for a measurement of A in the observable cos {alpha}, is not accessible in the experiment. Thus, they use the rapidity difference of the top and the antitop quark as sensitive variable. This quantity offers the advantage of Lorentz invariance and is uniquely correlated with the cosine of {alpha}, justifying the choice of the rapidity difference to describe the behavior of cos {alpha}. In preparation for a measurement of the charge asymmetry, they conduct several Monte Carlo based studies concerning the effect of different event selection criteria on the asymmetry in the selected event samples. They observe a strong dependence of the measured asymmetry on the number of required jets in the particular event sample. This motivates further studies to understand the influence of additional gluon radiation, which leads to more than four observed jets in an event, on the rapidity distribution of the produced top quarks. They find, that events containing hard gluon radiation are correlated with a strong negative shift of the rapidity

  18. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Investigation of the Overpotentials in Li−O2 Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Jonathan; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    death”) is explained by an increase in the charge transport resistance. The findings confirm that our theory and conclusions in ref 1, based on experiments on smooth small-area glassy carbon cathodes, are equally valid in real Li−O2 batteries with porous cathodes. The parameter variations performed...

  19. The E052 - GSI Experiment, Deceleration of highly charged ions by crystal channeling. (Technical notes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, R.

    2003-01-01

    The report on the E052 - GSI Experiment, devoted to 'Deceleration of highly charged ions by crystal channeling' present the technical notes and the status of this experiment in 2003. The report contains 13 sections and two annexes. The sections deal with the following issues: 1. File system of the 'PC monitor' for E052 - GSI Experiment in 2003; 2. Parameters of the 'PC monitor' file system; 3. Operation of the two PCs; 3.1. Layout of goniometer remote control; 3.2. 'PC motors' side by the beam hall; 3.3. RS232 connection cabling; 3.4. RS232 configuration on the COM1 ports of the two PCs; 4. Motor connection; 4.1. SubD-25 acquisition PC monitor arm on 'COM1'; 4.2. Motors step by step feeding side SubD-25 on 'COM1'; 4.3. Distribution of digital step by step control signals; 4.5. Upper an lower goniometer connection; 4.6. Rotation and inclination outer goniometer connection; 4.7. Ultra vacuum inner rotation and inclination connection; 5. Motor characteristics; 5.1. Upstream and downstream; 5.2. Rotation; 5.3 Inclination; 5.4. Feedings; 6. Goniometer in-beam positioning; 6.1. Height fine motor positioning; 6.2. Side manual positioning; 7. Goniometer movements; 8. Crystals and electron detection; 8.1. General layout; 8.2. 1 μm Si(100) crystal; 8.3. 33 μm Si(100) crystal; 8.4. Crystal mounting; 8.5. Electron detection; 9. Reference laser positioning of angular movements; 10. Beam track and collimators upstream the target; 11. User manual - Monitoring programme; 11.Start scanning program (GSIscan.exe); 11.2. SCANNING the crystal (Scan Control window); 11.3. MOVING THE GONIOMETER MANUALY (goniometer control window); 11.4. USING THE COUNTERS (counter display window); 11.5. MULTISCALER PLOT DISPLAY; 11.6. SELECT ACTIVE PLOT; 11.7. CURSORS; 11.8. STATISTICS; 11.9. Y SCALE change; 11.10. PLOT view and hide counter; 11.11. SAVE multiscaler spectra; 11.12. PRINT plot; 12. Simplified acquisition electronic setup; 13. The 'PC motors' software; 13.1. The code structure; 13

  20. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Charge Heterogeneous Porous Media: Microfluidics Experiment and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Meng, X.; Guo, Z.; Zhang, C.; Nguyen, T. H.; Hu, D.; Ji, J.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Colloidal attachment on charge heterogeneous grains has significant environmental implications for transport of hazardous colloids, such as pathogens, in the aquifer, where iron, manganese, and aluminium oxide minerals are the major source of surface charge heterogeneity of the aquifer grains. A patchwise surface charge model is often used to describe the surface charge heterogeneity of the grains. In the patchwise model, the colloidal attachment efficiency is linearly correlated with the fraction of the favorable patches (θ=λ(θf - θu)+θu). However, our previous microfluidic study showed that the attachment efficiency of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, a waterborne protozoan parasite, was not linear correlated with the fraction of the favorable patches (λ). In this study, we developed a pore scale model to simulate colloidal transport and attachment on charge heterogeneous grains. The flow field was simulated using the LBM method and colloidal transport and attachment were simulated using the Lagrange particle tracking method. The pore scale model was calibrated with experimental results of colloidal and oocyst transport in microfluidic devices and was then used to simulate oocyst transport in charge heterogeneous porous media under a variety of environmental relative conditions, i.e. the fraction of favorable patchwise, ionic strength, and pH. The results of the pore scale simulations were used to evaluate the effect of surface charge heterogeneity on upscaling of oocyst transport from pore to continuum scale and to develop an applicable correlation between colloidal attachment efficiency and the fraction of the favorable patches.

  1. Combination field chopper and battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, R.L.; Crouch, K.E.; Wilson, J.W.A.

    1979-08-13

    A power transistor used in a chopper circuit to control field excitation of a vehicle motor when in a power mode is also used to control charging current from an a-c to d-c rectifier to the vehicle battery when in a battery charging mode. Two isolating diodes and a small high frequency filter inductor are the only elements required in the chopper circuit to reconfigure the circuit for power or charging modes of operation.

  2. A preliminary result of the second np charge symmetry breaking experiment at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Abegg, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.R. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Davis, C.A.; Delheij, P.P.J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gan, L. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Healey, D.C.; Helmer, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Kolb, N.; Korkmaz, E.a. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Lee, L. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Levy, C.D.P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Li, J. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Miller, C.A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Opper, A.K. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Page, S.A. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Postma, H. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Ramsay, W.D. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Soukup, J.; Stinson, G.M. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N5 (Canada); van Oers, W.T.H. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Zelenski, A.N. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    1995-07-10

    TRIUMF experiment 369, a measurement of charge symmetry breaking in np elastic scattering at 350 MeV, has completed data taking. Scattering asymmetries were measured with a polarized (unpolarized) neutron beam incident on an unpolarized (polarized) frozen spin target. Coincident scattered neutrons and recoil protons were detected by a mirror symmetric detection system in the center of mass angle range from 50{degree}--90{degree}. A preliminary result for the difference of the zero-crossing angles, where analyzing powers cross zero, is {Delta}{theta}{sub cm}=0.48{degree}{plus_minus}0.08{degree}({ital stat}.){plus_minus}0.08{degree}({ital syst}.) based on fits over the angle range 55.8{degree}{le}{theta}{sub cm}{le}85.4{degree}. The difference of the analyzing powers {Delta}{ital A}{equivalent_to}{ital A}{sub {ital n}}{minus}{ital A}{sub {ital p}}, where the subscripts denote polarized nucleons, was deduced with {ital dA}/{ital d}{theta}{sub cm}={minus}1.47{times}10{sup {minus}2} deg{sup {minus}1} from phase shift analyses to be [71{plus_minus}12({ital stat}.){plus_minus}12({ital syst}.)]{times}10{sup {minus}4}. It is expected that when all data are analyzed a statistical accuracy of about 7{times}10{sup {minus}4} in {Delta}{ital A} will be achieved. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. Multi-temperature state-dependent equivalent circuit discharge model for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, Karsten; Marinescu, Monica; Auger, Daniel J.; O'Neill, Laura; Fotouhi, Abbas; Somasundaram, Karthik; Offer, Gregory J.; Minton, Geraint; Longo, Stefano; Wild, Mark; Knap, Vaclav

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are described extensively in the literature, but existing computational models aimed at scientific understanding are too complex for use in applications such as battery management. Computationally simple models are vital for exploitation. This paper proposes a non-linear state-of-charge dependent Li-S equivalent circuit network (ECN) model for a Li-S cell under discharge. Li-S batteries are fundamentally different to Li-ion batteries, and require chemistry-specific models. A new Li-S model is obtained using a 'behavioural' interpretation of the ECN model; as Li-S exhibits a 'steep' open-circuit voltage (OCV) profile at high states-of-charge, identification methods are designed to take into account OCV changes during current pulses. The prediction-error minimization technique is used. The model is parameterized from laboratory experiments using a mixed-size current pulse profile at four temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C, giving linearized ECN parameters for a range of states-of-charge, currents and temperatures. These are used to create a nonlinear polynomial-based battery model suitable for use in a battery management system. When the model is used to predict the behaviour of a validation data set representing an automotive NEDC driving cycle, the terminal voltage predictions are judged accurate with a root mean square error of 32 mV.

  4. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, H. C.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Tests are performed on an improved battery charger. The primary purpose of the testing is to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. Tests are developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests show this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  5. Prise en charge de l'anemie en pre-dialyse: experience d'un service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contexte: L'anémie est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire non-traditionnel modifiable au cours de la maladie rénale chronique dont le pronostic est étroitement lié à la précocité de la prise en charge. C'est dans le but d'améliorer la prise en charge de l'anémie dans notre service que nous avons initié une étude ...

  6. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  7. Charge-transfer energy in the water-hydrogen molecular aggregate revealed by molecular-beam scattering experiments, charge displacement analysis, and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belpassi, Leonardo; Reca, Michael L; Tarantelli, Francesco; Roncaratti, Luiz F; Pirani, Fernando; Cappelletti, David; Faure, Alexandre; Scribano, Yohann

    2010-09-22

    Integral cross-section measurements for the system water-H(2) in molecular-beam scattering experiments are reported. Their analysis demonstrates that the average attractive component of the water-H(2) intermolecular potential in the well region is about 30% stronger than dispersion and induction forces would imply. An extensive and detailed theoretical analysis of the electron charge displacement accompanying the interaction, over several crucial sections of the potential energy surface (PES), shows that water-H(2) interaction is accompanied by charge transfer (CT) and that the observed stabilization energy correlates quantitatively with CT magnitude at all distances. Based on the experimentally determined potential and the calculated CT, a general theoretical model is devised which reproduces very accurately PES sections obtained at the CCSD(T) level with large basis sets. The energy stabilization associated with CT is calculated to be 2.5 eV per electron transferred. Thus, CT is shown to be a significant, strongly stereospecific component of the interaction, with water functioning as electron donor or acceptor in different orientations. The general relevance of these findings for water's chemistry is discussed.

  8. Origin of hysteresis between charge and discharge processes in lithium-rich layer-structured cathode material for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Hiroaki; Hirano, Tatsumi; Takamatsu, Daiko; Gunji, Akira; Feng, Xiaoliang; Furutsuki, Sho

    2015-12-01

    There is large hysteresis between charge and discharge curves in lithium-rich layer-structured cathode material, Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2. The mechanism for hysteresis was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement as a first step in solving this issue. XRD measurements clarified that there was hysteresis in the lattice parameter between charge and discharge processes. XAFS spectra indicated that transition metals were oxidized and reduced in the same potential region during charge and discharge processes. Oxygen was oxidized at higher potential than transition metals during charge process; however, the former was reduced at lower potential than the latter during discharge process. Therefore, large hysteresis of potential between charge and discharge processes in Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 was mainly related to the reaction which is compensated with redox of oxygen.

  9. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  10. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  11. Large-scale digitizer system (LSD) for charge and time digitization in high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, R.F.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wagner, L.J.; Wolverton, J.M.

    1976-10-01

    A large-scale digitizer (LSD) system for acquiring charge and time-of-arrival particle data from high-energy-physics experiments has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The objective in this development was to significantly reduce the cost of instrumenting large-detector arrays which, for the 4π-geometry of colliding-beam experiments, are proposed with an order of magnitude increase in channel count over previous detectors. In order to achieve the desired economy (approximately $65 per channel), a system was designed in which a number of control signals for conversion, for digitization, and for readout are shared in common by all the channels in each 128-channel bin. The overall-system concept and the distribution of control signals that are critical to the 10-bit charge resolution and to the 12-bit time resolution are described. Also described is the bit-serial transfer scheme, chosen for its low component and cabling costs

  12. Advanced integrated battery testing and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Bethune, Keith P.; Yang, Xiao Guang

    The recent rapid expansion in the use of portable electronics, computers, personal data assistants, cellular phones, power tools, and even electric and hybrid vehicles creates a strong demand on fast deployment of battery technologies at an unprecedented rate. To facilitate such a development integrated battery testing and simulation (IBTS) using computer modeling is an effective tool to improve our capability of rapid prototyping battery technology and facilitating concurrent product development. In this paper, we will present a state-of-the-art approach to use IBTS for improvements in battery cell design, operation optimization, and even charge control for advanced batteries.

  13. Lithium-ion battery diagnostic and prognostic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2009-11-03

    Embodiments provide a method and a system for determining cell imbalance condition of a multi-cell battery including a plurality of cell strings. To determine a cell imbalance condition, a charge current is applied to the battery and is monitored during charging. The charging time for each cell string is determined based on the monitor of the charge current. A charge time difference of any two cell strings in the battery is used to determine the cell imbalance condition by comparing with a predetermined acceptable charge time difference for the cell strings.

  14. Possibilities of increasing coal charge density by adding fuel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fröhlichová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of all coke-making facilities is to achieve the highest possible production of high quality coke from a chamber. It can be achieved by filling the effective capacity of the chamber with the highest possible amount of coal. One of the possibilities of meeting this requirement is to increase the charge density in the coke chamber. In case of a coke battery operating on bulk coal there are many methods to increase the charge density including the use of wetting agents in the charge. This article presents the results of the laboratory experiments aiming at the increase of the charge density using fuel oil as a wetting agent. The experiments were carried out by means of the Pitin’s device using 3 coal charges with various granularity composition and moisture content of 7, 8, 9 and 10 %.

  15. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  16. In-line monitoring of Li-ion battery electrode porosity and areal loading using active thermal scanning - modeling and initial experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnowski, Przemyslaw; Ulsh, Michael; Sopori, Bhushan; Green, Brian G.; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Sheng, Yangping

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on a new technique called active thermal scanning for in-line monitoring of porosity and areal loading of Li-ion battery electrodes. In this technique a moving battery electrode is subjected to thermal excitation and the induced temperature rise is monitored using an infra-red camera. Static and dynamic experiments with speeds up to 1.5 m min-1 are performed on both cathodes and anodes and a combined micro- and macro-scale finite element thermal model of the system is developed. It is shown experimentally and through simulations that during thermal scanning the temperature profile generated in an electrode depends on both coating porosity (or area loading) and thickness. It is concluded that by inverting this relation the porosity (or areal loading) can be determined, if thermal response and thickness are simultaneously measured.

  17. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  18. A comprehensive study on Li-ion battery nail penetrations and the possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are the state-of-the-art power sources for portable electronics, electric vehicles, and aerospace applications. The safety issues regarding Li-ion batteries arouse particular attentions after several accidents reported in recent years. Among various abuse conditions, nail penetration is one of the most dangerous for Li-ion batteries due to the accumulated heat generation, which could give rise to the thermal runaway and could damage entire energy storage system. In this paper, an electrochemical-thermal coupling model is developed to study the nail penetration process of Li-ion batteries. By introducing joule heating at the nail location, the model shows good agreement with the testing results. With this verified model, a comprehensive parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of battery capacity, internal resistance, and nail diameter on the electrochemical and thermal behaviors of Li-ion batteries during the penetration processes. Furthermore, three possible solutions to prevent the thermal runaway, which includes decreasing the state of charge, improving heat dissipation, and increasing contact resistance, are compared and discussed in detail based on a series of simulations. - Highlights: • A coupling model is developed to simulate Li-ion battery nail penetrations. • A contact resistance – contact area curve is plotted based on experiments. • Simulation results show good agreements with nail tests. • The behaviors of Li-ion batteries in different penetration scenarios are studied. • Possible strategies to prevent thermal runaway are investigated and discussed.

  19. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  20. Fluorescence of reduced charge montmorillonite complexes with methylene blue: Experiments and molecular modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Z.; Pustková, P.; Praus, P.; Kovář, P.; Pospíšil, M.; Malý, P.; Grygar, Tomáš; Kulhánková, L.; Čapková, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 339, č. 2 (2009), s. 416-423 ISSN 0021-9797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : methylene blue * reduced charge montmorillonites * fluorescence Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.019, year: 2009

  1. Comparison of the Volume Charge Density of Nanofiltration Membranes Obtained from Retention and Conductivity Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, J.; Silva, V.; Pradanos, P.

    2010-01-01

    A version of the Donnan steric-partitioning pore model with dielectrical exclusion (DSPM-DE) has been used to get information on the pore size and charge density of a commercial membrane, NF45 from FilmTec, from its retention of KCl solutions. The conductivity inside the pores has been measured b...

  2. Constraints on the top quark's charge with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuessel, Yvonne

    2013-02-15

    The standard model of particle physics is being probed at the LHC collider ring at Geneva. Amongst others, top-quark pairs are produced in large quantities. This makes precision measurements of top-quark properties possible. The top quark as the electroweak-isospin partner of the bottom quark is expected to have an electric charge of +2/3 e. A measurement is presented that discriminates between the top quark charge hypotheses of +2/3 e and -4/3 e using the muon+jets final state of top-pair events t anti t{yields}(b{mu}{nu})(bqq'). The measurement is performed with proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV recorded by the CMS detector in the year 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb{sup -1}. Charge correlations between the high-p{sub T} muons from the hard process and a muon from one of the bottom quarks are exploited to sort the events in a +2/3 e or -4/3 e category. The normalized asymmetry between both categories is calculated. The top quark charge scenario of -4/3 e would correspond to an asymmetry of A=-1. This is excluded with high significance while the measured asymmetry of A=1.10{+-}0.12(stat.){+-}0.34(sys.) confirms the standard-model expectation of A=+1.

  3. Depth dependent charge state distributions of heavy MeV ions in RBS and ERD experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamecsny, S.; Carstanjen, H. D.

    1997-04-01

    At the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung in Stuttgart, Germany, a 6 MV Pelletron accelerator is being used for surface analysis by means of high resolution RBS and ERD using an electrostatic spectrometer. For the ERD analysis of ions heavier than hydrogen the recording of a second parameter is necessary to identify the particle species and its charge state. For this purpose a set-up was installed that combines the high energy resolution of the spectrometer with a measurement of the time of flight of the ions through the spectrometer using a chopped ion beam. The technique also allows to measure charge state dependent depth profiles. Energy spectra of all observable charge states were recorded for backscattered Ne and Ar ions from Au and of recoil O ions from Ta 2O 5 and Al 2O 3. The comparison of a computer simulation of the charge exchange processes with the measurements of Ar scattering on Au yields mean free path lengths for electron capture and loss.

  4. Dynamics of chemical reactions of multiply-charged cations: Information from beam scattering experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 378, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 113-126 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Multiply-charged ions * Dynamics of chemical reactions * Beam scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  5. Penta-graphene: A Promising Anode Material as the Li/Na-Ion Battery with Both Extremely High Theoretical Capacity and Fast Charge/Discharge Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Yu, Xue-Fang; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2016-12-28

    Recently, a new two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope named penta-graphene was theoretically proposed ( Zhang , S. ; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015 , 112 , 2372 ) and has been predicted to be the promising candidate for broad applications due to its intriguing properties. In this work, by using first-principles simulation, we have further extended the potential application of penta-graphene as the anode material for a Li/Na-ion battery. Our results show that the theoretical capacity of Li/Na ions on penta-graphene reaches up to 1489 mAh·g -1 , which is much higher than that of most of the previously reported 2D anode materials. Meanwhile, the calculated low open-circuit voltages (from 0.24 to 0.60 V), in combination with the low diffusion barriers (≤0.33 eV) and the high electronic conductivity during the whole Li/Na ions intercalation processes, further show the advantages of penta-graphene as the anode material. Particularly, molecular dynamics simulation (300 K) reveals that Li ion could freely diffuse on the surface of penta-graphene, and thus the ultrafast Li ion diffusivity is expected. Superior performance of penta-graphene is further confirmed by comparing with the other 2D anode materials. The light weight and unique atomic arrangement (with isotropic furrow paths on the surface) of penta-graphene are found to be mainly responsible for the high Li/Na ions storage capacity and fast diffusivity. In this regard, except penta-graphene, many other recently proposed 2D metal-free materials with pentagonal Cairo-tiled structures may be the potential candidates as the Li/Na-ion battery anodes.

  6. Air Force nickel-hydrogen experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, B.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment to obtain some flight experience with a nickel-hydrogen battery in low earth orbit is described. The battery was built to be as compatible with the satellite bus as possible because the satellite bus is used for recharge power. The battery is mounted on an experimental pallet on the satellite. It has its own charge control system, a modification of an existing system that is used for nickel-cadmium, which primarily uses temperature compensated voltage as its criteria. Also, on the pallet is a load bank, a resistive load band, which allows switch to various load regimes. There is some other equipment on the satellite such as the nickel-hydrogen battery to power it. Monitors attached to the 21-cell battery are described.

  7. Update of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry measurement from the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbincius, Peter H. [Fermilab

    2013-10-01

    The D0 Collaboration has published three measurements of the CP-violating like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in p-pbar collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. These measurements are significantly different from the standard model predictions. In this presentation, we discuss the status of the final measurement of this asymmetry and the expected improved sensitivities, using the full 10.4 inverse-fb data sample collected during Run II, and discuss its possible interpretations

  8. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  9. Visualizing the chemistry and structure dynamics in lithium-ion batteries by in-situ neutron diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xun-Li; An, Ke; Cai, Lu; Feng, Zhili; Nagler, Stephen E.; Daniel, Claus; Rhodes, Kevin J.; Stoica, Alexandru D.; Skorpenske, Harley D.; Liang, Chengdu; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Joon; Qi, Yue; Harris, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report an in-situ neutron diffraction study of a large format pouch battery cell. The succession of Li-Graphite intercalation phases was fully captured under an 1C charge-discharge condition (i.e., charge to full capacity in 1 hour). However, the lithiation and dilithiation pathways are distinctively different and, unlike in slowing charging experiments with which the Li-Graphite phase diagram was established, no LiC24 phase was found during charge at 1C rate. Approximately 75 mol. % of th...

  10. The qweak experiment - a search for new physics at the TEV scale by measurement of the proton's weak charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.D.

    2007-01-01

    From a distance, the proton's weak charge is seen through the distorting effects of clouds of virtual particles. The effective weak charge can be calculated by starting with the measured weak coupling at the Z 0 pole and 'running' the coupling to lower energy or, equivalently, longer distances. Because the e lectroweak radiative corrections' or l oop diagrams' which give rise to the running depend not only on known particles, but on particles which have not yet been discovered, a difference between the calculated and measured weak charges may signal new physics. A measurement of Q p W to 4% will be sensitive to new physics at the few TeV scale. The Q p W experiment is based on the fact that the parity violating longitudinal analyzing power, A z , in electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer and small scattering angle, is proportional to the proton's weak charge. The experiment plans to measure the predicted A z of -0 .3 ppm with a combined statistical and systematic uncertainty of 2.2%, corresponding to a total uncertainty of 4% Q p W . This requires a statistical precision of +-5 x10 -9. By using a 180 μA electron beam incident on a 0.35 m liquid hydrogen target, this can be achieved in 2200 hours of running. Eight quartz Cerenkov detectors, each operating at a counting rate of ∼ 800 MHz, will be used. The rate is too high for conventional particle counting, so Q p W will run in current mode. A synchronous data acquisition system will integrate the detector current signals over each spin state and extract the helicity correlated, parity violating component. (Author)

  11. Balancing Control Strategy for Li-Ion Batteries String Based on Dynamic Balanced Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hua Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Li-ion battery is becoming the optimal choice for the Electric Vehicle’s (EV power supply. In order to protect the Li-ion battery from charging damage and to prolong the battery’s life, a special control strategy based on the dynamic balanced point along with a non-dissipative equalizer is presented. The main focus of the proposed control strategy is to insure that the individual cell of a battery pack will be rapidly, efficiently and simultaneously balanced, by adjusting equalizing current of each cell dynamically. In this paper, a model of a four series connected Li-ion batteries pack has been established to evaluate the proposed control strategy. Superior performance is demonstrated by the simulation and experiment.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  13. Thick electrodes for Li-ion batteries: A model based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Timo; Singh, Madhav; Hein, Simon; Kaiser, Jörg; Hahn, Horst; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-12-01

    Li-ion batteries are commonly used in portable electronic devices due to their outstanding energy and power density. A remaining issue which hinders the breakthrough e.g. in the automotive sector is the high production cost. For low power applications, such as stationary storage, batteries with electrodes thicker than 300 μm were suggested. High energy densities can be attained with only a few electrode layers which reduces production time and cost. However, mass and charge transport limitations can be severe at already small C-rates due to long transport pathways. In this article we use a detailed 3D micro-structure resolved model to investigate limiting factors for battery performance. The model is parametrized with data from the literature and dedicated experiments and shows good qualitative agreement with experimental discharge curves of thick NMC-graphite Li-ion batteries. The model is used to assess the effect of inhomogeneities in carbon black distribution and gives answers to the possible occurrence of lithium plating during battery charge. Based on our simulations we can predict optimal operation strategies and improved design concepts for future Li-ion batteries employing thick electrodes.

  14. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  15. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E., E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Department of Physics, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pastuovic, Z. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Breese, M.B.H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Sevilla University, J. Andalucia, CSIC, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jaksic, M. [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruder Boškovic Institute (RBI), P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland); Siegele, R. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Simon, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vizkelethy, G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • We study the electronic degradation of semiconductors induced by ion irradiation. • The experimental protocol is based on MeV ion microbeam irradiation. • The radiation induced damage is measured by IBIC. • The general model fits the experimental data in the low level damage regime. • Key parameters relevant to the intrinsic radiation hardness are extracted. - Abstract: This paper investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.

  16. KATANA – A charge-sensitive triggering system for the SπRIT experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Adamczyk, M.; Brzychczyk, J. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Hirnyk, P.; Łukasik, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Pawłowski, P., E-mail: piotr.pawlowski@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Pelczar, K. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Snoch, A. [University of Wroclaw, Wrocław (Poland); Sochocka, A.; Sosin, Z. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Barney, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Cerizza, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Estee, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Jhang, G. [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kaneko, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-shirakawa, Kyoto (Japan); Kurata-Nishimura, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); and others

    2017-06-01

    KATANA - the Krakow Array for Triggering with Amplitude discrimiNAtion - has been built and used as a trigger and veto detector for the SπRIT TPC at RIKEN. Its construction allows operating in magnetic field and providing fast response for ionizing particles, giving an approximate forward multiplicity and charge information. Depending on this information, trigger and veto signals are generated. The article presents performance of the detector and details of its construction. A simple phenomenological parametrization of the number of emitted scintillation photons in plastic scintillator is proposed. The effect of the light output deterioration in the plastic scintillator due to the in-beam irradiation is discussed.

  17. A current integrator for use in experiments with charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansara, M.J.; Jain, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    A current integrator to measure total charge deposited on a target by a positive ion beam of a particle accelerator is described. The circuit is designed with two easily available FET operational amplifiers and a voltage to frequency converter chip. The first op amp is used to boost and change the polarity of the positive input current. The second part of the circuit is a negative current integrator comprising of another op amp and a voltage to frequency converter. Test results for input current range of 1nA to 10μA are presented. (author). 2 figs

  18. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  19. An online method for lithium-ion battery remaining useful life estimation using importance sampling and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ji; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An online RUL estimation method for lithium-ion battery is proposed. • RUL is described by the difference among battery terminal voltage curves. • A feed forward neural network is employed for RUL estimation. • Importance sampling is utilized to select feed forward neural network inputs. - Abstract: An accurate battery remaining useful life (RUL) estimation can facilitate the design of a reliable battery system as well as the safety and reliability of actual operation. A reasonable definition and an effective prediction algorithm are indispensable for the achievement of an accurate RUL estimation result. In this paper, the analysis of battery terminal voltage curves under different cycle numbers during charge process is utilized for RUL definition. Moreover, the relationship between RUL and charge curve is simulated by feed forward neural network (FFNN) for its simplicity and effectiveness. Considering the nonlinearity of lithium-ion charge curve, importance sampling (IS) is employed for FFNN input selection. Based on these results, an online approach using FFNN and IS is presented to estimate lithium-ion battery RUL in this paper. Experiments and numerical comparisons are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results show that the FFNN with IS is an accurate estimation method for actual operation.

  20. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  1. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U 90+ beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  2. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-06-24

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U{sup 90+} beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  3. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  4. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  5. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  6. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  7. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery. Alternative Names Swallowing batteries References Hess JM, Lowell MJ. Esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In: Marx JA, ... Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  8. Charged jet spectra in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vajzer, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Jets are collimated sprays of particles resulting from fragmentation of hard scattered partons. They are measured in different types of collisions at different energies to test perturbative Quantum Chromodynamic calculations and are used to study the hard scattering, fragmentation and hadronisation of partons. These phenomena, measured in simple systems such as proton--proton collisions, serve as a baseline to investigate their modifications by hot and dense nuclear matter created in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We have analysed data from minimum bias proton--proton collisions at centre of mass energy of 2.76 and 7 TeV collected using the ALICE detector system at the LHC and reconstructed the inclusive jet cross section from charged tracks at midrapidity. We present jet spectra reconstructed using the infrared and colinear safe anti-kT algorithm with underlying event subtraction, corrected for detector effects via unfolding for both collision energies. Furthermore, results from analyses of fragmentation ...

  9. Design And Construction Of Microcontroller Based Solar Battery Charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Ni Tun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes a microcontroller based battery charger by using solar energy. Solar-powered charging systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. Solar energy is widely used around the worldwide. This system converts solar energy to electrical energy and stores it in a battery. Photovoltaic panel is used to convert solar energy to electrical energy and stored in a 12V battery. Battery is the main component in solar charging system to store the energy generated from sunlight for various application. This system requires sensor to sense whether the battery is fully charged or not. Microcontroller is the heart of the circuit. Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used power source for many applications. This system consists of voltage sensing charging controlling and display unit.

  10. Search for a charged Higgs boson with the ATLAS detector: from theory to experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weydert, C.

    2011-09-01

    This thesis is intended as a bridge between the two highly specialized domains of phenomenology and experimental particle physics. The first part describes in detail a higher order cross section calculation and implementation into a Monte Carlo event generator. We present the calculation of the next-to-leading order (NLO) quantum chromodynamic corrections for charged Higgs boson production in association with a top quark at the LHC, using the Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction method. Building an independent NLO code enabled us to cross-check the implemented version of MCANLO, and a few studies have been made which focus on different contributions to the theoretical uncertainty attached to the NLO calculation. The actual implementation was performed for another NLO event generator, POWHEG. Considering the small production cross section of charged Higgs production associated with a top quark, an analysis of this channel using the 35 pb -1 of data collected with the ATLAS detector in 2010 from the proton-proton collisions of the LHC, makes no sense, and we switch to a very similar SM channel, namely Wt production. In the second part, we set-up a dedicated analysis for semileptonic Wt and focus on the evaluation of the PDF (parton distribution functions) systematic uncertainty, following the PDF4LHC recommendation. The electroweak single top production cross section at the Tevatron is so low that it has not been observed until today, so we are able to set the world's first limit on its production cross section and include the most important systematic uncertainties in our analysis. (author)

  11. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pannala, Sreekanth [Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), Houston, TX (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  12. Parameters Identification and Sensitive Characteristics Analysis for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly investigates the sensitive characteristics of lithium-ion batteries so as to provide scientific basises for simplifying the design of the state estimator that adapt to various environments. Three lithium-ion batteries are chosen as the experimental samples. The samples were tested at various temperatures (−20 ∘ C, −10 ∘ C, 0 ∘ C , 10 ∘ C , 25 ∘ C and various current rates (0.5C, 1C, 1.5C using a battery test bench. A physical equivalent circuit model is developed to capture the dynamic characteristics of the batteries. The experimental results show that all battery parameters are time-varying and have different sensitivity to temperature, current rate and state of charge (SOC. The sensitivity of battery to temperature, current rate and SOC increases the difficulty in battery modeling because of the change of parameters. The further simulation experiments show that the model output has a higher sensitivity to the change of ohmic resistance than that of other parameters. Based on the experimental and simulation results obtained here, it is expected that the adaptive parameter state estimator design could be simplified in the near future.

  13. Thermal modeling of a cylindrical LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgez, Christophe; Vinh Do, Dinh; Friedrich, Guy [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, EA 1006, Laboratoire d' Electromecanique de Compiegne, BP 20529, 60205 Compiegne Cedex (France); Morcrette, Mathieu; Delacourt, Charles [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2010-05-01

    A lumped-parameter thermal model of a cylindrical LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite lithium-ion battery is developed. Heat transfer coefficients and heat capacity are determined from simultaneous measurements of the surface temperature and the internal temperature of the battery while applying 2 Hz current pulses of different magnitudes. For internal temperature measurements, a thermocouple is introduced into the battery under inert atmosphere. Heat transfer coefficients (thermal resistances in the model) inside and outside the battery are obtained from thermal steady state temperature measurements, whereas the heat capacity (thermal capacitance in the model) is determined from the transient part. The accuracy of the estimation of internal temperature from surface temperature measurements using the model is validated on current-pulse experiments and a complete charge/discharge of the battery and is within 1.5 C. Furthermore, the model allows for simulating the internal temperature directly from the measured current and voltage of the battery. The model is simple enough to be implemented in battery management systems for electric vehicles. (author)

  14. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  15. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  16. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass....... This does not prevent deep discharges of the battery, which are critical to the lifetime of the battery. In this paper, the ratings of the battery and ultracapacitors are investigated. Comparisons of the system volume, the system mass, and the lifetime of the battery due to the rating of the energy storage......, the battery, and the ultracapacitors, are proposed. A charging strategy, which charges the energy-storage devices due to the conditions of the FCHEV, is also proposed. The analysis provides recommendations on the design of the battery and the ultracapacitor energy-storage systems for FCHEVs....

  17. Restoring the azimuthal symmetry of lateral distributions of charged particles in the range of the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Toma, G.; Manailescu, C.; Morariu, C.; Arteaga, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Bluemer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Chiavassa, A.; Cosavella, F.; Souza, V. de; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Finger, M.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) observed by particle detectors at the ground is based on the characteristics of observables like the lateral particle density and the arrival times. The lateral densities, inferred for different EAS components from detector data, are usually parameterised by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDFs). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles or the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the lateral particle density from this assumption arising from various reasons are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. The lateral distributions of charged particles are deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposits - first in the observation plane, then in the intrinsic shower plane. In all steps azimuthal dependences should be taken into account. As the energy deposit in the scintillators is dependent on the angles of incidence of the particles, azimuthal dependences are already involved in the first step: the conversion from the energy deposits to the charged particle density. This is done by using the Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF) that evaluates the mean energy deposited by a charged particle taking into account the contribution of other particles (e.g. photons) to the energy deposit. By using a very fast procedure for the evaluation of the energy deposited by various particles we prepared realistic LECFs depending on the angle of incidence of the shower and on the radial and

  18. Design of a Reliable Hybrid (PV/Diesel Power System with Energy Storage in Batteries for Remote Residential Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience acquired with a photovoltaic (PV hybrid system simulated as an alternative to diesel system for a residential home located in Southern Nigeria. The hybrid system was designed to overcome the problem of climate change, to ensure a reliable supply without interruption, and to improve the overall system efficiency (by the integration of the battery bank. The system design philosophy was to maximize simplicity; hence, the system was sized using conventional simulation tool and representative insolation data. The system includes a 15 kW PV array, 21.6 kWh (3600 Ah worth of battery storage, and a 5.4 kW (6.8 kVA generator. The paper features a detailed analysis of the energy flows through the system and quantifies all losses caused by PV charge controller, battery storage round-trip, rectifier, and inverter conversions. In addition, simulation was run to compare PV/diesel/battery with diesel/battery and the results show that the capital cost of a PV/diesel hybrid solution with batteries is nearly three times higher than that of a generator and battery combination, but the net present cost, representing cost over the lifetime of the system, is less than one-half of the generator and battery combination.

  19. Charge asymmetry and W boson angular measurement in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.B.

    2011-09-01

    The LHC is a proton collider, buried 100 meters below the franco-swiss border, built to work at √(s)=14 TeV. First collisions at √(s)=7 TeV occurred in the beginning of 2010, starting officially new particles hunting, like Higgs boson, supersymmetric partner... First data have also been used to do precision measurements in order to check detector performances and to constrain many Standard Model parameters. The latter will be the main topic of this thesis. The work presented within this manuscript can be split in two different parts aiming to a common goal: reduce possible bias and systematic errors to provide a first precise W boson mass measurement at the LHC. On a technical aspect, an analysis has been done on the liquid argon in which lies calorimeters, in order to understand temperature fluctuation and quantify its effect on the electron energy scale. On the other hand, attention has been focused on polarization effects, by developing and proposing three new measurements: quantification of their influence on M W measurement at the LHC, helicity fractions measurement in 2010 data and a charge asymmetry measurement that de-combines PDF (Parton Distribution Functions) and polarization effects, on 2010 data. (author)

  20. An Experiment in BEBC to Compare Neutral and Charged Current Neutrino Interactions Induced by $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN narrow-band neutrino beam provides a unique possibility to study whether there is a difference between neutrinos resulting from @p-decays and those from K-decays. Since any difference might most strongly appear in strange particle production, BEBC is particularly suited for this study thanks to the efficient strange particle detection it provides.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment consists of two exposures of about 100 K pictures each in BEBC filled with 75\\% Ne-H^2 mixture without TST. The parent energies are most conveniently chosen to be respectively 275 GeV and 75 GeV yielding E(@nK) = E(@n@p) @= 65 GeV as the common energy. This would make the higher energy run parasitic on NB operation of the approved WA1 counter experiment. The lower, approximately coincides with an energy proposed for the Gargamelle experiment WA23.

  1. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  2. A LiFePO4 battery pack capacity estimation approach considering in-parallel cell safety in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Xiuliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Find the influence of in-parallel battery cell variations on battery pack capacity. • Redefine the battery module capacity with considering ANY battery cell safety. • Discuss the safety end-of-charge voltage for an aged in-parallel battery module. • Build an algorithm for battery pack capacity estimation with the charge curve. • Bench tests are used to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: In electric vehicles (EVs), several battery cells are connected in parallel to establish a battery module. The safety of the battery module is influenced by inconsistent battery cell performance which causes uneven currents flowing through internal in-parallel battery cells. A battery cell model is developed based on the Matlab–Simscape platform and validated by tests. The battery cell model is used to construct simulation models for analyzing the effect of battery cell inconsistency on the performance of an in-parallel battery module. Simulation results indicate that the state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery module cannot characterize the SOC of ALL the internal battery cells in the battery module. When the battery management system (BMS) controls the end-of-charge (EOC) time according to the SOC of a battery module, some internal battery cells are over-charged. To guarantee the safety of ALL battery cells through the whole battery life, a safety EOC voltage of the battery module should be set according to the number of battery cells in the battery module and the applied charge current. Simulations reveal that the SOC of the “normal battery module” is related to its charge voltage when aged battery module is charged to the EOC voltage. Then, a function describing their relationship is established. Both the capacity and the charge voltage shift are estimated by comparing the measured voltage-to-capacity curve with the standard one provided by the manufactory. A battery pack capacity estimation method is proposed according to the SOC

  3. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Beaty, Kevin D [Kalamazoo, MI; Zou, Zhanijang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  4. In situ neutron powder diffraction using custom-made lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, William R; Schmid, Siegbert; Du, Guodong; Brand, Helen E A; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K; Guo, Zaiping; Sharma, Neeraj

    2014-11-10

    Li-ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and are considered as promising candidates for higher-energy applications such as electric vehicles. However, many challenges, such as energy density and battery lifetimes, need to be overcome before this particular battery technology can be widely implemented in such applications. This research is challenging, and we outline a method to address these challenges using in situ NPD to probe the crystal structure of electrodes undergoing electrochemical cycling (charge/discharge) in a battery. NPD data help determine the underlying structural mechanism responsible for a range of electrode properties, and this information can direct the development of better electrodes and batteries. We briefly review six types of battery designs custom-made for NPD experiments and detail the method to construct the 'roll-over' cell that we have successfully used on the high-intensity NPD instrument, WOMBAT, at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The design considerations and materials used for cell construction are discussed in conjunction with aspects of the actual in situ NPD experiment and initial directions are presented on how to analyze such complex in situ data.

  5. Experience de SPES dans la prise en charge des enfants places en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: SPES experience in support for institutional placement children in Africa. English Abstract. Background: many families are in difficulty worldwide, especially in developing countries. The difficulty is expressed in various ways; and its main causes are poverty, epidemics and armed conflicts. From this difficulty ...

  6. Measurement of charged kaon semileptonic decay branching fractions and their ratio at the NA-48/2 experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Anne Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the ratios of charged kaon decay rates for Ke3/K2 π, K μ 3/K2 π and K μ 3/Ke3 are presented. These measurements are based on charged kaon decays collected in a dedicated run in 2003 by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN. The results obtained are Ke3/K2 π = 0.2470 ± 0.0009 ( stat ) ± 0.0004 ( syst ) and K μ 3/K2 π = 0.1637 ± 0.0006 ( stat ) ± 0.0003 ( syst ). Using the PDG average for the K2pi normalization mode, both values are found to be larger than the current values given by the Particle Data Book and lead to a larger magnitude of the V us parameter in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix than previously accepted. When combined with the latest Particle Data Book value of | V ud |, | V us | is in agreement with unitarity of the CKM matrix. A new measured value of the ratio of the semileptonic decay rates, K μ 3/Ke3 = 0.663 ± 0.003(stat) ± 0.001(syst) is compared to semi-empirical predictions based on the latest form factor measurements.

  7. Simulation of Charged Particle Trajectories in the Neutron Decay Correlation Experiment abBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dharmin; Greene, Geoffrey; Mahurin, Rob; Bowman, David; Calarco, John

    2005-01-01

    The proposed neutron decay correlation experiment, abBA, will directly detect the direction of emission of decay protons and electrons as well as providing spectroscopic information for both particles. In order to provide this information, the abBA experiment incorporates spatially varying electric and magnetic fields. We report on detailed simulations of the decay particle trajectories in order to assess the impact of various systematic effects on the experimental observables. These include among others; adiabaticity of particle orbits, tracking of orbits, reversal of low energy protons due to inhomogeneous electric field, and accuracy of proton time of flight measurements. Several simulation methods were used including commercial software (Simion), custom software, as well as analytical tools based on the use of adiabatic invariants. Our results indicate that the proposed field geometry of the abBA spectrometer will be substantially immune to most systematic effects and that transport calculations using adiabatic invariants agree well with solution of the full equations of motion.

  8. Data Analysis and Preliminary Results of the Proton Charge Radius Experiment (PRad) at JLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weizhi; Peng, Chao; PRad Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate the proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment (E12-11-106) was performed in 2016 in Hall B at Jefferson Lab, with 1.1 and 2.2 GeV unpolarized electron beam on a windowless H2 gas flow target. The experiment aims to extract the electric form factor of the proton in an unprecedented low squared momentum transfer region (Q2 = 2 ×10-4 - 0.06(GeV / c) 2), with a sub-percent precision. The PRad experiment utilizes a non-magnetic calorimetric method with a large acceptance and high resolution calorimeter (HyCal), and two large area, high spatial resolution Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. To control the systematic uncertainties, the absolute e - p elastic scattering cross section is normalized to that of the well-known M øller scattering process, which is measured simultaneously within similar kinematics and experimental acceptances. Both the luminosity and the energy independent part of the detector acceptance and efficiency are canceled out in the ratio. In this talk, we will discuss details of the data analysis and present the preliminary physics results from the 2.2 GeV data. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-03ER41231, NSF MRI award PHY-1229153, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Duke University.

  9. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandar Oo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart is also provided.

  10. Top Quark Mass in Events with two Charged Leptons at the D0 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boline, Daniel Dooley [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The top quark is the most massive observed fundamental subatomic particle, and at the Tevatron accelerator is produced mostly in top-antitop (t$\\bar{t}$) quark pairs from the collisions of protons and anti-protons. Each top quark decays into a bottom quark and a W boson. The W boson can then decay into a pair of quarks, or into a charged lepton and a neutrino. The various decays can be broken up into three different channels based on the number of leptons from the decay of the W bosons: all-jets (with no leptons), lepton+jets (with one lepton), and dilepton (with two leptons). This dissertation will present a measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel. The dilepton channel is characterized by two leptons, two neutrinos and two b-quarks. The neutrinos are not directly observed, but their absence is felt as missing transverse momentum (pT) in the detector. The combination of two leptons and large pT produces an easily isolated signal, giving the dilepton channel a high signal over background ratio. Having two neutrinos means that we cannot know what the transverse momenta of either neutrino is. This means that even if we knew the momenta of the leptons and b-quarks perfectly, we would be unable to reconstruct the mass of the top quark. This measurement gets around this problem by scanning over all possible values of the top mass, finding all consistent t{bar t} combinations, assigning a kinematic weight to each, and then adding the weights for each combination at a given possible top mass. The lepton momenta, jet momenta, and pT are only known to within some finite precision, so for a given top mass, I also vary each of these momenta within their resolutions and add the weights for a given possible top mass. After scanning over possible top masses, I choose the top mass with the largest sum of weights mtmax as an observable for the event. I then perform a template based likelihood fit of m

  11. Multi-Electrode Resistivity Probe for Investigation of Local Temperature Inside Metal Shell Battery Cells via Resistivity: Experiments and Evaluation of Electrical Resistance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Current (DC electrical resistivity is a material property that is sensitive to temperature changes. In this paper, the relationship between resistivity and local temperature inside steel shell battery cells (two commercial 10 Ah and 4.5 Ah lithium-ion cells is innovatively studied by Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT. The Schlumberger configuration in ERT is applied to divide the cell body into several blocks distributed in different levels, where the apparent resistivities are measured by multi-electrode surface probes. The investigated temperature ranges from −20 to 80 °C. Experimental results have shown that the resistivities mainly depend on temperature changes in each block of the two cells used and the function of the resistivity and temperature can be fitted to the ERT-measurement results in the logistical-plot. Subsequently, the dependence of resistivity on the state of charge (SOC is investigated, and the SOC range of 70%–100% has a remarkable impact on the resistivity at low temperatures. The proposed approach under a thermal cool down regime is demonstrated to monitor the local transient temperature.

  12. Charge-exchange and fusion reaction measurements during compression experiments with neutral beam heating in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hammett, G.W.; Chan, A.A.; England, A.C.; Hendel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; Nieschmidt, E.; Roquemore, A.L.; Scott, S.D.

    1986-04-01

    Adiabatic toroidal compression experiments were performed in conjunction with high power neutral beam injection in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Acceleration of beam ions to energies nearly twice the injection energy was measured with a charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer. Measurements were also made of 2.5 MeV neutrons and 15 MeV protons produced in fusion reactions between the deuterium beam ions and the thermal deuterium and /sup 3/He ions, respectively. When the plasma was compressed, the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction rate increased a factor of five, and the /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He rate by a factor of twenty. These data were simulated with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck program, which assumed conservation of angular momentum and magnetic moment during compression. The results indicate that the beam ion acceleration was consistent with adiabatic scaling.

  13. Charge-exchange and fusion reaction measurements during compression experiments with neutral beam heating in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hammett, G.W.

    1986-04-01

    Adiabatic toroidal compression experiments were performed in conjunction with high power neutral beam injection in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Acceleration of beam ions to energies nearly twice the injection energy was measured with a charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer. Measurements were also made of 2.5 MeV neutrons and 15 MeV protons produced in fusion reactions between the deuterium beam ions and the thermal deuterium and 3 He ions, respectively. When the plasma was compressed, the d(d,n) 3 He fusion reaction rate increased a factor of five, and the 3 He(d,p) 4 He rate by a factor of twenty. These data were simulated with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck program, which assumed conservation of angular momentum and magnetic moment during compression. The results indicate that the beam ion acceleration was consistent with adiabatic scaling

  14. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at super proton synchrotron energies from the NA50 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Idzik, M; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; MacCormick, M; Macciotta, P; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2003-01-01

    We present the measurements of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions dN/sub ch//d eta performed by the NA50 experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Measurements were done at incident energies of 40 GeV ( square root s = 8.77 GeV) and 158 GeV ( square root s = 17.3 GeV) per nucleon over a broad impact parameter range. The multiplicity distributions are studied as a function of centrality using the number of participating nucleons (N/sub part/), or the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (N/sub coll/). Their values at midrapidity exhibit a linear scaling with N/sub part/ at both energies. Particle yield increases approximately by a factor of 2 between square root s = 8.77 GeV and square root s = 17.3 GeV. (5 refs).

  15. Charge-exchange measurements of beam ion thermalization in MHD-quiescent plasmas in the Poloidal Divertor Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Goldston, R.J.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    1984-10-01

    The horizontally scanning, multiangle charge-exchange analyzer on the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX) was used to study the beam ion slowing-down process with high-power perpendicular injection. Measurements were made over a wide range in toroidal field (8 kG < B(T) < 22 kG), plasma current (200 kA < I(p) < 500 kA), and beam power (1 MW < P/sub B/ < 7 MW). In MHD-quiescent plasmas, good agreement is found between the measured slowing-down spectra and theoretical predictions as a function of both angle and energy. Classes of prompt orbit losses are observed with both co- and counter-injection which have been understood and applied to plasma diagnostics. The effects of MHD activity on fast ion thermalization will be the subject of a companion paper

  16. Charged Lepton Flavour and CP Violations: Theoretical Impact of Present and Future Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, I. [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Savoy, C.A. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-06-15

    We shortly review and emphasize how l{sup j}{yields}l{sup i}{gamma} experiments and the searches for lepton e.d.m. are constraining New Physics model building. They are pure signals of new phenomena around the TeV scale since the SM contributions are definitely negligible. It is quite remarkable that they also give effective tests of the LFV and CPV in seesaw couplings and in grand-unified theories. In particular, the limits on d{sub e} nicely complement the proton decay bounds in selecting O(10) models.

  17. Nuclear radiation interference and damage effects in charged particle experiments for extended space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, J. H.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration that meaningful galactic and solar cosmic radiation measurements can be carried out on deep space missions. The radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which must be used as a source of power and perhaps of heat are a problem, but with proper separation from the experiments, with orientation, and with some shielding the damage effects can be reduced to an acceptable level. The Pioneer spacecraft are crucial in that they are targeted at the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts, and should supply the details of those belts. The subsequent Grand Tour opportunities can be selected for those periods which result in larger distances of closest approach to Jupiter if necessary.

  18. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  19. Optimized batteries for cars with dual electrical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douady, J. P.; Pascon, C.; Dugast, A.; Fossati, G.

    During recent years, the increase in car electrical equipment has led to many problems with traditional starter batteries (such as cranking failure due to flat batteries, battery cycling etc.). The main causes of these problems are the double function of the automotive battery (starter and service functions) and the difficulties in designing batteries well adapted to these two functions. In order to solve these problems a new concept — the dual-concept — has been developed with two separate batteries: one battery is dedicated to the starter function and the other is dedicated to the service function. Only one alternator charges the two batteries with a separation device between the two electrical circuits. The starter battery is located in the engine compartment while the service battery is located at the rear of the car. From the analysis of new requirements, battery designs have been optimized regarding the two types of functions: (i) a small battery with high specific power for the starting function; for this function a flooded battery with lead-calcium alloy grids and thin plates is proposed; (ii) for the service function, modified sealed gas-recombinant batteries with cycling and deep-discharge ability have been developed. The various advantages of the dual-concept are studied in terms of starting reliability, battery weight, and voltage supply. The operating conditions of the system and several dual electrical architectures have also been studied in the laboratory and the car. The feasibility of the concept is proved.

  20. The PETAL+ project: X-ray and charged particle diagnostics for plasma experiments at LMJ-PETAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducret, J.-E.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Batani, D.; Blanchot, N.; Brambrink, E.; Casner, A.; Ceccotti, T.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; D'Humières, E.; Dobosz-Dufrénoy, S.; Duval, A.; Fuchs, J.; Hulin, S.; Koenig, M.; Lantuéjoul-Thfoin, I.; Lefebvre, E.; Marquès, J.-R.; Miquel, J.-L.; Reverdin, C.; Serani, L.

    2013-01-01

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the US started and will be followed by the Laser MégaJoule (LMJ) in France. Such facilities will provide unique tools for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) physics and for basic science. A petawatt short pulse laser (ps) is being added to the ns pulse beams of the LMJ. This is PETAL (PETawatt Aquitaine Laser), under construction on the LMJ site near Bordeaux (France). The Petal+ project is aiming at the design and construction of diagnostics dedicated to experiments with PETAL and LMJ laser beams. Within Petal+, three types of diagnostics are under study: a proton spectrometer, an electron spectrometer and a large-band X-ray spectrometer. The first goal of these diagnostics will be to characterize the secondary radiation and particle sources produced with PETAL. They will also be used for experiments using both ns and ps beams. In the present paper emphasis is put on the charged-particle diagnostics

  1. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off-line recharging and on-line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm-sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  2. Beams of mass-selected clusters: realization and first experiments; Faisceau d'agregats charges selectionnes en taille: realisation et premieres experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalou, O

    2007-04-15

    The main objective of this work concerns the production of beams of mass-selected clusters of metallic and semiconductor materials. Clusters are produced in magnetron sputtering source combined with a gas aggregation chamber, cooled by liquid nitrogen circulation. Downstream of the cluster source, a Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight setup allows to select a given cluster size or a narrow size range. The pulsed mass-selected cluster ion beam is separated from the continuous neutral one by an electrostatic 90-quadrupole deflector. After the deflector, the density of the pulsed beam amounts to about 10{sup 3} particles/cm{sup 3}. Preliminary deposition experiments of mass-selected copper clusters with a deposition energy of about 0.5 eV/atom have ben performed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates, indicating that copper clusters are evidently mobile on the HOPG-surface until they reach cleavage steps, dislocation lines or other surface defects. In order to lower the cluster mobility on the HOPG-surface, we have first irradiated HOPG samples with slow highly charged ions (high dose) in order to create superficial defects. In a second step we have deposited mass-selected copper clusters on these pre-irradiated samples. The first analysis by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) techniques showed that the copper clusters are trapped on the defects produced by the highly charged ions. (author)

  3. Advanced Modular "All in One" Battery System with Intelligent Autonomous Cell Balancing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, X.; Pasquier, E.; Defer, M.; Koch, M.; Knorr, W.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation of energy storage systems based on Li-ion technology emerged at the end of the last century.To perform the first tests in safe conditions, Saft designed a simple electronic.Today, all Li-ion batteries for autonomous applications such as drones, launchers, missiles, torpedoes and "human" applications such as cellular, laptop, hybrid vehicle and nearly sub-marines need a Battery Management System.The minimum in terms of functions is the overcharge and over-discharge protections.For a battery made of 2 cells connected in series or more, a balancing system is added to maintain the available energy during all the life of the battery. For stringent/demanding applications, the state of charge and state of health are calculated by one or more computers.It is now time to take benefit of the past 10 years of Saft's experience in the domain to re-evaluate the constraints of Li-ion batteries and provide customers with improved products by optimizing the battery management.Benefits of electronic for satellite applications:• Full control over battery.• Confidence whatever the possible change of conditions in environment.• The battery system can resist long exposure to gradient conditions with mitigated and stabilized impact on performances.• The balancing function allow to use all the energy of all the cells: optimize of installed energy (compact design, mass saving). It started out with the basic fact that electrochemists are not intended to be space rated electronic experts and vice versa, even if Saft has a good heritage in the electronic battery management system. Consequently, considering heritage and expertise in their respective core businesses, Saft and ASP teamed up.It became necessary to provide an "all in one" modular energy storage system with intelligent autonomous cell balancing management.

  4. Investigation on a hydrogel based passive thermal management system for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sijie; Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    An appropriate operating temperature range is critical for the overall performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries. Considering the excellent performance of water in heat dissipation in industrial applications, in this paper, a water based PAAS (sodium polyacrylate) hydrogel thermal management system has been proposed to handle the heat surge during the operation of a Li-ion battery pack. A thermal model with constant heat generation rate is employed to simulate the high current discharge process (i.e., 10 A) on a 4S1P battery pack, which shows a good consistence with the corresponding experimental results. Further experiments on 4S1P and 5S1P battery packs validate the effectiveness of the hydrogel thermal management system in lowering the temperature increase rate of battery packs at different discharge rates and minimizing the temperature difference inside battery packs during operation, thereby enhancing the stability and safety in continuous charge and discharge process and decreasing the capacity fading rate during life cycle tests. This novel hydrogel based cooling system also possesses the characteristics of high energy efficiency, easy manufacturing process, compactness, and low cost. - Highlights: • A hydrogel thermal management system (TMS) is proposed for Li-ion battery. • It is found that the heat from internal resistance predominates at high discharge rate. • Effectiveness of hydrogel in controlling cell temperature is proved. • Battery equipped with hydrogel TMS is safer at continuous high rate cycle test. • The capacity fading rate of battery pack decreases when hydrogel TMS is implemented

  5. A solar charge and discharge controller for wireless sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yibo; Shen, Shu

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the energy supply problem that restricts the life of wireless sensor nodes, a solar energy charge and discharge controller suitable for wireless sensor nodes is designed in this paper. A Microcontroller is used as the core of the solar charge and discharge controller. The software of the solar charge and discharge controller adopts the C language to realize the program of the main control module. Firstly, the function of monitoring solar panel voltage and lithium battery voltage are simulated by Protel software, and the charge time is tested in cloudy and overcast outdoor environment. The results of the experiment show that our controller meets the power supply demand of wireless sensor nodes.

  6. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  7. Extraction of High Charge Electron Bunch from the ELSA RF Injector Comparison Between Simulation and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaire, J; Binet, A; Lagniel, J M; Le Flanchec, V; Pichoff, N

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme based on a photoinjector and a RF linear accelerator operating at 352 MHz has been recently proposed as a versatile radiographic facility. Beam pulses of 60 ns duration contain 20 succesive electron bunches which will be extracted at 2.5 MeV from a photoinjector then accelerated through the next structure to the final energy of 51 MeV. Bunches carrying 100 nC are required for this purpose. As a first demonstrating step, 50 nC electron bunches have been produced and accelerated to 2.5 MeV with the 144 MHz ELSA photoinjector at Bruyères le Chatel. For this experiment, we compare the results and the numerical simulations made with PARMELA, MAGIC and MAFIA codes.

  8. Beam-line considerations for experiments with highly-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The APS offers exciting possibilities for a bright future in x-ray research. For example, measurements on the inner-shell photoionization of ions will be feasible using stored ions in ions traps or ion beams from an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source, or perhaps even a heavy-ion storage ring. Such experiments with ionic targets are the focus for the discussion given here on the optimization of photon flux on a generic beamline at the APS. The performance of beam lines X26C, X26A, and X17 on the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source will be discussed as specific examples of beam-line design considerations

  9. Beam-line considerations for experiments with highly-charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The APS offers exciting possibilities for a bright future in x-ray research. For example, measurements on the inner-shell photoionization of ions will be feasible using stored ions in ions traps or ion beams from an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source, or perhaps even a heavy-ion storage ring. Such experiments with ionic targets are the focus for the discussion given here on the optimization of photon flux on a generic beamline at the APS. The performance of beam lines X26C, X26A, and X17 on the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source will be discussed as specific examples of beam-line design considerations.

  10. A Novel Electric Bicycle Battery Monitoring System Based on Android Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The battery monitoring system (BMS plays a crucial role in maintaining the safe operation of the lithium battery electric bicycle and prolonging the life of the battery pack. This paper designed a set of new battery monitoring systems based on the Android system and ARM single-chip microcomputer to enable direct management of the lithium battery pack and convenient monitoring of the state of the battery pack. The BMS realizes the goal of monitoring the voltage, current, and ambient temperature of lithium batteries, estimating the state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH, protecting the battery from abuse during charging or discharging, and ensuring the consistency of the batteries by integrating the passive equalization circuit. The BMS was proven effective and feasible through several tests, including charging/discharging, estimation accuracy, and communication tests. The results indicated that the BMS could be used in the design and application of the electric bicycle.

  11. A brief review on key technologies in the battery management system of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Peng, Qiao; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Batteries have been widely applied in many high-power applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, where a suitable battery management system (BMS) is vital in ensuring safe and reliable operation of batteries. This paper aims to give a brief review on several key technologies of BMS, including battery modelling, state estimation and battery charging. First, popular battery types used in EVs are surveyed, followed by the introduction of key technologies used in BMS. Various battery models, including the electric model, thermal model and coupled electro-thermal model are reviewed. Then, battery state estimations for the state of charge, state of health and internal temperature are comprehensively surveyed. Finally, several key and traditional battery charging approaches with associated optimization methods are discussed.

  12. Determination of net atomic charges in anthraquinone by means of 5-h X-ray diffraction experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 611, 1-3 (2002), s. 139-146 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/M037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : net charges * net atomic charges * charge density analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.122, year: 2002

  13. Identification and analysis of charged hadrons in p+p interactions from NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pulawski, Szymon

    The phase-transition of strongly interacting matter is a very interesting phenom- ena, which still is not fully understood. Signi cant contribution to improving knowledge about properties of the onset of decon nement of strongly interact- ing matter might come from the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN. The main goal of this xed-target experiment is to discover the critical point and study the properties of the onset of decon nement. This goal has been reached by the pre- cise measurement of the hadron production in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions in a wide range of system sizes and collision energies. The main goal of this thesis was to obtained two-dimensional spectra of positively and negatively charged pions, kaons and protons produced in p + p interactions at SPS energy range (20 ; 30 : 9 ; 40 ; 80 ; 158 GeV=c ). This studies are necessary for understanding of the onset of decon nement. For this purpose, identi cation and correction techniques dedicated...

  14. Degradation Mechanisms and Lifetime Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries -- A Control Perspective: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-07-29

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery lifetime must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal, and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. To complicate matters, Li-ion batteries can experience different degradation trajectories that depend on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. We present a generalized battery life prognostic model framework for battery systems design and control. The model framework consists of trial functions that are statistically regressed to Li-ion cell life datasets wherein the cells have been aged under different levels of stress. Degradation mechanisms and rate laws dependent on temperature, storage, and cycling condition are regressed to the data, with multiple model hypotheses evaluated and the best model down-selected based on statistics. The resulting life prognostic model, implemented in state variable form, is extensible to arbitrary real-world scenarios. The model is applicable in real-time control algorithms to maximize battery life and performance. We discuss efforts to reduce lifetime prediction error and accommodate its inevitable impact in controller design.

  15. Post-vehicle-application lithium-ion battery remanufacturing, repurposing and recycling capacity: Modeling and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Standridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A mathematical model is used to help determine the manufacturing capacity needed to support post-vehicle-application remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of lithium-ion batteries over time.  Simulation is used in solving the model to estimate capacity in kWh.  Lithium-ion batteries that are commonly used in the electrification of vehicles cannot be simply discarded post-vehicle-application due to the materials of which they are composed.  Eventually, each will fail to hold a charge and will need to be recycled.  Remanufacturing, allowing a battery to return to a vehicle application, and repurposing, transforming a battery for use in a non-vehicle application, postpone recycling and increase value. The mathematical model and its solution using simulation test the hypothesis that the capacity needed for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling as well as new battery production is a function of a single parameter:  the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured. Design/methodology/approach: Equations in the mathematical model represent the capacity needed for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling as well as new battery production as dependent variables.  Independent variables are exogenous quantities as such as the demand for electrified vehicles of all types, physical properties of batteries such as their application life distribution including the time to recycling, and a single decision variable:  the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  Values of the dependent variables over time are estimated by simulation for values of the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries ranging from 0% to 85% in steps of 5%. Findings and Originality/value: The simulation results support important insights for investment in capacity for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application batteries as well as new batteries.  The capacity needed for

  16. Effect of shrapnel penetration on lithium-carbon monofluoride and lithium-manganese dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, W. N. C.

    National BR2/3A lithium-carbon monofluoride and Duracell DL2/3A lithium-manganese dioxide batteries were subjected to simulated shrapnel penetration using a projectile from an M16 rifle. Trials were conducted on batteries in various states of charge (0, 50, and 100 percent discharged) in both wet and dry environments. Only one fully charged Duracell Battery (under wet conditions) caught fire during the test. The effects of environmental conditions, the chemical reactions involved, and the state of charge of the batteries on the probability of the batteries igniting are discussed.

  17. Methods for Characterization of Batteries Using Acoustic Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shoham

    Batteries are a ubiquitous form of electrochemical energy storage, but thus far the methods for measuring the mechanical properties of batteries and their component materials in operando have lagged far behind the methods for measuring the corresponding electrical properties. In this thesis, I demonstrate methods for determining the changes in materials properties of an electrochemical energy storage cell both ex situ and in operando.. I begin by establishing the impact of micro-scale morphology changes on the macro-scale dynamic mechanical response in commercial alkaline AA cells. Using a bounce test, the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the cell is shown to increase non-linearly as a function of state of charge (SOC). I show that the reason for the increase in the COR stems from the spatially-dependent oxidation of the Zn anode, with an initial increase corresponding to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO-clad Zn particles spanning the radius of the anode. The subsequent saturation of the COR is shown to result from the ultimate solidification and desiccation of the Zn anode. Building from this, I present a generalized in operando solution for materials characterization in batteries using ultrasonic interrogation. The materials properties of battery components change during charge and discharge, resulting in a change in the sound speed of the materials. By attaching transducers to a battery during cycling and sending ultrasonic pulses through each cell I observe the changes in the time of flight (ToF) of the pulses, both in reflection and transmission. I show that the changes in ToF correspond to both SOC and state of health (SOH) in a variety of battery chemistries and geometries, and detail a corresponding acoustic conservation law model framework. Finally, I perform these electrochemical acoustic time of flight (EAToF) experiments on commercial alkaline AA cells. By correlating the results with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) data and

  18. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  19. Kinematic reconstruction of tau leptons and test for lepton universality in charged weak interactions with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerland, Philip

    2011-04-15

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) postulates the universal coupling of the three lepton families to the weak current. The most precise measurement of lepton universality in W decays comes from the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). If one compares the couplings of muons and tau leptons to the charged weak current, there is a discrepancy of nearly three standard deviations w.r.t. the SM expectation. There are models beyond the SM, which could explain the violation of lepton universality with new physics processes, if it is more than a statistical fluctuation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) offers a great opportunity to study decays of the charged-weak gauge bosons at very high event rates and at unmatched collision energies. This thesis presents an analysis strategy to test lepton universality with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the LHC. The analysis focusses on the decays of the W{sup {+-}} boson to particles of the second and third lepton family. For this purpose detector-simulated proton-proton events are used. The identification and reconstruction of tau leptons is a difficult task at the LHC. The reconstruction is often restricted by the limited precision of the commonly used collinear approximation. The application of a kinematic fit to particular tau-decay modes can improve the experimental resolution and provides an efficient background suppression. The development of such a fit with kinematic constraints derived from the topology of the decay {tau} {yields} 3{pi}{sup {+-}} + {nu}{sub {tau}} is described. The kinematic fit of tau leptons is not limited to the test for lepton universality, but can be deployed by various physics analyses in a broad energy range of the tau leptons. The event topology of W{sup {+-}} decays with leptonic final states is studied. Two event selections are developed: one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {tau}{nu} and one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{nu} decay. A common online

  20. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur.