WorldWideScience

Sample records for battery charging experience

  1. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  2. Experiments Study on Charge Technology of Lead-Acid Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; ZHANG Cheng-ning

    2008-01-01

    The basic theory of the fast charge and several charge methods are introduced. In order to heighten charge efficiency of valve-regulated lead-acid battery and shorten the charge time, five charge methods are investigated with experiments done on the Digatron BNT 400-050 test bench. Battery current, terminal voltage, capacity, energy and terminal pole temperature during battery experiment were recorded, and corresponding curves were depicted. Battery capacity-time ratio, energy efficiency and energy-temperature ratio are put forward to be the appraising criteria of lead-acid battery on electric vehicle (EV). According to the appraising criteria and the battery curves, multistage-current/negative-pulse charge method is recommended to charge lead-acid EV battery.

  3. Intelligent battery charging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  4. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  5. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  6. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1... areas. (2) Ventilation shall be provided to ensure diffusion of the gases from the battery and...

  8. Batteries: Charging ahead rationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2016-06-01

    Redox mediators facilitate the oxidation of the highly insulating discharge product in metal–oxygen batteries during recharge and offer opportunities to achieve high reversible capacities. Now a design principle for selecting redox mediators that can recharge the batteries more efficiently is suggested.

  9. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  10. Battery selection for space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  11. Fuzzy logic-based battery charge controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic power system are generally classified according to their functional and operational requirements, their component configurations, and how the equipment is connected to other power sources and electrical loads, photovoltaic systems can be designed to provide DC and/or AC power service, can operate interconnected with or independent of the utility grid, and can be connected with other energy sources and energy storage systems. Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather). The lead acid battery, although know for more than one hundred years, has currently offered the best response in terms of price, energetic efficiency and lifetime. The main function of controller or regulator in PV system is too fully charge the battery without permitting overcharge while preventing reverse current flow at night. If a no-self-regulating solar array is connected to lead acid batteries with no overcharge protection, battery life will be compromised. Simple controllers contain a transistor that disconnects or reconnects the PV in the charging circuit once a pre-set voltage is reached. More sophisticated controllers utilize pulse with modulation (PWM) to assure the battery is being fully charged. The first 70% to 80% of battery capacity is easily replaced, but the last 20% to 30% requires more attention and therefore more complexity. This complexity is avoided by using a skilled operators experience in the form of the rules. Thus a fuzzy control system seeks to control the battery that cannot be controlled well by a conventional control such as PID, PD, PI etc., due to the unavailability of an accurate mathematical model of the battery. In this paper design of an intelligent battery charger, in which the control algorithm is implemented with fuzzy logic is discussed. The digital architecture is implemented with

  12. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  13. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  14. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  15. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...

  16. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  17. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  18. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  19. Improving battery charging with solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boico, Florent Michael

    Recent technological developments in thin-film photovoltaics, such as amorphous silicon and hybrid dye sensitized photovoltaic (PV) cells are leading to new generations of portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, flexible, and have been reported to achieve power efficiencies of up to 10%. Already, commercial-off-the-shelf arrays exist that have panels embedded in fabric that can be folded to dimensions of less than 12" x 12", yet are able to produce up to 50Watts of power at 12V. These new products make solar power available to various types of applications. In particular, military applications are emerging to give soldier a source of power that can always be at reach. In parallel with these developments, NiMH and Li-ion batteries are increasingly being used to power various equipment. Currently, the military is field testing solar charging of its batteries with portable solar arrays. However, so far, all known charge control algorithm have failed as they commonly falsely detect overcharge at random times in the charging and leave the battery partially charged. The goal of our research is to investigate the origins of failure in existing charge control algorithms and to propose adequate algorithms that would improve the battery charging. Additionally, ways to optimize the generated photovoltaic power is critical for portable solar application as the energy produced is limited. It is known that the use of a DC-DC converter between the solar panel and the load allows optimization of the power delivered by the solar panel when "Maximum Power Point Tracking" is utilized. Therefore we are developing new solutions that address the specific problem of Maximum Power Point Tracking for modular solar panels.

  20. Study and Implementation on Batteries Charging Method of Micro-Grid Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tiezhou Wu; Qing Xiao; Linzhang Wu; Jie Zhang; Mingyue Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the micro-grid photovoltaic systems, the random changes of solar radiation enable lead-acid batteries to experience low SOC (State of Charge) or overcharged for periods of time if directly charged with such traditional methods as decreased charging current, which will reduce lifetime of batteries. What’s more, it’s difficult to find a proper reduction coefficient in decreasing charging current. To adapt to the random changes of circumstance and avoid selecting the reduction coefficient, a ...

  1. PIC BASED SOLAR CHARGING CONTROLLER FOR BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs Jaya N. Ingole

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar resource is unlimited the government is trying to implement the use of Solar panels as an energy source in rural and sub urban areas for lighting the street lights, but the battery used to store the power gets affected due to overcharge & discharges. This paper presents the use of PIC16F72 based solar charger controller for controlling the overcharging and discharging of a solar cell. It works by continuously optimizing the interface between the solar array and battery. First, the variable supply is fixed at 12.8V dc—the voltage of a fully charged battery— and linked to the battery point of the circuit. Cut Off of battery from load voltage is 10.8 volt. A PIC16F72 for small size and inbuilt analog inputs is used to determine voltage level of battery and solar panel..It also describes how the disadvantages of analog circuit are overcome by this controller. The flow chart is also provided.

  2. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA; SUMIT KUMAR JHA,; DR S.N. SINGH,

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant curren...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.157 - Battery charging and changing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... jumper battery is connected to a battery in a vehicle, the ground lead shall connect to ground away from the vehicle's battery. Ignition, lights and accessories on the vehicle shall be turned off before... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery charging and changing. 1917.157 Section...

  4. Operation Strategy of EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Peng; Li Zhang; Ku-An Lu; Jun-Peng Hu; Si Liu

    2014-01-01

    An operation strategy of the electric vehicle (EV) battery charging and swapping station is proposed in the paper. The strategy is established based on comprehensively consideration of the EV charging behaviors and the possible mutual actions between battery charging and swapping. Three energy management strategies can be used in the station:charging period shifting, energy exchange between EVs, and energy supporting from surplus swapping batteries. Then an optimization model which minimizes the total energy management costs of the station is built. The Monte Carlo simulation is applied to analyze the characteristics of the EV battery charging load, and a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the strategy providing the relevant information of EVs and the battery charging and swapping station. The operation strategy can efficiently reduce battery charging during the high electricity price periods and make more reasonable use of the resources. Simulations prove the feasibility and rationality of the strategy.

  5. Dynamic battery cell model and state of charge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, S.; Vepa, R.; Shaheed, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    Mathematical modelling and the dynamic simulation of battery storage systems can be challenging and demanding due to the nonlinear nature of the battery chemistry. This paper introduces a new dynamic battery model, with application to state of charge estimation, considering all possible aspects of environmental conditions and variables. The aim of this paper is to present a suitable convenient, generic dynamic representation of rechargeable battery dynamics that can be used to model any Lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The proposed representation is used to develop a dynamic model considering the thermal balance of heat generation mechanism of the battery cell and the ambient temperature effect including other variables such as storage effects, cyclic charging, battery internal resistance, state of charge etc. The results of the simulations have been used to study the characteristics of a Lithium-ion battery and the proposed battery model is shown to produce responses within 98% of known experimental measurements.

  6. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  7. Model Predictive Control-Based Fast Charging for Vehicular Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Battery fast charging is one of the most significant and difficult techniques affecting the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs. In this paper, we propose a fast charge framework based on model predictive control, with the aim of simultaneously reducing the charge duration, which represents the out-of-service time of vehicles, and the increase in temperature, which represents safety and energy efficiency during the charge process. The RC model is employed to predict the future State of Charge (SOC. A single mode lumped-parameter thermal model and a neural network trained by real experimental data are also applied to predict the future temperature in simulations and experiments respectively. A genetic algorithm is then applied to find the best charge sequence under a specified fitness function, which consists of two objectives: minimizing the charging duration and minimizing the increase in temperature. Both simulation and experiment demonstrate that the Pareto front of the proposed method dominates that of the most popular constant current constant voltage (CCCV charge method.

  8. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the battery SoC, and even more important the remaining time of use, becomes more and more important. Therefore, many leading semiconductor companies, e.g. NXP Semiconductors, Texas Instruments, Microch...

  9. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  10. Research on Battery Charging-Discharging in New Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Che Yanbo; Zhou Yan; Sun Yue; Hu Bo

    2013-01-01

    As an energy storage component, the battery plays increasingly important role in new energy industry. Charging and discharging system is the vital part of the application of the battery, but the charge and discharge are always designed separately and carried by different part in the traditional application. Additionally, most battery discharge mode and method are always simplified which cannot ensure to meet the demand of power utilization. In the actual energy storage system, the design of t...

  11. Study of Emergency Power Based on Solar Battery Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lei; Zhu Mengfu; Chen Ping; Deng Cheng; Liu Zhimeng; Wang Yanan

    2016-01-01

    To study an emergency power based on solar battery charging. Based on the electric-generation principle of solar panel, solar energy is changed into electrical energy. Through voltage conversion circuit and filter circuit, electrical energy is stored in the energy storage battery. The emergency power realizes the conversion from solar energy to electrical energy. The battery control unit has the function of PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) charging, overcharging protection, over-discharging prote...

  12. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  13. Battery peak charge voltage monitor for dual air density satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    A battery peak charge voltage monitor was developed for use on the dual air density satellite (DADS). This device retains a reading of the maximum voltage reached by the spacecraft battery during periods of charging, and makes it available during periods of data transmission. The monitor is connected across the battery and operates solely from the battery; it is powered continuously with quiescent input current of only 3 milliamperes. Standard integrated circuits and a thin-film resistor network are utilized. The monitor occupies approximately 40 square centimeters of a printed-circuit board within a larger electronic package.

  14. Battery-powered transport systems. Possible methods of automatically charging drive batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    In modern driverless transport systems, not only easy maintenance of the drive battery is important but also automatic charging during times of standstill. Some systems are presented; one system is pointed out in particular in which 100 batteries can be charged at the same time.

  15. Review on Electric Vehicle, Battery Charger, Charging Station and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afida Ayob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are a new and upcoming technology in the transportation and power sector that have many benefits in terms of economic and environmental. This study presents a comprehensive review and evaluation of various types of electric vehicles and its associated equipment in particular battery charger and charging station. A comparison is made on the commercial and prototype electric vehicles in terms of electric range, battery size, charger power and charging time. The various types of charging stations and standards used for charging electric vehicles have been outlined and the impact of electric vehicle charging on utility distribution system is also discussed.

  16. Charging performance of automotive batteries - An underestimated factor influencing lifetime and reliable battery operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Blanke, Holger; Thele, Marc; Bohlen, Oliver; Schiffer, Julia; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17/19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, Eckhard; Fricke, Birger [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Aachen (Germany); Kaiser, Rudi [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-05-25

    Dynamic charge acceptance and charge acceptance under constant voltage charging conditions are for two reasons essential for lead-acid battery operation: energy efficiency in applications with limited charging time (e.g. PV systems or regenerative braking in vehicles) and avoidance of accelerated ageing due to sulphation. Laboratory tests often use charge regimes which are beneficial for the battery life, but which differ significantly from the operating conditions in the field. Lead-acid batteries in applications with limited charging time and partial-state-of-charge operation are rarely fully charged due to their limited charge acceptance. Therefore, they suffer from sulphation and early capacity loss. However, when appropriate charging strategies are applied most of the lost capacity and thus performance for the user may be recovered. The paper presents several aspects of charging regimes and charge acceptance. Theoretical and experimental investigations show that temperature is the most critical parameter. Full charging within short times can be achieved only at elevated temperatures. A strong dependency of the charge acceptance during charging pulses on the pre-treatment of the battery can be observed, which is not yet fully understood. But these effects have a significant impact on the fuel efficiency of micro-hybrid electric vehicles. (author)

  17. Results of cycling with battery charging management; Resultats de cyclage avec gestion de charge au niveau batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verniolle, J.; Fernandez, C. [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    In order to investigate the charging mode of an in-series assembly of lithium-carbon battery cells, a test has been performed on 5 commercial cells (18650) of 0.95 Ah nominal capacity. Results show that it is possible to cycle the cells at 80% of their output capacities during more than 2000 cycles. The management of the battery consists in maintaining a constant battery voltage as soon as a cell reaches its limit voltage during constant current charging. The initial dispersion of cells has been maintained practically constant during the cycling and the charge state of all cells has decreased progressively. (J.S.)

  18. Research on Battery Charging-Discharging in New Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Yanbo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an energy storage component, the battery plays increasingly important role in new energy industry. Charging and discharging system is the vital part of the application of the battery, but the charge and discharge are always designed separately and carried by different part in the traditional application. Additionally, most battery discharge mode and method are always simplified which cannot ensure to meet the demand of power utilization. In the actual energy storage system, the design of the energy converter, which make the power storage and supply as a whole and the design of the charge and discharge method, will play an important role in efficient utilization of the battery system. As a part of the new energy system, the study makes battery and the charging and discharging system as a whole to store energy, which can store and release electric energy high efficiently according to the system state and control the bidirectional flow of energy precisely. Using TMS320F2812 as the control core, the system which integrates charging and discharging with battery monitoring can achieve the bidirectional Buck/Boost power control. It can achieve three-stage charging and selective discharging of the battery. Due to the influence of the diode reverse recovery time, current oscillation will appear. In order to eliminate the oscillation, we can set the circuit to work in critical conduction mode. The experimental result shows that the system can achieve the charging and discharging control of lead-acid battery and increase the battery life time further.

  19. Review on Electric Vehicle, Battery Charger, Charging Station and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Afida Ayob; Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood; Azah Mohamed Mohd Zamri Che Wanik; MohdFadzil Mohd Siam; Saharuddin Sulaiman; Abu Hanifah Azit; Mohamed Azrin Mohamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are a new and upcoming technology in the transportation and power sector that have many benefits in terms of economic and environmental. This study presents a comprehensive review and evaluation of various types of electric vehicles and its associated equipment in particular battery charger and charging station. A comparison is made on the commercial and prototype electric vehicles in terms of electric range, battery size, charger power and charging time. The various types o...

  20. A NOVEL CHARGE AND DISCHARGE EQUALIZATION SCHEME FOR BATTERY STRINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel charge/discharge equalization scheme is proposed in thispaper. According to the states of batteries, two equalizing methods are adopted for equalization during different charging and discharging phases. A switched capacitor is utilized during high rate charging and discharging. During the later period of charging and discharging, an auxiliary low power DC/DC converter and the inherent switch modules of a control/monitor unit are used. So it is very simple and efficient. With the developed equalizer, the lifetime of a series battery string can be extended.

  1. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  2. Bipolar Transistors Can Detect Charge in Electrostatic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, L.

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors is described that can be used in various electrostatic experiments. Its behaviour enables us to elucidate links between 'static electricity' and electric currents. In addition it allows us to relate the sign of static charges to the sign of the terminals of an ordinary battery. (Contains 7 figures…

  3. ETK's experience in the application of VRLA batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, I. [Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Zagreb (Croatia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of the company Ericsson Nikola Tesla (ETK) in the application of VRLA batteries. After a short comment on conventional lead acid batteries, the paper explains the reasons for introduction of VRLA batteries and presents our experience considering their quality, performance, hydrogen evolution, safety, service life etc. Stress is put on some internal and external factors which affect useful life, such as positive grid corrosion, ambient temperature and charging voltage. ETK also gained experience in relation to adaptation of some UPS systems to VRLA batteries. The article concludes with the list of important advantages and disadvantages of VRLA batteries compared with the flooded ones. (orig.)

  4. Management of deep brain stimulator battery failure: battery estimators, charge density, and importance of clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihan Fakhar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator. METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY. RESULTS: The mean charge density for treatment of Parkinson's disease was 7.2 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 3.82, for dystonia was 17.5 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 8.53, for essential tremor was 8.3 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.85, and for OCD was 18.0 µC/cm(2/phase (SD = 4.35. There was a significant relationship between charge density and battery life (r = -.59, p<.001, as well as total power and battery life (r = -.64, p<.001. The UF estimator (r = .67, p<.001 and the Medtronic helpline (r = .74, p<.001 predictions of battery life were significantly positively associated with actual battery life. Battery status indicators on Soletra and Kinetra were poor predictors of battery life. In 38 cases, the symptoms improved following a battery change, suggesting that the neurostimulator was likely responsible for symptom worsening. For these cases, both the UF estimator and the Medtronic helpline were significantly correlated with battery life (r = .65 and r = .70, respectively, both p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Battery estimations, charge density, total power and clinical symptoms were important factors. The observation of clinical worsening that was rescued following neurostimulator replacement reinforces the notion that changes in clinical symptoms can be associated with battery drain.

  5. Design and Comparative Study of Three Photovoltaic Battery Charge Control Algorithms in MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Bhattacharjee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the design of a three stagesolar battery charge controller and a comparativestudy of this charge control technique with threeconventional solar battery charge controltechniques such as 1. Constant Current (CCcharging, 2. Two stage constant current constantvoltage (CC-CV charging technique. Theanalysis and the comparative study of theaforesaid charging techniques are done inMATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Here thepractical data used to simulate the charge controlalgorithms are based on a 12Volts 7Ah Sealedlead acid battery.

  6. The harmonic impact of electric vehicle battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Preston Trent

    The potential widespread introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) presents both opportunities and challenges to the power systems engineers who will be required to supply power to EV batteries. One of the challenges associated with EV battery charging comes from the potentially high harmonic currents associated with the conversion of ac power system voltages to dc EV battery voltages. Harmonic currents lead to increased losses in distribution circuits and reduced life expectancy of such power distribution components as capacitors and transformers. Harmonic current injections also cause harmonic voltages on power distribution networks. These distorted voltages can affect power system loads and specific standards exist regulating acceptable voltage distortion. This dissertation develops and presents the theory required to evaluate the electric vehicle battery charger as a harmonic distorting load and its possible harmonic impact on various aspects of power distribution systems. The work begins by developing a method for evaluating the net harmonic current injection of a large collection of EV battery chargers which accounts for variation in the start-time and initial battery state-of-charge between individual chargers. Next, this method is analyzed to evaluate the effect of input parameter variation on the net harmonic currents predicted by the model. We then turn to an evaluation of the impact of EV charger harmonic currents on power distribution systems, first evaluating the impact of these currents on a substation transformer and then on power distribution system harmonic voltages. The method presented accounts for the uncertainty in EV harmonic current injections by modeling the start-time and initial battery state-of-charge (SOC) of an individual EV battery charger as random variables. Thus, the net harmonic current, and distribution system harmonic voltages are formulated in a stochastic framework. Results indicate that considering variation in start-time and

  7. Optimal charge control strategies for stationary photovoltaic battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahao; Danzer, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    Battery systems coupled to photovoltaic (PV) modules for example fulfill one major function: they locally decouple PV generation and consumption of electrical power leading to two major effects. First, they reduce the grid load, especially at peak times and therewith reduce the necessity of a network expansion. And second, they increase the self-consumption in households and therewith help to reduce energy expenses. For the management of PV batteries charge control strategies need to be developed to reach the goals of both the distribution system operators and the local power producer. In this work optimal control strategies regarding various optimization goals are developed on the basis of the predicted household loads and PV generation profiles using the method of dynamic programming. The resulting charge curves are compared and essential differences discussed. Finally, a multi-objective optimization shows that charge control strategies can be derived that take all optimization goals into account.

  8. Intelligent charging and control of portable battery packs

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellberg, Olof

    2008-01-01

    This report describes thesis work performed at SAAB Aerotech in Link oping, Sweden. The task was to nd a way to have portable electronics' battery packs supervise their own charg- ing i.e. designing a charger that would t inside the battery pack itself. The work was started by identifying the demands that SAAB Aerotech and their customer have on portable bat- tery packs. A survey was done, forming the basis of a design specication that species what an implementation should aim at fullling. Th...

  9. Electrochemical-acoustic time of flight: in operando correlation of physical dynamics with battery charge and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, AG; Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Gjeltema, PJ; Goy, A; Fleischer, JW; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a simple acoustic time-of-flight experiment can measure the state of charge and state of health of almost any closed battery. An acoustic conservation law model describing the state of charge of a standard battery is proposed, and experimental acoustic results verify the simulated trends; furthermore, a framework relating changes in sound speed, via density and modulus changes, to state of charge and state of health within a battery is discussed. Regardless of the chemistry, the distribution of density within a battery must change as a function of state of charge and, along with density, the bulk moduli of the anode and cathode changes as well. The shifts in density and modulus also change the acoustic attenuation in a battery. Experimental results indicating both state-of-charge determination and irreversible physical changes are presented for two of the most ubiquitous batteries in the world, the lithium-ion 18650 and the alkaline LR6 (AA). Overall, a one-or two-point acoustic measurement can be related to the interaction of a pressure wave at multiple discrete interfaces within a battery, which in turn provides insights into state of charge, state of health, and mechanical evolution/degradation.

  10. Application of Genetic Neural Network in Power Battery Charging State-of-Charge Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqin Zhou; Chao Bai; Jinlei Sun

    2011-01-01

    With global non-renewable resources and environmental issues becoming more apparent, the development of new energy vehicles have become the trend of auto industry. Hybrid vehicle becomes the key development of new energy vehicles with its long distance, low pollution, low fuel consumption characteristics and so on. The battery performances directly influence the quality of the whole vehicle performance. Considering the importance of the battery state of charge (SOC) estimation and the nonline...

  11. Enhanced coulomb counting method for estimating state-of-charge and state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coulomb counting method is expedient for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries with high charging and discharging efficiencies. The charging and discharging characteristics are investigated and reveal that the coulomb counting method is convenient and accurate for estimating the SOC of lithium-ion batteries. A smart estimation method based on coulomb counting is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy. The corrections are made by considering the charging and operating efficiencies. Furthermore, the state-of-health (SOH) is evaluated by the maximum releasable capacity. Through the experiments that emulate practical operations, the SOC estimation method is verified to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy.

  12. Modeling charge polarization voltage for large lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Jiang; Caiping Zhang; Weige Zhang; Wei Shi; Qiujiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Polarization voltage of the lithium-ion battery is an important parameter that has direct influence on battery performance. The paper aims to analyze the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of currents, initial SOC of the battery on charge polarization voltage are investigated, which is approximately linear function of charge current. The change of charge polarization voltage is also analyzed with the gradie...

  13. Design and Comparative Study of Three Photovoltaic Battery Charge Control Algorithms in MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the design of a three stage solar battery charge controller and a comparative study of this charge control technique with three conventional solar battery charge control techniques such as 1. Constant Current (CC) charging, 2. Two stage constant current constant voltage (CC-CV) charging technique. The analysis and the comparative study of the aforesaid charging techniques are done in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Here the practical data used to simulate the charge control a...

  14. Motion charged battery as sustainable flexible-power-unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Zong-Hong; Niu, Simiao; Lin, Long; Xie, Yannan; Pradel, Ken C; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-12-23

    Energy harvesting and storage are the two most important energy technologies developed for portable, sustainable, and self-sufficient power sources for mobile electronic systems. However, both have limitations for providing stable direct-current (DC) with an infinite lifetime. Herein, we integrated a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)-based mechanical energy harvester with Li-ion-battery (LIB)-based energy storage as a single device for demonstrating a flexible self-charging power unit (SCPU), which allows a battery to be charged directly by ambient mechanical motion. This physical integration enables a new operation mode of the SCPU: the "sustainable mode", in which the LIB stores the TENG-generated electricity while it is driving an external load. With the LIB being replenished by the ambient mechanical energy, the SCPU can keep providing a constant voltage to the load by utilizing the stable difference between the battery's intrinsic electrode potentials. This study will impact the traditional trends of battery research and advance the development of the self-powered systems. PMID:24266595

  15. Numerical analyses on optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for lithium-ion batteries during fast charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal management is crucial for the operation of electric vehicles because lithium ion batteries are vulnerable to excessive heat generation during fast charging or other severe scenarios. In this work, an optimized heat pipe thermal management system (HPTMS) is proposed for fast charging lithium ion battery cell/pack. A numerical model is developed and comprehensively validated with experimental results. This model is then employed to investigate the thermal performance of the HPTMS under steady state and transient conditions. It is found that a cylinder vortex generator placed in front of the heat pipe condensers in the coolant stream improves the temperature uniformity. The uses of cooper heat spreaders and cooling fins greatly improve the performance of the thermal management system. Experiments and transient simulations of heat pipe thermal management system integrated with batteries prove that the improved HPTMS is capable for thermal management of batteries during fast charging. The air-cooled HPTMS is infeasible for thermal management of batteries during fast charging at the pack level due to the limitation of low specific heat capacity. - Highlights: • We develop a numerical model for optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for fast charging batteries. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • A cylinder vortex generator is placed at the inlet of the cooling stream to improve the temperature uniformity. • We validate the effectiveness of the optimized system with integration of prismatic batteries

  16. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Camacho Oscar Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid.

  17. Li-Ion Battery Charging with a Buck-Boost Power Converter for a Solar Powered Battery Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Wei Ma; Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes and simulates the Li-ion battery charging process for a solar powered battery management system. The battery is charged using a non-inverting synchronous buck-boost DC/DC power converter. The system operates in buck, buck-boost, or boost mode, according to the supply voltage conditions from the solar panels. Rapid changes in atmospheric conditions or sunlight incident angle cause supply voltage variations. This study develops an electrochemical-based equivalent circuit mod...

  18. Li-Ion Battery Charging with a Buck-Boost Power Converter for a Solar Powered Battery Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wei Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and simulates the Li-ion battery charging process for a solar powered battery management system. The battery is charged using a non-inverting synchronous buck-boost DC/DC power converter. The system operates in buck, buck-boost, or boost mode, according to the supply voltage conditions from the solar panels. Rapid changes in atmospheric conditions or sunlight incident angle cause supply voltage variations. This study develops an electrochemical-based equivalent circuit model for a Li-ion battery. A dynamic model for the battery charging process is then constructed based on the Li-ion battery electrochemical model and the buck-boost power converter dynamic model. The battery charging process forms a system with multiple interconnections. Characteristics, including battery charging system stability margins for each individual operating mode, are analyzed and discussed. Because of supply voltage variation, the system can switch between buck, buck-boost, and boost modes. The system is modeled as a Markov jump system to evaluate the mean square stability of the system. The MATLAB based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the battery charging model.

  19. Handbook of secondary storage batteries and charge regulators in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    Solar photovoltaic systems often require battery subsystems to store reserve electrical energy for times of zero insolation. This handbook is designed to help the system designer make optimum choices of battery type, battery size and charge control circuits. Typical battery performance characteristics are summarized for four types of lead-acid batteries: pure lead, lead-calcium and lead-antimony pasted flat plate and lead-antimony tubular positive types. Similar data is also provided for pocket plate nickel cadmium batteries. Economics play a significant role in battery selection. Relative costs of each battery type are summarized under a variety of operating regimes expected for solar PV installations.

  20. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  1. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Sauer, D.U. [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17-19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, E.; Surewaard, E. [Ford Research Center Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-05-25

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking. (author)

  2. ESTIMATION METHOD ON THE BATTERY STATE OF CHARGE FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Jiaxi; AO Guoqiang; YANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    A combined algorithm for battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is proposed to solve the critical issue of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). To obtain a more accurate SOC, both coulomb-accumulation and battery resistance-capacitor (RC) model are weighted combined to compensate the deficiencies of individual methods. In order to solve the key issue of coulomb-accumulation, the battery thermal model is used. Based on the principle of energy conservation, the heat generated from battery charge and discharge process is converted into the equivalent electricity to calculate charge and discharge efficiency under variable current. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) as a closed loop algorithm is applied to estimate the parameters of resistance-capacitor model. The input variables do not increase much computing difficulty. The proposed combined algorithm is implemented by adjusting the weighting factor of coulomb- accumulation and resistance-capacitor model. In the end, four different methods including Ah-efficiency, Ah-Equip, RC-SOC and Combined-SOC are compared in federal testing procedure (FTP) drive cycle. The experiment results show that the proposed method has good robustness and high accuracy which is suitable for HEV application.

  3. Design and Comparative Study of Three Photovoltaic Battery Charge Control Algorithms in MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Bhattacharjee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the design of a three stage solar battery charge controller and a comparative study of this charge control technique with three conventional solar battery charge control techniques such as 1. Constant Current (CC charging, 2. Two stage constant current constant voltage (CC-CV charging technique. The analysis and the comparative study of the aforesaid charging techniques are done in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Here the practical data used to simulate the charge control algorithms are based on a 12Volts 7Ah Sealed lead acid battery.

  4. Selection of charge methods for lithium ion batteries by considering diffusion induced stress and charge time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-07-01

    This article demonstrates the design of charging strategies for lithium ion batteries with considering the balance between diffusion induced stress and total charge time for two- and three-stage charge methods. For the two-stage galvanostatic-potentiostatic charge method the low mechanical stress can be achieved without increasing total charge time by switching the galvanostatic to the potentiostatic at the time moment when the lithium concentration at the surface of particles reaches the limit cbarsurf = 0 . A three-stage method, which consists of an initial galvanostatic stage of high current, a galvanostatic stage of low current and a potentiostatic ending stage, is suggested. Employing the initial galvanostatic stage of high current is helpful not only in accelerating the charge process, but also in controlling the mechanical stress once the electrical current and time duration of the initial galvanostatic stage are properly designed.

  5. Rating batteries for initial capacity, charging parameters and cycle life in the photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, S.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems typically depend on battery storage to supply power to the load when there is cloudy weather or no sun. Reliable operation of the load is often dependent on battery performance. This paper presents test procedures for lead-acid batteries which identify initial battery preparation, battery capacity after preparation, charge regulation set-points, and cycle life based on the operational characteristics of PV systems.

  6. Features of the low-power charge controller of lead-acid current sources charged by solar batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of different factors on exploitations characteristics of solar photoelectric plant is investigated by field-performance data. A construction of charge controller of the lead-acid accumulator battery charging by means of solar battery is analyzed taking into account these factors. (authors)

  7. Application of Genetic Neural Network in Power Battery Charging State-of-Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqin Zhou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With global non-renewable resources and environmental issues becoming more apparent, the development of new energy vehicles have become the trend of auto industry. Hybrid vehicle becomes the key development of new energy vehicles with its long distance, low pollution, low fuel consumption characteristics and so on. The battery performances directly influence the quality of the whole vehicle performance. Considering the importance of the battery state of charge (SOC estimation and the nonlinear relationship between the battery SOC and the external characteristic, genetic algorithm (GA and back propagation (BP neural network are proposed. Because of the strong global search capability of the genetic algorithm and the generalization ability of BP neural network, the hybrid vehicle Ni-MH power battery GA-BP charging model is designed. In this approach, the network training speed is superior to the traditional BP network. According to the real-time data of the batteries, the optimal solution can be concluded in a short time and with high estimation precision.

  8. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents...... the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power...... of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same...

  9. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  10. Solar photovoltaic charging of high voltage nickel metal hydride batteries using DC power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    There are an increasing number of vehicle choices available that utilize batteries and electric motors to reduce tailpipe emissions and increase fuel economy. The eventual production of electricity and hydrogen in a renewable fashion, such as using solar energy, can achieve the long-term vision of having no tailpipe environmental impact, as well as eliminating the dependence of the transportation sector on dwindling supplies of petroleum for its energy. In this report we will demonstrate the solar-powered charging of the high-voltage nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery used in the GM 2-mode hybrid system. In previous studies we have used low-voltage solar modules to produce hydrogen via the electrolysis of water and to directly charge lithium-ion battery modules. Our strategy in the present work was to boost low-voltage PV voltage to over 300 V using DC-DC converters in order to charge the high-voltage NiMH battery, and to regulate the battery charging using software to program the electronic control unit supplied with the battery pack. A protocol for high-voltage battery charging was developed, and the solar to battery charging efficiency was measured under a variety of conditions. We believe this is the first time such high-voltage batteries have been charged using solar energy in order to prove the concept of efficient, solar-powered charging for battery-electric vehicles.

  11. Method of estimating the State-of-Charge and of the use time left of a rechageable battery, and apparatus for executing such a method

    OpenAIRE

    Bergveld, Hendrik Johannes; Pop, Valer; Notten, Petrus Henricus Laurentius

    2006-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of estimating the state-of-charge of a rechargeable battery, taking into account the factors battery spread and ageing. The method comprises the steps of: determining the starting state-of-charge of the battery by measuring the voltage across the battery and converting this measured value into a state-of-charge value; charging the battery; integrating the charge current and determining the accumulated charge during charging of the battery and adding said value to the sta...

  12. Modeling charge polarization voltage for large lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polarization voltage of the lithium-ion battery is an important parameter that has direct influence on battery performance. The paper aims to analyze the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of currents, initial SOC of the battery on charge polarization voltage are investigated, which is approximately linear function of charge current. The change of charge polarization voltage is also analyzed with the gradient analytical method in the SOC domain. The charge polarization model with two RC networks is presented, and parts of model parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance are estimated by both EIS method and battery constant current testing method. Findings: This paper reveals that the Ohmic resistance accounts for much contribution to battery total polarization compared to charge transfer impedance. Practical implications: Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the model with the proposed identification method, which provides the foundation for battery charging optimization. Originality/value: The paper analyzed the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data, presented a charge polarization model with two RC networks, and estimated parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance.

  13. Optimal Charging Strategy for EVs with Batteries at Different States of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Tianxiang, Jiang; Putrus, Ghanim; Zhiwei, Gao; Conti, Matteo; McDonald, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is targeted as an efficient method of decreasing CO2 emission and reducing dependence on fossil fuel. Compared with filling up the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle, the EV power charging time is usually long. However,to the best of our knowledge, the current charging strategy does not consider the battery state of health (SOH). It is noted that a high charging current rate may damage the battery life. Motivated by this, an optimal charging strategy is propose...

  14. Optimization of Charging Current and SOH Estimation for Lead Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rezaei Pish Robat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new model-based approach is used to optimize the charging current of lead acid batteries for use in hybrid electric. The used model is a dynamical nonlinear model and so steepest descent, as a nonlinear optimization technique, is used to design the desired current profile. To verify the results, Unscented Kalman Filter is used to estimate battery capacity as a criterion of the state of health of the battery. Simulation results show that in comparison with multi level charging current, the proposed approach improves the state of health of the battery, up to 2.5% in the first 100 charge/discharge cycle

  15. Extended Kalman Filter with a Fuzzy Method for Accurate Battery Pack State of Charge Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Sepasi; Leon R. Roose; Marc M. Matsuura

    2015-01-01

    As the world moves toward greenhouse gas reduction, there is increasingly active work around Li-ion chemistry-based batteries as an energy source for electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and smart grids. In these applications, the battery management system (BMS) requires an accurate online estimation of the state of charge (SOC) in a battery pack. This estimation is difficult, especially after substantial battery aging. In order to address this problem, this paper utilizes...

  16. Modelling Inductive Charging of Battery Electric Vehicles using an Agent-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zain Ul Abedin; Rashid Ahmed Waraich

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) could help to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and emissions from transportation and as such increase energy security and foster sustainable use of energy resources. However a major barrier to the introduction of BEVs is their limited battery capacity and long charging durations. To address these issues of BEVs several solutions are proposed such as battery swapping and fast charging stations. However apart from these stationary modes of c...

  17. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries (Management Publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  18. A new neural network model for the state-of-charge estimation in the battery degradation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Predict practicable capacity by cycle life model in the battery degradation process. • Build a new RBFNN model based on cycle life model to estimate the SOC. • Evaluate the robustness of new model against varying aging levels and temperatures. • Assess the robustness of new model against varying loading profiles. • Analyze the measurement of the battery aging cycles in electric vehicles. - Abstract: Battery state-of-charge (SOC) is a key parameter of the battery management system in the electric vehicle. To predict the practicable capacity of the battery in the degradation process, the cycle life model is built based on the aging cycle tests of the 6Ah Lithium Ion battery. Combined with the cycle life model, a new Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) model is proposed to eliminate the battery degradation’s effect on the SOC estimation accuracy of the original trained model. This proposed model is verified through the 6Ah Lithium Ion battery. First, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and Economic Commission of Europe (ECE) cycles are experimented on the batteries under different temperatures and aging levels. Then, the robustness of the new RBFNN model against different aging levels, temperatures and loading profiles is tested with the datasets of the experiments and compared against the conventional neural network model. The simulations show that the new model can improve the accuracy of the SOC estimation effectively and has a good robustness against varying aging cycles, temperatures and loading profiles. Finally, the measurement of actual aging cycles of the battery in electric vehicles is discussed for the SOC estimation

  19. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series f...

  20. Off-grid photovoltaic vehicle charge using second life lithium batteries: An experimental and numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We have examined the feasibility of a second life battery pack for an off-grid photovoltaic vehicle charging system. ► The second life battery successfully achieved the desired function using simple control methods. ► The system has been modeled using equivalent circuit techniques. ► The model can simulate the system’s performance under different application scenarios. - Abstract: Partially degraded lithium batteries from automotive applications, also known as second life batteries, are becoming more available for secondary applications due to the increasing market share of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. This study examines the feasibility of installing a second life battery pack in an off-grid photovoltaic vehicle charging system. The system was constructed using a photovoltaic array to charge a battery pack via a maximum power point tracking controller and later charge a vehicle via an inverter. The battery pack was configured using 135 second life LiFePO4 based battery cells, selected based on remaining capacity, connected to form a nine parallel by 15 serial battery pack with accessible storage capacity of 13.9 kW h. Experimental results show that the proposed second life battery system successfully achieves the desired function with a simple system structure and control methods. A numerical simulation was performed by constructing an equivalent system model, where the photovoltaic array and battery pack were modeled using equivalent circuit techniques. The model was parameterized and validated via testing of the system. Coupled with weather data, the model can simulate the system’s performance under different application scenarios. The numerical investigation reveals that the proposed system, using second life batteries, can achieve similar performance to systems using new lithium batteries, but at a reduced cost

  1. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  2. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  3. Study of a lithium-ion battery charge-discharge test unit characteristics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, E. A.; Mizrah, E. A.; Fedchenko, A. S.; Lobanov, D. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article describes the structure of a charge-discharge unit which allows to perform electrical, resource and thermal testing of several lithium-ion batteries simultaneously. The principle of operation of a one battery research channel (BRC) is shown. This study evaluated the stabilization error and rate of change of charge/discharge currents, the switching time from the charge mode to the discharge mode and vice versa for a single BRC and parallel BRCs. The possibility of increasing the maximum battery testing current due to the parallel connection of multiple BRCs without using a current alignment device between channels was discussed.

  4. Effects of variability and rate on battery charge storage and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena Marie

    The growing prevalence of hybrid and electric vehicles, intermittent renewable energy sources, and other complex power systems has triggered a rapid increase in demand for energy storage. Unlike portable electronic devices, whose batteries can be recharged according to a pre-determined protocol simply by plugging them into the wall, many of these applications are characterized by highly variable charge and demand profiles. The central objective of this work is to assess the impact of power distribution and frequency on battery behavior in order to improve overall system efficiency and lifespan in these variable power applications. We first develop and experimentally verify a model to describe the trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored to assess how varying power input affects battery efficiency. This relationship is influenced both by efficiency losses at high powers and by premature voltage cutoffs, which contribute to incomplete battery charging and discharging. We experimentally study the impact of variable power on battery aging in lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium-ion and lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a case study we focus on off-grid wind systems, and analyze the impact of both power distribution and frequency on charge acceptance and degradation in each of these chemistries. We suggest that lithium iron phosphate batteries may be more suitable for off-grid electrification projects than standard lead-acid batteries. We experimentally assess the impact of additional variable charging parameters on battery performance, including the interplay between efficiency, frequency of power oscillations, state-of-charge, incomplete charging and path dependence. We develop a frequency-domain model for hybrid energy storage systems that couples non-stationary frequency analysis of variable power signals to a frequency-based metric for energy storage device performance. The experimental and modeling work developed herein can be utilized to

  5. Management of Deep Brain Stimulator Battery Failure: Battery Estimators, Charge Density, and Importance of Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhar, Kaihan; Hastings, Erin; Butson, Christopher R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Zeilman, Pam; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS) battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. Background Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator). Methods A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002–2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Sta...

  6. Management of Deep Brain Stimulator Battery Failure: Battery Estimators, Charge Density, and Importance of Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaihan Fakhar; Erin Hastings; Butson, Christopher R.; Foote, Kelly D.; Pam Zeilman; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS) battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement. BACKGROUND: Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator). METHODS: A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002-2012 were included in an IRB approved study. ...

  7. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Enjian Yao; Meiying Wang; Yuanyuan Song; Yang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV) has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC) estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic ...

  8. Demand Profile Study of Battery Electric Vehicle under Different Charging Options

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guang Ya; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    An increased research on electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) deals with their flexible use in electric power grids. Several research projects on smart grids and electric mobility are now looking into realistic models representing the behavior of an EV during charging, including nonlinearities. In this work, modeling, simulation and testing of the demand profile of a battery-EV are conducted. Realistic work conditions for a lithium-ion EV battery and battery char...

  9. Battery State-of-Charge and Parameter Estimation Algorithm Based on Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stjepan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical battery is the most widely used energy storage technology, finding its application in various devices ranging from low power consumer electronics to utility back-up power. All types of batteries show highly non-linearbehaviour in terms of dependence of internal parameters on operating conditions, momentary replenishment and a number of past charge/discharge cycles. A good indicator for the quality of overall customer service in any battery based application is the availability...

  10. Study on the Optimal Charging Strategy for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The charging method of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs significantly affects its commercial application. This paper aims to make three contributions to the existing literature. (1 In order to achieve an efficient charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries with shorter charging time and lower charring loss, the trade-off problem between charging loss and charging time has been analyzed in details through the dynamic programing (DP optimization algorithm; (2 To reduce the computation time consumed during the optimization process, we have proposed a database based optimization approach. After off-line calculation, the simulation results can be applied to on-line charge; (3 The novel database-based DP method is proposed and the simulation results illustrate that this method can effectively find the suboptimal charging strategies under a certain balance between the charging loss and charging time.

  11. Estimation of State of Charge of Lead Acid Battery using Radial Basis Function

    OpenAIRE

    Sauradip, M; Sinha, SK; K Muthukumar

    2001-01-01

    A Radial Basis Function based learning system method has been proposed for estimation of State of Charge (SOC) of Lead Acid Battery. Coulomb metric method is used for SOC estimation with correction factor computed by Radial Basis Function Method. Radial basis function based technique is used for learning battery performance variation with time and other parameters. Experimental results are included.

  12. Thermal Behavior of Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takuto; Wakahara, Kenji; Fukuda, Kenichi; Ohmori, Yositake; Nakayama, Masato; Onda, Kazuo

    The temperature of secondary batteries may increase above allowable limits and deteriorate its performance, during rapid charge and discharge cycles. Therefore, assessing thermal behavior of battery is essential. On the other hand, rectangular parallelepiped shape batteries are supposedly going to be used more commonly for cars and electrical devices because of their better space efficiency. Then, we constructed a two dimensional Cartesian coordinates battery thermal behavior model for a prismatic lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles. It was extended from one dimensional cylindrical coordinates model, which had been developed and experimentally verified. As parameters of the numerical model, battery heat source factors such as overpotential resistance, entropy change, heat transfer coefficient and heat capacity have been measured. The radiation thermometer was used for obtaining battery surface temperature variance and distributions. Battery temperature generally increases as charge and discharge cycle proceeds, nevertheless temperature drops were observed at begging of low rate charge cycle and vicinity of SOC=0.8 in discharge cycle. Our modified model could predict these phenomena and agreed well with experimental results. Then the reliability of our numerical model and measuring techniques of heat source factors are confirmed each other.

  13. Thermal behavior of small lithium-ion battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Kazuo; Ohshima, Takamasa; Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto

    The secondary batteries for electric vehicles (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles at current levels exceeding the batteries' rating, such as when the EV quickly starts consuming battery power or when recovering inertia energy during sudden stops. During these rapid charge and discharge cycles, the cell temperature may increase above allowable limits. We calculated the temperature rise of a small lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles. The heat-source factors were measured again by the methods described in our previous study, because the performance of the battery reported here has been improved, showing lower overpotential resistance. Battery heat capacity was measured by a twin-type heat conduction calorimeter, and determined to be a linear function of temperature. Further, the heat transfer coefficient, measured again precisely by the method described in our previous study, was arranged as a function of cell and ambient temperatures. The temperature calculated by our battery thermal behavior model using these measured data agrees well with the cell temperature measured by thermocouple during rapid charge and discharge cycles. Also, battery radial temperature distributions were calculated to be small, and confirmed experimentally.

  14. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Passarella; Ahmad Fali Oklilas; Tarida Mathilda

    2014-01-01

    In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  15. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Passarella

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  16. Thermal Behavior of Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto; Onda, Kazuo

    The secondary batteries for the electric vehicle (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles, when the EV starts quickly consuming the battery power and stops suddenly recovering the inertia energy. The generated heat increases significantly the cell temperature and causes possibly bad influences on the battery performance and the safely requirement. So we have studied the thermal behavior of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles, applying our previous battery thermal model, which have been confirmed to agree with the experimental results at smaller charge current than the rated current. The heat sources by the entropy change, the hydrogen occlusion and the side reaction have been referred to the published data, and the overpotential resistance and the current efficiency, the ratio of main reaction current to charge current, have been measured experimentally through the rapid charge and discharge characteristics with constant current. By using these data our thermal model for Ni/MH battery has estimated its temperature increase, which agrees well with the measured temperature rise, with the root mean square error of 1.5°C and 2.1°C for charge and discharge cycles, respectively.

  17. Modelling Inductive Charging of Battery Electric Vehicles using an Agent-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Ul Abedin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of battery electric vehicles (BEVs could help to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and emissions from transportation and as such increase energy security and foster sustainable use of energy resources. However a major barrier to the introduction of BEVs is their limited battery capacity and long charging durations. To address these issues of BEVs several solutions are proposed such as battery swapping and fast charging stations. However apart from these stationary modes of charging, recently a new mode of charging has been introduced which is called inductive charging. This allows charging of BEVs as they drive along roads without the need of plugs, using induction. But it is unclear, if and how such technology could be utilized best. In order to investigate the possible impact of the introduction of such inductive charging infrastructure, its potential and its optimal placement, a framework for simulating BEVs using a multi-agent transport simulation was used. This framework was extended by an inductive charging module and initial test runs were performed. In this paper we present the simulation results of these preliminary tests together with analysis which suggests that battery sizes of BEVs could be reduced even if inductive charging technology is implemented only at a small number of high traffic volume links. The paper also demonstrates that our model can effectively support policy and decision making for deploying inductive charging infrastructure.

  18. Thermal Behavior of Small Lithium-Ion Secondary Battery during Rapid Charge and Discharge Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Takamasa; Nakayama, Masato; Fukuda, Kenichi; Araki, Takuto; Onda, Kazuo

    The secondary batteries for the electric vehicle (EV) generate much heat during rapid charge and discharge cycles than the rated condition, when EV starts quickly consuming the battery power and stops suddenly recovering the inertia energy. During rapid charge and discharge cycles, the cell temperature rises significantly and may increase more than the allowable temperature. So we calculated the temperature rise of a small lithium-ion secondary battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles using our battery thermal behavior model, which we have developed being confirmed its validity during discharge cycle at the smaller current than the discharge rate of 1C. The heat source factors were measured by the methods described in our previous study, because the present batteries have been improved in their performance and have low overpotential resistance. The battery heat capacity was measured by a twin-type heat conduction calorimeter, and determined to be a linear function of temperature. Further, the heat transfer coefficient was measured again precisely by the method described in our previous study, and was arranged as a function of cell and ambient temperatures. The calculated temperature by our battery thermal behavior model using these measured data agrees well with the cell temperature measured by thermocouple. Therefore we can confirm the validity of this model again during rapid charge and discharge cycles.

  19. Lithium-ion Battery Charge Methodologies Observed with Portable Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Commercial lithium-ion batteries in portable electronic equipment has been used by NASA for space applications since 1999. First battery that was certified for flight and flown for Shuttle use was the Canon BP 927 (2.7 Ah) battery pack. Since then, numerous portable equipment with li-ion batteries have been certified and flown and remain on-orbit for crew usage. Laptops (two generations with third one being worked on now) Camcorder Camera PDA 2 versions (second one being li-ion polymer cells) Satellite Phone Due to expense and time, certified batteries are used with different equipment with the help of adapters or by working with the manufacturer of the equipment to build the appropriate battery compartment and connector. Certified and dedicated chargers are available on Shuttle and on the ISS for safe charging.

  20. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  1. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  2. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  3. Battery charging considerations in small scale electricity generation from a thermoelectric module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Small amounts of electrical power are generated using the thermoelectric effect. • The electricity produced is used to charge a rechargeable 3.3 V LiFePo4 battery. • The study investigates methods of delivering maximum power to the battery. • For low temperature gradients (<100 °C) a DC–DC convertor is recommended. • Above this temperature gradient more power was delivered to the battery by direct charging. - Abstract: This project involves the development of a prototype electrical generator for delivering and storing small amounts of electricity. Power is generated using the thermoelectric effect. A single thermoelectric generator (TEG) is utilised to convert a small portion of the heat flowing through it to electricity. The electricity produced is used to charge a single rechargeable 3.3 V lithium–iron phosphate battery. This study investigates methods of delivering maximum power to the battery for a range of temperature gradients across the thermoelectric module. The paper explores load matching and maximum power point tracking techniques. It was found that, for the TEG tested, a SEPIC DC–DC converter was only beneficial for temperature gradients less than 100 °C across the TEG. At a temperature gradient of 150 °C, the effective resistance of the battery was close to the internal resistance of the TEG. For temperature gradients in excess of 100 °C a DC–DC converter is not suggested and a simple charge protection circuit is sufficient

  4. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  5. State of charge monitoring methods for vanadium redox flow battery control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Kazacos, Michael

    2011-10-01

    During operation of redox flow batteries, differential transfer of ions and electrolyte across the membrane and gassing side reactions during charging, can lead to an imbalance between the two half-cells that results in loss of capacity. This capacity loss can be corrected by either simple remixing of the two solutions, or by chemical or electrochemical rebalancing. In order to develop automated electrolyte management systems therefore, the state-of-charge of each half-cell electrolyte needs to be known. In this study, two state-of-charge monitoring methods are investigated for use in the vanadium redox flow battery. The first method utilizes conductivity measurements to independently measure the state-of-charge of each half-cell electrolyte. The second method is based on spectrophotometric principles and uses the different colours of the charged and discharged anolyte and catholyte to monitor system balance and state-of charge of each half-cell of the VRB during operation.

  6. A new method of modeling and state of charge estimation of the battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congzhi; Liu, Weiqun; Wang, Lingyan; Hu, Guangdi; Ma, Luping; Ren, Bingyu

    2016-07-01

    Accurately estimating the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery is the basis of Battery Management System (BMS). This paper has introduced a new modeling and state estimation method for the lithium battery system, which utilizes the fractional order theories. Firstly, a fractional order model based on the PNGV (Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle) model is proposed after analyzing the impedance characteristics of the lithium battery and compared with the integer order model. With the observability of the discrete non-linear model of the battery confirmed, the method of the state observer based on the extended fractional Kalman filter (EFKF) and the least square identification method of battery parameters are studied. Then, it has been applied successfully to estimate the battery SOC using the measured battery current and voltage. Finally, a standard HPPC (Hybrid Pulse Power Characteristic) test is used for parameter identification and several experimental validations are investigated on a ternary manganese-nickel-cobalt lithium battery pack with a nominal capacity of 24 Ah which consists of ten Sony commercial cells (US18650GR G7) in parallels. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the fractional order model and the estimation method.

  7. Extended Kalman Filter with a Fuzzy Method for Accurate Battery Pack State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sepasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the world moves toward greenhouse gas reduction, there is increasingly active work around Li-ion chemistry-based batteries as an energy source for electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and smart grids. In these applications, the battery management system (BMS requires an accurate online estimation of the state of charge (SOC in a battery pack. This estimation is difficult, especially after substantial battery aging. In order to address this problem, this paper utilizes SOC estimation of Li-ion battery packs using a fuzzy-improved extended Kalman filter (fuzzy-IEKF for Li-ion cells, regardless of their age. The proposed approach introduces a fuzzy method with a new class and associated membership function that determines an approximate initial value applied to SOC estimation. Subsequently, the EKF method is used by considering the single unit model for the battery pack to estimate the SOC for following periods of battery use. This approach uses an adaptive model algorithm to update the model for each single cell in the battery pack. To verify the accuracy of the estimation method, tests are done on a LiFePO4 aged battery pack consisting of 120 cells connected in series with a nominal voltage of 432 V.

  8. Critical Role of Redox Mediator in Suppressing Charging Instabilities of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuojian; Lu, Yi-Chun

    2016-06-22

    Redox mediators have been widely applied to reduce the charge overpotentials of lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Here, we reveal the critical role of redox mediator in suppressing the charging instability of Li-O2 batteries. Using high temporal resolution online electrochemical mass spectrometry, we show that charging with redox mediators (using lithium bromide as a model system) significantly reduces parasitic gas evolution and improves oxygen recovery efficiency. Using redox mediator transforms the charge reactions from electrochemical pathways to chemical pathways, which unexpectedly bypasses the formation of highly reactive intermediates upon electro-oxidation of lithium peroxide (Li2O2). Such transformation reduces self-amplifying degradation reactions of electrode and electrolyte in Li-O2 cells. We further show that the improved stability associated with the redox mediator is much more pronounced at higher charging rates, owing to fast charge-transfer kinetics of the redox mediator. Together, we show that employing redox mediator not only reduces the charge overpotential but also suppresses side reactions of Li-O2 cells with improved charging rate. Our work demonstrates that transforming electro-oxidation of Li2O2 to chemical oxidation of Li2O2 is a promising strategy to simultaneously mitigate charging side reactions and achieve low overpotential for the Li-O2 batteries. PMID:27228413

  9. A new battery-charging method suggested by molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hamad, Ibrahim Abou; Wipf, D; Rikvold, P A; 10.1039/b920970k

    2010-01-01

    Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a new charging method that should be capable of charging a Lithium-ion battery in a fraction of the time needed when using traditional methods. This charging method uses an additional applied oscillatory electric field. Our simulation results show that this charging method offers a great reduction in the average intercalation time for Li+ ions, which dominates the charging time. The oscillating field not only increases the diffusion rate of Li+ ions in the electrolyte but, more importantly, also enhances intercalation by lowering the corresponding overall energy barrier.

  10. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Wahono; Kristian Ismail; Harutoshi Ogai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC) prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during t...

  11. Kalman filtering state of charge estimation for battery management system based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network battery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel extended Kalman Filtering SOC estimation method based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) battery model is proposed. ► The SFNN which has filtering effect on noisy input can model the battery nonlinear dynamic with high accuracy. ► A robust parameter learning algorithm for SFNN is studied so that the parameters can converge to its true value with noisy data. ► The maximum SOC estimation error based on the proposed method is 0.6%. - Abstract: Extended Kalman filtering is an intelligent and optimal means for estimating the state of a dynamic system. In order to use extended Kalman filtering to estimate the state of charge (SOC), we require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of battery pack. In this paper, we propose a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) instead of the traditional neural network that has filtering effect on noisy input to model the battery nonlinear dynamic. Then, the paper studies the extended Kalman filtering SOC estimation method based on a SFNN model. The modeling test is realized on an 80 Ah Ni/MH battery pack and the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle is used to verify the SOC estimation method. The maximum SOC estimation error is 0.6% compared with the real SOC obtained from the discharging test.

  12. An Electric taxi fleet charging system using second life electric car batteries simulation and economical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The industrial car manufacturers see in the high battery price an im-portant obstacle for an electric vehicle mass selling, thus mass production. There-fore, in order to find some cost relieves and better selling opportunities, they look and push forward to find profitable second battery uses. This study presents a sim-ulation and an economical approach for an electric taxi fleet charging system, us-ing these “old” electric car batteries, implemented in the city of Barcelona. The simulation w...

  13. Distinct charge dynamics in battery electrodes revealed by in situ and operando soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Gao; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Zhi; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2013-10-01

    Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensible in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft X-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for battery research. Here we achieve in situ and operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery cathodes. Taking advantage of the elemental, chemical and surface sensitivities of soft X-rays, we discover distinct lithium-ion and electron dynamics in Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 and LiFePO4 cathodes in polymer electrolytes. The contrast between the two systems and the relaxation effect in LiFePO4 is attributed to a phase transformation mechanism, and the mesoscale morphology and charge conductivity of the electrodes. These discoveries demonstrate feasibility and power of in situ soft X-ray spectroscopy for studying integrated and dynamic effects in batteries.

  14. Distinct charge dynamics in battery electrodes revealed by in situ and operando soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Gao; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Zhi; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2013-01-01

    Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensible in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft X-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for battery research. Here we achieve in situ and operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery cathodes. Taking advantage of the elemental, chemical and surface sensitivities of soft X-rays, we discover distinct lithium-ion and electron dynamics in Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 and LiFePO4 cathodes in polymer electrolytes. The contrast between the two systems and the relaxation effect in LiFePO4 is attributed to a phase transformation mechanism, and the mesoscale morphology and charge conductivity of the electrodes. These discoveries demonstrate feasibility and power of in situ soft X-ray spectroscopy for studying integrated and dynamic effects in batteries. PMID:24100759

  15. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport : A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Rogge; Sebastian Wollny; Dirk Uwe Sauer

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure plan...

  16. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  17. Charge/discharge characteristics of sulfur composite cathode materials in rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge and discharge characteristics of lithium batteries with sulfur composite cathodes have been investigated. The sulfur composites showed novel electrochemical characteristics. The analysis of the differential capacity indicated that the discharge process showed two voltage plateaus of 2.10 V and 1.88 V, and the charge process also presented two voltage plateaus of 2.22 V and 2.36 V. The overcharge test showed that the composite cannot be charged over 4.0 V, the voltage always stopped at about 3.9 V during charging, indicating that the composite presented the intrinsic safety for the overcharge of lithium batteries. The overcharge can cause serious safety problem for the conventional Li-ion batteries. The overcharge test also showed that the batteries with sulfur composite were destroyed when the upper cut-off voltage was over 3.6 V. However, the composite presented good reversible capacity after it was deep discharged even to 0 V. It showed stable cycleability and high cycling capacity of 1000 mAh g-1 when cycling between 0.1 V and 3.0 V, indicative of the different characteristic from the conventional oxide cathode materials. The prototype polymer battery with the composite cathode material presented the energy density of 246 Wh kg-1 and 401 Wh L-1

  18. 锂电池充电技术综述%Review of lithium battery charging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秋生; 徐磊; 吴雪雪

    2013-01-01

    在二次锂电池问世以来,凭借其循环寿命长、比能量高等优良的性能被应用在生产生活的各个领域.充电作为锂电池使用过程中最重要的一环,直接影响着电池的寿命及循环性能.在锂电池最佳充电曲线的基础上,分析了锂电池的各种不同充电方法,比较各自的充电速度、应用范围、电池寿命和循环性能等特性,最后提出了今后研究的方向.%The rechargeable lithium battery with the advantages of long cycle life,high energy density and other excellent performance has been widely used since its development in 1970s.As one of the most important process,charging directly affects the battery life and cycling performance.On the basis of the best lithium battery charging curve,the performance of various lithium battery charging methods was analyzed.Finally,the future investigation on lithium battery charging technology was discussed.

  19. Monitoring and control system of charging batteries connected to a photovoltaic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzkowski, Adam; Leoniuk, Katarzyna; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Budzynski, Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the off-grid photovoltaic system consisting of a PV panel, MMPT charge controller and battery is described. The realization of a laboratory stand for charging or discharging batteries is presented. Original monitoring and control system, which is based on LabVIEW software and LabJack DAQ device, has been built. Data acquisition part, arithmetic part and front panel of program created in LabVIEW are described. Some problems with implementation of this system, providing the monitoring of electrical parameters, are mentioned.

  20. Modelling and Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic array for Battery charging Application using Matlab-Simulink.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sathya; G.Aarthi*1

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model of solar photovoltaic array for charging a battery in Matlab/simulink. This model is used to extract the parameters of a solar module under continuous irradiation. An array of PV modules created and tested for continuous solar insolation. The output from this array system is provided as input to the Boost converter to produce a regulated output of 24V. Regulated output from the converter is used for charging a battery which can be used for powering any application....

  1. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, A.; N Singh; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; J.-F. Gohy

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer re...

  2. A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Laramie, Sydney; Dmello, Rylan D.; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Dehong; Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Darling, Robert E.; Thompson, Levi; Smith, Kyle C.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Brushett, Fikile; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2016-03-10

    Redox flow batteries have shown outstanding promise for grid-scale energy storage to promote utilization of renewable energy and improve grid stability. Nonaqueous battery systems can potentially achieve high energy density because of their broad voltage window. In this paper, we report a new organic redox-active material for use in a nonaqueous redox flow battery, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) that has high solubility (>2.6 M) in organic solvents. PTIO exhibits electrochemically reversible disproportionation reactions and thus can serve as both anolyte and catholyte redox materials in a symmetric flow cell. The PTIO flow battery has a moderate cell voltage of ~1.7 V and shows good cyclability under both cyclic voltammetry and flow cell conditions. Moreover, we demonstrate that FTIR can offer accurate estimation of the PTIO concentration in electrolytes and determine the state of charge of the PTIO flow cell, which suggests FTIR potentially as a powerful online battery status sensor. This study is expected to inspire more insights in this under-addressed area of state of charge analysis aiming at operational safety and reliability of flow batteries.

  3. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  4. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  5. Development of a VRLA battery with improved separators, and a charge controller, for low cost photovoltaic and wind powered installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M.; Ruddell, A. J.; Vast, N.; Esteban, J.; Estela, F.

    There are many applications and uses for which it is more advantageous to use solar installations than to extend the electrical network and connect to it. This kind of applications are numerous covering from isolated houses to telephone repeaters and the like. These kind of applications share some common characteristics like being located in remote not easy accessible areas, require relatively low power for operation, and being difficult to maintain. Up to now the use of photovoltaic systems, no matter the impressive growth they are experimenting, suffer from some drawbacks, mainly related with the life expectations and reliability of such systems, and as a consequence of the cost of these systems, when calculated on a lifetime basis. To try to contribute to solve these problems, a project partially founded by the European Commission, has been carried out, with the main objective of increasing the life of these systems, and consequently to make them more attractive from the point of view of cost on a lifetime basis for consumers. Presently, the life of PV systems is limited by its weakest component, the battery. Battery failure modes in PV applications, are related with well known phenomena like corrosion, but also due to the special nature of this installations, with other factors like corrosion and growth in the upper part of the group, induced by the development of acid stratification inside the battery, with the more prone standard flooded types now in major use, and to a lesser extent the new valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) types beginning to be used. The main objectives of this project, were: to develop a new glass microfibre separator material, capable of minimizing acid stratification inside the battery. To develop a new VRLA battery, with a life duration of 800 cycles on cycling at 60% DOD and partial state of charge (PSOC) conditions. To develop a new charge regulator, that takes into account the condition of the battery in the near term, to modify its

  6. State of Charge Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter for Battery Management Systems Based on the ARX Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is a critical factor to guarantee that a battery system is operating in a safe and reliable manner. Many uncertainties and noises, such as fluctuating current, sensor measurement accuracy and bias, temperature effects, calibration errors or even sensor failure, etc. pose a challenge to the accurate estimation of SOC in real applications. This paper adds two contributions to the existing literature. First, the auto regressive exogenous (ARX model is proposed here to simulate the battery nonlinear dynamics. Due to its discrete form and ease of implemention, this straightforward approach could be more suitable for real applications. Second, its order selection principle and parameter identification method is illustrated in detail in this paper. The hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC cycles are implemented on the 60AH LiFePO4 battery module for the model identification and validation. Based on the proposed ARX model, SOC estimation is pursued using the extended Kalman filter. Evaluation of the adaptability of the battery models and robustness of the SOC estimation algorithm are also verified. The results indicate that the SOC estimation method using the Kalman filter based on the ARX model shows great performance. It increases the model output voltage accuracy, thereby having the potential to be used in real applications, such as EVs and HEVs.

  7. Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter as an active rectifier

    OpenAIRE

    Zaja, Mario; Oprea, Matei-lon; Suárez, Carlos Gómez; Mathe, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    A major setback for large scale electric vehicle market expansion compared to their internal combustion competitors consists in their high price and low driving range. One way of reducing the cost, dimensions and mass of electric vehicles is to eliminate the dedicated AC/DC converter used for battery charging. Alternatively, charging could be done using the motor windings as grid side inductors and controlling the inverter to operate as an active boost rectifier. The challenge in this approac...

  8. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  9. Evaluation of a new charge algorithm for a lead-acid battery with gelled electrolyte using a 96V gel cell 4 as a test battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dieter K.

    1989-10-01

    A summary is reported of test results obtained utilizing the new UAH charge algorithm for Lead-Acid batteries with gelled electrolyte. The battery performance data for a 96V Phase 4 Gel/Cell battery pack was tested in a Jet Industries Electrica vehicle. It was shown that the new charge concept is sound although there can be problems with batteries that are highly imbalanced and where excessive electronic noise is experienced on the electronic signal feed-back line that carries the voltage sensor signals from the battery. Additional work is needed to add intelligence to the charge algorithm in terms of a better ability to extract the beginning of gas development from the voltage spread function. This can probably be accomplished by scanning the voltages more often and including that data into the function analysis by adding software filters. The Phase 4 Gel/Cell battery performance was found to be about 20 percent lower than that of the Phase 3 Gel/Cell battery. Problems with cell valve leakage were encountered in the Phase 4 Gel/Cell that pose a threat to battery life although so far no battery module has been lost.

  10. Molecular ion battery: a rechargeable system without using any elemental ions as a charge carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Masaru; Sano, Hikaru; Ando, Hisanori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2015-06-01

    Is it possible to exceed the lithium redox potential in electrochemical systems? It seems impossible to exceed the lithium potential because the redox potential of the elemental lithium is the lowest among all the elements, which contributes to the high voltage characteristics of the widely used lithium ion battery. However, it should be possible when we use a molecule-based ion which is not reduced even at the lithium potential in principle. Here we propose a new model system using a molecular electrolyte salt with polymer-based active materials in order to verify whether a molecular ion species serves as a charge carrier. Although the potential of the negative-electrode is not yet lower than that of lithium at present, this study reveals that a molecular ion can work as a charge carrier in a battery and the system is certainly a molecular ion-based “rocking chair” type battery.

  11. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  12. Battery State-of-Charge and Parameter Estimation Algorithm Based on Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stjepan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    actual state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). Therefore, a modern battery management systems (BMSs) should incorporate functions that accommodate real time tracking of these nonlinearities. For that purpose, Kalman filter based algorithms emerged as a convenient solution due to their ability to...

  13. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  14. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  15. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, Eckhard [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-06-01

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification. (author)

  16. A method for state-of-charge estimation of Li-ion batteries based on multi-model switching strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Build a multi-model switching SOC estimate method for Li-ion batteries. • Build an improved interpretative structural modeling method for model switching. • The feedback strategy of bus delay is applied to improve the real-time performance. • The EKF method is used for SOC estimation to improve the estimated accuracy. - Abstract: The accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation and real-time performance are critical evaluation indexes for Li-ion battery management systems (BMS). High accuracy algorithms often take long program execution time (PET) in the resource-constrained embedded application systems, which will undoubtedly lead to the decrease of the time slots of other processes, thereby reduce the overall performance of BMS. Considering the resource optimization and the computational load balance, this paper proposes a multi-model switching SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries. Four typical battery models are employed to build a close-loop SOC estimation system. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is employed to eliminate the effect of the current noise and improve the accuracy of SOC. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are conducted to verify the accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that accurate estimation results and reasonable PET can be obtained by the proposed method

  17. Design Considerations for Wireless Charging Systems with an Analysis of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three criteria, including charging time, effective charging capacity and charging energy efficiency, are introduced to evaluate the CC (constant current and CC/CV (constant current/constant voltage charging strategies. Because the CC strategy presents a better performance and most resonant topologies have the CC characteristic, the CC strategy is more suitable for the design of wireless charging systems than the CC/CV strategy. Then, the state space model of the receiver is built to study the system dynamic characteristics, and the design of nonuse output filter capacitors is proposed, which can improve the system power density and avoid the drop in efficiency caused by capacitor degradation. At last, an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS based analysis method is introduced to validate that the design without output filter capacitors has no effects on the battery characteristics when the charging frequency is higher than 460 Hz. A prototype is fabricated to verify our research results.

  18. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charge pattern optimization for energy cost and battery longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge pattern of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), defined as the timing and rate with which the PHEV obtains electricity from the power grid. The optimization goal is to simultaneously minimize (i) the total cost of fuel and electricity and (ii) the total battery health degradation over a 24-h naturalistic drive cycle. The first objective is calculated for a previously-developed stochastic optimal PHEV power management strategy, whereas the second objective is evaluated through an electrochemistry-based model of anode-side resistive film formation in lithium-ion batteries. The paper shows that these two objectives are conflicting, and trades them off using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. As a result, a Pareto front of optimal charge patterns is obtained. The effects of electricity price and trip schedule on the optimal Pareto points and the PHEV charge patterns are analyzed and discussed. (author)

  19. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: charge carriers and interactions derived by density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenendt, Knut; Johansson, Patrik

    2011-06-23

    The solvation of lithium salts in ionic liquids (ILs) leads to the creation of a lithium ion carrying species quite different from those found in traditional nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes. The most striking differences are that these species are composed only of ions and in general negatively charged. In many IL-based electrolytes, the dominant species are triplets, and the charge, stability, and size of the triplets have a large impact on the total ion conductivity, the lithium ion mobility, and also the lithium ion delivery at the electrode. As an inherent advantage, the triplets can be altered by selecting lithium salts and ionic liquids with different anions. Thus, within certain limits, the lithium ion carrying species can even be tailored toward distinct important properties for battery application. Here, we show by DFT calculations that the resulting charge carrying species from combinations of ionic liquids and lithium salts and also some resulting electrolyte properties can be predicted. PMID:21591707

  20. Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering for state of charge estimation of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation is of great significance for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. This paper presents an adaptive unscented Kalman filtering method to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for battery electric vehicles. The adaptive adjustment of the noise covariances in the State of Charge estimation process is implemented by an idea of covariance matching in the unscented Kalman filter context. Experimental results indicate that the adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. A comparison with the adaptive extended Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter, and unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed State of Charge estimation method has a better accuracy. -- Highlights: → Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering is proposed to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles. → The proposed method has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. → A comparison with three other Kalman filtering algorithms shows that the proposed method has a better accuracy.

  1. Contact charge electrophoresis: experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Aaron M; Cartier, Charles A; Bishop, Kyle J M

    2015-04-01

    Contact charge electrophoresis (CCEP) uses steady electric fields to drive the continuous, oscillatory motion of conductive particles and droplets between two or more electrodes. These rapid oscillations can be rectified to direct the motion of objects within microfluidic environments using low-power, dc voltage. Here, we compare high precision experimental measurements of CCEP within a microfluidic system to equally detailed theoretical predictions on the motion of a conductive particle between parallel electrodes. We use a simple, capillary microfluidic platform that combines high-speed imaging with precision electrical measurements to enable the synchronized acquisition of both the particle location and the electric current due to particle motion. The experimental results are compared to those of a theoretical model, which relies on a Stokesian dynamics approach to accurately describe both the electrostatic and hydrodynamic problems governing particle motion. We find remarkable agreement between theory and experiment, suggesting that particle motion can be accurately captured by a combination of classical electrostatics and low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics. Building on this agreement, we offer new insight into the charge transfer process that occurs when the particle nears contact with an electrode surface. In particular, we find that the particle does not make mechanical contact with the electrode but rather that charge transfer occurs at finite surface separations of >0.1 μm by means of an electric discharge through a thin lubricating film. We discuss the implications of these findings on the charging of the particle and its subsequent dynamics. PMID:25785396

  2. Experimental Validation of Voltage-Based State-of-Charge Algorithm for Power Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    State-of-Charge (SOC) is a key to modeling and managing the battery system. Several algorithms have been developed to calculate the OCV (open-circuit voltage) based on the terminal voltage and terminal current of batteries. Then SOC can be obtained based on the monotonic mapping between SOC and OCV. Using the measured terminal voltage and current from an EV(electric vehicle) fleet, this thesis solves the following two problems: (1) how to develop a robust mapping between OCV and SOC; and (2) ...

  3. State of charge modeling of lithium-ion batteries using dual exponential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ting-Jung; Lee, Kung-Yen; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chen, Jau-Horng; Chiu, Wei-Li; Huang, Chih-Fang; Wu, Shuen-De

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed by fitting the discharging curve of LiFePO4 batteries and used to investigate the relationship between the state of charge and the closed-circuit voltage. The proposed mathematical model consists of dual exponential terms and a constant term which can fit the characteristics of dual equivalent RC circuits closely, representing a LiFePO4 battery. One exponential term presents the stable discharging behavior and the other one presents the unstable discharging behavior and the constant term presents the cut-off voltage.

  4. State of charge estimation for LiMn2O4 power battery based on strong tracking sigma point Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Ouyang, Jian; Li, Huiqi; Wan, Jiafu

    2015-04-01

    The State of Charge (SOC) estimation is important since it has a crucial role in the operation of Electrical Vehicle (EV) power battery. This paper built an Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) of the LiMn2O4 power battery, and vast characteristics experiments were undertaken to make the model identification and thus the battery SOC estimation was realized. The SOC estimation was based on the Strong Tracking Sigma Point Kalman Filter (STSPKF) algorithm. The comparison of experimental and simulated results indicates that the STSPKF algorithm performs well in estimating the battery SOC, which has the advantages of tracking the variables in real-time and adjusting the error covariance by taking the Strong Tracking Factor (STF) into account. The results also show that the STSPKF algorithm estimated the SOC more accurately than the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm.

  5. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport—A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rogge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure planning. The analysis is based on real-world data of the bus network in Muenster, a mid-sized city in Germany. The outcomes underline the necessity to focus on entire vehicle schedules instead on individual trips. The tradeoff between required battery capacity and charging power is explained in detail. Furthermore, the impact on the electricity grid is discussed based on the load profiles of a selected charging station and a combined load profile of the entire network.

  6. Charging/Discharging Nanomorphology Asymmetry and Rate-Dependent Capacity Degradation in Li-Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushima, Akihiro; Koido, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Yoshiya; Kuriyama, Nariaki; Kusumi, Nobuhiro; Li, Ju

    2015-12-01

    Liquid-cell in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the charge/discharge reactions of nonaqueous Li-oxygen battery cathode were performed with ∼5 nm spatial resolution. The discharging reaction occurred at the interface between the electrolyte and the reaction product, whereas in charging, the reactant was decomposed at the contact with the gold current collector, indicating that the lithium ion diffusivity/electronic conductivity is the limiting factor in discharging/charging, respectively, which is a root cause for the asymmetry in discharging/charging overpotential. Detachments of lithium oxide particles from the current collector into the liquid electrolyte are frequently seen when the cell was discharged at high overpotentials, with loss of active materials into liquid electrolyte ("flotsam") under minute liquid flow agitation, as the lithium peroxide dendritic trees are shown to be fragile mechanically and electrically. Our result implies that enhancing the binding force between the reaction products and the current collector to maintain robust electronic conduction is a key for improving the battery performance. This work demonstrated for the first time the in situ TEM observation of a three-phase-reaction involving gold electrode, lithium oxides, DMSO electrolyte and lithium salt, and O2 gas. The technique described in this work is not limited to Li-oxygen battery but also can be potentially used in other applications involving gas/liquid/solid electrochemical reactions. PMID:26535921

  7. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  8. Joint Estimation of the Electric Vehicle Power Battery State of Charge Based on the Least Squares Method and the Kalman Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An estimation of the power battery state of charge (SOC is related to the energy management, the battery cycle life and the use cost of electric vehicles. When a lithium-ion power battery is used in an electric vehicle, the SOC displays a very strong time-dependent nonlinearity under the influence of random factors, such as the working conditions and the environment. Hence, research on estimating the SOC of a power battery for an electric vehicle is of great theoretical significance and application value. In this paper, according to the dynamic response of the power battery terminal voltage during a discharging process, the second-order RC circuit is first used as the equivalent model of the power battery. Subsequently, on the basis of this model, the least squares method (LS with a forgetting factor and the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF algorithm are used jointly in the estimation of the power battery SOC. Simulation experiments show that the joint estimation algorithm proposed in this paper has higher precision and convergence of the initial value error than a single AUKF algorithm.

  9. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inline state of health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using state of charge calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2015-12-01

    The determination of state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) is challenging and remains as an active research area in academia and industry due to its importance for Li-ion battery applications. The estimation process poses more challenges after substantial battery aging. This paper presents an inline SOH and SOC estimation method for Li-ion battery packs, specifically for those based on LiFePO4 chemistry. This new hybridized SOC and SOH estimator can be used for battery packs. Inline estimated model parameters were used in a compounded SOC + SOH estimator consisting of the SOC calculation based on coulomb counting method as an expedient approach and an SOH observer using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique for calibrating the estimates from the coulomb counting method. The algorithm's low SOC and SOH estimation error, fast response time, and less-demanding computational requirement make it practical for on-board estimations. The simulation and experimental results, along with the test bed structure, are presented to validate the proposed methodology on a single cell and a 3S1P LiFePO4 battery pack.

  11. Lithium-ion batteries: Evaluation study of different charging methodologies based on aging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Different charging methodologies have been tested and analyzed. • Battery impedance representation using the Randle’s equivalent circuit. • Investigate the impact of the charging methodology on the battery’s lifetime. • An extended analysis to select the proper charging method that can be used to design an enhanced charging system. - Abstract: In this paper, high power 7 A h LiFePO4-based cells (LFP) have been used to investigate the impact of the charging methodology on the battery’s lifetime. Three charging techniques have been used: Constant Current (CC), Constant Current–Constant Voltage (CC–CV) and Constant Current–Constant Voltage with Negative Pulse (CC–CVNP). A comparative study between these techniques is presented in this research. For this purpose, a characterization of the batteries has been performed using capacity test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As expected the obtained results showed that the battery’s aging rate depends on the charging methodology. Indeed, it has been shown that a combination of low amplitude and fewest number of negative pulses has a positive effect on battery’s capacity fading. From the impedance measurements, the results have demonstrated that the CC–CVNP technique with low amplitude and fewest number of negative pulses is more effective than the other techniques in reducing the concentration polarization resistance and the diffusion time constant. This research has provided an extended analysis to select the proper charging methodology that can be used to design an enhanced charging system

  12. Vehicle trajectory optimization for hybrid vehicles taking into account battery state-of-charge

    OpenAIRE

    MENSING, Felicitas; TRIGUI, Rochdi; Bideaux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles are found to be one solution to reduce fuel consumption in the transportation sector. Eco-driving is a concept that is immediately applicable by drivers to improve the efficiency of their vehicle. In this work the potential of eco-driving for hybrid drive train vehicles is discussed. The operation of hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on their energy management and therefore on battery state-of-charge. Here, the velocity trajectory will be optimized taking into account b...

  13. Realization of Constant-Current Mode for a Contactless Battery Charging System

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Sun; Zheng-You He; Yan-Ling Li; Xin Dai

    2013-01-01

    For a contactless battery charging system based on inductively coupled power transfer technology, a generalized state-space averaging method is first introduced, which can convert the original system with the oscillating and nonlinear characteristics to a linear time-invariant system by using the low-order Fourier series to approximate the original circuit signals and nonlinear terms and then the performance weighting functions for multi-objective optimization are adjusted and chosen in the f...

  14. Inductive Power Transfer with Resonance for Wireless Charging of Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldset, Johanna Ruud

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates inductive power transfer with resonance for wireless charging of electric vehicle (EV) batteries. The inspiration for the topic came from the paper Basic experimental study on helical antennas of wireless power transfer for Electric Vehicles by using magnetic resonant couplings by T. Imura, H. Okabe and Y. Hory [7]. The paper presents laboratory results of more than 97% power transfer efficiency at a distance between the coils of up to 20 cm. The coils used are air ...

  15. Small wind generators for battery charging in Peru and Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, S. [Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) have developed a small wind generator (SWG) intended primarily for battery charging in Peru and Sri Lanka. The project is funded mainly by the Department for International Development (DfID) and aims to provide rural households and communities who do not have access to mains electricity with a form of electrification. This paper reports on progress to date and is correct at the time of going to press, but subsequent changes to specifications may occur. (Author)

  16. Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter as an active rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaja, Mario; Oprea, Matei-lon; Suárez, Carlos Gómez;

    2014-01-01

    A major setback for large scale electric vehicle market expansion compared to their internal combustion competitors consists in their high price and low driving range. One way of reducing the cost, dimensions and mass of electric vehicles is to eliminate the dedicated AC/DC converter used for...... battery charging. Alternatively, charging could be done using the motor windings as grid side inductors and controlling the inverter to operate as an active boost rectifier. The challenge in this approach is the unequal phase inductances which depend on the rotor position. Another problem appears when the...

  17. Reducing capacity fade in vanadium redox flow batteries by altering charging and discharging currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Ertan; Benjamin, A.; Dennison, C. R.; Chen, D.; Hickner, M. A.; Kumbur, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the operation of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) under asymmetric current conditions (i.e., different current densities during charge and discharge) was investigated as a technique to reduce its capacity loss. Two different membrane types (a convection-dominated membrane and a diffusion-dominated membrane) were analyzed. In these analyses, the charging current density was varied while the discharging current was held constant. For both membranes, it was found that increasing the charging current decreases the net convective crossover of vanadium ions, which reduces the capacity loss of the battery. When the tested membranes were compared, the improvement in capacity retention was found to be larger for the diffusion-dominated membrane (12.4%) as compared to the convection-dominated membrane (7.1%). The higher capacity retention in the diffusion-dominated membrane was attributed to the reduction in the cycling time (and hence, suppressed contribution of diffusion) due to the increased charging current. While asymmetric current operation helps reduce capacity loss, it comes at the expense of a reduction in the voltage efficiencies. Increasing the charging current was found to increase the ohmic losses, which lead to a decrease of 6% and 4.3% in the voltage efficiencies of the convection-dominated and diffusion-dominated membranes, respectively.

  18. Optimal charging method for lithium ion batteries using a universal voltage protocol accommodating aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Liaw, Bor Yann; Qiu, Xinping; Gao, Lanlan; Zhang, Changshui

    2015-01-01

    An effective optimum charging technique for lithium ion batteries using a universal voltage protocol (UVP) that can accommodate cell aging is presented here. This charging method demands less learning to varying state-of-health (SOH) conditions with potential to improve charging efficiency and cycle life. The simplicity of UVP makes the implementation easier than the conventional constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV)-based methods. Here, the mathematical formulation, optimization targets (e.g. minimal time) and constraints (terminal voltages and other instrumental and cell electrochemistry-limited ones) are explained from the protocol design considerations. An equivalent circuit model was used and its parameters derived from the analysis of test data, which could yield a nonlinear varying current profile (VCP) by simulation and a genetic algorithm-based optimization. Both UVP and VCP were used in the validation to illustrate better charging efficiency and capacity retention, which showed a much improved cycle life.

  19. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  20. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Föll; Jürgen Carstensen; Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-01-01

    Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. I...

  1. A modified model based state of charge estimation of power lithium-ion batteries using unscented Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong; Xia, Bizhong; Sun, Wei; Xu, Zhihui; Zheng, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation for the state of charge (SOC) is one of the most important aspects of a battery management system (BMS) in electric vehicles (EVs) as it provides drivers with the EVs' remaining range. However, it is difficult to get an accurate SOC, because its value cannot be directly measured and is affected by various factors, such as the operating temperature, current rate and cycle number. In this paper, a modified equivalent circuit model is presented to include the impact of different current rates and SOCs on the battery internal resistance, and the impact of different temperatures and current rates on the battery capacity. Besides, a linear-averaging method is presented to calculate the internal resistance and practical capacity correction factors according to data collected from the experimental bench and saved as look-up tables. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm is then introduced to estimate the SOC according to the presented model. Experiments based on actual urban driving cycles are carried out to evaluate the performance of the presented method by comparing with two existed methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the computation cost and improve the SOC estimation accuracy simultaneously.

  2. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zou; Fengchun Sun; Xiaosong Hu

    2010-01-01

    In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC) is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV). The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identifi...

  3. New Technology for USB Battery Charging and Testing Method%最新USB充电技术与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明

    2011-01-01

    The USB2.0 spec does not take into account the applications that portable devices charging their batteries on an USB port,but such applications are becoming more and more popular.This paper describes the main content of the battery charging specification version 1.2 which is latest issued by USB-IF.Then,it gives a brief introduction of the related test specifications and introduces the key items and difficult contents during the tests based on the test experience.%USB2.0规范并没有考虑到使用USB接口为便携式设备的电池进行充电的需求,而这样的应用需求却越来越多。本文首先介绍USB-IF最新颁布的电池充电规范v1.2版本的主要内容;然后对其相关测试规范做简单介绍;最后结合测试经验,对测试中的重点项目和难点内容进行说明。

  4. Model for charge/discharge-rate-dependent plastic flow in amorphous battery materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrownejad, S. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic flow is an important mechanism for relaxing stresses that develop due to swelling/shrinkage during charging/discharging of battery materials. Amorphous high-storage-capacity Li-Si has lower flow stresses than crystalline materials but there is evidence that the plastic flow stress depends on the conditions of charging and discharging, indicating important non-equilibrium aspects to the flow behavior. Here, a mechanistically-based constitutive model for rate-dependent plastic flow in amorphous materials, such as LixSi alloys, during charging and discharging is developed based on two physical concepts: (i) excess energy is stored in the material during electrochemical charging and discharging due to the inability of the amorphous material to fully relax during the charging/discharging process and (ii) this excess energy reduces the barriers for plastic flow processes and thus reduces the applied stresses necessary to cause plastic flow. The plastic flow stress is thus a competition between the time scales of charging/discharging and the time scales of glassy relaxation. The two concepts, as well as other aspects of the model, are validated using molecular simulations on a model Li-Si system. The model is applied to examine the plastic flow behavior of typical specimen geometries due to combined charging/discharging and stress history, and the results generally rationalize experimental observations.

  5. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic route guidance, which can help EV drivers to search for the optimal energy-efficient routes and to reduce the risk of running out of electricity before arriving at the destination or charging station. Firstly, by analyzing the variation characteristics of power consumption rate with initial SOC and microscopic driving parameters (instantaneous speed and acceleration, a set of energy consumption rate models are established according to different operation modes. Then, the SOC estimation model is proposed based on the presented EV power consumption model. Finally, by comparing the estimated SOC with the measured SOC, the proposed SOC estimation method is proved to be highly accurate and effective, which can be well used in EV route planning and navigation systems.

  7. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV

  8. Influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Manders, J. E.

    To examine the influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries, plates are made from three types of oxides: (i) leady oxide of high quality which contains virtually no bismuth (termed 'control oxide'); (ii) control oxide in which bismuth oxide is blended at bismuth levels from 0.01 to 0.12 wt.%; (iii) leady oxide produced from Pasminco VRLA Refined™ lead (0.05-0.06 wt.%Bi). An experimental tool—the 'conversion indicator'—is developed to assess the charging ability of the test negative plates when cycling under either zero percent state-of-charge (SoC)/full-charge or partial state-of-charge (PSoC) duty. Although the conversion indicator is not the true charging efficiency, the two parameters have a close relationship, namely, the higher the conversion indicator, the greater the charging efficiency. Little difference is found in the charging ability, irrespective of bismuth content and discharge rate, when the plates are subjected to zero percent SoC/full-charge duty; the conversion indicator lies in the range 81-84%. By contrast, there is a marked difference when the negative plates are subjected to PSoC duty, i.e. consecutive cycling through 90-60, 70-40, 80-40 and 90-40% SoC windows. Up to 0.06 wt.%Bi improves the charging ability, especially with a low and narrow PSoC window (40-70% SoC) of the type that will be experienced in 42 V powernet automobile and hybrid electric duties. To maximize this beneficial effect, bismuth must be distributed uniformly in the plates. This is best achieved by using VRLA Refined™ lead for oxide production.

  9. An adaptive Kalman filtering based State of Charge combined estimator for electric vehicle battery pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ah counting is not a satisfactory method for the estimation of the State of Charge (SOC) of a battery, as the initial SOC and coulombic efficiency are difficult to measure. To address this issue, a new SOC estimation method, denoted as 'AEKFAh', is proposed. This method uses the adaptive Kalman filtering method which can avoid filtering divergence resulting from uncertainty to correct for the initial value used in the Ah counting method. A Ni/MH battery test procedure, consisting of 8.08 continuous Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycles, is carried out to verify the method. The SOC estimation error is 2.4% when compared with the real SOC obtained from a discharge test. This compares favorably with an estimation error of 11.4% when using Ah counting.

  10. State-Of-Charge Estimation of Li-Ion Battery Using Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Li-ion battery is studied base on its equivalent circuit PNGV model. The model parameters are identified by HPPC test. The discrete state space equation is established according to the model. The basic theory of extended Kalman filter algorithm is studied and then the filtering algorithm is set up under the noisy environments. Finally, a kind of electric car is used for testing under the UDDS driving condition. The difference between the simulation value using extended Kalman filter under the noisy environment and the theoretical value is compared. The result indicated that the extended Kalman filter keeps an excellent precision in state of charge estimation of Li-ion battery and performs well when disturbance happens.

  11. A method for state-of-charge estimation of LiFePO4 batteries based on a dual-circuit state observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yujie; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-11-01

    Estimation of state-of-charge (SOC) is a key criterion to evaluate the battery management system (BMS). Due to the flat open-circuit voltage (OCV)-SOC curve of LiFePO4 batteries, it is a great challenge to estimate the SOC accurately. Here we present a dual-circuit state observer for SOC estimation of LiFePO4 batteries. It is a combination of an open loop based current integrator and a proportional-integral (PI) based state observer. We also employed an easy but practical drifting current corrector to restrain the influence of the drifting current. The experiment results show that error of the estimated SOC is less than 2.5% by the proposed method when the initial SOC is unknown. We proved that with no matrix operations, the proposed method is lighted-weighted and high efficient, which is suitable for embedded systems.

  12. On the aggregate grid load imposed by battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the problem of estimating the aggregate load imposed on the power grid by the battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The article begins by generating a set of representative daily trips using (i) the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and (ii) a Markov chain model of both federal and naturalistic drive cycles. A multi-objective optimizer then uses each of these trips, together with PHEV powertrain and battery degradation models, to optimize both PHEV daily energy cost and battery degradation. The optimizer achieves this by varying (i) the amounts of charge obtained from the grid by each PHEV, and (ii) the timing of this charging. The article finally computes aggregate PHEV power demand by accumulating the charge patterns optimized for individual PHEV trips. The results of this aggregation process show a peak PHEV load in the early morning (between 5.00 and 6.00 a.m.), with approximately half of all PHEVs charging simultaneously. The ability to charge at work introduces smaller additional peaks in the aggregate load pattern. The article concludes by exploring the sensitivity of these results to the relative weighting of the two optimization objectives (energy cost and battery health), battery size, and electricity price.

  13. Effect of anode morphology on charging rate in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip

    2014-03-01

    Carbon materials such as graphite are widely used in Lithium Ion Batteries as an active component for the anode. We set up a 3-D Lattice Boltzmann model to simulate the intercalation reaction of graphite anode during charging process. Our model considered the mass transfer both inside and outside of anode, and the equilibrium potential drop of the anode material as a function of local charge amount. By using a simple spherical anode morphology, we tested the shrinking core model. Our simulation showed the influence of current density and diffusion speed of Li ion in the graphite phase on phase boundary movement and determined when the outer layer of anode is fully charged. We further developed our anode morphology to a random particle model, and studied the influence of current density and porosity of anode on the total charge of the system. Our results show that it is possible to obtain both high charging capacity and charging rate by adjusting the morphology of anode.

  14. Online Estimation of Model Parameters and State of Charge of LiFePO4 Batteries Using a Novel Open-Circuit Voltage at Various Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an online estimation of the model parameters and state of charge (SOC of lithium iron phosphate batteries in electric vehicles. A widely used SOC estimator is based on the dynamic battery model with predeterminate parameters. However, model parameter variances that follow with their varied operation temperatures can result in errors in estimating battery SOC. To address this problem, a battery online parameter estimator is presented based on an equivalent circuit model using an adaptive joint extended Kalman filter algorithm. Simulations based on actual data are established to verify accuracy and stability in the regression of model parameters. Experiments are also performed to prove that the proposed estimator exhibits good reliability and adaptability under different loading profiles with various temperatures. In addition, open-circuit voltage (OCV is used to estimate SOC in the proposed algorithm. However, the OCV based on the proposed online identification includes a part of concentration polarization and hysteresis, which is defined as parametric identification-based OCV (OCVPI. Considering the temperature factor, a novel OCV–SOC relationship map is established by using OCVPI under various temperatures. Finally, a validating experiment is conducted based on the consecutive loading profiles. Results indicate that our method is effective and adaptable when a battery operates at different ambient temperatures.

  15. Performance Simulation Of Photovoltaic System Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, despite being inexhaustible, has a major shortcoming; it is intermittent. As a result, there's a need for it to be stored for later use. The widely used energy storage in photovoltaic system applications is the lead-acid battery and the knowledge of its state-of-charge (SOC is important in effecting efficient control and energy management. However, SOC cannot be measured while the battery is connected to the system. This study adjusts and validates two estimation models: battery state-of-charge model using ampere-hour counting method and battery charge voltage model. For the battery state-of-charge model, the SOC is estimated by integrating the charge/discharge current over time while the battery charge voltage characteristic response is modelled by using the equation-fit method which expresses the battery charge voltage variations by a 5th order polynomial in terms of the state-of-charge and current. These models are realized using the MATLAB program. The battery charge voltage model is corrected for errors which may result from reduced charge voltage due to variation of solar radiation using the battery state-of-charge model. Moreover, the starting SOC needed in the state-of-charge model is estimated using the charge voltage model. The accuracies of the models are verified using various laboratory experiments.

  16. The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility due to factors including driver range anxiety and access to charging infrastructure. In this paper we apply NREL's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to range anxiety and different charging infrastructure scenarios, including variable time schedules, power levels, and locations (home, work, and public installations). We find that the effects of range anxiety can be significant, but are reduced with access to additional charging infrastructure. We also find that (1) increasing home charging power above that provided by a common 15 A, 120 V circuit offers little added utility, (2) workplace charging offers significant utility benefits to select high mileage commuters, and (3) broadly available public charging can bring many lower mileage drivers to near-100% utility while strongly increasing the achieved miles of high mileage drivers.

  17. Solid State Rechargeable Organic Batteries Based on Polymer Composites of Charge-transfer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gupta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state galvanic cells based on charge-transfer complexes have been extensively used. However, the low mechanical strengths of these materials have restricted their applications. To overcome this problem, the polymer composite of these materials have been prepared and used in fabrication of solid-state batteries. The pressed pellet of these materials has been used as cathode in contact with zinc as anode metal. The electrochemical characterization of these cells such as open-circuit voltages, short-circuit currents, their time and temperature dependence and rechargeability of these cells have been studied. The impedance analyses have been done to understand the nature of the electrode reaction.

  18. Study on battery state of charge correct algorithm of electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAN Ping; QIAN Lijun

    2012-01-01

    State of Charge (SOC) is used to adjust the initialization SOC value so as to make electric vehicle simulation results close to real vehicle performance. This paper firstly analyses the battery SOC correct algorithm, then uses ADVISOR which is a electric vehicle simulation software to simulate a hybrid electric car with three different cases of no SOC correct, linear SOC correct and zero delta SOC correct, as well as makes the compare and analysis for those simulation results. In the end, an overall conclusion to SOC correct algorithm is given.

  19. Approximation to the Modelling of Charge and Discharge Processes in Electrochemical Batteries by Integral Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new way for the modelling of the charge and discharge processes in electrochemical batteries based on the use of integral equations is presented. The proposed method models the charge curves by the so called fractional or cumulative integrals of a certain objective function f(t) that must be sought. The charge figures can be easily fitted by breaking down this objective function as the addition of two different Lorentz type functions: the first one is associated to the own charge process and the second one to the overcharge process. The method allows calculating the starting voltage for overcharge as the intersection between both functions. The curve fitting of this model to different experimental charge curves, by using the Marquart algorithm, has shown very accurate results. In the case of discharge curves, two possible methods for modelling purposes are suggested, well by using the same kind of integral equations, well by the simple subtraction of an objective function f(t) from a constant value VOD. Many other aspects for the study and analysis of this method in order to improve its results in further developments are also discussed. (Author) 10 refs

  20. Distinct charge dynamics in battery electrodes revealed by in situ and operando soft X-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaosong; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Gao; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Zhi; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2013-01-01

    Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensible in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft X-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for battery research. Here we achieve in situ and operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lithium-ion ...

  1. Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence J.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Zhang, Jiguang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, lithium anode has re-attracted broad interest because of the necessity of employing lithium metal in the next-generation battery technologies such as lithium sulfur (Li-S) and lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Fast capacity degradation and safety issue associated with rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been reported, although the fundamental understanding on the failure mechanism of lithium metal at high charge rate is still under debate due to the complicated interfacial chemistry between lithium metal and electrolyte. Herein, we demonstrate that, at high current density, the quick growth of porous solid electrolyte interphase towards bulk lithium, instead of towards the separator, dramatically builds up the cell impedance that directly leads to the cell failure. Understanding the lithium metal failure mechanism is very critical to gauge the various approaches used to address the stability and safety issues associated with lithium metal anode. Otherwise, all cells will fail quickly at high rates before the observation of any positive effects that might be brought from adopting the new strategies to protect lithium.

  2. The partial state-of-charge cycle performance of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Taisuke; Sawai, Ken; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Shiota, Masashi; Ishimoto, Shinji; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Osumi, Shigeharu

    Negative plate lugs of flooded lead-acid battery were corroded during partial state-of-charge (PSoC) pattern cycle life tests simulated from stop and go vehicle driving. Potential step was applied to Pb-Ca-Sn alloy electrode at various potential and time regimes, and the electrode surface was observed by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) to investigate the corrosion mechanisms during the potential step cycles. It was found out that the severe corrosion occurs when the oxidation of Pb to PbSO 4 and partial reduction of passive layer of PbSO 4 take turns many times. It was also found out that the periodic full charge, the optimization of the alloy composition, addition of the material that may make the reaction mechanism change to electrolyte were effective to suppress the corrosion rate.

  3. The partial state-of-charge cycle performance of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Taisuke; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Shiota, Masashi; Ishimoto, Shinji; Osumi, Shigeharu [GS Yuasa Power Supply Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Sawai, Ken [GS Yuasa Corporation Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Hirai, Nobumitsu [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Negative plate lugs of flooded lead-acid battery were corroded during partial state-of-charge (PSoC) pattern cycle life tests simulated from stop and go vehicle driving. Potential step was applied to Pb-Ca-Sn alloy electrode at various potential and time regimes, and the electrode surface was observed by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) to investigate the corrosion mechanisms during the potential step cycles. It was found out that the severe corrosion occurs when the oxidation of Pb to PbSO{sub 4} and partial reduction of passive layer of PbSO{sub 4} take turns many times. It was also found out that the periodic full charge, the optimization of the alloy composition, addition of the material that may make the reaction mechanism change to electrolyte were effective to suppress the corrosion rate. (author)

  4. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  5. Multi-functional Converter with Integrated Motor Control, Battery Charging and Active Module Balancing for Electric Vehicular Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and the acoustical noise generated by refuse lorries, electrification of the waste compactor unit is a very promising solution. For the electrical energy storage Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology has been selected with potential for reducing the cost...... used successfully in HVDC/FACTS and large drive applications. In this paper the use of MMC for a battery driven waste compactor unit addressed with integrated functionality including: motor driver, battery charge and active balancing is presented. The challenges addressed here are related to the design...

  6. A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO4 Battery Packs Used in Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Pang Huang; Ming-Hui Chang; Shu-Wei Chang

    2013-01-01

    The accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, “Modified ECE + EKF”, is proposed. The method is the combination of the modified Equivalent Coulombic Efficiency (ECE) method and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method. It is based on the zero-state hysteresis battery model, and adopts the EKF method to corre...

  7. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  8. A novel method for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries using a nonlinear observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bizhong; Chen, Chaoren; Tian, Yong; Sun, Wei; Xu, Zhihui; Zheng, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    The state of charge (SOC) is important for the safety and reliability of battery operation since it indicates the remaining capacity of a battery. However, as the internal state of each cell cannot be directly measured, the value of the SOC has to be estimated. In this paper, a novel method for SOC estimation in electric vehicles (EVs) using a nonlinear observer (NLO) is presented. One advantage of this method is that it does not need complicated matrix operations, so the computation cost can be reduced. As a key step in design of the nonlinear observer, the state-space equations based on the equivalent circuit model are derived. The Lyapunov stability theory is employed to prove the convergence of the nonlinear observer. Four experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the presented method. The results show that the SOC estimation error converges to 3% within 130 s while the initial SOC error reaches 20%, and does not exceed 4.5% while the measurement suffers both 2.5% voltage noise and 5% current noise. Besides, the presented method has advantages over the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and sliding mode observer (SMO) algorithms in terms of computation cost, estimation accuracy and convergence rate.

  9. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. PMID:26852396

  10. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Fan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error.

  11. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV. The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identified and optimized using the numerically nonlinear least squares algorithm, based on an experimental data set. By means of the optimized model, an adaptive Luenberger observer is built to estimate online the SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack. The observer gain is adaptively adjusted using a stochastic gradient approach so as to reduce the error between the estimated battery output voltage and the filtered battery terminal voltage measurement. Validation results show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack without a heavy computational load.

  12. Silicon charge detector for the CREAM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, I. H.; Park, N. H.; Nam, S. W.; Ahn, H. S.; Allison, P.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Baek, S. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Bigongiari, G.; Boyle, P.; Childers, J. T.; Conkin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Hyun, H. J.; Jeon, J. A.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Maestro, P.; Malinine, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Minnick, S.; Mognet, S. I.; Nutter, S.; Park, J. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Swordy, S.; Wakely, S.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Yoon, Y. S.; Zei, R.; Zinn, S. Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload had its first successful flight in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a Long Duration Balloon mission. Its aim is to explore the supernova acceleration limit of cosmic rays, the relativistic gas of protons, electrons and heavy nuclei arriving at Earth from outside of the solar system. The instrument is equipped with several systems to measure charge and energy spectra for Z=1 26 nuclei over the energy range 10 10eV. The Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) is a precision device to measure the charge of incident cosmic rays. The design, construction, integration and preliminary performance of the SCD are detailed in this paper.

  13. Silicon charge detector for the CREAM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload had its first successful flight in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a Long Duration Balloon mission. Its aim is to explore the supernova acceleration limit of cosmic rays, the relativistic gas of protons, electrons and heavy nuclei arriving at Earth from outside of the solar system. The instrument is equipped with several systems to measure charge and energy spectra for Z=1-26 nuclei over the energy range 1011-1015eV. The Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) is a precision device to measure the charge of incident cosmic rays. The design, construction, integration and preliminary performance of the SCD are detailed in this paper

  14. A method for state-of-charge estimation of LiFePO4 batteries at dynamic currents and temperatures using particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-04-01

    The state-of-charge (SOC) estimation for LiFePO4 batteries is one of the most important issues in battery management system (BMS) on electric vehicles (EVs). Significant temperature changes and drift current noises are inevitable in EVs and cause strong interference in SOC estimation, therefore a SOC-Particle filter (PF) estimator is proposed for SOC estimation. This paper tries to make three contributions: (1) a temperature composed battery model is established based on commercial LiFePO4 cells which can be used for SOC estimation at dynamic temperatures. (2) A capacity retention ratio (CRR) aging model is established based on the real history statistical analysis of the running mileage of the battery on an urban bus. (3) The proposed models are combined with an electrochemical model and the PF method is employed for SOC estimation to eliminate the drift noise effects. Experiments under dynamic current and temperature conditions are designed and performed to verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. The numeral results of the validation experiments have verified that accurate and robust SOC estimation results can be obtained by the proposed method.

  15. Online model-based estimation of state-of-charge and open-circuit voltage of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a method to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of a lithium-ion battery, based on an online identification of its open-circuit voltage (OCV), according to the battery’s intrinsic relationship between the SOC and the OCV for application in electric vehicles. Firstly an equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is employed modeling the polarization characteristic and the dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery, the corresponding equations are built to describe its electric behavior and a recursive function is deduced for the online identification of the OCV, which is implemented by a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with an optimal forgetting factor. The models with different RC networks are evaluated based on the terminal voltage comparisons between the model-based simulation and the experiment. Then the OCV-SOC lookup table is built based on the experimental data performed by a linear interpolation of the battery voltages at the same SOC during two consecutive discharge and charge cycles. Finally a verifying experiment is carried out based on nine Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedules. It indicates that the proposed method can ensure an acceptable accuracy of SOC estimation for online application with a maximum error being less than 5.0%. -- Highlights: ► An equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is built for lithium-ion batteries. ► A recursive function is deduced for the online estimation of the model parameters like OCV and RO. ► The relationship between SOC and OCV is built with a linear interpolation method by experiments. ► The experiments show the online model-based SOC estimation is reasonable with enough accuracy.

  16. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  17. Lithium position and occupancy fluctuations in a cathode during charge/discharge cycling of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium-ion batteries are undergoing rapid development to meet the energy demands of the transportation and renewable energy-generation sectors. The capacity of a lithium-ion battery is dependent on the amount of lithium that can be reversibly incorporated into the cathode. Neutron diffraction provides greater sensitivity towards lithium relative to other diffraction techniques. In conjunction with the penetration depth afforded by neutron diffraction, the information concerning lithium gained in a neutron diffraction study allows commercial lithium-ion batteries to be explored with respect to the lithium content in the whole cathode. Furthermore, neutron diffraction instruments featuring area detectors that allow relatively fast acquisitions enable perturbations of lithium location and occupancy in the cathode during charge/discharge cycling to be determined in real time. Here, we present the time, current, and temperature dependent lithium transfer occurring within a cathode functioning under conventional charge-discharge cycling. The lithium location and content, oxygen positional parameter, and lattice parameter of the Li1+yMn204 cathode are measured and linked to the battery's charge/discharge characteristics (performance). We determine that the lithium-transfer mechanism involves two crystallographic sites, and that the mechanism differs between discharge and charge, explaining the relative ease of discharging (compared with charging) this material. Furthermore, we find that the rate of change of the lattice is faster on charging than discharging, and is dependent on the lithium insertion/ extraction processes (e.g. dependent on how the site occupancies evolve). Using in situ neutron diffraction data the atomic-scale understanding of cathode functionality is revealed, representing detailed information that can be used to direct improvements in battery performance at both the practical and fundamental level.

  18. The reaction current distribution in battery electrode materials revealed by XPS-based state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Alexander J; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-07-28

    Morphologically complex electrochemical systems such as composite or nanostructured lithium ion battery electrodes exhibit spatially inhomogeneous internal current distributions, particularly when driven at high total currents, due to resistances in the electrodes and electrolyte, distributions of diffusion path lengths, and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Measuring and controlling these distributions is interesting from both an engineering standpoint, as nonhomogenous currents lead to lower utilization of electrode material, as well as from a fundamental standpoint, as comparisons between theory and experiment are relatively scarce. Here we describe a new approach using a deliberately simple model battery electrode to examine the current distribution in a electrode material limited by poor electronic conductivity. We utilize quantitative spatially resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the spatial distribution of the state-of-charge of a V2O5 model electrode as a proxy measure for the current distribution on electrodes discharged at varying current densities. We show that the current at the electrode-electrolyte interface falls off with distance from the current collector, and that the current distribution is a strong function of total current. We compare the observed distributions with a simple analytical model which reproduces the dependence of the distribution on total current, but fails to predict the correct length scale. A more complete numerical simulation suggests that dynamic changes in the electronic conductivity of the V2O5 concurrent with lithium insertion may contribute to the differences between theory and experiment. Our observations should help inform design criteria for future electrode architectures. PMID:27357533

  19. Low temperature aging mechanism identification and lithium deposition in a large format lithium iron phosphate battery for different charge profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Chu, Zhengyu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Feng, Xuning; Liu, Guangming

    2015-07-01

    Charging procedures at low temperatures severely shorten the cycle life of lithium ion batteries due to lithium deposition on the negative electrode. In this paper, cycle life tests are conducted to reveal the influence of the charging current rate and the cut-off voltage limit on the aging mechanisms of a large format LiFePO4 battery at a low temperature (-10 °C). The capacity degradation rates accelerate rapidly after the charging current reaches 0.25 C or the cut-off voltage reaches 3.55 V. Therefore the scheduled current and voltage during low-temperature charging should be reconsidered to avoid capacity degradation. Lithium deposition contributes to low-temperature aging mechanisms, as something needle-like which might be deposited lithium is observed on the surface of the negative electrode after disassembling the aged battery cell. To confirm our explanation, incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is performed to identify the characteristics of the lithium deposition induced battery aging mechanisms. Furthermore, the aging mechanism is quantified using a mechanistic model, whose parameters are estimated with the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). The loss of reversible lithium originating from secondary SEI formation and dead lithium is confirmed as the cause of the aging.

  20. Online Identification with Reliability Criterion and State of Charge Estimation Based on a Fuzzy Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of state of charge (SOC estimation, the Kalman filter has been widely used for many years, although its performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the battery model as well as the noise covariance. The Kalman gain determines the confidence coefficient of the battery model by adjusting the weight of open circuit voltage (OCV correction, and has a strong correlation with the measurement noise covariance (R. In this paper, the online identification method is applied to acquire the real model parameters under different operation conditions. A criterion based on the OCV error is proposed to evaluate the reliability of online parameters. Besides, the equivalent circuit model produces an intrinsic model error which is dependent on the load current, and the property that a high battery current or a large current change induces a large model error can be observed. Based on the above prior knowledge, a fuzzy model is established to compensate the model error through updating R. Combining the positive strategy (i.e., online identification and negative strategy (i.e., fuzzy model, a more reliable and robust SOC estimation algorithm is proposed. The experiment results verify the proposed reliability criterion and SOC estimation method under various conditions for LiFePO4 batteries.

  1. Fast charging technique for high power LiFePO4 batteries: A mechanistic analysis of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseán, D.; Dubarry, M.; Devie, A.; Liaw, B. Y.; García, V. M.; Viera, J. C.; González, M.

    2016-07-01

    One of the major issues hampering the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) is the anxiety associated with long charging time. Hence, the ability to fast charging lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems is gaining notable interest. However, fast charging is not tolerated by all LIB chemistries because it affects battery functionality and accelerates its aging processes. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of multistage fast charging on a commercial high power LiFePO4-based cell and compare it to another cell tested under standard charging. Coupling incremental capacity (IC) and IC peak area analysis together with mechanistic model simulations ('Alawa' toolbox with harvested half-cell data), we quantify the degradation modes that cause aging of the tested cells. The results show that the proposed fast charging technique caused similar aging effects as standard charging. The degradation is caused by a linear loss of lithium inventory, coupled with a less degree of linear loss of active material on the negative electrode. This study validates fast charging as a feasible mean of operation for this particular LIB chemistry and cell architecture. It also illustrates the benefits of a mechanistic approach to understand cell degradation on commercial cells.

  2. Charged hadron multiplicities at the HERMES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyan, G.

    2014-01-01

    The HERMES collaboration has measured charge-separated pion and kaon multiplicities in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam scattering off a hydrogen or deuterium target. The results are presented as a function of the Bjorken variable x B , the negative squared four-momentum transfer Q 2, the hadron fractional energy z and it's transverse momentum P h ⊥. These data will be very useful to understand the quark-fragmentation process in deep-inelastic hadron electro-production and will serve as crucial input in the understanding of spin asymmetries in polarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  3. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Y Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind power producers can schedule the battery energy storage for the next day in order to maximize the profit. In addition, by taking into account the expenses of using batteries, the proposed charging/discharging scheme is able to avoid the detrimental operation of battery energy storage which can lead to a significant reduction of battery lifetime, i.e., uneconomical operation. The problem is formulated in a dynamic programming framework and solved by a dynamic programming backward algorithm. The proposed scheme is then applied to the study cases, and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  4. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  5. POTENTIAL, ELECTRIC FIELD AND SURFACE CHARGES CLOSE TO THE BATTERY FOR A RESISTIVE CYLINDRICAL SHELL CARRYING A STEADY LONGITUDINAL CURRENT

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandes, J. A.; E. Capelas De Oliveira; Assis, A. K. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we consider a long, resistive cylindrical shell carrying a steady current. A battery in the middle of the wire generates the current. We study the behavior of the potential, electric field and surface charges close to the batteryEn este trabajo consideramos una capa resistiva cilíndrica que transporta una corriente constante. Una batería genera la corriente en el centro del conductor. Estudiamos el comportamiento del potencial, campo eléctrico y cargas superficiales cerca de la b...

  6. Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

  7. A zero dimensional model of lithium-sulfur batteries during charge and discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Monica; Zhang, Teng; Offer, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur cells present an attractive alternative to Li-ion batteries due to their large energy density, safety, and possible low cost. Their successful commercialisation is dependent on improving their performance, but also on acquiring sufficient understanding of the underlying mechanisms to allow for the development of predictive models for operational cells. To address the latter, we present a zero dimensional model that predicts many of the features observed in the behaviour of a lithium-sulfur cell during charge and discharge. The model accounts for two electrochemical reactions via the Nernst formulation, power limitations through Butler-Volmer kinetics, and precipitation/dissolution of one species, including nucleation. It is shown that the flat shape of the low voltage plateau typical of the lithium-sulfur cell discharge is caused by precipitation. During charge, it is predicted that the dissolution can act as a bottleneck, because for large enough currents the amount that dissolves becomes limited. This results in reduced charge capacity and an earlier onset of the high plateau reaction, such that the two voltage plateaus merge. By including these effects, the model improves on the existing zero dimensional models, while requiring considerably fewer input parameters and computational resources than one dimensional models. The model also predicts that, due to precipitation, the customary way of experimentally obtaining the open circuit voltage from a low rate discharge might not be suitable for lithium-sulfur. This model can provide the basis for mechanistic studies, identification of dominant effects in a real cell, predictions of operational behaviour under realistic loads, and control algorithms for applications. PMID:26618508

  8. An integrated approach for real-time model-based state-of-charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Kang; Pei, Lei; Zhu, Chunbo

    2015-06-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been widely adopted in electric vehicles (EVs), and accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation is of paramount importance for the EV battery management system. Though a number of methods have been proposed, the SOC estimation for Lithium-ion batteries, such as LiFePo4 battery, however, faces two key challenges: the flat open circuit voltage (OCV) vs SOC relationship for some SOC ranges and the hysteresis effect. To address these problems, an integrated approach for real-time model-based SOC estimation of Lithium-ion batteries is proposed in this paper. Firstly, an auto-regression model is adopted to reproduce the battery terminal behaviour, combined with a non-linear complementary model to capture the hysteresis effect. The model parameters, including linear parameters and non-linear parameters, are optimized off-line using a hybrid optimization method that combines a meta-heuristic method (i.e., the teaching learning based optimization method) and the least square method. Secondly, using the trained model, two real-time model-based SOC estimation methods are presented, one based on the real-time battery OCV regression model achieved through weighted recursive least square method, and the other based on the state estimation using the extended Kalman filter method (EKF). To tackle the problem caused by the flat OCV-vs-SOC segments when the OCV-based SOC estimation method is adopted, a method combining the coulombic counting and the OCV-based method is proposed. Finally, modelling results and SOC estimation results are presented and analysed using the data collected from LiFePo4 battery cell. The results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approach, in particular the joint-EKF method.

  9. A data-driven based adaptive state of charge estimator of lithium-ion polymer battery used in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A lumped parameter battery model against different battery aging levels is proposed. • The RLS based method is used to identify the parameter of battery model in real-time. • A data-driven based adaptive SoC estimator is developed by RLS and AEKF algorithm. • The robustness of the SoC estimator against varying loading profiles is evaluated. • The robustness of the SoC estimator against different aging levels is evaluated. - Abstract: An accurate State of Charge (SoC) estimation method is one of the most significant and difficult techniques to promote the commercialization of electric vehicles. The paper attempts to make three contributions. (1) Through the recursive least square algorithm based identification method, the parameter of the lumped parameter battery model can be updated at each sampling interval with the real-time measurement of battery current and voltage, which is called the data-driven method. Note that the battery model has been improved with a simple electrochemical equation for describing the open circuit voltage against different aging levels and SoC. (2) Through the real-time updating technique of model parameter, a data-driven based adaptive SoC estimator is established with an adaptive extended Kalman filter. It has the potential to overcome the estimation error against battery degradation and varied operating environments. (3) The approach has been verified by different loading profiles of various health states of Lithium-ion polymer battery (LiPB) cells. The results indicate that the maximum estimation errors of voltage and SoC are less than 1% and 1.5% respectively

  10. 电池梯次利用储能装置在电动汽车充换电站中的应用%Application of Battery Cascade Utilization Device in EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽众; 李家辉

    2012-01-01

    针对电动汽车充换电站中动力电池的梯次利用问题,设计了电池梯次利用储能站,将充换电站中即将报废的电池用于储能放电,以降低电动汽车动力电池的使用成本.介绍了电池梯次利用储能站结构、电能控制系统以及储能控制策略,可以实现电动汽车充换电站动力电池的梯次利用、对电网负荷进行峰谷调节并作为充换电站的应急和后备电源.%Aiming at the application of battery cascade utilization in EV ( electric vehicle) battery charging and swapping station, this paper design battery cascade utilization storage station. In order to decreasing the battery cost, it utilizes the reject battery of battery charging and swapping station to storage and discharge electric energy. This paper introduces the battery cascade utilization device construction, control system and electric storage control strategy. It can implement the battery cascade utilization, regulate power grid peak and valley and be emergency power of the battery charging and swapping station.

  11. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo; Schaltz, Erik; Burlacu, Paul Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...... module is established based on the relationship between SOC (State of Charge) and OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) which is obtained from the battery charge and discharge test curves. A hierarchical control structure is proposed to realize different operating modes. The decoupled current control scheme is...

  12. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  13. Experiments with Charge Indicator Based on Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Leos; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors described recently enables us to perform a number of experiments suitable for high-school physics. Several such experiments are presented and discussed in this paper as well as some features of the indicator important for its use in schools, namely its sensitivity and robustness, i.e. the…

  14. Dynamic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of a Three-Electrode Lithium-Ion Battery during Pulse Charge and Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dynamic EIS is performed on a three-electrode pouch cell; • Charge transfer resistance during insertion is generally larger than that during deinsertion due to the surface concentration change; • An inductive behavior is revealed at low frequencies due to the violation of stationary condition in DEIS measurement; • Electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain are developed. • The model predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and the DC current. - Abstract: The dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) of a three-electrode pouch type lithium-ion battery is measured using a series of sine wave perturbations super-imposed on pulse charge and discharge. The DEIS reveals noticeable differences between charge and discharge at frequencies corresponding to the charge transfer reaction. The charge transfer resistance during intercalation is generally found to be larger than that during deintercalation for the battery chemistry in this study. This result is mainly attributed to the decreased Li ion concentration in the electrolyte during intercalation. At low frequencies, an abnormal inductive behavior is also observed. Such abnormality is found to result from the violation of stationary condition, i.e. the state of the battery under pulse charge or discharge deviates significantly from its initial condition for the perturbation of low frequencies. To analytically define the stationary condition, we develop electrochemical models of a single active particle in both time and frequency domain, which describes the transport of lithium ions in both active particle and electrolyte phase and the interfacial charge transfer reactions at their interface. The lower frequency limit is a key parameter to ensure a quasistationary state during the DEIS measurement. An explicit formulation of the stationary condition predicts a positive correlation between the lower frequency limit and

  15. Combined State of Charge and State of Health estimation over lithium-ion battery cell cycle lifespan for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Hu, Xiaosong; Ma, Hongmin; Li, Shengbo Eben

    2015-01-01

    A combined SOC (State Of Charge) and SOH (State Of Health) estimation method over the lifespan of a lithium-ion battery is proposed. First, the SOC dependency of the nominal parameters of a first-order RC (resistor-capacitor) model is determined, and the performance degradation of the nominal model over the battery lifetime is quantified. Second, two Extended Kalman Filters with different time scales are used for combined SOC/SOH monitoring: the SOC is estimated in real-time, and the SOH (the capacity and internal ohmic resistance) is updated offline. The time scale of the SOH estimator is determined based on model accuracy deterioration. The SOC and SOH estimation results are demonstrated by using large amounts of testing data over the battery lifetime.

  16. A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO4 Battery Packs Used in Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, ''Modified ECE + EKF'', is proposed. The method is the combination of the modified Equivalent Coulombic Efficiency (ECE) method and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method. It is based on the zero-state hysteresis battery model, and adopts the EKF method to correct the initial value used in the Ah counting method. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior to the traditional techniques, such as ECE + EKF and ECE + Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), and the accuracy of estimation is within 1%.

  17. A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO4 Battery Packs Used in Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Pang Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate state of charge (SOC estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, “Modified ECE + EKF”, is proposed. The method is the combination of the modified Equivalent Coulombic Efficiency (ECE method and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF method. It is based on the zero-state hysteresis battery model, and adopts the EKF method to correct the initial value used in the Ah counting method. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior to the traditional techniques, such as ECE + EKF and ECE + Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF, and the accuracy of estimation is within 1%.

  18. Atomic physics experiments with trapped and cooled highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, H.-J.; Quint, W; Winters, D. F. A

    2007-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques have become very important for many fundamental experiments in atomic physics. When applied to highly charged ions confined in Penning traps, these procedures are very effective for testing quantum electrodynamics in extreme electromagnetic fields produced by heavy highly charged ions such as uranium U$^{91+}$. In addition, fundamental constants or nuclear ground state properties can be determined with high accuracy in these simple systems. Finally, by studying...

  19. Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.

  20. Effects of state of charge on the degradation of LiFePO4/graphite batteries during accelerated storage test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Degradation of LiFePO4/graphite batteries under different state of charge at 55 °C is investigate. • Side reactions caused by self-discharge are the main reason for performance fade during storage. • The detailed degradation mechanism is proven by post-mortem analysis. • Increased electrode resistance in LiFePO4 cathode suggests that side reactions also happen at positive electrode. - Abstract: In this paper, the degradation of LiFePO4/graphite batteries during 10 months of storage under different temperatures and states of charge (SOCs) is studied. The effects of SOC during storage process are systematically investigated using electrochemical methods and post-mortem analysis. The results show that at elevated temperature of 55 °C, higher stored SOC results in more significant increase in bulk resistance (Rb) and charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of full battery, whereas the rate-discharge capability of stored battery is unchanged. The side reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface caused by self-discharge are the main reasons for the performance fading during storage. For LiFePO4 cathode, long-time storage does not influence the framework structure under various SOCs. The existence of little irreversible capacity loss and impedance increase indicates that side reactions also occur at the positive electrode. For graphite anode, only a little capacity loss is found upon storage. There is a significant increase in impedance and a small amount of Fe deposition on graphite anode after storage at 100% SOC and 55 °C. The lithium ion loss arises from side reactions taking place at the graphite anode, which is responsible for the capacity degradation of battery during the storage process. XPS analysis confirms that a deposit layer composed of Li2CO3 and LiF is formed on the surface of anode

  1. A sensor data format incorporating battery charge information for smartphone-based mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo; Akopian, David; Boppana, Rajendra

    2015-03-01

    Remote health monitoring systems involve energy-constrained devices, such as sensors and mobile gateways. Current data formats for communication of health data, such as DICOM and HL7, were not designed for multi-sensor applications or to enable the management of power-constrained devices in health monitoring processes. In this paper, a data format suitable for collection of multiple sensor data, including readings and other operational parameters is presented. By using the data format, the system management can assess energy consumptions and plan realistic monitoring scenarios. The proposed data format not only outperforms other known data formats in terms of readability, flexibility, interoperability and validation of compliant documents, but also enables energy assessment capability for realistic data collection scenarios and maintains or even reduces the overhead introduced due to formatting. Additionally, we provide analytical methods to estimate incremental energy consumption by various sensors and experiments to measure the actual battery drain on smartphones.

  2. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries using the open-circuit voltage at various ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An offline OCV–SOC–temperature table was established to infer battery SOC. • A temperature-based model was developed to estimate SOC at different temperatures. • The algorithm for SOC estimation was verified by dynamic current load. • The robustness of the approach was validated by different initial SOC values. - Abstract: Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the accuracy of battery SOC estimation, which is critical for remaining driving range prediction of electric vehicles (EVs) and optimal charge/discharge control of batteries. A widely used method to estimate SOC is based on an online inference of open-circuit voltage (OCV). However, the fact that the OCV–SOC is dependent on ambient temperature can result in errors in battery SOC estimation. To address this problem, this paper presents an SOC estimation approach based on a temperature-based model incorporated with an OCV–SOC–temperature table. The unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) was applied to tune the model parameters at each sampling step to cope with various uncertainties arising from the operation environment, cell-to-cell variation, and modeling inaccuracy. Two dynamic tests, the dynamic stress test (DST) and the federal urban driving schedule (FUDS), were used to test batteries at different temperatures. Then, DST was used to identify the model parameters while FUDS was used to validate the performance of the SOC estimation. The estimation was made covering the major working range from 25% to 85% SOC. The results indicated that our method can provide accurate SOC estimation with smaller root mean squared errors than the method that does not take into account ambient temperature. Thus, our approach is effective and accurate when battery operates at different ambient temperatures. Since the developed method takes into account the temperature factor as well as the complexity of the model, it could be effectively applied in battery management systems for

  3. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status. PMID:26911922

  4. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo;

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...

  5. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Y Nguyen; Dinh Hung Nguyen; Yong Tae Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging) problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind pow...

  6. 镍氢电容电池快速充电系统%The quick charge system of Ni-MH capacitor battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家淦; 邹黎; 陈君霞

    2012-01-01

    To realize electric bus's quick charge,which choose Ni-MH capacitor battery as its power system in Zibo,the quick charge system was designed.Matlab/Simulink was used to measure the power grid harmonic content,and voltage controller method was selected as charging terminate parameters according to the Ni-MH capacitor battery's short-time large current charge characteristics.Eventually,the electric bus's quick charge through the field experiment was realized.%为实现以镍氢电容电池为动力系统的电动大巴车的快速充电设计了快速充电系统.通过Matlab/Simulink对网侧谐波含量进行电气仿真,并根据镍氢电容电池的短时大电流充电特性,选取电压控制法作为充电终止参数,实现电动大巴车的快速充电.

  7. Enhancing the estimation accuracy in low state-of-charge area: A novel onboard battery model through surface state of charge determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Liu, Guangming; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing

    2014-12-01

    In order to predict the battery remaining discharge energy in electric vehicles, an accurate onboard battery model is needed for the terminal voltage and state of charge (SOC) estimation in the whole SOC range. However, the commonly-used equivalent circuit model (ECM) provides limited accuracy in low-SOC area, which hinders the full use of battery remaining energy. To improve the low-SOC-area performance, this paper presents an extended equivalent circuit model (EECM) based on single-particle electrochemical model. In EECM, the solid-phase diffusion process is represented by the SOC difference within the electrode particle, and the terminal voltage is determined by the surface SOC (SOCsurf) representing the lithium concentration at the particle surface. Based on a large-format lithium-ion battery, the voltage estimation performance of ECM and EECM is compared in the entire SOC range (0-100%) under different load profiles, and the genetic algorithm is implemented in model parameterization. Results imply that the EECM could reduce the voltage error by more than 50% in low-SOC area. The SOC estimation accuracy is then discussed employing the extended Kalman filter, and the EECM also exhibits significant advantage. As a result, the EECM is very potential for real-time applications to enhance the voltage and SOC estimation precision especially for low-SOC cases.

  8. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling

  9. Electrostatic Model Applied to ISS Charged Water Droplet Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Daan; Schaub, Hanspeter; Pettit, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatic force can be used to create novel relative motion between charged bodies if it can be isolated from the stronger gravitational and dissipative forces. Recently, Coulomb orbital motion was demonstrated on the International Space Station by releasing charged water droplets in the vicinity of a charged knitting needle. In this investigation, the Multi-Sphere Method, an electrostatic model developed to study active spacecraft position control by Coulomb charging, is used to simulate the complex orbital motion of the droplets. When atmospheric drag is introduced, the simulated motion closely mimics that seen in the video footage of the experiment. The electrostatic force's inverse dependency on separation distance near the center of the needle lends itself to analytic predictions of the radial motion.

  10. Atomic physics experiments with trapped and cooled highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H -J; Winters, D F A

    2007-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques have become very important for many fundamental experiments in atomic physics. When applied to highly charged ions confined in Penning traps, these procedures are very effective for testing quantum electrodynamics in extreme electromagnetic fields produced by heavy highly charged ions such as uranium U$^{91+}$. In addition, fundamental constants or nuclear ground state properties can be determined with high accuracy in these simple systems. Finally, by studying a single trapped radioactive ion, its nuclear decay can be studied in detail by observing the disappearance of the signal of the mother and the appearance of that of the daughter isotope. Such experiments on highly charged ions at extremely low energy will become possible by the HITRAP facility which is currently being built up at GSI. Also the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will be briefly described which is expected to be operational by 2014.

  11. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Malikova, V.; Weber, H.

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  12. Joint Estimation of the Electric Vehicle Power Battery State of Charge Based on the Least Squares Method and the Kalman Filter Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangwei Guo; Longyun Kang; Yuan Yao; Zhizhen Huang; Wenbiao Li

    2016-01-01

    An estimation of the power battery state of charge (SOC) is related to the energy management, the battery cycle life and the use cost of electric vehicles. When a lithium-ion power battery is used in an electric vehicle, the SOC displays a very strong time-dependent nonlinearity under the influence of random factors, such as the working conditions and the environment. Hence, research on estimating the SOC of a power battery for an electric vehicle is of great theoretical significance a...

  13. Porous Perovskite LaNiO3 Nanocubes as Cathode Catalysts for Li-O2 Batteries with Low Charge Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Zhang; Yubao Zhao; Xiao Zhao; Zhaolin Liu; Wei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Developing efficient catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for rechargeable Li-O2 battery. In our present work, porous LaNiO3 nanocubes were employed as electrocatalyst in Li-O2 battery cell. The as-prepared battery showed excellent charging performance with significantly reduced overpotential (3.40 V). The synergistic effect of porous structure, large specific surface area and high electrocatalytic activity of porous LaNiO3 nanocubes ensured the Li-O2 battery with enchanc...

  14. Dynamic data-driven identification of battery state-of-charge via symbolic analysis of input–output pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STSA) has been used for low-complexity feature extraction. • Discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) has been used for data segmentation. • Algorithms have been validated on experimental data of pairs of current and voltage data from a lead-acid battery. - Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic data-driven method of pattern classification for identification of the state-of-charge (SOC) parameter in battery systems for diverse applications (e.g., plug-in electric vehicles and hybrid locomotives). The underlying theory is built upon the concept of symbolic dynamics, which represents the behavior of battery system dynamics at different levels of SOC as probabilistic finite state automata (PFSA). In the proposed method, (finite-length) blocks of battery data are selected via wavelet-based segmentation from the time series of synchronized input–output (i.e., current–voltage) pairs in the respective two-dimensional space. Then, symbol strings are generated from the segmented time series pairs in the sense of maximum entropy partitioning and a special class of PFSA, called the D-Markov machine, is constructed to extract the features of the battery system dynamics for pattern classification. To deal with the uncertainties due to the (finite-length) approximation of symbol sequences, combinations of (a priori) Dirichlet and (a posteriori) multinomial distributions are respectively adopted in the training and testing phases of pattern classification. The proposed concept of pattern classification has been validated on (approximately periodic) experimental data that have been acquired from a commercial-scale lead-acid battery

  15. 蓄电池容量均衡方法概述%Review on Battery Charge Equalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董博; 李永东

    2011-01-01

    蓄电池由于其储能时间长,价格低等特点在电动车、新能源发电等领域得到了广泛应用。但蓄电池单体电压、容量较小,为了满足增大蓄电池容量的要求,一般将蓄电池单体串联使用,但由于单体的个体差异,在长时间使用后会导致单体的容量各不相同,对整个电池组的效率产生严重的影响。因此对蓄电池组各单体的容量均衡就非常重要.是保证蓄电池长期、有效运行的关键技术。文中将对现有的各种蓄电池均衡技术进行介绍,并指出各种方法的优缺点。%Battery is used widely in EV and renewable energy generation because of its long-time storage and low price. However, the voltage and energy of a cell are very low. In order to increase storage energy, cells are usually used in series connection. For the difference among cells, state of charge will be different after a long time use, which could decrease the efficiency of battery pack. Therefore, the battery charge equalization is very important. A review on battery charge equalization is described, bringing forward the advantage and disadvantage of each method.

  16. Porous Perovskite LaNiO3 Nanocubes as Cathode Catalysts for Li-O2 Batteries with Low Charge Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yubao; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhaolin; Chen, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Developing efficient catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for rechargeable Li-O2 battery. In our present work, porous LaNiO3 nanocubes were employed as electrocatalyst in Li-O2 battery cell. The as-prepared battery showed excellent charging performance with significantly reduced overpotential (3.40 V). The synergistic effect of porous structure, large specific surface area and high electrocatalytic activity of porous LaNiO3 nanocubes ensured the Li-O2 battery with enchanced capacity and good cycle stability. Furthermore, it was found that the lithium anode corrosion and cathode passivation were responsible for the capacity fading of Li-O2 battery. Our results indicated that porous LaNiO3 nanocubes represent a promising cathode catalyst for Li-O2 battery.

  17. Improved reversibility in lithium-oxygen battery: Understanding elementary reactions and surface charge engineering of metal alloy catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Gon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Back, Seoin; Nam, Kwan Woo; Jung, Yousung; Han, Young-Kyu; Choi, Jang Wook

    2014-02-01

    Most Li-O2 batteries suffer from sluggish kinetics during oxygen evolution reactions (OERs). To overcome this drawback, we take the lesson from other catalysis researches that showed improved catalytic activities by employing metal alloy catalysts. Such research effort has led us to find Pt3Co nanoparticles as an effective OER catalyst in Li-O2 batteries. The superior catalytic activity was reflected in the substantially decreased overpotentials and improved cycling/rate performance compared to those of other catalysts. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the low OER overpotentials are associated with the reduced adsorption strength of LiO2 on the outermost Pt catalytic sites. Also, the alloy catalyst generates amorphous Li2O2 conformally coated around the catalyst and thus facilitates easier decomposition and higher reversibility. This investigation conveys an important message that understanding elementary reactions and surface charge engineering of air-catalysts are one of the most effective approaches in resolving the chronic sluggish charging kinetics in Li-O2 batteries.

  18. Janus Solid-Liquid Interface Enabling Ultrahigh Charging and Discharging Rate for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Hou, Yuyang; Duan, Yandong; Song, Xiaohe; Wei, Yi; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Zhuo, Zengqing; Liu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wu, Yuping; Pan, Feng

    2015-09-01

    LiFePO4 has long been held as one of the most promising battery cathode for its high energy storage capacity. Meanwhile, although extensive studies have been conducted on the interfacial chemistries in Li-ion batteries,1-3 little is known on the atomic level about the solid-liquid interface of LiFePO4/electrolyte. Here, we report battery cathode consisted with nanosized LiFePO4 particles in aqueous electrolyte with an high charging and discharging rate of 600 C (3600/600 = 6 s charge time, 1 C = 170 mAh g(-1)) reaching 72 mAh g(-1) energy storage (42% of the theoretical capacity). By contrast, the accessible capacity sharply decreases to 20 mAh g(-1) at 200 C in organic electrolyte. After a comprehensive electrochemistry tests and ab initio calculations of the LiFePO4-H2O and LiFePO4-EC (ethylene carbonate) systems, we identified the transient formation of a Janus hydrated interface in the LiFePO4-H2O system, where the truncated symmetry of solid LiFePO4 surface is compensated by the chemisorbed H2O molecules, forming a half-solid (LiFePO4) and half-liquid (H2O) amphiphilic coordination environment that eases the Li desolvation process near the surface, which makes a fast Li-ion transport across the solid/liquid interfaces possible. PMID:26305572

  19. Analysis of the Optimal Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles on the Power Consumption and V2G Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Juan Van; De Breucker, Sven; Driesen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The interest in electric vehicles (EVs) experiences a strong growth. Batteries of EVs will be charged at home, which means there will be an increase in the household power consumption. This impact on the distribution and transmission grid can be minimized by e.g. (i) a coordinated charging strategy and (ii) choosing an optimal battery size for each vehicle. A second drawback of EVs are the high cost and weight of the batteries. This paper proposes some allocation scenarios to allocate battery...

  20. Battery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Mounika* , M.Anil Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The project of BMS (Battery Monitoring System gives online and offline status of batteries which are monitored by the bank so that we can prevent the batteries prior to failure However, Battery Monitoring System specifically measure, record and analyze the individual cell and battery module parameters in detail.Continuous monitoring and analysis of these parameters can be used to identify battery or cell deterioration, hence prompting action to avoid unplanned power interruption.Battery Monitoring System (BMS is a microprocessor based intelligent system capable of monitoring the health of battery bank. BMS calculates the battery’s capacity, deterioration of batteries in battery bank during the charge / discharge cycles and actual efficiency of the batteries.It continuously monitors each cell in the battery bank to identify deterioration in the cell prior to failure,identifies the net charge in the battery bank by monitoring charging and discharging currents.

  1. Battery charging characteristics in small scaled photovoltaic system using resonant DC-DC converter with electric isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar energy has been drawing attention of the whole world as a clean and infinite energy, since the globe resource, the globe ecology and so on came into question. The wide applications of the solar energy are being expected in a range from electric power plants to household systems. But the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of the solar radiation, a temperature of the solar cells and so on, so the various useful forms of the solar energy are being proposed for a purpose of stable power supply. a system described in this paper is a small scaled photovoltaic system with storage batteries. This paper describes the theoretical analyses of the photovoltaic system using a resonant DC-DC converter in order to clarify a desirable circuit condition, besides the experimental results of the battery charging characteristics are presented

  2. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination. PMID:27151516

  3. Charging systems and PAYT experiences for waste management in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ventosa, I

    2008-12-01

    Municipal waste charges in Spain are very widespread, although their application varies significantly among different municipalities. Most commonly, waste charges are implemented as a flat rate, but some of them depend on indicators such as household water consumption, the land area of the property or the value of the real estate. Only one residential pay-as-you-throw scheme has been applied so far. It was a pay-per-bag scheme implemented in Torrelles de Llobregat, Barcelona. A number of other systems focussing only on commercial waste have been implemented in Spain. Several factors suggest that new pay-as-you-throw schemes will be adopted in the near future. In 2000 no municipalities had door-to-door collection schemes; since then over 70 municipalities have implemented them. In addition to this, some regions encourage the separate collection of commercial waste, by means of doorstep schemes. In all of these areas, variable charging systems could be easily adopted. Additionally, regarding waste charges, the National Waste Plan (2000-2006) advocated for the implementation of "pilot experiences for the quantitative application of the polluter-pays-principle". The tendency towards these variable charging systems in Europe will also favour their introduction in Spain. PMID:18783932

  4. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with batteries for use in plug-in electric vehicles. These vehicles use batteries that store a significant amount (kWh) of energy and thus will offer the possibilities for second-use in utility related applications such as residential and commercial backup systems and solar and wind generation systems. Cell test data are presented for the performance of lithium-ion batteries of several chemistries suitable for use in plug-in vehicles. The energy density of cells using ...

  5. Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NOx emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NOx from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NOx emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

  6. Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments and Exotic Charged Current Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ludl, Patrick Otto

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of exotic charged current interactions on the electron energy spectrum in tritium decay, focussing on the KATRIN experiment and a possible modified setup that has access to the full spectrum. Both sub-eV and keV neutrino masses are considered. We perform a fully relativistic calculation and take all possible new interactions into account, demonstrating the possible sizable distortions in the energy spectrum.

  7. Dual Active Bridge based Battery Charger for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Charging Current Containing Low Frequency Ripple

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Lingxiao; Díaz López, Daniel; Shen, Zhiyu; Luo, Fang; Mattavelli, Paolo; Boroyevich, Dushan

    2013-01-01

    High power density is strongly preferable for the on-board battery charger of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). Wide band gap devices, such as Gallium Nitride HEMTs are being explored to push to higher switching frequency and reduce passive component size. In this case, the bulk DC link capacitor of AC-DC Power Factor Correction (PFC) stage, which is usually necessary to store ripple power of two times the line frequency in a DC current charging system, becomes a major barrier on power ...

  8. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  9. A novel dual-scale cell state-of-charge estimation approach for series-connected battery pack used in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Xiong, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimations of cell state-of-charge for series-connected battery pack are remaining challenge due to the inhabited inconsistency characteristic. This paper tries to make three contributions. (1) A parametric modeling method is proposed for developing model-based SoC estimation approach. Based on the analysis for the mapping relationship between battery parameters and its SoC, a three-dimensional response surface open circuit voltage model is proposed for correcting erroneous SoC estimation. (2) An improved battery model considering model and parameter uncertainties is developed for modeling multiple cells in battery pack. A filtering process for selecting cell having "average capacity" and "average resistance" of battery pack has been developed to build the nominal battery model. Then a bias correction for single cells based on an average cell model is proposed for improving the expansibility of the nominal battery model. (3) A novel model-based dual-scale cell SoC estimator has been proposed. It uses micro and macro time scale to estimate the SoC of the selected cell and unselected cells respectively. Lastly, the proposed approach has been verified by two lithium-ion battery packs. The results show that the maximum estimation errors for cell voltage and SoC are less than 30 mV and 1% respectively against uncertain diving cycles and battery packs.

  10. A comparison of lead-acid and lithium-based battery behavior and capacity fade in off-grid renewable charging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of variable charging rates and incomplete charging in off-grid renewable energy applications are studied by comparing battery degradation rates and mechanisms in lead-acid, LCO (lithium cobalt oxide), LCO-NMC (LCO-lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide composite), and LFP (lithium iron phosphate) cells charged with wind-based charging protocols. Poor pulse charge acceptance, particularly for long pulses, contributes to incomplete charging and rapid degradation of lead-acid cells due to apparent high rates of sulphation and resistance growth. Partial charging and pulse charging, common lead-acid stressors in off-grid applications, are found to have little if any effect on degradation in the lithium-based cells when compared to constant current charging. These cells all last much longer than the lead-acid cells; the LFP batteries show the greatest longevity, with minimal capacity fade observed after over 1000 cycles. Pulse charge acceptance is found to depend on pulse length in lead-acid and LFP cells, but not in LCO and LCO-NMC cells. Excellent power performance and consistent voltage and power behavior during cycling suggest that LFP batteries are well-suited to withstand the stresses associated with off-grid renewable energy storage and have the potential to reduce system lifetime costs. - Highlights: • Degradation in lead-acid and Li-ion batteries compared in off-grid wind systems. • Lead-acid cells show poor pulse charge acceptance and rapid degradation. • Li-ion cells perform better with off-grid stressors like pulsed and partial charge. • Longevity of LFP (lithium iron phosphate) cells reduces their lifetime cost in off-grid renewable systems

  11. Best Practices for Operando Battery Experiments: Influences of X-ray Experiment Design on Observed Electrochemical Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkiewicz, O. J.; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2015-06-04

    Dynamic properties and multiscale complexities governing electrochemical energy storage in batteries are most ideally interrogated under simulated operating conditions within an electrochemical cell. We assess how electrochemical reactivity can be impacted by experiment design, including the X-ray measurements or by common features or adaptations of electrochemical cells that enable X-ray measurements.

  12. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  13. An Adaptive Gain Nonlinear Observer for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of charge (SOC is important for the safety and reliability of battery operation since it indicates the remaining capacity of a battery. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC, because the SOC cannot be directly measured by a sensor. In this paper, an adaptive gain nonlinear observer (AGNO for SOC estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs is proposed. The second-order resistor–capacitor (2RC equivalent circuit model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of a LIB, based on which the state equations are derived to design the AGNO for SOC estimation. The model parameters are identified using the exponential-function fitting method. The sixth-order polynomial function is used to describe the highly nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV and the SOC. The convergence of the proposed AGNO is proved using the Lyapunov stability theory. Two typical driving cycles, including the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC and Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS are adopted to evaluate the performance of the AGNO by comparing with the unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm. The experimental results show that the AGNO has better performance than the UKF algorithm in terms of reducing the computation cost, improving the estimation accuracy and enhancing the convergence ability.

  14. Car battery quick charging technology analysis%车用蓄电池快速充电技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文东; 郝宏波; 刘巍巍

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对当前动力电池优缺点的分析,提出我国应该增加投资力度,引进国外已经攻克蓄电池缺点的最新研究成果,并通过我国科技工作者的技术攻关,解决驱动汽车的动力电池充电时间长、使用寿命短,消费者不满意的问题。于此同时,也不放弃对其他种类的电力汽车的研究。%In this paper,through the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the current power bat-tery, put forward our country should increase the intensity of investment, the latest research results in the introduction of foreign has overcome the shortcomings of the battery,and through technical research scien-tist of China, to solve the power of battery powered cars, the charging time is long, short service life, consumers are not satisfied with the problem. In the meantime, the study also don't give up on other kinds of electric car.

  15. A Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Converter For Charging Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMȚU Ovidiu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Generating energy from the environment, extend the time for using electronic devices. Saving energy is important, but most current systems are powered by batteries without having a permanentconnection to the mains electricity power supply. Wirelesssensors need energy and this can be compensated usingpiezoelectric sources. Mechanical vibrations are widespread: in a car or sensors in the ambient environment. Piezoelectric crystals are the most efficient solution for energy from random motion - fromrenewable resources. An ultra-low power electronic converter is needed to transfer energy from the piezoceramic crystal to an energy storage device (supercapacitor, battery. The paper analyzes the optimal conditions for collecting energy from the piezoceramicelement. This study is useful for ways to convert energy inconjunction with its storage, in Lithium-Ion batteries.

  16. Fabrication by using a sputtering method and charge-discharge properties of large-sized and thin-filmed lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Hiromi; Sano, Kimihiro [Research and Development Center, Geomatec Co. Ltd., 3-13-7 Yaguchi, Otaku, Tokyo 146-0093 (Japan); Baba, Mamoru [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2005-08-26

    Large-sized and thin-filmed lithium ion rechargeable batteries composed of a Li{sub 2-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode, a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} negative electrode and a Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4-x}N{sub x} electrolyte have been developed on glass substrates by using a sputtering method, and their electrochemical characteristics were investigated. A typical cell size of the batteries was 100mmx100mm in area and about 3.1{mu}m in thickness as a whole. The battery with a maximum cell size of 200mmx200mm was also successfully fabricated. These pinhole-free batteries showed a good rechargeable performance between 3.5 and 0.3V with a typical charge-discharge capacity of about 0.9mAh for the battery with a 100mmx100mm size and of about 5.5mAh for the battery with a 200mmx200mm size. These batteries having almost the same characteristics have stably been fabricated with a good yield rate, and they could drive a digital watch as one of realistic portable devices more than 1 month with only one time charge. (author)

  17. Dossier Car Batteries. Charging for a breakthrough; Dossier Autoaccu's. Opladen voor een doorbraak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtens, B.

    2012-02-03

    The use of lithium batteries has exploded over the past 20 years. They are mainly used in electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptops and cameras. The use in electric vehicles is the next step. For a breakthrough, however, lithium batteries are required that can store more power. [Dutch] Het gebruik van lithiumbatterijen is de afgelopen 20 jaren explosief gestegen. Ze worden met name gebruikt in elektronische apparatuur, zoals mobiele telefoons, laptops en camera's. De toepassing in elektrische auto's is de volgende stap. Voor een doorbraak zijn echter lithiumaccu's vereist die meer stroom kunnen opslaan.

  18. Implementation of RTOS on STM32F4 Microcontroller to Control Parallel Boost for Photovoltaic Battery Charging Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EkaPrasetyono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The DC-DC converter is operated with pulse width modulation (PWM and controlled by modifying duty cycle. The PWM is easy developed on microcontroller system, but the problem become complex when some control algorithm implemented to determine duty cycle value. Multitasking is needed to handle sensor, control algorithm and user interface system. This paper discusses the application of Real Time Operating System (RTOS to handle multitasking process on STM32F407 ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller to control parallel boost converter with load sharing algorithm for photovoltaic (PV battery charging application. The first OS task is to run MPPT to get maximum energy from PV. This first OS task is implemented to control the first boost converter. Then, The second OS task to run fuzzy logic controller to control battery charging current with load sharing energy. This second OS task is task implemented to control second boost converter. The measurement of current and voltage of both converter side, display and user interface system also handled with OS task. As the result, each designed task could run well with recommended OS task priority for MPPT and Fuzzy is IRQ task and for TFT_LCD_displayosPriorityAboveNormal.

  19. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  20. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  1. A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement in a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Engine on/off and Battery Charging Power Control Based on Driver Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulgi Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, driving data for various types of drivers are collected using a VIDE (virtual integrated driving environment, and a driver model is developed. To represent the driver tendencies quantitatively, the DDA (degree of driver aggression is proposed based on fuzzy logic. DDA has a 0-1 value; the closer the DDA is to one, the more aggressive the driver. Using the DDA, an engine on/off and battery charging power control algorithm are developed to improve the fuel economy of a power-split-type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The engine on/off control reduces the frequent engine on/off caused by aggressive driving, whereas the battery charging power control maintains the battery state of charge (SOC by operating the engine according to the DDA. It is found that the proposed control algorithm improves fuel economy by 17.3% compared to the existing control for an aggressive driver.

  2. On-line parameter, state-of-charge and aging estimation of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-line model identification method for Li-ion battery parameters that combines high accuracy and low computational complexity. Experimental results show that modeling errors are smaller than 1% throughout the feasible operating range. The identified model is used in a state o

  3. Charge state breeding experiences and plans at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, F.; Marchetto, M.; Mjøs, A.; Morton, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    At the Isotope Separation and ACceleration (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been set up for the charge state breeding of radioactive ions. In order to reduce background from stable ions generated in the ECRIS, several measures, including changing materials for the plasma chamber and the surrounding components, have been implemented. Further reduction has been achieved by using the post-accelerator chain as a mass filter. Since the implementation of those measures in 2013, physics experiments with accelerated radioactive isotopes of Rb, Sr, K, and Mg have been performed. In most cases, a charge breeding efficiency of several percent has been achieved. With the planned expansion of the isotope production capabilities at TRIUMF within the Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory project, two new target stations, one using photo-fission induced by a high-power electron beam at 50 MeV and the other one using 480 MeV protons as at ISAC, will be put into operation within the next 5 yr. Additionally, a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) based charge state breeding system will be installed. Background from such a source is expected to be much lower. The drawback is that for the efficient operation of such a system, pulsed beam operation is required, which makes the installation of an additional ion buncher in front of the EBIS necessary.

  4. Charge state breeding experiences and plans at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Isotope Separation and ACceleration (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been set up for the charge state breeding of radioactive ions. In order to reduce background from stable ions generated in the ECRIS, several measures, including changing materials for the plasma chamber and the surrounding components, have been implemented. Further reduction has been achieved by using the post-accelerator chain as a mass filter. Since the implementation of those measures in 2013, physics experiments with accelerated radioactive isotopes of Rb, Sr, K, and Mg have been performed. In most cases, a charge breeding efficiency of several percent has been achieved. With the planned expansion of the isotope production capabilities at TRIUMF within the Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory project, two new target stations, one using photo-fission induced by a high-power electron beam at 50 MeV and the other one using 480 MeV protons as at ISAC, will be put into operation within the next 5 yr. Additionally, a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) based charge state breeding system will be installed. Background from such a source is expected to be much lower. The drawback is that for the efficient operation of such a system, pulsed beam operation is required, which makes the installation of an additional ion buncher in front of the EBIS necessary

  5. Charge state breeding experiences and plans at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, F., E-mail: ames@triumf.ca; Marchetto, M.; Mjøs, A.; Morton, A. C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    At the Isotope Separation and ACceleration (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been set up for the charge state breeding of radioactive ions. In order to reduce background from stable ions generated in the ECRIS, several measures, including changing materials for the plasma chamber and the surrounding components, have been implemented. Further reduction has been achieved by using the post-accelerator chain as a mass filter. Since the implementation of those measures in 2013, physics experiments with accelerated radioactive isotopes of Rb, Sr, K, and Mg have been performed. In most cases, a charge breeding efficiency of several percent has been achieved. With the planned expansion of the isotope production capabilities at TRIUMF within the Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory project, two new target stations, one using photo-fission induced by a high-power electron beam at 50 MeV and the other one using 480 MeV protons as at ISAC, will be put into operation within the next 5 yr. Additionally, a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) based charge state breeding system will be installed. Background from such a source is expected to be much lower. The drawback is that for the efficient operation of such a system, pulsed beam operation is required, which makes the installation of an additional ion buncher in front of the EBIS necessary.

  6. A Method for Compensating Customer Voltage Drops due to Nighttime Simultaneous Charging of EVs Utilizing Reactive Power Injection from Battery Chargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Taku; Kabasawa, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Kentaro; Nemoto, Koshichi; Uemura, Satoshi

    When we consider the global warming, the reduction of CO2 emission is one of the most important problems which require urgent solutions. One option is to integrate low-CO2-emission generators to the grid as much as possible. Another option is to replace inefficient vehicles based on internal-combustion engines with electric ones (EVs). Due to the latter, we can easily estimate that most consumers will charge EVs' batteries at nighttime. Thus, excessive voltage drops due to the nighttime simultaneous charging are supposed to be a possible future problem. This paper proposes a method for compensating the voltage drops by injecting reactive power from EV battery chargers.

  7. An Electric taxi fleet charged by second use batteries: not just economic profit

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The road transport sector is the second biggest CO2 emissions contributor after energy generation. In urban environments, its impact is increased due to the worse combustion engine driving efficiency. It is thought that electric mobility might bring some relief to big cities’ polluted air. At the same time, car manufacturers are searching for second battery applications in order to reduce its manufacture cost and make electric cars achievable for most people. This paper seeks to a...

  8. State-Of-Charge Estimation of Li-Ion Battery Using Extended Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Jin; He Yong-ling

    2013-01-01

    The Li-ion battery is studied base on its equivalent circuit PNGV model. The model parameters are identified by HPPC test. The discrete state space equation is established according to the model. The basic theory of extended Kalman filter algorithm is studied and then the filtering algorithm is set up under the noisy environments. Finally, a kind of electric car is used for testing under the UDDS driving condition. The difference between the simulation value using extended Kalman filter under...

  9. Genetic Algorithm Based Charge Optimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Saurabh; Simon, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Small spacecraft that are powered by solar energy have limitations because of the size of their solar panels. With the limitations on the solar panel size, it is generally hard to comply with the demands from all the satellite subsystems, payloads and batteries at the same time. To overcome these problems we have developed and adopted a power management optimization scheme that runs in real time in the satellite. The proposed power management scheme primarily involves scheduling of loads (var...

  10. Effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shiro; Tabata, Seiichiro [Yokohama National University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology; Matsui, Shohei [DAISO Co. Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan); Watanabe, Masayoshi [Yokohama National University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology; CREST JST, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-11-30

    The effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on the interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries (LPB) has been studied in detail. A cross-linked comb-copolymer, consisting of ethylene oxide (EO), 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether (MEEGE), and allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), was used as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). LiCoO{sub 2} composite cathodes were fabricated using binder comb-copolymers, consisting of EO and MEEGE with different compositions. Ionic conductivity of the SPE, and the interfacial charge transfer processes between the SPE and metallic lithium and between the SPE and the composite cathode at several cathode potentials versus Li/Li{sup +}, were electrochemically explored. With increasing MEEGE composition in the binder copolymers, the interfacial resistances between the SPE and the composite cathode appreciably decreased. As the result, discharge capacity of the LPB also enhanced with increasing the MEEGE composition. The introduction of the branched-side-chains to the polymer backbone to the binder polymers for the composite cathodes caused to facilitate the interfacial charge transport processes, while the introduction had also been found to be very effective in terms of the enhancement of ionic conductivity of SPE. (author)

  11. Effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on the interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries (LPB) has been studied in detail. A cross-linked comb-copolymer, consisting of ethylene oxide (EO), 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether (MEEGE), and allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), was used as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). LiCoO2 composite cathodes were fabricated using binder comb-copolymers, consisting of EO and MEEGE with different compositions. Ionic conductivity of the SPE, and the interfacial charge transfer processes between the SPE and metallic lithium and between the SPE and the composite cathode at several cathode potentials versus Li/Li+, were electrochemically explored. With increasing MEEGE composition in the binder copolymers, the interfacial resistances between the SPE and the composite cathode appreciably decreased. As the result, discharge capacity of the LPB also enhanced with increasing the MEEGE composition. The introduction of the branched-side-chains to the polymer backbone to the binder polymers for the composite cathodes caused to facilitate the interfacial charge transport processes, while the introduction had also been found to be very effective in terms of the enhancement of ionic conductivity of SPE

  12. 3-D pore-scale resolved model for coupled species/charge/fluid transport in a vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has emerged as a viable grid-scale energy storage technology that offers cost-effective energy storage solutions for renewable energy applications. In this paper, a novel methodology is introduced for modeling of the transport mechanisms of electrolyte flow, species and charge in the VRFB at the pore scale of the electrodes; that is, at the level where individual carbon fiber geometry and electrolyte flow are directly resolved. The detailed geometry of the electrode is obtained using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and calibrated against experimentally determined pore-scale characteristics (e.g., pore and fiber diameter, porosity, and surface area). The processed XCT data is then used as geometry input for modeling of the electrochemical processes in the VRFB. The flow of electrolyte through the pore space is modeled using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) while the finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the coupled species and charge transport and predict the performance of the VRFB under various conditions. An electrochemical model using the Butler–Volmer equations is used to provide species and charge coupling at the surfaces of the carbon fibers. Results are obtained for the cell potential distribution, as well as local concentration, overpotential and current density profiles under galvanostatic discharge conditions. The cell performance is investigated as a function of the electrolyte flow rate and external drawing current. The model developed here provides a useful tool for building the structure–property–performance relationship of VRFB electrodes.

  13. Predicting state of charge of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles by extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and introduces a new nonlinear predictor and a novel battery model for estimating the state of charge (SoC) of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Many problems occur for a traditional SoC indicator, such as offset, drift and long term state divergence, therefore this paper proposes a technique based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) in order to overcome these problems. The underlying dynamic behavior of each cell is modeled using two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface and end). The SoC is determined from the voltage present on the bulk capacitor. In this new model, the value of the surface capacitor is constant, whereas the value of the bulk capacitor is not. Although the structure of the model, with two constant capacitors, has been previously reported for lithium-ion cells, this model can also be valid and reliable for lead-acid cells when used in conjunction with an EKF to estimate SoC (with a little variation). Measurements using real-time road data are used to compare the performance of conventional internal resistance (Rint) based methods for estimating SoC with those predicted from the proposed state estimation schemes. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the more traditional techniques, with accuracy in estimating the SoC within 3%

  14. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, XF; Zhao, X; Huang, K

    2015-04-15

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JIVIAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H-2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery. part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinfang; Zhao, Xuan; Huang, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated.

  16. The CHarged ANTIcounter for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Paglia, C.; Palladino, V.; Napolitano, M.; Saracino, G.; Roscilli, L.; Tagnani, D.

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN aims at the very challenging task of measuring with 10% relative error the Branching Ratio of the ultra-rare decay K + → π + v , which is expected to occur only in about 8 out of 10 11 kaon decays. This will be achieved by means of an intense hadron beam, an accurate kinematical reconstruction and a redundant veto system for identifying and suppressing all spurious events. In particular, beam induced background, caused by inelastic interactions of the hadron beam with the Si based detector which measures kaon momentum (the so called Gigatracker, GTK) can mimic the signal in case only one pion is detected downstream. To suppress this background we have designed the so called CHarged ANTIcounter (CHANTI) i.e. a series of six guard counters, to be operated in vacuum and covering a wide angular region downstream the last GTK station. CHANTI must have time resolution ∼ 1 ns, must be highly efficient in detecting charged particles and must cope with rates which in the inner part can...

  17. Charge-discharge mechanism of mechanically alloyed NiS used as a cathode in rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel sulfide (NiS) as a cathode material for a lithium rechargeable battery was charged and discharged at elevated temperature (80 deg. C) using a PEO solid polymer electrolyte. In order to synthesize a homogeneous NiS phase, very fine nickel metal powder was ball milled with sulfur powder for 12 h under argon gas. We found using ex-situ XRD measurements that the NiS cathode active material was transformed into other phases such as Ni3S2, nickel and sulfur during discharge. The initial discharge capacity of the NiS positive electrode was 580 mAh/g NiS at 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+ with PEO electrolyte. It has good cycling properties, retaining 93% of the initial discharge capacity even after 200 cycles with a PEO solid polymer electrolyte

  18. Thailand's solar white elephants: an analysis of 15 yr of solar battery charging programmes in northern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of decentralised renewable energy technologies to provide rural electrification in developing countries has been a common topic of analysis and policy debate for more than two decades. Unfortunately, a lack of empirical evidence about the field performance of these technologies is a significant barrier to making sound policy decisions about them. Compounded by minimal information sharing between stakeholders, this situation has frequently allowed duplication of inefficient policies. This issue is addressed here by providing empirical evidence gathered from field visits and interviews about the largest government subsidised solar battery charging programme in the world. This analysis highlights the different policies of departments responsible and discusses them with specific attention to their technical, social and economic components. Field study results from over 50 villages in the north of Thailand suggest about 60 per cent of these systems are no longer operational. Many of the technical failures observed are attributed to social factors, as well as flawed implementation strategies

  19. Operating experience and aging-seismic assessment of battery chargers and inverters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an assessment of the aging of battery chargers and inverters which are vital components of the nuclear power plant electrical safety system, and was conducted under the auspices of the NRC Nuclear Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The objectives of this program are to identify concerns related to the aging and service wear of equipment operating in nuclear power plants, to assess their possible impact on plant safety, to identify effective inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods, and to recommend suitable maintenance practices for mitigating aging-related concerns and diminish the rate of degradation due to aging and service wear. Battery charger and inverter design and materials of construction are reviewed to identify age-sensitive components. Operational and accidental stressors are determined, and their effect on promoting aging degradation are assessed. Variations in plant electrical designs, and system and plant level impacts have been studied. Failure modes, mechanisms, and causes have been reviewed from operating experiences and existing data banks. The study has also considered the seismic correlation of age-degraded components within battery chargers and inverters. The performance indicators that can be monitored to assess component deterioration due to aging or other accidental stressors are identified. Conforming with the NPAR strategy as outlined in the program plan, the study also includes a review of current standards and guides, maintenance programs, and research activities pertaining to nuclear power plant safety-related battery chargers and inverters

  20. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  1. Modeling and analysis of LiFePO4/Carbon battery considering two-phase transition during galvanostatic charging/discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Reduced order model for LiFePO4 particles considering two-phase transition • Model validation with experimental results of current and voltage • Analysis of two-phase transition and path dependence - Abstract: Batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode and carbon anode have shown various advantages over those with other chemistries, but the plateau and path dependence caused by the two-phase transition taking place during charging and discharging make it difficult to estimate the states of battery. Thus, based on electrochemical principles we propose a new reduced order model that has been validated against experimental data obtained during galvanostatic charging/discharging. The mechanism of the two-phase transition during lithiation and delithiation in LFP particles is approximated using a shrinking corewith a moving interface between the two phases and is described by modified diffusion equations that take into account multiple layers formed within LFP particles. The shrinking core model is integrated into a cell model developed previously, which is used to analyze the path dependence at different load profiles. The results show that the model is capable of representing the characteristics of the plateau and path dependence. Particularly, the available charge at a certain State of Charge (SOC) varies dependent upon paths to reach the SOC. When an initial SOC is reached by discharging, the cell can accept more charges during charging, while when an initial SOC is reached by charging, more charge will be available during discharging

  2. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB. PMID:25191695

  3. Design of Charging and Discharging Circuit for Batteries%一种蓄电池充放电电路的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大为; 张凯; 万道军; 毕涛

    2014-01-01

    Using the principle of capacitor filter stabilizing voltage circuit, main circuit of battery charging and discharging are designed, and control circuit is designed by using of relay switch principle to realize the choice of different charging voltage. In order to strengthen the safety of the battery in charging and discharging circuit, a protection circuit of voltage limiting and current limiting is designed. According to the basic principle, properties, methods of battery charging and discharging, a kind of simple, practical charge and discharge circuit is designed, which has the excellent reversibility and stability.%应用电容滤波稳压电路原理设计蓄电池充放电主电路,再应用继电器开关原理设计出控制电路,实现不同充电电压的选择。为了加强蓄电池充放电电路的安全性能,设计出一种限压、限流的保护电路。根据蓄电池充放电的基本原理、特性、方法等,设计出一种简易、实用的充放电电路,具有良好的可逆性和稳定性。

  4. Influence of memory effect on the state-of-charge estimation of large-format Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Jiulin; Zheng, Jianming; Jiang, Jiuchun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we systematically investigated the influence of the memory effect of LiFePO4 cathodes in large-format full batteries. The electrochemical performance of the electrodes used in these batteries was also investigated separately in half-cells to reveal their intrinsic properties. We noticed that the memory effect of LiFePO4/graphite cells depends not only on the maximum state of charge reached during the memory writing process, but is also affected by the depth of discharge reached during the memory writing process. In addition, the voltage deviation in a LiFePO4/graphite full battery is more complex than in a LiFePO4/Li half-cell, especially for a large-format battery, which exhibits a significant current variation in the region near its terminals. Therefore, the memory effect should be taken into account in advanced battery management systems to further extend the long-term cycling stabilities of Li-ion batteries using LiFePO4 cathodes.

  5. Comparison of Nonlinear Filtering Methods for Estimating the State of Charge of Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation is of great significance for the lithium-ion battery to ensure its safety operation and to prevent it from overcharging or overdischarging. To achieve reliable SoC estimation for Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery cell, three filtering methods have been compared and evaluated. A main contribution of this study is that a general three-step model-based battery SoC estimation scheme has been proposed. It includes the processes of battery data measurement, parametric modeling, and model-based SoC estimation. With the proposed general scheme, multiple types of model-based SoC estimators have been developed and evaluated for battery management system application. The detailed comparisons on three advanced adaptive filter techniques, which include extend Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, and adaptive extend Kalman filter (AEKF, have been implemented with a Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model-based SoC estimation approach with AEKF algorithm, which uses the covariance matching technique, performs well with good accuracy and robustness; the mean absolute error of the SoC estimation is within 1% especially with big SoC initial error.

  6. Demand Profile Study of Battery Electric Vehicle under Different Charging Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guang Ya; Træholt, Chresten;

    2012-01-01

    An increased research on electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) deals with their flexible use in electric power grids. Several research projects on smart grids and electric mobility are now looking into realistic models representing the behavior of an EV during charging...

  7. Monitoring and control system for the charging of batteries in photovoltaic applications; Sistema para monitorizar y controlar la carga de baterias en aplicaciones fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega S, Cesar A; Pacheco A, Maria Jojutla; Orozco V, Jaime A; Cristin V, Miguel A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The appropriate monitoring and control of the charging of lead-acid (LAB) batteries is an increasing necessity in an industry that demands systems with low maintenance costs and high availability. The problem of extending the batteries useful life becomes more complex when the batteries are charged through photovoltaic panels. The purpose of the present article is to offer the description of the system for monitoring and control for the charging of batteries developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). This system performs a continuous monitoring of the charging state of the battery and of the main operation parameters. With the extracted information of the data, the fine tuning algorithm control can be made. The data are acquired in a personal computer through a serial connection. Once stored, they are presented to the user in a graphical way so that they can be analyzed. [Spanish] El adecuado monitoreo y control de carga de baterias plomo-acido (BPA) es una necesidad creciente en una industria que demanda sistemas con bajos costos de mantenimiento y alta disponibilidad. El problema de extender la vida util de las baterias se vuelve mas complejo cuando las baterias son cargadas a traves de paneles fotovoltaicos. La intencion del presente articulo es ofrecer la descripcion del sistema para monitoreo y control de carga de baterias desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Este sistema realiza un monitoreo continuo del estado de carga de la bateria y de los principales parametros de operacion. Con la informacion extraida de los datos, se puede hacer la sintonizacion fina del algoritmo de control. Los datos se adquieren en una computadora personal a traves de un enlace serial. Una vez almacenados, se presentan al usuario de manera grafica para que puedan ser analizados.

  8. Analysis of the Deposit Layer from Electrolyte Side Reaction on the Anode of the Pouch Type Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries: The Effect of State of Charge and Charge Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Raising the battery cycling potential increased the rate of side reaction. • Growth of deposit layer thickness at the electrode/electrolyte interface at high SOC. • A significant amount of lithium was consumed in forming the deposit layer. • Some of the lithium were “trapped” in the graphite after the discharge cycle. - Abstract: The formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the surface of the anode electrode of a lithium ion battery prevents further electrolyte decomposition reaction. However, at certain battery operating conditions, the SEI breakdown leading to more electrolyte decomposition reactions that form several species on the anode electrode surface. This paper focuses on the effect of battery potential and charge rate on the decomposition side reaction on the anode electrode of a lithium ion polymer battery, as a result of the breakdown of the SEI layer. The results from this study indicate that raising the state of charge (SOC) increases the rate of the electrolyte decomposition side reaction that resulted in formation of a thick deposit layer at the electrolyte/electrolyte interface. This deposit layer contains lithium that can no longer participate in the reversible electrochemical reaction. In addition, at high cycling potential and charge rates the amount of lithium in the graphite after complete cell discharge increased due to the entrapment of lithium in the graphite. The amount of irreversible capacity loss for the batteries cycled at high potential and current correlates with the amount of trapped lithium in the graphite and the growth of the deposit layer thickness at the electrode/electrolyte interface

  9. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Vasugi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged or discharged thus prolonging its life. The charge/discharge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. The project has been tested according its operational purposes. Maximum power rating of the experimented solar charge controller is 100W according battery capacities. Cost effective solar charge controller has been designed and implemented to have efficient system and much longer battery lifetime. The dc output is given to inverter and then it is supplied to loads. This method is very cheap and cost effective.

  10. State of charge estimation for pulse discharge of a LiFePO4 battery by a revised Ah counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A revised Ah counting method is proposed for SOC estimation. • The new method can capture the dynamic response of SOC during pulse discharge. • The method accuracy for SOC estimation is evaluated by different pulses. • The error of the estimated discharge time with the method is less than 3.8%. - Abstract: Tracing the battery’s state of charge (SOC) accurately in real-time is a vital requirement for safe and reliable battery management. This paper proposes a revised Ah counting method for SOC estimation by correlating the available capacity with the amount of dischargeable lithium (Li) in the electrode particles. The revised Ah counting method can capture the dynamic responses of SOC during the pulse discharge operations. The calculated discharge capacities for a LiPFeO4 battery with the revised Ah counting method are in close agreement with the measured values giving the maximum error by 1.1%. The changes in the unavailable Li in a carbon particle are analyzed. The results show that the variation of unavailable capacity is a gradual process during the pulse discharge. The accuracy of the traditional Ah counting and the revised Ah counting for SOC estimation are evaluated with the constant current pulse and the variable current pulses at different environment temperatures. The results indicate that the revised Ah counting method performs better synchronism than that of traditional Ah counting method. The maximum error of the estimated discharge time with the proposed method is less than 3.8% compared to the experimental measurement

  11. Charged-Particle Bean Transport for Ion Trapping Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichle, Brian W.; Wingfield, Love M.

    2001-11-01

    Electrostatic Einsel lenses are being developed for beam transport for use in two distinct metastable atomic lifetime experiments using two separate rf-ion traps. Each system has been modeled using Simion software, and the lenses have been designed from commercially available eV-parts. The first application is part of an electron gun source. Electrons are produced by a conventional dispenser cathode and are transported 25 cm to the trap. The design goal is to create a beam divergence to fully illuminate the active trap volume, and to provide tunable electron energies from 50 to 500 eV. The second application is to transport ions 1 m from a laser ablation ion source to an rf ion trap. Laser ablation involves essentially boiling ions from a solid target with intense laser pulses. Here, the design goal is to maximize flux by maximizing the solid angle of acceptance to the trap, minimize radial velocity, and minimize the spread in axial velocity. Development of a laser ablation ion source external to the trap volume will allow a very low base pressure in the trap region, which will make possible the study of species with lifetimes approaching 1 s. In addition, laser ablation will produce intermediately-charged ions from non-conductive solid targets.

  12. SR90, strontium shaped-charge critical ionization velocity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1986 the authors carried out an experiment to test Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect in free space, using the first high-explosive shaped charge with a conical liner of strontium metal. The release, made at 540 km altitude at dawn twilight, was aimed at 48 degree to B. The background electron density was 1.5 x 104 cm -3. A faint field-aligned Sr+ ion streak with tip velocity of 2.6 km s-1 was observed from two optical sites. Using two calibration methods, they calculate that between 4.5 x 1020 and 2 x 1021 ions were visible. They have calculated an ionization time constant of 1,920 s for Sr from the solar UV spectrum and ionization cross section, which combined with a computer simulation of the injection predicts 1.7 x 1021 solar UV ions in the low-velocity part of the ion streak. Thus all the observed ions are from solar UV ionization of the slow (less than critical) velocity portion of the neutral jet. The observed neutral Sr velocity distribution and computer simulations indicate that 2 x 1021 solar UV ions would have been created from the fast (greater than critical) part of the jet. They would have been more diffuse and were not observed. Using this fact, they estimate that any CIV ions created were less than 1021. They conclude that future Sr CIV free space experiments should be conducted below the UV shadow height and in much larger background plasma density

  13. SR90, strontium shaped-charge critical ionization velocity experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescott, Eugene M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans; Swift, Daniel W.; Valenzuela, Arnoldo; Rees, David

    1990-01-01

    In May 1986 an experiment was performed to test Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect in free space, using the first high explosive shaped charge with a conical liner of strontium metal. The release, made at 540 km altitude at dawn twilight, was aimed at 48 deg to B. The background electron density was 1.5 x 10(exp 4) cu cm. A faint field-aligned Sr(+) ion streak with tip velocity of 2.6 km/s was observed from two optical sites. Using two calibration methods, it was calculated that between 4.5 x 10(exp 20) and 2 x 10(exp 21) ions were visible. An ionization time constant of 1920 s was calculated for Sr from the solar UV spectrum and ionization cross section which combined with a computer simulation of the injection predicts 1.7 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions in the low-velocity part of the ion streak. Thus all the observed ions are from solar UV ionization of the slow (less than critical) velocity portion of the neutral jet. The observed neutral Sr velocity distribution and computer simulations indicate that 2 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions would have been created from the fast (greater than critical) part of the jet. They would have been more diffuse, and were not observed. Using this fact it was estimated that any CIV ions created were less than 10(exp 21). It was concluded that future Sr CIV free space experiments should be conducted below the UV shadow height and in much larger background plasma density.

  14. Understanding the Charging Mechanism of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using Spatially Resolved Operando X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Gorlin, Y.; Patel, M.U.M.; Freiberg, A; He, Q.; Piana, M.; Tromp, M.; Gasteiger, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of conventional cars with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce future carbon dioxide emissions. One possible way to facilitate widespread acceptance of BEVs is to replace the lithium-ion batteries used in existing BEVs with a lithium-sulfur battery, which operates using a cheap and abundant raw material with a high specific energy density. These significant theoretical advantages of lithium-sulfur batteries over the lithium-ion technology ...

  15. Explicit formulae for the internal stress in spherical particles of active material within lithium ion battery cathodes during charging and discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Closed form expression proposed for Li ion concentration in a spherical particle. • This solution for fast (dis)charging depends explicitly on time and radius. • Explicit internal stress solution derived further is useful in design calculations. - Abstract: The fundamental process underlying the operation of lithium ion batteries is the diffusion of charge-carrying ions through the electrolyte that separates the anode from the cathode, and the reversible insertion of lithium ions into the host material’s crystal structure (intercalation and de-intercalation). Alongside the principal electrochemical consequences of this process, mechanical phenomena that accompany (de)intercalation are of fundamental significance for deformation and fragmentation of the active materials, since it is these phenomena that ultimately determine the battery structural integrity and durability. This article presents a sequentially coupled analytical treatment of the transient diffusion and stress analysis (eigenstrain) problem related to the lithiation and de-lithiation processes at the level of an individual spherical secondary particle of active material. Explicit closed form approximate solutions are derived for the stresses that arise within the particles during fast charging. They provide a firm basis for the assessment of the charging conditions influence on the internal stress states and the effects on battery damage, mechanical integrity and durability

  16. Estimation method of state-of-charge for lithium-ion battery used in hybrid electric vehicles based on variable structure extended kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Ma, Zilin; Tang, Gongyou; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Nong

    2016-03-01

    Since the main power source of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) is supplied by the power battery, the predicted performance of power battery, especially the state-of-charge(SOC) estimation has attracted great attention in the area of HEV. However, the value of SOC estimation could not be greatly precise so that the running performance of HEV is greatly affected. A variable structure extended kalman filter(VSEKF)-based estimation method, which could be used to analyze the SOC of lithium-ion battery in the fixed driving condition, is presented. First, the general lower-order battery equivalent circuit model(GLM), which includes column accumulation model, open circuit voltage model and the SOC output model, is established, and the off-line and online model parameters are calculated with hybrid pulse power characteristics(HPPC) test data. Next, a VSEKF estimation method of SOC, which integrates the ampere-hour(Ah) integration method and the extended Kalman filter(EKF) method, is executed with different adaptive weighting coefficients, which are determined according to the different values of open-circuit voltage obtained in the corresponding charging or discharging processes. According to the experimental analysis, the faster convergence speed and more accurate simulating results could be obtained using the VSEKF method in the running performance of HEV. The error rate of SOC estimation with the VSEKF method is focused in the range of 5% to 10% comparing with the range of 20% to 30% using the EKF method and the Ah integration method. In Summary, the accuracy of the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion battery cell and the pack of lithium-ion battery system, which is obtained utilizing the VSEKF method has been significantly improved comparing with the Ah integration method and the EKF method. The VSEKF method utilizing in the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion pack of HEV can be widely used in practical driving conditions.

  17. Effects of state of charge on the degradation of LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite batteries during accelerated storage test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yong [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); He, Yan-Bing; Qian, Kun [Engineering Laboratory for Next Generation Power and Energy Storage Batteries, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li, Baohua, E-mail: libh@mail.sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Engineering Laboratory for Next Generation Power and Energy Storage Batteries, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wang, Xindong [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Miao, Cui; Kang, Feiyu [Engineering Laboratory for Next Generation Power and Energy Storage Batteries, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Degradation of LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite batteries under different state of charge at 55 °C is investigate. • Side reactions caused by self-discharge are the main reason for performance fade during storage. • The detailed degradation mechanism is proven by post-mortem analysis. • Increased electrode resistance in LiFePO{sub 4} cathode suggests that side reactions also happen at positive electrode. - Abstract: In this paper, the degradation of LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite batteries during 10 months of storage under different temperatures and states of charge (SOCs) is studied. The effects of SOC during storage process are systematically investigated using electrochemical methods and post-mortem analysis. The results show that at elevated temperature of 55 °C, higher stored SOC results in more significant increase in bulk resistance (R{sub b}) and charge-transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) of full battery, whereas the rate-discharge capability of stored battery is unchanged. The side reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface caused by self-discharge are the main reasons for the performance fading during storage. For LiFePO{sub 4} cathode, long-time storage does not influence the framework structure under various SOCs. The existence of little irreversible capacity loss and impedance increase indicates that side reactions also occur at the positive electrode. For graphite anode, only a little capacity loss is found upon storage. There is a significant increase in impedance and a small amount of Fe deposition on graphite anode after storage at 100% SOC and 55 °C. The lithium ion loss arises from side reactions taking place at the graphite anode, which is responsible for the capacity degradation of battery during the storage process. XPS analysis confirms that a deposit layer composed of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and LiF is formed on the surface of anode.

  18. Characterisation of charge and discharge behaviour of lithium ion batteries with olivine based cathode active material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscher, Michael A.; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen University, Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), 52066 Aachen (Germany); Vetter, Jens [BMW Group, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    This paper gives insight to the physical processes taking part during the two-phase transition in lithium intercalation compounds. The behaviour of olivine based electrodes is in the special focus of this work. These electrodes exhibit phase juxtaposition within the electrode particles over a wide state of charge (SOC) range. Measurements were made to explore effects related to the formation of distinct phase sequences within the particles. Asymmetric charge characteristics, a load history dependency of the internal resistance and a voltage effect related to the disappearance of certain phase regions (the later on called vanishing phase effect) were identified. Moreover, these measurements give evidence to the existence of stable phase regions inside the electrode active material. An intuitive model is given to visualize the phase regions within spherical olivine particles. Therefore an analytical approach is developed in order to take the geometry of the particles, the ion permeability as well as the size distribution of the particles in consideration. According to the developed approach and the obtained measurement results, an enhanced cell equivalent electrical circuit is evaluated, considering phase shell development effects. (author)

  19. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.

  20. Graphite and fiberglass additives for improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycle life of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciano, J.; Sanchez, A.; Trinidad, F. [Research and Innovation Center, Exide Technologies, Autovia A-2, Km 42, E-19200 Azuqueca de Henares (Spain); Hollenkamp, A.F. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Vic. 3168 (Australia)

    2006-08-25

    In order to accommodate regenerative braking energy input in hybrid and mild hybrid vehicles while maintaining boosting power at high rates of discharge, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries must operate permanently at partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) conditions. As a consequence, new failure modes appear, e.g., irreversible sulfation in negative plates, that have to be overcome. In this way, work has been done to apply some solutions like improving charge acceptance in this 'sulfated medium'. Several batches of 6V 20Ah AGM VRLA batteries with spiral cell design have been assembled and tested, each batch containing novel additives in the negative active material (NAM). It has been observed that the addition of a sufficient amount of expanded graphite significantly improves cycle life under PSoC conditions. Moreover, life duration is also extended, although to a lesser extent, by using a novel fiberglass which increases surface area of NAM. (author)

  1. Graphite and fiberglass additives for improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycle life of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.; Trinidad, F.; Hollenkamp, A. F.

    In order to accommodate regenerative braking energy input in hybrid and mild hybrid vehicles while maintaining boosting power at high rates of discharge, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries must operate permanently at partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) conditions. As a consequence, new failure modes appear, e.g., irreversible sulfation in negative plates, that have to be overcome. In this way, work has been done to apply some solutions like improving charge acceptance in this "sulfated medium". Several batches of 6 V 20 Ah AGM VRLA batteries with spiral cell design have been assembled and tested, each batch containing novel additives in the negative active material (NAM). It has been observed that the addition of a sufficient amount of expanded graphite significantly improves cycle life under PSoC conditions. Moreover, life duration is also extended, although to a lesser extent, by using a novel fiberglass which increases surface area of NAM.

  2. 大电流电动汽车电池充电电流电压反馈系统设计%High-current Electric Vehicle Battery Charging System’s Current and Voltage Sampling Circuit Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章旦旸; 秦会斌

    2015-01-01

    针对电动汽车厂家研发了电动汽车电池充电系统,设计了一种大电流低电压电池充电系统。系统采用了PIC16F877A单片机作为电子控制单元核心,对规格为50 A、3.7 V的电池组进行充电。重点对电流电压采样电路进行了设计和研究。通过建立采样电路的仿真模型。并用实际电压电流数据对本采样系统进行了验证。实验证明,系统提出的电流电压采样具有较高的精度、线性度,且能满足长期稳定运行的实际需求。%For electric car manufacturers, an electric vehicle battery charging system is developed in the paper, which is a high-current low-voltage battery charging system. The system uses a PIC16F877A micro controller as the core of the electronic control unit to charge the 50 A, 3.7 V rechargeable battery packs. The paper focuses on the current and voltage sampling circuit design and research, as well as sampling circuit simulation. Actual voltage and current data of the sampling system is showed to verify the validity. Experiments show that both current and voltage sampling system can work with a good linearity and precision, and can also satisfy the need of long-term stable operation.

  3. A data-driven adaptive state of charge and power capability joint estimator of lithium-ion polymer battery used in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate SoC (state of charge) and SoP (state of power capability) joint estimator is the most significant techniques for electric vehicles. This paper makes two contributions to the existing literature. (1) A data-driven parameter identification method has been proposed for accurately capturing the real-time characteristic of the battery through the recursive least square algorithm, where the parameter of the battery model is updated with the real-time measurements of battery current and voltage at each sampling interval. (2) An adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithm based multi-state joint estimator has been developed in accordance with the relationship of the battery SoC and its power capability. Note that the SoC and SoP can be predicted accurately against the degradation and various operating environments of the battery through the data-driven parameter identification method. The robustness of the proposed data-driven joint estimator has been verified by different degradation states of lithium-ion polymer battery cells. The result indicates that the estimation errors of voltage and SoC are less than 1% even if given a large erroneous initial state of joint estimator, which makes the SoP estimate more accurate and reliable for the electric vehicles application. - Highlights: • A data-driven parameter identification method is developed by RLS algorithm. • An adaptive multi-state joint estimator of the battery is developed by AEKF algorithm. • A data-driven SoC and SoP joint estimator is developed with the real-time measurement. • Robustness of the joint estimator is verified by different aging states of LiPB cells

  4. State of charge estimation of Li-ion batteries in an electric vehicle based on a radial-basis-function neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The on-line estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of the batteries is important for the reliable running of the pure electric vehicle in practice. Because a nonlinear feature exists in the batteries and the radial-basis-function neural network (RBF NN) has good characteristics to solve the nonlinear problem, a practical method for the SOC estimation of batteries based on the RBF NN with a small number of input variables and a simplified structure is proposed. Firstly, in this paper, the model of on-line SOC estimation with the RBF NN is set. Secondly, four important factors for estimating the SOC are confirmed based on the contribution analysis method, which simplifies the input variables of the RBF NN and enhances the real-time performance of estimation. Finally, the pure electric buses with LiFePO4 Li-ion batteries running during the period of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo are considered as the experimental object. The performance of the SOC estimation is validated and evaluated by the battery data from the electric vehicle

  5. Challenges and requirements of charge state monitoring of lithium ion batteries; Anforderungen und Herausforderungen bei der Zustandsbestimmung von Lithium-Ionen Batterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Gerschler, Jochen B.; Sinhuber, Philipp [RWTH Aachen (Germany). ISEA

    2010-07-01

    Lithium-Ion batteries are a keystone for electro mobility concepts. Energy and power density as well as cycle lifetimes are superior to all other currently commercially available rechargeable battery technologies. However, generalised statements are difficult because of a large variety of different electrode materials and electrolyte which are used in commercial products. A special feature of all materials is the fact, that no standard side reaction is available which can take up surplus charging current without destroying the battery cell. If a cell is overcharged, the surplus current goes right away into an ageing process and may result in a disintegration of the electrode materials and finally in a thermal runaway of the cells. The huge variety in material combinations as well as the missing side reaction have a strong impact on the determination of the state of function. Algorithms and concepts need to be adapted in every single case to the specific properties of the used materials. Further more, the performance of the battery system is determined by the weakest cell in the battery system. Therefore supervision and an analysis of each cell are necessary. (orig.)

  6. Enhanced closed loop State of Charge estimator for lithium-ion batteries based on Extended Kalman Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Based on a general model valid in full range of SOC considering varied dynamics. • Integration of an accurate OCV model in EKF taking into account hysteresis effect. • Experimental validation with different current profiles: pulses, EV and lift. • Validated with specifically designed profile demanding accurate OCV modeling. - Abstract: The accurate State of Charge (SOC) estimation in a Li-ion battery requires a suitable model of the cell behavior. In this work an enhanced closed loop estimator based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is proposed, considering a precise model of the cell dynamics valid for different current profiles and SOCs, and a complete model of the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) which takes into account the hysteresis influence. The employed model and proposed estimator are validated with experimental results obtained from the response of a 40 Ah NMC Li-ion cell to several current profiles. These tests include current pulses, FUDS driving cycles, residential lift profiles, and specially designed profiles which demand an accurate modeling of the transitions between OCV boundaries. In each case, it is demonstrated that the enhanced model can reduce the estimation error nearly by half compared to an estimator ignoring the hysteresis effect. Furthermore, the good performance of the cell dynamics model allows an accurate and stable estimation over different conditions

  7. Lead-acid batteries for partial-state-of-charge applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprakash, B.; Gaffoor, S. A.; Shukla, A. K.

    2 V/40 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells have been constructed with negative plates employing carbon black as well as an admixture of carbon black + fumed silica as additives in negative active material for partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) applications. Electrical performance of such cells is compared with conventional 2 V/40 Ah VRLA cells for PSoC operation. Active material utilization has been found to be higher for carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates while formation is faster for cells with carbon-black mixed negative plates. Both faradaic efficiency and percentage capacity delivered have been found to be higher for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates. However, a high self-discharge rate is observed for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates.

  8. Lead-acid batteries for partial-state-of-charge applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariprakash, B. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Gaffoor, S.A. [NED Energy Ltd., 6-3-1109/1 Navbharat Chambers, Raj Bhavan Road, Hyderabad 500 082 (India); Shukla, A.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)

    2009-06-01

    2 V/40 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells have been constructed with negative plates employing carbon black as well as an admixture of carbon black + fumed silica as additives in negative active material for partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) applications. Electrical performance of such cells is compared with conventional 2 V/40 Ah VRLA cells for PSoC operation. Active material utilization has been found to be higher for carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates while formation is faster for cells with carbon-black mixed negative plates. Both faradaic efficiency and percentage capacity delivered have been found to be higher for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates. However, a high self-discharge rate is observed for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates. (author)

  9. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Quiroga-González; Jürgen Carstensen; Helmut Föll

    2013-01-01

    Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001%) over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity...

  10. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, R. [CES - Consulting and Engineering Services, Heidelberg (Germany); Cramer, G.; Toenges, K.H. [SMA Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these `Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)` have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  11. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these 'Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)' have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  12. Study on Charging Load Modeling and Coordinated Charging of Electric Vehicles Under Battery Swapping Modes%换电模式下电动汽车电池充电负荷建模与有序充电研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗卓伟; 胡泽春; 宋永华; 徐智威; 贾龙

    2012-01-01

    为了建立换电模式下电动汽车电池充电负荷及优化模型,对2种电动汽车换电模式即充换电模式和集中充电统一配送模式的结构、运营流程进行了分析.在满足用户换电需求的约束下,基于分时电价机制,提出考虑2种换电方式的以总充电费用最小为目标的第1阶段优化模型.第2阶段优化以第1阶段求取的最小充电费用为总充电费用的上限,以日负荷曲线波动最小为目标.以中国2020年充电负荷为例进行计算,对不同类型电动汽车采用不同的换电方式,并将换电模式与充电模式的充电负荷进行比较.计算结果表明,换电模式下无序充电情景峰荷较充电模式时增加较小,有序充电情景电网峰荷将不会增加,所提出的换电模式下有序充电模型能够有效减少充电费用及日负荷曲线波动.%To build the charging load calculation and optimization model under the battery swapping modes of electric vehicles (Evs), the structure and operation of two kinds of battery swapping modes, I.e. charging-swapping modes and centralized charging unified distribution modes, were analyzed. Then taken the constrains of satisfying the battery swapping needs of customers, the first stage coordinated charging formulation considering both the battery swap modes to minimize charging cost based on the time of use (TOU) power price mechanism were proposed. The peak load obtained from the first stage were set as the upper bound of the second stage optimization. In the second stage, the objective is to smooth the daily load curve fluctuation. Case studies calculate the charging loads of Evs in the year of 2020 in China, different kinds of battery swapping modes were matched for different kinds of Evs. The results were compared with those of the plug-in charging mode. The calculation results show that, the peak load under battery swapping modes increases less than the plug-in modes in the uncoordinated charging scenario

  13. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  14. On the complex ageing characteristics of high-power LiFePO4/graphite battery cells cycled with high charge and discharge currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groot, Jens; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina;

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are known to undergo complex ageing processes, where the operating conditions have a profound and non-linear effect on both calendar life and cycle life. This is especially a challenge for the automotive industry, where the requirements on product lifetime and reliability are...... demanding. The aim of the present work is to quantify the ageing in terms of capacity fade and impedance growth as a function of operating conditions typical to high-power automotive applications; high charge and discharge rate, elevated temperatures and wide state-of-charge windows. The cycle life of 34...

  15. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in high capacity and low density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and molecular layer MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using MLD to examine how surface modification could stabilize silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries, researchers discovered a new reaction precursor that leads to a flexible surface coating that accommodates volumetric expansion of silicon electrodes.

  16. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  17. Charge carrier mobility in phthalocyanines: Experiment and quantum chemical calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena

    Rijeka : InTech, 2012 - (Tada, T.), s. 159-174 ISBN 978-953-51-0372-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : phtalocyanines * DFT * charge mobility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.intechopen.com/books/quantum-chemistry-molecules-for-innovations

  18. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Maria; Versolato, Oscar; Windberger, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H2 partial pressure of about 10−15 mbar...

  19. Understanding the Charging Mechanism of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using Spatially Resolved Operando X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Gorlin; M.U.M. Patel; A. Freiberg; Q. He; M. Piana; M. Tromp; H.A. Gasteiger

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of conventional cars with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce future carbon dioxide emissions. One possible way to facilitate widespread acceptance of BEVs is to replace the lithium-ion batteries used in existing BEVs with a lithium-sulfur batte

  20. Online state of charge and model parameters estimation of the LiFePO4 battery in electric vehicles using multiple adaptive forgetting factors recursive least-squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Van-Huan; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Lim, KaiChin; See, Khay Wai; Zhang, Peng; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the contradiction between simplicity and accuracy of the LiFePO4 battery states estimation in the electric vehicles (EVs) battery management system (BMS). State of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) are normally obtained from estimating the open circuit voltage (OCV) and the internal resistance of the equivalent electrical circuit model of the battery, respectively. The difficulties of the parameters estimation arise from their complicated variations and different dynamics which require sophisticated algorithms to simultaneously estimate multiple parameters. This, however, demands heavy computation resources. In this paper, we propose a novel technique which employs a simplified model and multiple adaptive forgetting factors recursive least-squares (MAFF-RLS) estimation to provide capability to accurately capture the real-time variations and the different dynamics of the parameters whilst the simplicity in computation is still retained. The validity of the proposed method is verified through two standard driving cycles, namely Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and the New European Driving Cycle. The proposed method yields experimental results that not only estimated the SOC with an absolute error of less than 2.8% but also characterized the battery model parameters accurately.

  1. Instantaneous charge state of Uranium projectiles in fully ionized plasmas from energy loss experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Roberto; Casas, David

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous charge state of uranium ions traveling through a fully ionized hydrogen plasma has been theoretically studied and compared with one of the first energy loss experiments in plasmas, carried out at GSI-Darmstadt by Hoffmann \\textit{et al.} in the 90's. For this purpose, two different methods to estimate the instantaneous charge state of the projectile have been employed: (1) rate equations using ionization and recombination cross sections, and (2) equilibrium charge state formulas for plasmas. Also, the equilibrium charge state has been obtained using these ionization and recombination cross sections, and compared with the former equilibrium formulas. The equilibrium charge state of projectiles in plasmas is not always reached, it depends mainly on the projectile velocity and the plasma density. Therefore, a non-equilibrium or an instantaneous description of the projectile charge is necessary. The charge state of projectile ions cannot be measured, except after exiting the target, and experime...

  2. Comparisons of Modeling and State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Order and Integral Order Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxin Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly manage lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles (EVs, it is essential to build the battery model and estimate the state of charge (SOC. In this paper, the fractional order forms of Thevenin and partnership for a new generation of vehicles (PNGV models are built, of which the model parameters including the fractional orders and the corresponding resistance and capacitance values are simultaneously identified based on genetic algorithm (GA. The relationships between different model parameters and SOC are established and analyzed. The calculation precisions of the fractional order model (FOM and integral order model (IOM are validated and compared under hybrid test cycles. Finally, extended Kalman filter (EKF is employed to estimate the SOC based on different models. The results prove that the FOMs can simulate the output voltage more accurately and the fractional order EKF (FOEKF can estimate the SOC more precisely under dynamic conditions.

  3. Charge and electronic states of cuprite: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung

    The bonding characteristics of cuprite have been studied by the using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) method. The low-order structure factors are closely related to the valence electron density, and the CBED is one of the most accurate methods of measuring the low order structure factors. The multipole model is used for converting the structure factors into charge density. The multipole expansion takes into account non-spherical valence electron density due to atomic bonding based on the crystal symmetry. The charge transfer from copper to oxygen is determined from the multipole fitting parameters. The hybridization state between 4s-3d orbitals of copper is also estimated. Electronic states of CU2O are investigated by studying the fine structure of the electron-energy loss spectrum (EELS). The cross section of the near edge structure is proportional to the density of state times an atomic transition site-projected matrix element which generally varies slowly in the region of interest. Both the fine structure of Cu- L2'3 and O-K of Cu2O are significantly different from those of CuO, which shows the sensitivity of EELS fine structure to the crystal bonding. Full-potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FLAPW) calculations have been used to compare experimental results with theory. The structure factors and bonding charge density are compared with the results obtained by the CBED method, and the density of states is compared with the EELS. The FLAPW method has also been used in the local density approximations CLDA) to calculate values of the mean inner Coulomb potential V 0 for Si, Ge and MgO. These values are compared with recent measurements by electron holography. The supercell calculations are performed for crystal slabs, so that the effects of different crystal orientations and surface structures on V0 can be evaluated.

  4. Clustering of settling charged particles in turbulence: theory and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Jiang; Nordsiek, Hansen; Shaw, Raymond A, E-mail: rashaw@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Atmospheric clouds, electrosprays and protoplanetary nebula (dusty plasma) contain electrically charged particles embedded in turbulent flows, often under the influence of an externally imposed, approximately uniform gravitational or electric force. We have developed a theoretical description of the dynamics of such systems of charged, sedimenting particles in turbulence, allowing radial distribution functions (RDFs) to be predicted for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions. The governing parameters are the particle Stokes number (particle inertial time scale relative to turbulence dissipation time scale), the Coulomb-turbulence parameter (ratio of Coulomb 'terminal' speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale) and the settling parameter (the ratio of the gravitational terminal speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale). The theory is compared to measured RDFs for water particles in homogeneous, isotropic air turbulence. The RDFs are obtained from particle positions measured in three dimensions using digital holography. The measurements verify the general theoretical expression, consisting of a power law increase in particle clustering due to particle response to dissipative turbulent eddies, modulated by an exponential electrostatic interaction term. Both terms are modified as a result of the gravitational diffusion-like term, and the role of 'gravity' is explored by imposing a macroscopic uniform electric field to create an enhanced, effective gravity.

  5. Clustering of settling charged particles in turbulence: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric clouds, electrosprays and protoplanetary nebula (dusty plasma) contain electrically charged particles embedded in turbulent flows, often under the influence of an externally imposed, approximately uniform gravitational or electric force. We have developed a theoretical description of the dynamics of such systems of charged, sedimenting particles in turbulence, allowing radial distribution functions (RDFs) to be predicted for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions. The governing parameters are the particle Stokes number (particle inertial time scale relative to turbulence dissipation time scale), the Coulomb-turbulence parameter (ratio of Coulomb 'terminal' speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale) and the settling parameter (the ratio of the gravitational terminal speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale). The theory is compared to measured RDFs for water particles in homogeneous, isotropic air turbulence. The RDFs are obtained from particle positions measured in three dimensions using digital holography. The measurements verify the general theoretical expression, consisting of a power law increase in particle clustering due to particle response to dissipative turbulent eddies, modulated by an exponential electrostatic interaction term. Both terms are modified as a result of the gravitational diffusion-like term, and the role of 'gravity' is explored by imposing a macroscopic uniform electric field to create an enhanced, effective gravity.

  6. Study of charge of the top quark in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Federič, Pavol

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of the top quark electric charge was carried out in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using 2.05 fb − 1 of data at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In units of the elementary electric charge, the measured top quark charge is 0.64 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.08 (syst.). This result strongly favours SM and excludes models with an exotic quark with charge − 4 / 3 instead of the top quark by more than 8 σ

  7. Charged Higgs boson searches and SemiConductor Tracker commissioning for the ATLAS experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohn, Bjarte Alsaker

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS (A Toroidal Lhc ApparatuS) experiment is one of four major experiments presently being installed at the upcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) outside Geneva. In this thesis we present work done on both the simulation of the ATLAS physics potential for a charged Higgs boson and the construction of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) - a subdetector within the ATLAS Inner Detector. The discovery of a charged Higgs boson w...

  8. Modeling of species and charge transport in Li-Ion Batteries based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Latz, A.; Zausch, J.; Iliev, O.

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the design of Li ion batteries the complex interplay of various physical phenomena in the active particles of the electrodes and in the electrolyte has to be balanced. The separate transport phenomena in the electrolyte and in the active particle as well as their coupling due to the electrochemical reactions at the interfaces between the electrode particles and the electrolyte will inuence the performance and the lifetime of a battery. Any modeling of the complex phenomena...

  9. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxin Fan; Hongwen He; Rui Xiong

    2011-01-01

    To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV) applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP) model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separat...

  10. Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prada, Eric; Di Domenico, D.; Creff, Yann; Bernard, J; Sauvant-Moynot, Valérie; Huet, François

    2012-01-01

    Derived from the Pseudo Two-Dimensional mathematical structure, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed in this paper. Embedding the porous electrode theory, this model integrates the main design parameters of Li-ion systems and its partial differential equations mathematical structure makes it a promising candidate for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified Single-...

  11. The In-Orbit Battery Reconditioning Experience On Board the Orion 1 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, S. A.; Daughtridge, S.; Johnson, P. J.; King, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    The Orion 1 spacecraft is a three-axis stabilized geostationary earth orbiting commercial communications satellite which was launched on November 29, 1994 aboard an Atlas II launch vehicle. The power subsystem is a dual bus, dual battery semi-regulated system with one 78 Ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen battery per bus. The batteries were built and tested by Eagle Picher Industries, Inc., of Joplin, MO and were integrated into the spacecraft by its manufacturer, Matra Marconi Space UK Ltd. This paper presents the results obtained during the first four in-orbit reconditioning cycles and compares the battery performance to ground test data. In addition, the on-station battery management strategy and implementation constraints are described. Battery performance has been nominal throughout each reconditioning cycle and subsequent eclipse season.

  12. Experiments and Researches on Production of Highly Charged Metallic Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), series of experiments have been done to produce metallic ion beams on the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source. By now, numerous methods have been tested, in which oven heating and MIVOC (Metallic Ion from Volatile Compounds) are both included.According to the experiments, the results show that oven heating is much better than MIVOC. In most of our

  13. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  14. 钒液流电池建模及充放电效率分析%Vanadium redox flow battery modeling and charge-discharge efficiency analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洁; 李广凯; 侯耀飞; 滕松; 贾超

    2013-01-01

    The energy storage plays an important role in wind power systems and solar photovoltaic power generation system.As a new energy storage battery,the vanadium redox flow battery (VRB)'s advantages and successful example demonstrate its broad prospects in storage marker.The operating principle of VRB was introduced.Through studying stack voltage,state of charge,intemal loss and dynamic response,VRB simulation model was set up.The constant current mode for VRB was studied in detail.At the end,the factors which influenced the charging and discharging efficiency of battery energy storage were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively.What's more,the optimal charging-discharging current was obtained.%储能系统是风力发电系统和太阳能光伏发电系统的重要组成部分,钒液流电池(VRB)作为一种新型储能电池,其优势及成功范例充分展示了它在储能市场的广阔前景.介绍了钒液流电池的工作原理,通过研究VRB的堆栈电压、荷电状态SOC、内部损耗和动态响应,构建了VRB仿真系统模型.详细研究了VRB恒电流充放电模式,定性、定量地分析了影响钒液流电池储能充放电效率的因素,并得出了最优充电电流.

  15. Thermal behavior simulation of Ni/MH battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DaHe; YANG Kai; CHEN Shi; WU Feng

    2009-01-01

    Thermal behavior of overcharged Ni/MH battery is studied with microcalorimeter. The battery Is in-stalled in a special device in a microcslorimeter with a quartz frequency thermometer. Quantity of heat and heat capacity of the battery charged at different state of charge (SOC) st different rates are meas-ured by the microcalorimeter. Based on a series of aseumputions, heat transfer equation is set up. Ex-pression of heat generation is attained by curve fitting instead of theoretical calculation. Thermal model is used to simulate thermal behavior of the battery in charging period, results of calculation and expe-riment match very well. The temperature distribution is non-uniform because the poor conductivity limits the heat transfer during charging process. It is difficult to greatly improve the heat conductivity of the battery because it is related to materials inside the battery including electrodes, separators and so on. Therefore, high rate charge should be avoided in actual use. It may cause some damage to the battery.

  16. Eight years of experience with valve-regulated batteries for automotive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Yasuda, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Horie, S.; Kanetsuki, K.

    In 1985, Matsushita developed a valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) battery with an expanded grid for automotive use. Since 1989, these batteries have been adopted as original equipment for cars. To take full advantage of their benefits, the batteries are installed away from the engine compartment, for example, in the boot of the car. Despite a steady market for automotive VRLA batteries, there are still a few problems that accompany their use. These must be solved in order to enhance reliability and improve customer satisfaction. The major areas of concern are life at high temperature, and recovery after over-discharge and long standing. Work in these areas is reported here.

  17. A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement in a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Engine on/off and Battery Charging Power Control Based on Driver Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Seulgi Lee; Jingyu Choi; Kiyun Jeong; Hyunsoo Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, driving data for various types of drivers are collected using a VIDE (virtual integrated driving environment), and a driver model is developed. To represent the driver tendencies quantitatively, the DDA (degree of driver aggression) is proposed based on fuzzy logic. DDA has a 0-1 value; the closer the DDA is to one, the more aggressive the driver. Using the DDA, an engine on/off and battery charging power control algorithm are developed to improve the fuel economy of a power-s...

  18. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  19. All Charged Up!--Experimenting with Static Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Build-up of static electricity happens readily when the air is cold and dry and is a common part of life. There are lots of ways to make students aware of static electricity--and many things one can teach them about its applications in today's industry. In this article, the author describes examples and experiments that will bring static…

  20. Simplification of physics-based electrochemical model for lithium ion battery on electric vehicle. Part II: Pseudo-two-dimensional model simplification and state of charge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Now the lithium ion batteries are widely used in electric vehicles (EV). The battery modeling and state estimation are of great importance. The rigorous physics-based electrochemical model is too complicated for on-line simulation in vehicle. In this work, the simplification of the physics-based model for application on real vehicle is proposed. An improved single particle (SP) model is introduced with high precision and the same level of computations as the original single particle model. A simplified pseudo-two-dimensional (SP2D) model is developed. The distribution of the pore wall flux is analyzed and an approximate method is developed to find the solution. The developed models are compared with rigorous electrochemical model and original SP models. The results demonstrate that the models introduced in this work could simulate the battery efficiently without too much loss of accuracy. A state of charge (SOC) estimation algorithm using the Luenberger observer with the SP2D model is proposed and shows high precision. This SOC estimation method could be used in the BMS in real vehicle.

  1. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  2. Discharge/charge reaction mechanisms of FeS2 cathode material for aluminum rechargeable batteries at 55°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Nakanishi, Koji; Kezheng, Chen; Hattori, Masashi; Ohta, Toshiaki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    The aluminum rechargeable battery is a desirable device for large-scale energy storage owing to the high capacity derived from the properties of the aluminum metal anode. The development of cathode materials is needed to compose battery systems. However, the design principles of the cathode materials have not been determined. We focus on the high capacity FeS2 cathode materials and investigate the discharge/charge reaction mechanisms in chloroaluminate ionic liquids as the electrolyte at 55°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements are performed for the discharged and charged samples. S 3p-orbitals are shown to play an important role in the redox reactions from the results of the S and Fe K-edge XANES spectra. As a result of the redox reaction, FeS2 is transformed into low crystalline FeS and amorphous Al2S3, as shown by the XRD and S, Al, and Fe K-edge XANES spectra. This reaction mechanism is different from the reaction observed with lithium ion.

  3. Application of the Mesh Experiment for the Back-Illuminated CCD; 1, Experiment and the Charge Cloud Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Hiraga, J; Kouno, H; Yasui, K; Tsunemi, H; Miyaguchi, K; Yamamoto, K

    2002-01-01

    We have employed a mesh experiment for back-illuminated (BI) CCDs. BI CCDs possess the same structure to those of FI CCDs. Since X-ray photons enter from the back surface of the CCD, a primary charge cloud is formed far from the electrodes. The primary charge cloud expands through diffusion process until it reaches the potential well that is just below the electrodes. Therefore, the diffusion time for the charge cloud produced is longer than that in the FI CCD, resulting a larger charge cloud shape expected. The mesh experiment enables us to specify the X-ray point of interaction with a subpixel resolution. We then have measured a charge cloud shape produced in the BI CCD. We found that there are two components of the charge cloud shape having different size: a narrow component and a broad component. The size of the narrow component is $2.8-5.7 \\mu$m in unit of a standard deviation and strongly depends on the attenuation length in Si of incident X-rays. The shorter the attenuation length of X-rays is, the lar...

  4. Hazard detection in noise-related incidents - the role of driving experience with battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocron, Peter; Bachl, Veronika; Früh, Laura; Koch, Iris; Krems, Josef F

    2014-12-01

    The low noise emission of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has led to discussions about how to address potential safety issues for other road users. Legislative actions have already been undertaken to implement artificial sounds. In previous research, BEV drivers reported that due to low noise emission they paid particular attention to pedestrians and bicyclists. For the current research, we developed a hazard detection task to test whether drivers with BEV experience respond faster to incidents, which arise due to the low noise emission, than inexperienced drivers. The first study (N=65) revealed that BEV experience only played a minor role in drivers' response to hazards resulting from low BEV noise. The tendency to respond, reaction times and hazard evaluations were similar among experienced and inexperienced BEV drivers; only small trends in the assumed direction were observed. Still, both groups clearly differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios and responded accordingly. In the second study (N=58), we investigated additionally if sensitization to low noise emission of BEVs had an effect on hazard perception in incidents where the noise difference is crucial. Again, participants in all groups differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios. Even though trends in response rates and latencies occurred, experience and sensitization to low noise seemed to only play a minor role in detecting hazards due to low BEV noise. An additional global evaluation of BEV noise further suggests that even after a short test drive, the lack of noise is perceived more as a comfort feature than a safety threat. PMID:25302423

  5. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ∼2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles

  6. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, F.; Capussela, T.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Mirra, M.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Roscilli, L.; Vanzanella, A.; Corradi, G.; Tagnani, D.; Paglia, U.

    2016-03-01

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  7. CHANTI: a Fast and Efficient Charged Particle Veto Detector for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Di Filippo, D; Massarotti, P; Mirra, M; Napolitano, M; Palladino, V; Saracino, G; Roscilli, L; Vanzanella, A; Corradi, G; Tagnani, D; Paglia, U

    2016-01-01

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  8. Charge generation associated with liquid spraying in tank cleaning and comparable processes - preliminary experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Carsten; Losert, Oswald F. J.

    2015-10-01

    The BG RCI has initiated investigations in order to improve the data basis for assessing the ignition hazard by electrostatic charging processes associated with the spraying of liquids. On the base of preliminary experiments, we established procedures for measurements of electric field strength and charging current in the presence of aerosol particles. Results obtained with three different nozzle types, variation of pressure and with built-in deflecting plate are presented.

  9. An Experiment on the Strong Interactions of Charged Hyperons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this experiment is to study @S*, @X* and @W* diffractive production in @X|-N collisions. Incident @X|- at a mean momentum of 118~GeV/c are tagged by a differential Cherenkov counter (DISC). The resonance decay products are analysed by a double stage magnetic spectrometer equipped with multiwire proportional chambers and drift chambers, a multicell Cherenkov counter and two complementary neutral particle detectors, a liquid argon calorimeter for @g and neutron detection and a lead glass bl wide angle @g rays. A multiplicity counter (M) and two hodoscopes of scintillators (H2 and H3) are used in the trigger. Hyperon radiative decays are also being studied with the same apparatus. The scattering target is taken out and appropriate trigger conditions are used. For the @S|+~@A~p@g decay mode, the polarity of the hyperon channel is reversed and the @S|+'s are identified by the DISC. For the @L~@A~n@g decay mode, @X|-~@A~@L@p|- decays occuring between the B and D chambers provide a source of @L's of...

  10. Design and commissioning of a TF coil power system using deep-cycle batteries for versatile experiment spherical torus (VEST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A toroidal field (TF) coil power system has been designed and successfully commissioned to be suitable for the research objectives of VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) which was recently constructed at Seoul National University. The TF coil power system for VEST is fabricated using a series–parallel connection of 200 deep-cycle batteries with 100 A h capacity so as to generate flat-top TF field of 0.12 T on magnetic axis for sufficiently long time up to hundreds of milliseconds. Ten battery modules are designed to operate independently through 10 magnetic contactor (MC) switches so as to produce toroidal magnetic field with various amplitudes and waveforms. During the initial start-up experiments of VEST, the modulation capability of toroidal magnetic field is successfully verified, showing possibility of its versatile utilization on various experimental topics in the future

  11. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part II. Impedance of the positive plate revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F. [Laboratoire des Systemes Solaires, INES-RDI, BP 332, 73377 Le Bourget du Lac, 50, avenue du Lac Leman (France)

    2007-07-10

    In the second part of this publication series, dedicated to the pulse charge of the lead-acid battery, a special attention is paid to the impedance spectrum of the positive plate as a source for estimation of the electrostatic capacitance of the double layer (C{sub dl}) on the surface of the positive active mass. The impedance spectra were measured at open circuit for different states of charge (SoC) in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} with specific gravity 1.24 and 1.28 g ml{sup -1}. A substantial difference was observed in the impedance spectra of partially charged and partially discharged positive plates keeping the same value of the SOC. The impedance data were subjected to inductance error correction, followed by differential impedance analysis (DIA). Considering the results from DIA, the recently published equivalent circuits of the positive plate in charged and in discharged state and the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide, we proposed a model of the positive plate in partial state of charge (PSoC). The analysis of the obtained experimental results using this model and DIA show that the double layer capacitance is not frequency distributed. The influence of the state of charge and state of health on the model parameters is discussed. One of the most interesting results is the dependence of C{sub dl} on SOC - it features a hysteresis at which the values of C{sub dl} during the charge are 5-6 times higher than the corresponding ones during the discharge. This result was discussed in terms of changes in the double layer structure considering the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide. During the discharge in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} with specific gravity 1.28 g ml{sup -1} a passivation process was detected as a high frequency pseudo-inductive loop in the Nyquist plots in PSoC. The passivation time constant is higher at 50-60% SOC and decreases to zero in the end of the discharge. During the charge in both electrolytes, pseudo-inductive time constant was observed too. It was

  12. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part II. Impedance of the positive plate revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    In the second part of this publication series, dedicated to the pulse charge of the lead-acid battery, a special attention is paid to the impedance spectrum of the positive plate as a source for estimation of the electrostatic capacitance of the double layer (C dl) on the surface of the positive active mass. The impedance spectra were measured at open circuit for different states of charge (SoC) in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.24 and 1.28 g ml -1. A substantial difference was observed in the impedance spectra of partially charged and partially discharged positive plates keeping the same value of the SOC. The impedance data were subjected to inductance error correction, followed by differential impedance analysis (DIA). Considering the results from DIA, the recently published equivalent circuits of the positive plate in charged and in discharged state and the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide, we proposed a model of the positive plate in partial state of charge (PSoC). The analysis of the obtained experimental results using this model and DIA show that the double layer capacitance is not frequency distributed. The influence of the state of charge and state of health on the model parameters is discussed. One of the most interesting results is the dependence of C dl on SOC-it features a hysteresis at which the values of C dl during the charge are 5-6 times higher than the corresponding ones during the discharge. This result was discussed in terms of changes in the double layer structure considering the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide. During the discharge in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.28 g ml -1 a passivation process was detected as a high frequency pseudo-inductive loop in the Nyquist plots in PSoC. The passivation time constant is higher at 50-60% SOC and decreases to zero in the end of the discharge. During the charge in both electrolytes, pseudo-inductive time constant was observed too. It was attributed to the phenomena of the dehydration of Pb

  13. 电动公交充换电站的优化运行研究%Research on Optimal Operation of Battery Swapping and Charging Station for Electric Buses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳岳希; 胡泽春; 宋永华

    2012-01-01

    The optimal operation of battery swapping and charging station for electric bus involves many processes, such as bus service, battery swapping, battery charging, and so on. The daily battery swapping demand was quantitatively analyzed based on factors including the operating pattern and electricity consumption characteristics of electric buses. The optimal battery swapping order was determined for equal battery usage and charging convenience. A two-stage and a bi-objective mathematic optimization models for battery recharging with minimize charging cost as the primary objective were established, and the smoothing of the charging load curve was also considered. Other factors that have influences on optimal charging schedule such as the starting time, reserved battery number for uncertainties were analyzed. Case study results show that the proposed method can Feduce daily charging cost substantially and mitigate the impacts of charging load on the grid.%公交车充换电站的优化运行涉及公交运营、电池更换和电池充电等多个方面.考虑公交车的运行规律和耗电特性等因素,定量分析了车辆的日换电需求,并基于均衡使用电池和有利于电池充电的原则,推导了电池优化更换的顺序.以充电成本最小为首要目标,综合考虑平滑充电负荷曲线,分别建立了两阶段和双目标优化充电模型.对优化充电的起始时间、备用电池数量等因素对优化结果的影响进行了分析.算例仿真结果表明,该方法可有效降低充电成本和充电负荷对电网的影响.

  14. Ionization, Charging and Electric Field Effects on Cloud Particles in the CLOUD Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichman, L.; Järvinen, E.; Wagner, R.; Dorsey, J.; Dias, A. M.; Ehrhart, S.; Kirkby, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Saunders, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ice crystals and frozen droplets play an important role in atmospheric charging and electrification processes, particularly by collision and aggregation. The dynamics of charged particles in the atmosphere can be modulated by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). High electric fields also affect the alignment of charged particles, allowing more time for interactions. The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) experiment at CERN has the ability to conduct ionization, charging and high electric field experiments on liquid or ice clouds created in the chamber by adiabatic pressure reductions. A pion secondary beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron is used to ionize the molecules in the chamber, and Ar+ Corona Ion Generator for Atmospheric Research (CIGAR) is used to inject unipolar charged ions directly into the chamber. A pressurized airgun provides rapid pressure shocks inside the chamber and induces charged ice nucleation. The cloud chamber is accompanied by a variety of analysing instruments e.g. a 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI) coupled with an induction ring, a Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detection of icE (SIMONE) and a Nano-aerosol and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS). Using adiabatic expansion and high electric fields we can replicate the ideal conditions for adhesion, sintering and interlocking between ice crystals. Charged cloud particles produced measurable variations in the total induced current pulse on the induction ring. The most influential factors comprised initial temperature, lapse rate and charging mechanism. The ions produced in the chamber may deposit onto larger particles and form dipoles during ice nucleation and growth. The small ion concentration was monitored by the NAIS during these runs. Possible short-term aggregates or alignment of particles were observed in-situ with the SIMONE. These and future chamber measurements of charging and aggregation could shed more light on the ambient conditions and dynamics for electrification

  15. Design of control system for battery charge regulator in aerospace industry%航天用蓄电池充电调节器的控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹏宇; 郑琼林; 李艳; 张国帅; 万成安

    2012-01-01

    提出了基于Superbuck电路拓扑的航天用电源控制器(Power Conditioning Unit,PCU)中蓄电池充电调节器(Battery Charge Regulator,BCR)的控制系统设计方法,简述了PCU的基本构成和控制区域划分基本原理,分析了BCR在PCU系统中的运行模式,根据其运行特点,对以4阶Superbuck电路为拓扑的BCR进行了建模,给出了占空比控制的多个变量的传递函数表达式,依此设计了三环并列控制的蓄电池充电调节器,并给出了BCR分别在恒压输出,恒流输出,自稳定输入母线工况下的仿真和实验结果,验证了设计的正确性.%A design of Battery Charge Regulator (BCR) control system based on the Superbuck circuit topology in aerospace' Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) is presented. Structure and the basic control concept of PCU are summarized, and operation mode of BCR is analyzed in detail. Averaged modeling is applied to obtain the BCR model under direct duty-ration control and the transfer functions are listed. According to these, a three-loop controlled BCR is designed. The simulation and experiment results listed at last verify the validity of the design.

  16. Design, development, and results from a charge-collector diagnostic for a toroidal electron plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suitable charge-collector has been designed and developed to estimate charge-content of electron plasmas in a Small Aspect Ratio Toroidal Experiment in a C-shaped trap (SMARTEX-C). The electrons are periodically injected and held in the trap with the aid of electrostatic end-fields and a toroidal magnetic field. After a preset “hold” time, the trapped charges are dumped onto a grounded collector (by gating it). As the charges flow along the magnetic field lines onto the collector, the integrated current gives the charge-content of the plasma at the instant of dump. In designing such a charge collector, several challenges peculiar to the geometry of the trap and the nature of the plasma had to be addressed. Instantaneous charge measurements synchronised with the E × B drift of the plasma, along with fast transit times of electrons to the collector (few 100 ns or less) (due to the low aspect ratio of the trap) essentially require fast gating of the collector. The resulting large capacitive transients alongside low charge content (few nC) of such plasmas further lead to increasing demands on response and sensitivity of the collector. Complete cancellation of such transients is shown to be possible, in principle, by including the return path in our measurement circuit but the “non-neutrality” of the plasma acts as a further impediment. Ultimately, appropriate shielding and measurement circuits allow us to (re)distribute the capacitance and delineate the paths of these currents, leading to effective cancellation of transients and marked improvement in sensitivity. Improved charge-collector has thus been used to successfully estimate the time evolution of total charge of the confined electron plasma in SMARTEX-C

  17. Design, development, and results from a charge-collector diagnostic for a toroidal electron plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Sambaran; Lachhvani, Lavkesh; Bajpai, Manu; Rathod, Karan; Yeole, Yogesh; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    A suitable charge-collector has been designed and developed to estimate charge-content of electron plasmas in a Small Aspect Ratio Toroidal Experiment in a C-shaped trap (SMARTEX-C). The electrons are periodically injected and held in the trap with the aid of electrostatic end-fields and a toroidal magnetic field. After a preset "hold" time, the trapped charges are dumped onto a grounded collector (by gating it). As the charges flow along the magnetic field lines onto the collector, the integrated current gives the charge-content of the plasma at the instant of dump. In designing such a charge collector, several challenges peculiar to the geometry of the trap and the nature of the plasma had to be addressed. Instantaneous charge measurements synchronised with the E × B drift of the plasma, along with fast transit times of electrons to the collector (few 100 ns or less) (due to the low aspect ratio of the trap) essentially require fast gating of the collector. The resulting large capacitive transients alongside low charge content (few nC) of such plasmas further lead to increasing demands on response and sensitivity of the collector. Complete cancellation of such transients is shown to be possible, in principle, by including the return path in our measurement circuit but the "non-neutrality" of the plasma acts as a further impediment. Ultimately, appropriate shielding and measurement circuits allow us to (re)distribute the capacitance and delineate the paths of these currents, leading to effective cancellation of transients and marked improvement in sensitivity. Improved charge-collector has thus been used to successfully estimate the time evolution of total charge of the confined electron plasma in SMARTEX-C.

  18. Modeling and intelligent charge of storage batteries for wind energy electric vehicles%风能电动汽车储能电池的建模与智能充电

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易芳; 易灵芝

    2012-01-01

    分析了锂电池的结构特点和非线性的数学模型以及充电形式,在Matlab/Simulink中建立了锂电池的非线性仿真模型,采用模糊控制跟踪最大可接受充电电流,通过仿真,验证了锂电池的非线性模型的正确性,在最大可接受充电电流下,锂电池的输出电压和荷电状态(SOC)值缓慢上升到期望值,实现了智能充电.%The structural features of lithium battery,intelligent charge model and its nonlinear mathematic model were researched,by means of Mattab/Simulink,a nonlinear model of lithium battery was established,and a fuzzy control was applied to track the maximum charging current.The Simulink results verified the correctness of the proposed nonlinear model of lithium battery.At the acceptable maximum charging current,the output voltage and state of charge (SOC) of the battery slowly rise to expectation,and the intelligent charging is achieved.

  19. The search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge and the philosophy of speculative experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All known elementary particles that can be isolated as individual particles have an electric charge that is equal in magnitude to the electron close-quote s charge, q=1.6x10-19C, or is zero. This includes the muon and tau charged leptons, the neutrinos, the photon, the nucleons, and the mesons. There have been many searches without confirmed success for isolated particles with fractional electric charge such as ±q/3, or ±q/2, or ±3q/2. The theory of the physics of elementary particles does not require the existence of such particles. In particular, current theory holds that quarks, whose charge is ±(1/3)q or ±2/3q, cannot be isolated. Despite past failures and current theory, we have been engaged for the past few years in a new search for isolated elementary particles with fractional electric charge. In the course of this paper we discuss models for fractional charge particles, summarize previous searches, and describe our experimental method; and because this is speculative research we will also present our thoughts on speculative experiments. copyright 1997 American Association of Physics Teachers

  20. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziane, Mehdi [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Collaboration: PRad Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 ± 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7σ smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these 'electronic' determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup −4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  1. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziane, Mehdi [DUKE

    2013-11-01

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 {+-} 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7{sigma} smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these "electronic" determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup -4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  2. Pt and Pd catalyzed oxidation of Li2O2 and DMSO during Li-O2 battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittleson, Forrest S; Ryu, Won-Hee; Schwab, Mark; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, André D

    2016-05-01

    Rechargeable Li-O2 and Li-air batteries require electrode and electrolyte materials that synergistically promote long-term cell operation. In this study, we investigate the role of noble metals Pt and Pd as catalysts in the Li-O2 oxidation process and their compatibility with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) based electrolytes. We identify a basis for low potential Li2O2 evolution followed by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte to form carbonate side products. PMID:27111589

  3. Multi-functional Converter with Integrated Motor Control, Battery Charging and Active Module Balancing for Electric Vehicular Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mathe, Laszlo; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus; Haddioui, Marcos Rejas

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and the acoustical noise generated by refuse lorries, electrification of the waste compactor unit is a very promising solution. For the electrical energy storage Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology has been selected with potential for reducing the cost, weight and volume in comparison with other Li-Ion based chemistries. The control of the energy flow has been done through a Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC), which has demonstrated advantages over...

  4. Variation of stress with charging rate due to strain-rate sensitivity of silicon electrodes of Li-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Pharr, Matt Mathews; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its enormous theoretical energy density. Fracture during electrochemical cycling has limited the practical viability of silicon electrodes, but recent studies indicate that fracture can be prevented by taking advantage of lithiation-induced plasticity. In this paper, we provide experimental insight into the nature of plasticity in amorphous LixSi thin films. To do so, we vary the rate of lithiation of amorphous silicon thi...

  5. SOC EKF Estimation based on a Second-order LiFePO4 Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An accurate battery State of Charge (SOC estimation has great significance in improving battery life and vehicle performance. An improved second-order battery model is proposed in this paper through quantities of LiFePO4 battery experiments. The parameters of the model were acquired by the HPPC composite pulse condition under different temperature, charging and discharging rates, SOC. Based on the model, battery SOC is estimated by Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. Comparison of three different pulse conditions shows that the average error of SOC estimation of this algorithm is about 4.2%. The improved model is able to reflect the dynamic performance of batteries suitably, and the SOC estimation algorithm is provided with higher accuracy and better dynamic adaptability.

  6. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-09-01

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation “beyond-lithium” battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new “multivalent ion” battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, or La3+ ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni2+ ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni2+ ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg-1, close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).

  7. Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Chen, Xilin; Mei, Donghai; Bowden, Mark E.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-30

    Rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries with conventional LiPF6-carbonate electrolytes have been reported to fail quickly at charging current densities of about 1.0 mA cm-2 and above. In this work, we demonstrate the rapid charging capability of the Li||LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells enabled by a dual-salt electrolyte of LiTFSI-LiBOB in a carbonate solvent mixture. It is found that the thickness of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode largely increases with increasing charging current density. However, the cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte significantly outperforms those using the LiPF6 electrolyte at high charging current densities. At the charging current density of 1.50 mA cm-2, the Li||NCA cells with the dual-salt electrolyte can still deliver a discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles, while those with the LiPF6 electrolyte start to show fast capacity fading after the 30th cycle and only exhibit a low capacity of 25 mAh g-1 and a low retention of 15% after 100 cycles. The reasons for the good chargeability and cycling stability of the cells using LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte can be attributed to the good film-formation ability of the electrolyte on lithium metal anode and the highly conductive nature of the sulfur-rich interphase layer.

  8. Looking for milli-charged particles with a new experiment at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Andrew; Hill, Christopher S.; Izaguirre, Eder; Yavin, Itay

    2015-06-01

    We propose a new experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that offers a powerful and model-independent probe for milli-charged particles. This experiment could be sensitive to charges in the range 10-3 e-10-1 e for masses in the range 0.1-100 GeV, which is the least constrained part of the parameter space for milli-charged particles. This is a new window of opportunity for exploring physics beyond the Standard Model at the LHC. The key new ingredients of the proposal are the identification of an optimal location for the detector and a telescopic/coincidence design that greatly reduces the background.

  9. An iterative computation method for interpreting and extending an analytical battery model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Battery models are of great importance to develop portable computing systems, for whether the design of low power hardware architecture or the design of battery-aware scheduling policies. In this paper, we present a physically justified iterative computing method to illustrate the discharge, recovery and charge process of Li/Li-ion batteries. The discharge and recovery processes correspond well to an existing accurate analytical battery model: R-V-W's analytical model, and thus interpret this model algorithmically. Our method can also extend R-V-W's model easily to accommodate the charge process. The work will help the system designers to grasp the characteristics of R-V-W's battery model and also, enable to predict the battery behavior in the charge process in a uniform way as the discharge process and the recovery process. Experiments are performed to show the accuracy of the extended model by comparing the predicted charge times with those derived from the DUALFOIL simulations.Various profiles with different combinations of battery modes were tested. The experimental results show that the extended battery model preserves high accuracy in predicting the charge behavior.

  10. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  11. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  12. Batteries in PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohedano Martínez, Javier Bernabé

    2011-01-01

    This report presents fundamentals of battery technology and charge control strategies commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) Systems,with an introduction on the PV Systems itself. This project is a compilation of information from several sources, including research reports and data from component manufacturers. Comparisons are given for various battery technologies, and considerations for battery subsystem design, auxiliary systems, maintenance and safety are discussed. Daily operatio...

  13. Conceptual design of a device for charging PIG's batteries, using the hydraulic energy from the flow in pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ricardo E.; Dutra, Max S. [Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Graduate and Research Studies (COPPE-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Program], e-mail: rramirez@ufrj.br, e-mail: max@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Some actual projects deal with development of PIGs with speed control for liquid pipelines, with the possibility of controlled displacement including counter flow locomotion, in order to inspect and service in 'unpiggable lines' and flexible lines. In this case, it is normal to carry energy consumption greater than the energy disposable in the batteries. This work proposes a device composed by a turbine and an electric generator; presents a preliminary mechanical design of the turbine for the specific requirements of the application like internal pressure inside the line, a range of relative velocities between the PIG and the pipeline and adequate material for the environmental conditions. One of the priority requirements is that the geometric form of the turbine and generator mate with a proposed form of the PIG minimizing the pressure drop in the line for the different work conditions. The electric design defines the magnets characteristics, geometric forms, dimensions and number of turns to obtain the required voltage and power for charging a nominal pack of batteries. (author)

  14. Inhibition on polysulfides dissolve during the discharge-charge by using fish-scale-based porous carbon for lithium-sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fish scale derived hierarchical porous carbon has been studied as an inhibitor to capture the polysulfides for lithium-sulfur battery by ex situ ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and SEM analysis. The results showed that the capacity retention of the cathode with porous carbon as additive increased from 44% to 59% after 50 cycles at 0.1 C compared with the common cathode. Attracted on the excellent performance of cathode with porous carbon, the asymmetry electrode was fabricated by coating a porous layer on the cathode to trap the polysulfides produced during the discharge-charge process further. The initial discharge specific capacity is 1426 mAhg−1 with a capacity retention of 81% after 50 cycles at 1 C, and retains a reversible capacity of 990 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles with coulombic efficiency above 98%

  15. Hunting the Charged Higgs Boson with Lepton Signatures in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)702233; Collot, Johann; Ellert, Mattias

    This thesis presents searches for a charged Higgs boson ($H^\\pm$) in proton-proton collisions with center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV, using data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Multiple search channels are used with the common characteristic of at least one charged lepton (electron or muon) that effectively reduces the multi-jet background and is used for efficient triggering. Charged Higgs bosons decaying to a tau lepton and a neutrino are searched for using final states with two charged leptons, or one charged lepton and a hadronically decaying tau. A significant background originates from quark- or gluon-initiated jets that may be misidentified as hadronic tau decays. Methods to estimate this background are presented, including a largely data-driven matrix method. Signal processes with a charged Higgs boson mass below or above that of the top quark are considered. With the dataset collected at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated...

  16. Charged Higgs boson searches and SemiConductor Tracker commissioning for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mohn, Bjarte Alsaker

    The ATLAS (A Toroidal Lhc ApparatuS) experiment is one of four major experiments presently being installed at the upcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) outside Geneva. In this thesis we present work done on both the simulation of the ATLAS physics potential for a charged Higgs boson and the construction of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) - a subdetector within the ATLAS Inner Detector. The discovery of a charged Higgs boson would be an unambiguous sign of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) and it is thus of great interest to study the ATLAS potential for a charged Higgs discovery. Two such studies have been conducted for this thesis. In the first study a large-mass-splitting Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is assumed in which the charged Higgs boson decays into a W boson and a neutral Higgs may receive a large branching ratio.We conclude, however, that charged Higgs searches in this decay channel are made difficult by a large irreducible SM ba...

  17. Discrete wavelet transform-based denoising technique for advanced state-of-charge estimator of a lithium-ion battery in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sophisticated data of the experimental DCV (discharging/charging voltage) of a lithium-ion battery is required for high-accuracy SOC (state-of-charge) estimation algorithms based on the state-space ECM (electrical circuit model) in BMSs (battery management systems). However, when sensing noisy DCV signals, erroneous SOC estimation (which results in low BMS performance) is inevitable. Therefore, this manuscript describes the design and implementation of a DWT (discrete wavelet transform)-based denoising technique for DCV signals. The steps for denoising a noisy DCV measurement in the proposed approach are as follows. First, using MRA (multi-resolution analysis), the noise-riding DCV signal is decomposed into different frequency sub-bands (low- and high-frequency components, An and Dn). Specifically, signal processing of the high frequency component Dn that focuses on a short-time interval is necessary to reduce noise in the DCV measurement. Second, a hard-thresholding-based denoising rule is applied to adjust the wavelet coefficients of the DWT to achieve a clear separation between the signal and the noise. Third, the desired de-noised DCV signal is reconstructed by taking the IDWT (inverse discrete wavelet transform) of the filtered detailed coefficients. Finally, this signal is sent to the ECM-based SOC estimation algorithm using an EKF (extended Kalman filter). Experimental results indicate the robustness of the proposed approach for reliable SOC estimation. - Highlights: • Sophisticated data of the experimental DCV is required for high-accuracy SOC. • DWT (discrete wavelet transform)-based denoising technique is newly investigated. • Three steps for denoising a noisy DCV measurement in this work are implemented. • Experimental results indicate the robustness of the proposed work for reliable SOC

  18. Formation of Li3O4 nano particles in the discharge products of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries leads to lower charge overvoltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Xu, A; Zhao, T S

    2015-11-28

    Density functional theory calculations are made for bulk thermodynamic properties and surface energies of Li2O2, a primary discharge product, and Li3O4, a possible byproduct in the discharge products, of the non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. Results show that the standard formation Gibbs free energy of bulk Li3O4 is marginally higher than that of Li2O2, but the surface energy of Li3O4 is much lower. Low surface energy results in both lowered nucleation energy and formation Gibbs free energy in the nanometer regime, allowing the Li3O4 nano particles to nucleate ahead of Li2O2 during the discharge process and to exist stably when particle sizes are smaller than about 40 nm. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) image of Li3O4 crystals is simulated and compared with the measured STEM image of the discharge product particles. The consistency between the simulated and measured STEM images suggests that the Li3O4 phase can exist stably as a discharge product. The energy profile of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring on the most abundant surfaces of Li3O4 is also calculated. The predicted overpotential for the OER on the {0001} surface (0.30 V) shows a good agreement with experimental data. The presence of more electronically conductive Li3O4 nano particles in the primary discharge product Li2O2 tends to decrease the charge overvoltage of the batteries, explaining why the lower voltage area (oxygen pressure or a decrease in temperature enhances the stability of the Li3O4 phase and increase the proportion of the Li3O4 phase in the discharge products, consequently leading to a lower overall charge overvoltage. PMID:26486991

  19. Reaction and Transport in Gas Diffusion Electrodes of Li-O2 batteries: Experiments and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Timo; Horstmann, Birger; Wittmaier, Dennis; Wagner, Norbert; Bessler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries are a potential alternative to conventional combustion technologies in the mobility sector. Two possible solvent systems are in the focus of extensive research at the moment. Namely, systems with aprotic and aqueous electrolyte. Major challenges in the development of Li-O2 systems arise from the formation of solid discharge products. In the cathode of aprotic Li-O2 batteries Li2O2 is formed during discharge. Li2O2 has a low electric conductivity and passiva...

  20. Development of a WDM platform for charged-particle stopping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Collins, G. W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S. B.; Hu, S. X.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Keiter, P.; Reynolds, H.; Rygg, J. R.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-05-01

    A platform has been developed for generating large and relatively quiescent plasmas in the warm-dense matter (WDM) regime on the OMEGA laser facility. A cylindrical geometry is used to allow charged-particle probing along the axis. The plasma heating is radiative by L-shell emission generated on the outside of the cylinder. The cylinder drive is characterized with x-ray diagnostics. Possibilities for direct characterization of the plasma temperature are discussed. Finally, the unimportance of electromagnetic fields around the target is demonstrated with proton radiography. We expect this platform to be used extensively in future experiments studying charged-particle stopping in this regime.

  1. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  2. Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Chen, Xilin; Mei, Donghai; Bowden, Mark E.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries with conventional LiPF6-carbonate electrolytes have been reported to fail quickly at charging current densities of about 1.0 mA cm-2 and above. In this work, we demonstrate the rapid charging capability of Li||LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells can be enabled by a dual-salt electrolyte of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) in a carbonate solvent mixture. The cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte significantly outperform those using the LiPF6 electrolyte at high charging current densities. At the charging current density of 1.50 mA cm-2, the Li||NCA cells with the dual-salt electrolyte can still deliver a discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles. The Li||NCA cells with the LiPF6 electrolyte start to show fast capacity fading after the 30th cycle and only exhibit a low capacity of 25 mAh g-1 and a low retention of 15% after 100 cycles. The reasons for the good chargeability and cycling stability of the cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte can be attributed to the good film-formation ability of the electrolyte on the Li metal anode and the highly conductive nature of the sulfur-rich interphase layer.

  3. The MicroBooNE Experiment and the Impact of Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    MicroBooNE is an experiment designed to both probe neutrino physics phenomena and develop the LArTPC (Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber) detector technology. The MicroBooNE experiment, which began taking data this year, is the first large LArTPC detector in the U.S. This experiment is the beginning of a path of detectors (both on the surface and underground) envisioned for the U.S. SBL (Short-BaseLine) and LBL (Long-BaseLine) programs. In order to interpret the data from the experiments on the surface, the impact of space charge effects must be simulated and calibrated. The space charge effect is the build-up of slow-moving positive ions in a detector due to, for instance, ionization from cosmic rays, leading to a distortion of the electric field within the detector. This effect leads to a displacement in the reconstructed position of signal ionization electrons in LArTPC detectors. The LArTPC utilized in the MicroBooNE experiment is expected to be modestly impacted from the space charge effect, with the e...

  4. Charge exchange contamination of CRIT-II barium CIV experiment. [critical ionization velocity in ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Meyerott, R. E.; Rairden, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have been recently performed which attempted to confirm critical ionization velocity (CIV) ionization by deploying chemicals at high velocity in the ionosphere. Specifically, the CRIT-II rocket performed a barium release in the ionosphere, where observations of Ba(+) resonant emissions following the release are believed to have resulted from the CIV process. Calculations are presented which suggest a significant fraction (if not all) of the Ba(+) observed likely resulted from charge exchange with the thermosphere ions and not through CIV processes. The results presented here are pertinent to other CIV experiments performed in the ionosphere. It is recommended that laboratory measurements should be made of the charge exchange cross section between O(+) and Ba as well as other metal vapors used in CIV experiments.

  5. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  6. Intelligent Battery Management System Analyzing & Optimizing of Multicell Battery Voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Deepthi, C; P.M.Sarma; M. Chakravarthy

    2013-01-01

    The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a batt...

  7. Boosted Charge Transfer in SnS/SnO2 Heterostructures: Toward High Rate Capability for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Zhou, Tengfei; Zhang, Chaofeng; Mao, Jianfeng; Liu, Huakun; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-03-01

    Constructing heterostructures can endow materials with fascinating performance in high-speed electronics, optoelectronics, and other applications owing to the built-in charge-transfer driving force, which is of benefit to the specific charge-transfer kinetics. Rational design and controllable synthesis of nano-heterostructure anode materials with high-rate performance, however, still remains a great challenge. Herein, ultrafine SnS/SnO2 heterostructures were successfully fabricated and showed enhanced charge-transfer capability. The mobility enhancement is attributed to the interface effect of heterostructures, which induces an electric field within the nanocrystals, giving them much lower ion-diffusion resistance and facilitating interfacial electron transport. PMID:26844806

  8. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  9. Model-based condition monitoring for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesic; Wang, Yebin; Fang, Huazhen; Sahinoglu, Zafer; Wada, Toshihiro; Hara, Satoshi; Qiao, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Condition monitoring for batteries involves tracking changes in physical parameters and operational states such as state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC), and is fundamentally important for building high-performance and safety-critical battery systems. A model-based condition monitoring strategy is developed in this paper for Lithium-ion batteries on the basis of an electrical circuit model incorporating hysteresis effect. It systematically integrates 1) a fast upper-triangular and diagonal recursive least squares algorithm for parameter identification of the battery model, 2) a smooth variable structure filter for the SOC estimation, and 3) a recursive total least squares algorithm for estimating the maximum capacity, which indicates the SOH. The proposed solution enjoys advantages including high accuracy, low computational cost, and simple implementation, and therefore is suitable for deployment and use in real-time embedded battery management systems (BMSs). Simulations and experiments validate effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  10. Extensive EIS characterization of commercially available lithium polymer battery cell for performance modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2015-01-01

    degradation of an electrochemical system. Used for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, this method allows for a fast and accurate assessment of the battery's impedance at any working point, without modifying the state of the battery. The influence of the operating conditions, state of charge (SOC) and temperature...... on the performance of a commercially available 53 Ah Lithium polymer battery cell, manufactured by Kokam Co. Ltd., is investigated in laboratory experiments, at its beginning of life, by means of EIS. A data fitting algorithm was used to obtain the parameter values for the proposed equivalent...

  11. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  12. The entrance system laboratory prototype for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrostatic analyzers (ESA) have been used extensively for the characterization of plasmas in a variety of space environments. They vary in shape, geometry, and size and are adapted to the specific particle population to be measured and the configuration of the spacecraft. Their main function is to select the energy per charge of the particles within a passband. An energy-per-charge range larger than that of the passband can be sampled by varying the voltage difference between the ESA electrodes. The voltage sweep takes time and reduces the duty cycle for a particular energy-per-charge passband. Our design approach for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment (AMICCE) has a novel electrostatic analyzer that essentially serves as a spectrograph and selects ions simultaneously over a broad range of energy-per-charge (E/q). Only three voltage settings are required to cover the entire range from ∼10 to 270 keV/q, thus dramatically increasing the product of the geometric factor times the duty cycle when compared with other instruments. In this paper, we describe the AMICCE concept with particular emphasis on the prototype of the entrance system (ESA and collimator), which we designed, developed, and tested. We also present comparisons of the laboratory results with electrostatic simulations.

  13. 动力锂电池变电阻均衡充电方法研究%Research on Variable Resistance Equalizing Charge method of Power Lithium-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 何秋生; 孙志毅; 李晓云

    2014-01-01

    To solve the inconsistency of voltage between individual battery cells of electric car lithium-ion battery pack,a new variable resistance equalizing charge method is put forward in this paper. Firstly,the cause of the in-consistency voltage of inter-cell is analyzed;digital variable resistance and simulation model of variable resistor are designed. Secondly,lithium battery model and variable resistance module are designed. Finally, the equalization charge simulation is finished in Matlab/Simulink software. The value of equalization resistance is set according to the battery terminal voltage. The result shows that the voltage error between individual battery cells could be limited to less than 0. 3 mV,and the method may reduce effectively the inconsistency between individual battery cells and prolongs battery life.%针对动力锂电池组中单体电池之间电压不一致性,提出一种变电阻均衡充电方法。在分析了单体电池间电压不一致性的原因、设计数字可变电阻器和可变电阻仿真模型的基础上,采用Matlab/Simulink软件对可变电阻均衡充电进行仿真,根据电池端电压大小调节均衡电阻值。结果表明变电阻均衡控制可使电压误差控制在0.3 mV以内,有效的减小单体电池之间的不一致性、延长电池的使用寿命。

  14. Multistep Charge Method by Charge Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segami, Go; Kusawake, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Iwasa, Minoru; Kibe, Koichi

    2008-09-01

    We studied reduction of the size and weight of the Power Control Unit (PCU). In this study, we specifically examined the weight of the Battery Charge Regulator (BCR), which accounts for half of the PCU weight for a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite. We found a multistep charge method by charge arrays and adopted a similar method for GEO satellites, thereby enabling the BCR reduction. We found the possibility of reducing the size and weight of PCU through more detailed design than that for a conventional PCU.BCRC1R1batterySAPower Control UnitBCRC1R1batterySAPower UnitHowever, this method decreases the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. Battery tests, a battery simulator test, and numerical analysis were used to evaluate the SOC decrease. We also studied effects of this method on the battery lifetime. The multistep charge method by charge arrays enabled charging to the same level of SOC as the conventional constant current/ constant voltage (CC/CV) charge method for a LEO satellite.

  15. Battery Monitoring Unit Using SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Priyesh Pandya; Vikas Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Battery Management System (BMS) means different things to different people. To some it is simply battery monitoring, keeping a check on the key operational parameters during charging and discharging such as voltages and currents and the battery internal and ambient temperature. The monitoring circuits would normally provide inputs to protection device which would generate alarms or disconnects the battery from the load or charger should any of the parameters be...

  16. Rechargeable Battery Capacity Level Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Technology on rechargeable batteries has advanced over the years as a result of the need to power portable devices that have risen in numbers in the last decade. Just like primary cells, rechargeable batteries work in the same way, only their chemical reactions are reversible. This project aimed at building a system that would indicate the capacity level of a Nickel Metal Hydride battery upon charging and discharging. The Nickel Metal Hydride battery was selected in this project due to it...

  17. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  18. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or gasoline engine. (c) If compliance with paragraph (b) of this section is not practicable, the battery must...

  19. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Balan, C; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Behrens, A; Beltrame, P; Bokeloh, K; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Cardoso, J M R; Chen, W -T; Choi, B; Colijn, A P; Contreras, H; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; Duchovni, E; Fattori, S; Ferella, A D; Fulgione, W; Gao, F; Garbini, M; Ghag, C; Giboni, K -L; Goetzke, L W; Grignon, C; Gross, E; Hampel, W; Itay, R; Kaether, F; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Lamblin, J; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Calloch, M Le; Levy, C; Lim, K E; Lin, Q; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Lung, K; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Massoli, F V; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Meng, Y; Messina, M; Molinario, A; Naganoma, J; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Orrigo, S E A; Pantic, E; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Plante, G; Priel, N; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Santos, J M F dos; Sartorelli, G; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Lavina, L Scotto; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Simgen, H; Teymourian, A; Thers, D; Vitells, O; Wang, H; Weber, M; Weinheimer, C

    2014-01-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are not related to WIMP interactions. These signals, which show the excellent sensitivity of the detector to small charge signals, are explained as being due to the photoionization of impurities in the liquid xenon and of the metal components inside the TPC. They are used as a unique calibration source to characterize the detector. We explain how we can infer crucial parameters for the XENON100 experiment: the secondary-scintillation gain, the extraction yield from the liquid to the gas phase and the electron drift velocity.

  20. Surface charging of thick porous water ice layers relevant for ion sputtering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, A.; Vorburger, A.; Pommerol, A.; Wurz, P.; Jost, B.; Poch, O.; Brouet, Y.; Tulej, M.; Thomas, N.

    2016-07-01

    We use a laboratory facility to study the sputtering properties of centimeter-thick porous water ice subjected to the bombardment of ions and electrons to better understand the formation of exospheres of the icy moons of Jupiter. Our ice samples are as similar as possible to the expected moon surfaces but surface charging of the samples during ion irradiation may distort the experimental results. We therefore monitor the time scales for charging and discharging of the samples when subjected to a beam of ions. These experiments allow us to derive an electric conductivity of deep porous ice layers. The results imply that electron irradiation and sputtering play a non-negligible role for certain plasma conditions at the icy moons of Jupiter. The observed ion sputtering yields from our ice samples are similar to previous experiments where compact ice films were sputtered off a micro-balance.

  1. Development of Experiments to Measure D and 4He Charge Radii with Elastic Electron Scattering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudi, Sheikh

    Charge radii are one of the important physical characteristics to understand the electromagnetic structure of nuclei. For light nuclei, they are playing a more critical role to better understand the nucleon-nucleon interaction and test the existing models for bound states. Recent measurements of proton radius, done with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy, showed about 7 standard deviation lower than previous experimental results. This discrepancy triggered the so called "Proton Radius Puzzle" in physics world. Several groups are preparing to perform new experiments to extract the proton radius with better precision and model independent methods. It is equally important to perform new experiments for light nuclei, like deuteron (D) and helium-4 (4He), to verify the existing results for their radii. In this thesis work, we have developed an experimental method based on coincidence detection of the scattered electrons and recoiled light nuclei to measure the charge radii of deuteron and helium-4 with high accuracy.

  2. Development of low energy ion beam system for space charge compensation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low energy ion beam system for space charge compensation (SCC) experiments was developed and evaluated. This system was designed for observation of SCC of a positive ion beam with an electron beam. The system consisted of the ion source chamber and the SCC experiment chamber. The ion source chamber was equipped with the compact microwave ion source for low voltage extraction. Ion current at initial position of the analysis chamber was 84 μA at extraction voltage of 500 V, and satisfied a condition to observe the SCC effect clearly. In order to evaluate the SCC, we measured the arrival ion current by supplying thermionic electrons, which were extracted from a tungsten filament driven by ac voltage. As the electron supply, the arrival ion current increased from 40 to 68 μA at the potential of filament of +3 eV which produced the thermionic electron with extremely low energy extracted by space charge of the ion beam

  3. 焦炉顶装改捣固后工艺及焦炭质量对比%Comparison of the process and coke quality for modifying top charging coke oven battery to stamp charging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力辉

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the change of process and coke quality after modifying the 4. 3m top charging coke oven battery to stamp charging. After the modification, the coke yield has almost remained same as before,while the coke strength at cold and hot conditions has increased,and the coke screening has been improved,the metallurgical coke rate could be increased by 2. 5%,coke nut yield has been reduced by 1. 5%,and coke breeze yield has been reduced by 0. 5%.%介绍了4.3m焦炉顶装改造为捣固生产后工艺和焦炭质量的变化,由顶装改造为捣固生产后,产量基本保持不变,焦炭的冷热态强度提高,焦炭筛分改善,冶金焦率可以提高2.5%,焦丁产率降低1.5%,焦末产率降低0.5%。

  4. RECOMBINATION AT DISLOCATION LEVELS LOCATED IN THE SPACE CHARGE REGION. EBIC CONTRAST EXPERIMENTS AND THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Farvacque, J.; Sieber, B.

    1989-01-01

    Recombination at dislocations located in the space charge region (SCR) of a Schottky diode has been previously evidenced by EBIC contrats experiments [1] in the case of non intentionally n type CdTe. A depth-dependent recombination probability was, then, phenomenologically ascribed to the dislocation, in order to fit theoretical EBIC curves as a function of the beam accelerating voltage Eo obtained for dislocations perpendicular to the surface, with experimental ones. A variable radius ε(z) w...

  5. Structural requirement for the rapid movement of charged molecules across membranes. Experiments with tetraphenylborate analogues.

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, R

    1988-01-01

    Charge-pulse experiments were performed in the presence of structural analogues of tetraphenylborate (TPB) on membranes made of dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine and dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine. The analysis of the experimental results using a previously proposed model allowed the calculation of the partition coefficient, beta, and of the translocation rate constant, kappa i. The temperature dependence of the partition coefficients was used to calculate the thermodynamics of the adsorption o...

  6. Study of charged particle production using Omega RICH in WA94 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary results about charged particle production in S-S collisions at 200GeV/c per nucleon, obtained by WA94 experiment at CERN-SPS. The particle identification has been provided by the Omega RICH; a silicon telescope and an array of multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) have been used to track particles to the RICH detector. Details about particle tracking and identification procedure are also reported. (orig.)

  7. Electron transfer processes of atomic and molecular doubly charged ions: information from beam experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, 12-13 (2013), s. 1697-1710. ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632; GA AV ČR IAA400400702 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA440410 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : doubly charged ions * electron transfer processes * beam experiments Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2013

  8. Dynamical observation of lithium insertion/extraction reaction during charge-discharge processes in Li-ion batteries by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyamada, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with solid electrolytes are expected to be the next generation devices to overcome serious issues facing conventional LIBs with liquid electrolytes. However, the large Li-ion transfer resistance at the electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces causes low power density and prevents practical use. In-situ-formed negative electrodes prepared by decomposing the solid electrolyte Li(1+x+3z)Alx(Ti,Ge)(2-x)Si(3z)P(3-z)O12 (LASGTP) with an excess Li-ion insertion reaction are effective electrodes providing low Li-ion transfer resistance at the interfaces. Prior to our work, however, it had still been unclear how the negative electrodes were formed in the parent solid electrolytes. Here, we succeeded in dynamically visualizing the formation by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope mode (SR-TEM-EELS). The Li-ions were gradually inserted into the solid electrolyte region around 400 nm from the negative current-collector/solid-electrolyte interface in the charge process. Some of the ions were then extracted in the discharge process, and the rest were diffused such that the distribution was almost flat, resulting in the negative electrodes. The redox reaction of Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) in the solid electrolyte was also observed in situ during the Li insertion/extraction processes. The in situ SR-TEM-EELS revealed the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in solid-state batteries. PMID:26337787

  9. The Low-Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on the Voyager Spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on the Voyager spacecraft is designed to provide comprehensive measurements of energetic particles in the Jovian, Saturnian, Uranian and interplanetary environments. These measurements will be used in establishing the morphology of the magnetospheres of Saturn and Uranus, including bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetotail, trapped radiation, and satellite-energetic particle interactions. The experiment consists of two subsystems, the Low Energy Magnetospheric Particle Analyzer (LEMPA) whose design is optimized for magnetospheric measurements, and the Low Energy Particle Telescope (LEPT) whose design is optimized for measurements in the distant magnetosphere and the interplanetary medium. (Auth.)

  10. Batteries for Vehicular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Venkat

    2008-09-01

    This paper will describe battery technology as it relates to use in vehicular applications, including hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and plug-in-hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries, the requirements for each application, and the scientific stumbling blocks that stop batteries from being commercialized for these applications will be discussed. Focus will be on the class of batteries referred to as lithium batteries and the various chemistries that are the most promising for these applications. While Li-ion is expected in HEVs in the very near future, use in PHEVs are expected to be more gradual and dependent on solving the life, safety, and cost challenges. Finally, batteries for EVs remain problematic because of the range and charging-time issues.

  11. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  12. A Review of Approaches for the Design of Li-Ion BMS Estimation Functions Revue de différentes approches pour l’estimation de l’état de charge de batteries Li-ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Domenico D.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at comparing different approaches for the estimation of the state of charge of lithium-ion batteries. The main advantages as well as the critical points of the considered techniques are analyzed, highlighting the impact of the cell model precision and complexity on the estimator performance. Among others, the electrical equivalent circuit based technique is selected for further development. The results of a complete procedure from the cell characterization to the online estimation are illustrated. The experimental tests based on the data collected on batteries testing facilities of IFP Energies nouvelles show that the proposed strategy allows a satisfying state of charge real time estimation. Cet article vise à comparer différentes approches pour l’estimation de l’état de charge pour les batteries Li-ion. Les principaux avantages ainsi que les points critiques des différentes techniques sont analysés, en soulignant l’impact de la complexité et de la précision du modèle sur les performances de l’estimateur. La procédure complète, allant de la caractérisation de la cellule jusqu’à l’estimation en ligne de l’état de charge, est présentée pour la modélisation par circuit électrique équivalent. Les tests expérimentaux sur la base des données acquises au laboratoire batteries d’IFP Energies nouvelles montrent que cette stratégie permet d’obtenir un estimateur en temps réel de l’état de charge présentant de bonnes performances.

  13. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  14. Measurement of identified charged hadron spectra with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Milano, L

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE experiment features multiple particle identification systems. The measurement of the identified charged hadron $p_{t}$ spectra in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=900$ GeV will be discussed. In the central rapidity region ($|\\eta|<0.9$) particle identification and tracking are performed using the Inner Tracking System (ITS), which is the closest detector to the beam axis, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and a dedicated time-of-flight system (TOF). Particles are mainly identified using the energy loss signal in the ITS and TPC. In addition, the information from TOF is used to identify hadrons at higher momenta. Finally, the kink topology of the weak decay of charged kaons provides an alternative method to extract the transverse momentum spectra of charged kaons. This combination allows to track and identify charged hadrons in the transverse momentum ($p_{t}$) range from 100 MeV/c up to 2.5 GeV/$c$. Mesons containing strange quarks (\\kos, $\\phi$) and both singly and doubly strange baryons (\\...

  15. Preparation of organic rechargeable battery using phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenols are antioxidant compounds and have the property of electrochemical oxidation. Exploiting the antioxidant properties of the phenol a rechargeable battery was prepared by coupling phenol with resorcinol through salt bridge. The voltage power and stability of this battery was found to depend upon the concentration of the phenols, concentration of the electrolyte, power/voltage of charger and porosity of the salt bridge which connects the two solutions. The salt bridges used for this battery include piece of card board and wicks made of the loose and tightly woven cotton threads i.e. the wick of spirit lamp and the wick used in lantern. Sodium hydroxide solution was used as electrolyte and conductivity improving medium. The concentration of the electrolyte was investigated using its solutions of various concentrations in separate experiments. The voltage of the charger was investigated by using charger/transformers of 6.15 and 3 volt. This five cell phenol battery gives a maximum voltage of 8000 milli volt at the optimum conditions. This battery was recharged using a 15 volt Dc power supply. The charging and theoretical aspects of the battery are also discussed in this communication. (author)

  16. First charged current data from the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CDHS Collaboration has analyzed data taken in the CERN narrow-band antineutrino and neutrino beams. From 12000 antineutrino and 36000 neutrino charged current events at neutrino energies between 30 GeV and 200 GeV, we obtain the average inelasticity and the cross-section ratio sigma antisub(ν)/sigmasub(ν) as a function of neutrino energy. On the basis of these data we cannot confirm the high y anomaly observed by previous experiments at Fermilab. Instead, the measured average inelasticity in anti neutrino reactions and the ratio of charged current total cross-sections sigma anti sub(ν)/sigma%sub(ν) are compatible with no energy variation within their errors in the energy range 30+. (orig.)

  17. The role of space charge in spin-resolved photoemission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin-resolved photoemission is one of the most direct ways of measuring the magnetization of a ferromagnet. If all valence band electrons contribute, the measured average spin polarization is proportional to the magnetization. This is even the case if electronic excitations are present, and thus is of particular interest for studying the response of the magnetization to a pump laser pulse. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast spin-resolved photoemission using free electron laser (FEL) radiation and investigate the effect of space charge on the detected spin polarization. The sample is exposed to the radiation of the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. Surprisingly, the measured spin polarization depends on the fluence of the FEL radiation: a higher FEL fluence reduces the measured spin polarization. Space-charge simulations can explain this effect. These findings have consequences for future spin-polarized photoemission experiments using pulsed photon sources

  18. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10-7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/2/2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  19. Density decrease in vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Galvin, T.M.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Combined effects of dynamically charged helium and neutron damage on density decrease (swelling) of V-4Cr-4Ti, V-5Ti, V-3Ti-1Si, and V-8Cr-6Ti alloys have been determined after irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degrees}C in the Dynamic helium Charging Experiment (DHCE). To ensure better accuracy in density measurement, broken pieces of tensile specimens {approx} 10 times heavier than a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disk were used. Density increases of the four alloys irradiated in the DHCE were <0.5%. This small change seems to be consistent with the negligible number density of microcavities characterized by TEM. Most of the dynamically produced helium atoms seem to have been trapped in the grain matrix without significant cavity nucleation or growth.

  20. On the self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials and its effects in the torsion balance experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2003-01-01

    We concern ourselves with the self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials and some related topics on its effects in the present paper. The contribution of self-induced charge currents of metamaterial media to photon effective rest mass is briefly discussed. We concentrate primarily on the torque, which is caused by the interaction of self-induced charge currents in dilute plasma with interstellar magnetic fields, acting on the torsion balance in the torsion balance experiment. I...

  1. Characterization of lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon and its excellent performance of extending lead-acid battery cycle life for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Pengyang; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Rongbo; Yi, Fenyun; Shi, Guang; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon (Pb@C) is prepared as the additive of negative active mass (NAM), aiming to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of the lead-acid battery. The characters of the Pb@C materials and their electrochemical properties are characterized by XRD, SEM, back-scattering electron image (BESI) and electrochemical methods. The lead (Ⅱ) ions disperse well in the carbon bulk of the obtained Pb@C materials as observed, and these materials exhibit remarkable higher specific capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution over-potential compared with original carbons. Many 2 V lead-acid batteries are assembled manually in our lab, and then the batteries are disassembled after formation and high-rate-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Results manifest that the Pb@C additives exhibit high affinity to lead and act as a porous-skeleton in the formation process as well as under HRPSoC cycling conditions, leading to the small and fine formation of PbSO4 particles and accordingly higher active material utilization rate more than 50%, better cycling performance and charging acceptance. Besides, excellent cycle performances of these batteries have great relationship with the dazzling hydrogen evolution performance of Pb@C materials. A possible working mechanism is also proposed based on the testing data in this paper.

  2. 新型充放电均衡一体化电池管理系统研究%New battery management system of integrated charging and discharging balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占国; 文锋; 盛大双; 李索宇

    2012-01-01

    电动汽车串联动力电池组的不一致问题,使得成组电池在容量利用、使用寿命及安全等方面的性能远不及单体电池.分析了电动汽车动力锂电池组不一致产生的原因,以及现有均衡方案存在的问题.提出了一种基于SOC的新型充放电均衡一体化电池管理系统(BMS)方案,并依据车载在线均衡要求设计了均衡硬件电路.实车验证表明,通过均衡模块作用整组电池的可用容量提高了 1.2%,降低了电动汽车电池的使用和维护成本.%Battery's inconsistency of power battery pack connected in series can cause the group battery far inferior to single cell on available capacity, service life and security. The reasons of the battery pack inconsistency are analyzed in this paper. The issues of the traditional battery equalization are also addressed. A new battery management system (BMS) which integrates charging and discharging balance based on the SOC balanced strategy is proposed. And the online balancing hardware circuit is designed according to the vehicle requirement. The experimental results demonstrate that the available capacity of the battery pack is increased by 1.2% with the proposed BMS, the application and maintenance cost is reduced. Therefore it provides the technical support for the development of electric vehicles.

  3. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Observer with Grey Prediction for the Estimation of the State-of-Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state-of-charge (SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries that combines a fuzzy sliding mode observer (FSMO with grey prediction. Unlike the existing methods based on a conventional first-order sliding mode observer (SMO and an adaptive gain SMO, the proposed method eliminates chattering in SOC estimation. In this method, which uses a fuzzy inference system, the gains of the SMO are adjusted according to the predicted future error and present estimation error of the terminal voltage. To forecast the future error value, a one-step-ahead terminal voltage prediction is obtained using a grey predictor. The proposed estimation method is validated through two types of discharge tests (a pulse discharge test and a random discharge test. The SOC estimation results are compared to the results of the conventional first-order SMO-based and the adaptive gain SMO-based methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only reduces chattering, but also improves estimation accuracy.

  4. Ductile-brittle transition behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.J.; Busch, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of simultaneous displacement damage and dynamically charged helium on the ductile-brittle transition behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti specimens irradiated to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degrees}C in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE).

  5. Research on typical design scheme of charging/battery swap infrastructure for electric vehicle%电动汽车充换电设施典型设计方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆强; 寇英刚; 马建伟; 闫安心; 江明

    2015-01-01

    为规范充换电设施建设规模和站体布置,研究了电动汽车充换电设施标准化问题,提出了典型设计方案。阐述了典型设计方案编制原则,给出了服务对象具体参数和典型设计方案分类,举例对充电站典型设计方案进行分析研究,包括总平面布置、充电设备、供配电系统、二次系统、土建、消防等内容,并从电池架充电、分箱充电机选型及组柜、换电设备设计、换电监控、电池检测维护等五方面详细阐述换电系统设计方案。提供了所有典型设计方案的配置情况。该典型设计方案可用于统一设备类别和选型,有效控制充换电设施工程造价,也为后续充换电设施运行维护取费标准作好准备,已成功用于指导国家电网公司系统各单位编制充换电设施项目建设方案。%For limiting the construction scale and the layout of charging/battery swap infrastructure, standardization schemes of electric vehicle charging/battery swap infrastructure are researched, and then typical design schemes are raised. Firstly, the typical design scheme compiling principle is described, and specific parameters of serviced electric vehicle and the classification of typical design scheme are provided. On the basis, a typical scheme, including general layout, charging equipment, power supply and distribution system, second order system, civil engineering, fire control, etc., is used as an example for detailedly researching and analyzing the typical design schemes. The design scheme of battery swap system is elaborated in detail, in which charging battery frame, box charger selection and set cabinet, design of battery swap device, battery swap monitoring, battery detection and maintenance are involved. At last, the configuration of typical design schemes is provided. The proposed typical design schemes can be used for unifying the category and selection of equipment and determining the operation

  6. The transverse momentum dependence of charged kaon Bose–Einstein correlations in the SELEX experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Nigmatkulov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the measurement of the one-dimensional charged kaon correlation functions using 600GeV/c Σ−, π− and 540GeV/c p beams from the SELEX (E781 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. K±K± correlation functions are studied for three transverse pair momentum, kT, ranges and parameterized by a Gaussian form. The emission source radii, R, and the correlation strength, λ, are extracted. The analysis shows a decrease of the source radii with increasing kaon transverse pair momentum for all beam types.

  7. The transverse momentum dependencies of charged kaon Bose-Einstein correlations in the SELEX experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nigmatkulov, G A; Akgun, U; Alkhazov, G; Amaro-Reyes, J; Asratyan, A; Atamantchouk, A G; Ayan, A S; Balatz, M Y; Blanco-Covarrubias, A; Bondar, N F; Cooper, P S; Dauwe, L J; Davidenko, G V; Dersch, U; Dolgolenko, A G; Dzyubenko, G B; Edelstein, R; Emediato, L; Endler, A M F; Engelfried, J; Eschrich, I; Escobar, C O; Estrada, N; Evdokimov, A V; Filimonov, I S; Flores-Castillo, A; Garcia, F G; Golovtsov, V L; Gouffon, P; Gülmez, E; Iori, M; Jun, S Y; Kaya, M; Kilmer, J; Kim, V T; Kochenda, L M; Konorov, I; Kozhevnikov, A P; Krivshich, A G; Krüger, H; Kubantsev, M A; Kubarovsky, V P; Kulyavtsev, A I; Kuropatrkin, N P; Kurshetsov, V F; Kushnirenko, A; Lach, J; Landsberg, L G; Larin, I; Leikin, E M; López-Hinojosa, G; Lungov, T; Maleev, V P; Mao, D; Mathew, P; Mattson, M; Matveev, V; McCliment, E; Moinester, M A; Molchanov, V V; Morelos, A; Nemitkin, A V; Neoustroev, P V; Newsom, C; Nilov, A P; Nurushev, S B; Ocherashvili, A; Onel, Y; Ozkorucuklu, S; Penzo, A; Petrenko, S V; Procario, M; Prutskoi, V A; Razmyslovich, B V; Romanov, D A; Rud, V I; Russ, J; Sánchez-López, J L; Savchenko, A A; Simon, J; Sinev, G V; Sitnikov, A I; Smith, V J; Srivastava, M; Steiner, V; Stepanov, V; Stutte, L; Svoiski, M; Tarasov, V V; Terentyev, N K; Torres, I; Uvarov, L N; Vasiliev, A N; Vavilov, D V; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Verebryusov, V S; Victorov, V A; Vishnyakov, V E; Vorobyov, A A; Vorwalter, K; You, J; Zukanovich-Funchal, R

    2015-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the charged kaon correlation functions $k_T$ dependencies using 600 GeV/$c$ $\\Sigma^-$, $\\pi^-$ and 540 GeV/$c$ $p$ beams from the SELEX (E781) experiment at Tevatron. One-dimentional $K^{ch}K^{ch}$ correlation functions are constructed in three transverse momentum ranges. The emission source parameters $\\lambda$ and $R$ are extracted. The analysis shows a decrease of the source radii with the kaon pair transverse momentum for all beam types

  8. The first test experiment of H- charge-exchange injection in the KEK booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H- charge-exchange injection method was applied to the 500 MeV booster of the 12 GeV proton synchrotron at KEK, as an alternative to the multi-turn injection method using direct injection of protons. The first test experiment of such injection was carried out during three weeks beginning in late September 1983. Experimental results showed that, in spite of the low injection energy used for our booster, such an injection method is promising for increasing the beam intensity of the booster. And also, some further improvements are proposed. (author)

  9. Multiply charged ion sources for photon-ion crossed beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intense beams of synchrotron radiation which will be available from dedicated storage rings such as the x-ray and vuv rings at the National Synchrotron Light Source allow one to contemplate experimental arrangements which can be used to investigate photon-ion interactions in the x-ray and vuv ranges. Studies of multiple charged ions of charge greater than two and their interactions with photons are of great interest because of the general lack of experimental information about the properties of ground and highly excited states of such ions and the important role some multiply charged ions play in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Experimental arrangements which would allow the use of photons as probes of such systems would be invaluable in these studies and would help stimulate research in a thus far untouched but increasingly important area of atomic physics. Specific experimental arrangements will depend on the aspects of the interaction being studied, but in general the experiments will be technically difficult and by necessity will involve crossed ion-photon beams with concomitant small interaction rates

  10. Energy Transferring Dynamic Equalization for Battery Packs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The equivalent circuit model of battery and the analytic model of series battery uniformities are setup. The analysis shows that it is the key to maintain small voltage difference between cells in order to improve uniformities. Therefore a new technique combining low voltage difference, big current charging and bi-directional charge equalizer system is put forward and designed. The test shows that the energy transferring dynamic equalization system betters the series battery uniformities and protection during charging and discharging, improves the battery performance and extends the use life of series battery.

  11. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Budhi Anto; Edy Hamdani; Rizki Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power ...

  12. 典型蓄电池的建模与荷电状态估算的对比研究%Comparison study on model and state of charge estimation of typical battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红斌; 顾缃; 赵波; 朱承治

    2014-01-01

    研究不同蓄电池荷电状态(state of charge, SOC)的变化特征有助于在实际应用过程中对蓄电池类型进行选择。基于铅酸电池、磷酸铁锂电池、全钒液流电池3种典型蓄电池模型,采用电池容量修正过的改进安时计量法和改进安时-卡尔曼预测法( Ah-Kal法),对各电池在不同充放电模式下,用MATLAB软件编程得到两种估算方法下的SOC变化曲线。通过SOC对比曲线可以发现铅酸电池的自放电较严重,循环寿命短;磷酸铁锂电池可迅速提供大功率;而全钒液流电池适合作为长期大容量储能支持。同时,改进安时计量法和Ah-Kal的估算结果基本相同,验证了Ah-Kal法的正确性。%It is helpful to make the reasonable choice on types of battery in actual application through studying on state of charge (SOC) of the different batteries.Based on the models of Lead-acid battery, LiFePO4Li-ion battery and Vanadium Redox Flow battery(VRB), the SOC of each battery was estimated through the improved Ah count-ing method and the method of combined improved Ah counting-Kalman filtering(Ah-kal method).Under the differ-ent charging or discharging modes, it obtained the curves of SOC with MATLAB software.It can be found that the Lead-acid battery has the serious self-discharge and short cycle life, the LiFePO4Li-ion battery could supply rapidly high power, and VRB has the large-capacity energy storage support for long-term.With the simulation results, it validates that the improved Ah counting method and Ah-Kal method have almost equal result .And it verifies the correctness of the Ah-Kal method.

  13. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  14. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  15. Beam Charge Measurement for the g2p/GEp experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Pengjia

    2016-01-01

    The g2p/GEp experiments used a solid NH3 polarized target, where the polarization of the target is sensitive to temperature and radiation. The beam current was limited to 5-100 nA during the experiment to avoid too much depolarization of target (The typical Hall A running condition for beam current is 1 uA to 100 uA). The measured charge was further used to get the accurate physics cross sections. New BCM (Beam Current Monitor) receivers and a DAQ system were used to measure the beam current at such a low current range. A tungsten calorimeter was used to calibrate the BCMs. This technical note summarizes the calibration procedure and the performance of the BCMs.

  16. Feasibility of conducting a dynamic helium charging experiment for vanadium alloys in the advanced test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Matsui, H. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of conducting a dynamic helium charging experiment (DHCE) for vanadium alloys in the water-cooled Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being investigated as part of the U.S./Monbusho collaboration. Preliminary findings suggest that such an experiment is feasible, with certain constraints. Creating a suitable irradiation position in the ATR, designing an effective thermal neutron filter, incorporating thermocouples for limited specimen temperature monitoring, and handling of tritium during various phases of the assembly and reactor operation all appear to be feasible. An issue that would require special attention, however, is tritium permeation loss through the capsule wall at the higher design temperatures (>{approx}600{degrees}C). If permeation is excessive, the reduced amount of tritium entering the test specimens would limit the helium generation rates in them. At the lower design temperatures (<{approx}425{degrees}C), sodium, instead of lithium, may have to be used as the bond material to overcome the tritium solubility limitation.

  17. CHARACTERIZING DETONATING LX-17 CHARGES CROSSING A TRANSVERSE AIR GAP WITH EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauderbach, L M; Souers, P C; Garcia, F; Vitello, P; Vandersall, K S

    2009-06-26

    Experiments were performed using detonating LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-F by weight) charges with various width transverse air gaps with manganin peizoresistive in-situ gauges present. The experiments, performed with 25 mm diameter by 25 mm long LX-17 pellets with the transverse air gap in between, showed that transverse gaps up to about 3 mm could be present without causing the detonation wave to fail to continue as a detonation. The Tarantula/JWL{sup ++} code was utilized to model the results and compare with the in-situ gauge records with some agreement to the experimental data with additional work needed for a better match to the data. This work will present the experimental details as well as comparison to the model results.

  18. 电动汽车铅酸电池脉冲快速充电系统设计%Design of the Pulse-type Fast Speed Charging System of Lead-Acid Battery for Electric Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段朝伟; 张雷; 刘刚

    2013-01-01

    为了缩短电动汽车铅酸电池的充电时间,提高能量接受率,基于带放电电流脉宽调制技术,设计了汽车电池脉冲快速充电系统.该系统采用嵌入式控制和上位机监控相结合的方式,软硬设计合理,性能可靠.试验数据分析表明,该系统有效缓解了电池的极化现象,缩短了汽车铅酸电池的充电时间,提高了电池能量接受率.系统具有广泛的应用前景.%In order to shorten the charging time of the lead-acid battery for electric car,and improve the energy acceptance rate,based on current pulse width modulation technology with discharging,the pulse type fast speed charging system of the battery for electric car has been designed.By adopting embedded control and combining with host computer monitoring,the system is designed reasonably in hardware and software and offers reliable performance.The analysis of test data indicates that this system effectively alleviates the polarization phenomenon of battery,shortens the charging time of the lead-acid battery,and enhances the energy acceptance rate.The system possesses broad applicable prospects.

  19. Li3V2(PO4)3 encapsulated flexible free-standing nanofabric cathodes for fast charging and long life-cycle lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Zhao, Xueying; Chen, Renpeng; Chen, Tao; Ma, Lianbo; Fan, Qi; Lu, Hongling; Hu, Yi; Tie, Zuoxiu; Jin, Zhong; Xu, Qingyu; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Lithiated transition metal phosphates with large theoretical capacities have emerged as promising cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. However, the poor kinetic properties caused by their low intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity greatly hinder their practical applications. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy to prepare monoclinic lithium vanadium phosphate nanoparticles implanted in carbon nanofibers as the cathodes of Li-ion cells with high capacity, flexibility, long cycle stability and significantly improved high-rate performance. The composite nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning using polyacrylonitrile and Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles, followed by annealing and coating with a thin layer of carbon by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals with the monoclinic phase were uniformly distributed in the composite nanofibers. The electrochemical performances of the as-prepared binder-free fibrous cathodes were characterized by potentiostatic and galvanostatic tests. At the rate of 0.5 C in the range of 3.0-4.3 V, the composite displayed an initial discharge capacity of 128 mA h g-1 (96.2% of the theoretical capacity). A discharge capacity of 120 mA h g-1 was observed even at a high rate of 10 C, and a capacity retention of 98.9% was maintained after 500 cycles at 5 C, indicating excellent high-rate capability and capacity retention. Compared to the control samples without a carbon outer-layer, the composite nanofibers with carbon coating demonstrated much better electrochemical performances. It indicates that the carbon coating can further protect the structural integrity of nanofabric electrodes during the charge/discharge processes without hindering the Li-ion mobility and also can prevent undesired side reactions with an electrolyte, thus greatly improving the rate performance and cyclic stability of the cathode.Lithiated transition metal phosphates with large theoretical capacities have

  20. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandems in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S6-16+ on He and Ar at 6-20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl16+ + Ar collisions at 20, 10 and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed

  1. Measurement of the Λ polarization in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Λ polarization in νμ charged current interactions has been measured in the NOMAD experiment. The event sample (8087 reconstructed Λ 's) is more than an order of magnitude larger than that of previous bubble chamber experiments, while the quality of event reconstruction is comparable. We observe negative polarization along the W -boson direction which is enhanced in the target fragmentation region: Px(xFx(xF>0)=-0.09±0.06(stat)±0.03(sys) . These results provide a test of different models describing the nucleon spin composition and the spin transfer mechanisms. A significant transverse polarization (in the direction orthogonal to the Λ production plane) has been observed for the first time in a neutrino experiment: Py=-0.22±0.03(stat)±0.01(sys) . The dependence of the absolute value of Py on the Λ transverse momentum with respect to the hadronic jet direction is in qualitative agreement with the results from unpolarized hadron-hadron experiments

  2. 煤矿井下单轨吊车蓄电池智能充电系统设计%Intelligent Charging System Design of Monorail Hoist Battery in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓艳; 李振璧

    2012-01-01

    In view of the inadequacies of current battery charger, one intelligent charging system of monorail hoist battery based on variable voltage intermittent fast charging method is designed. The system is integrated in hoist sharing one ARM CPU with the whole machine. It is worth of market popularization with the advantages of low cost, high efficiency and effectively postponing battery service time.%针对煤矿井下蓄电池充电系统的不足,设计了基于改进型变电压间歇快速充电法的蓄电池单轨吊车智能充电系统。该充电系统集成于机车内,与整机控制系统共享一块ARM芯片,经试验验证,具有成本低、效率高、能有效延长蓄电池使用寿命等优点。

  3. Real Experiments versus Phet Simulations for Better High-School Students' Understanding of Electrostatic Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajredini, Fadil; Izairi, Neset; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence of computer simulations (virtual experiments) on one hand and real experiments on the other hand on the conceptual understanding of electrical charging. The investigated sample consists of students in the second year (10th grade) of three gymnasiums in Macedonia. There were two experimental groups and one…

  4. HITRAP - a facility for experiments on heavy highly charged ions and on antiprotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andjelkovic, Z; Barth, W; Brantjes, N P M; Braeuning-Demian, A; Dahl, L; Herfurth, F; Kester, O; Kluge, H J; Koszudowski, S; Kozhuharov, C; Maero, G; Noertershaeuser, W [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Birkl, G [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Blank, I; Goetz, S [Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Blaum, K [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bodewits, E; Hoekstra, R [KVI Groningen (Netherlands); Church, D [Texas AM University, Texas (United States); Pfister, J, E-mail: w.quint@gsi.d [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    HITRAP is a facility for very slow highly-charged heavy ions at GSI. HITRAP uses the GSI relativistic ion beams, the Experimental Storage Ring ESR for electron cooling and deceleration to 4 MeV/u, and consists of a combination of an interdigital H-mode (IH) structure with a radiofrequency quadrupole structure for further deceleration to 6 keV/u, and a Penning trap for accumulation and cooling to low temperatures. Finally, ion beams with low emittance will be delivered to a large variety of atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Presently, HITRAP is in the commissioning phase. The deceleration of heavy-ion beam from the ESR storage ring to an energy of 500 keV/u with the IH structure has been demonstrated and studied in detail. The commissioning of the RFQ structure and the cooler trap is ongoing.

  5. Space-charge neutralization experiment with a low-energy proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of space-charge neutralization of a low-energy proton beam is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiment, the transverse profile of a 500 keV proton beam delivered by a duoplasmatron source is accurately measured at the end of a 3 m long drift space. Profile measurements are performed by an imaging technique using a scintillating screen and an intensified CCD camera. Measurement results done with different beam intensities (between 0.5 and 15 mA) and various residual-gas pressures are described. They show that, at high beam current an increase of the gas pressure results in a reduction of the beam spot, which indicates an increase of the value of the neutralization coefficient. On the other hand, the behavior is the opposite at low beam current: the beam size increases with the gas pressure. An interpretation of these experimental results is proposed. (author)

  6. Precision spectroscopy of trapped highly charged heavy elements: pushing the limits of theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic spectroscopy results from the electron beam ion trap at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have generally agreed with the predictions of theory extremely well. An interesting exception is our recent result on the helium isoelectronic sequence at Z = 22, which agrees instead with a meta-analysis of all prior measurements above Z = 15, but disagrees with both theory and a contemporaneous report of an independent measurement at Z = 18 which claims to validate theory to high accuracy. Here, a potential systematic shift involving high-n satellite lines induced by double charge exchange is quantitatively estimated and shown to be potentially significant in experiments involving gasses. Suggestions for further refinements in estimating the magnitude of this systematic shift are given. (paper)

  7. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Rochester U.

    2015-10-28

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  8. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, J. [Tufts U.

    2015-12-31

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generator. We furthermore report on a photon-like background unpredicted by the generator which we interpret as neutral-coherent diffractive scattering from hydrogen.

  9. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, J

    2016-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generato...

  10. Electron neutrino charged-current quasielastic scattering in the MINERvA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  11. The electric vehicle routing problem with partial charging and nonlinear charging function

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Alejandro; Guéret, Christelle; Mendoza, Jorge E.; Villegas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicle routing problems (eVRPs) extend classical routing problems to consider the limited driving range of electric vehicles. In general, this limitation is overcome by introducing planned detours to battery charging stations. Most existing eVRP models rely on one (or both) of the following assumptions: (i) the vehicles fully charge their batteries every time they reach a charging station, and (ii) the battery charge level is a linear function of the charging time. In practical situ...

  12. 循环充放电条件下锂离子电池的温度模拟%Simulation on the Temperature of Lithium-Ion Battery during Charge-Discharge Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秋娟; 王青松; 平平; 赵学娟

    2014-01-01

    锂离子电池在充放电过程中产生的热量主要为两部分,即因电化学反应而产生的可逆热和由极化产生的不可逆热。若电池内部温度达到82℃以上时,钴酸锂电池材料将发生热分解,引发一系列不可控化学反应,释放出大量的反应热。本论文在可逆热和不可逆热的基础上,耦合电池材料分解热,采用有限元技术,模拟锂离子电池在充放电过程中不同对流条件以及不同外界温度下电池内部温度的变化,为揭示锂离子电池热失控机制提供理论依据。%The heat generation for lithium-ion batteries is composed of the reversible heat caused by the electrochemical reaction and the irreversible heat due to polarization during charge-discharge cycling. The materials of cobalt acid lithium battery begin to decompose once the internal temperature of the battery reached 82oC. A series of uncontrolled chemical reactions are triggered, resulting in releasing a large amount of heat. With the aid of finite element technology, the reversible, irreversible heat and the decomposition heat are both considered in this work to simulate the internal temperature variation of lithium-ion batteries under different cooling conditions and ambient temperatures, which can provide theoretical basis to disclose the thermal runaway mechanism for this kind of battery.

  13. 全钒液流电池电化学建模与充放电分析%Electrochemical model of all vanadium redox flow battery and its charge/discharge analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文源; 袁越; 傅质馨; 惠东; 杨凯

    2013-01-01

    全钒氧化还原液流电池凭借它的诸多优势,在电力系统中的应用潜力巨大,前景广阔,然而目前尚未有较为统一的仿真模型.以钒电池的电化学原理为基础,推导了以钒电池荷电容量和初始离子浓度为参量的电压方程,通过三组实际系统对仿真模型进行了验证.在此模型基础上,仿真分析对比了钒电池常见的恒功率和恒电流的充放电方法的各项效率指标.%With various advantages,all vanadium redox flow battery is a promising technology in power system.However,the simulation model of vanadium redox battery has not yet been united.Based on the electrochemical principal,the voltage function with the initial ion concentrations and the state of charge as parameters was deduced.The proposed model was then verified by comparing the simulations results with measured data taking from three different actual systems.Moreover,simulations of the constant power charging and constant current charging methods were taking out and their efficiencies were analyzed.

  14. Simplified performance models of photovoltaic/diesel generator/battery system considering typical control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed model for hybrid PV/DG system considering load following control method. • We developed model for hybrid PV/DG system considering cycle charging control method. • We validated these models using simulations and experiment. - Abstract: Simplified dynamic models of photovoltaic/diesel generator/battery system using MATLAB line code are presented in this paper. The main purpose of these models is to predict the performance of photovoltaic/diesel generator/battery system through a specific time period. A complex battery model as well as the most recommended control strategies such as load following and cycle-charging dispatch are considered in the proposed models. Finally, the proposed models are validated using simulation and experimental data. Such models are helpful in studies related to hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generator/battery system control, sizing and performance assessments

  15. Research on Intermittent-Positive and Negative Pulse Fast Charging of Lithiumion Battery%间歇-正负脉冲蓄电池快速充电方法的研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铁洲; 白婷; 胡丽平; 李子龙

    2014-01-01

    One of the key issues currently affecting charging speed of lithium ion battery is how to eliminate or re-duce the polarization in the charging process. More widely using in fast charge battery of traditional fast charging method is the multi-stage constant current pulse charging method which takes method of positive pulse,stop charging and other ways to reduce or eliminate the polarization effect to improve the charging speed in a certain extent,but the result is not satisfied. This paper proposes the intermittent-positive and negative pulse charging method using al-ternately charge and discharge to reduce or eliminate the polarization phenomenon. Gassing point voltage and polari-zation voltage are used to monitor the polarization status of storage battery. And then,two fuzzy controllers identify the positive and negative pulsed width for the intermittent positive and negative pulse method. According to the ex-perimental results,comparing with traditional multi-stage constant current pulse charging method using stop charging mode,the charging time,charging efficiency and average temperature rise,are improved by about 33.3%,5.1%, 57.1%,respectively.%目前影响锂离子电池充电速度的关键问题之一是如何消除或减小充电过程中的极化现象。传统的快速充电法中使用比较广泛的是多阶恒流脉冲充电法,主要采用正脉冲、停充等方式来减小或消除极化效应,在一定程度上提高了充电速度,但效果不够理想。提出的间歇-正负脉冲充电法,首先依据析气点电压和极化电压监测蓄电池极化状况,然后采用两种模糊控制器,分别确定间歇-正负脉冲充电法中的正负脉冲宽度,采用交替充电和放电减少或消除充电过程中的极化现象。实验证明,间歇-正负脉冲充电方法比传统的采用停充方式的多阶恒流脉冲充电法充电速度提高了33.3%,充电效率提高了5.1%,温升降低了57%。

  16. Recent experiments on near-threshold electron-impact excitation of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent measurements of excitation of multiply charged ions by electrons studied in beam-beam experiments are highlighted. The emphasis is on absolute total cross sections measured with the merged electron-ion beams energy-loss (MEIBEL) technique, although some results obtained with the crossed-beams fluorescence method are also presented. The MEIBEL technique allows the investigation of optically-allowed and forbidden transitions with sufficient energy resolution, typically about 0.2 eV, to resolve resonance structures in the cross sections. Results from the JILA/ORNL MEIBEL experiment on dipole-allowed transitions in several ions demonstrate the success of various theoretical methods in predicting cross sections in the absence of resonances. Comparisons of R-matrix calculations and measured cross sections for spin-forbidden transitions in Mg-like Si2+ and Ar6+, however, show that further refinements to the theory are needed in order to more accurately predict cross sections involving significant contributions from dielectric resonance's and interactions between neighboring resonances

  17. BLET:Battery Lifetime Enhancement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ju; Jang; Seongsoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>In recent years,mobile devices and high-hearth because of the multifunctional,battery capacity has been increased.In this paper,without the overhead by using the battery discharge characteristics,and application of technology to extend the battery life is explained. Experiment H.264 video transmission to take some losses and extended battery life was achieved.

  18. Some important aspects of the amplitude, charge and shape analog signals digitization in nuclear physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the fundamental reasons of the special requirements concerning analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) used in nuclear experimental physics, especially in nuclear spectroscopy, in comparison to the conventional ADC's is a fact that they are utilized for continuous distribution measurements which are the nuclear radiation spectra. The ADC's used for distribution registration in form of amplitude or charge histogram spectra should have the differential linearity of two orders of magnitude better than that for conventional ADC's. Moreover, the problem of achievement the acceptable differential linearity (as well as stability) in nuclear spectroscopy is much more complicated because high resolution and high speed of the converters are also required. The first requirement comes out from application of semiconductor detectors, the second one comes from the statistical character of the nuclear processes, as well as, a necessity of collection of huge amount of nuclear data - often in a short time. In this report the influence of the specific needs of the nuclear experiments on the conversion methods selection and construction principles of the pulse ADC's is analyzed. Focus is taken on these ADC's which are used mainly to digital amplitude and charge detector signals measurements in nuclear spectroscopy. Based on the chosen examples of different types of ADC's it is shown how to obtain the required metrological parameters by using enlarged converter's structures and proper choice of the electronics components. In addition, a problem of the detector signals shape measurements in particle physics using the high speed flash ADC's is also discussed. (author). 196 refs, 99 figs, 7 tabs

  19. Battery Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However, with these models one can only compute lifetimes for specific discharge profiles, and not for workloads in general. In this paper, we give an overview of the different battery models that are availabl...

  20. 46 CFR 120.350 - Batteries-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each battery must be located as high above the bilge as practicable, secured to protect against...) Batteries must be accessible for maintenance and removal. (d) Connections must be made to battery terminals... the electrolyte. (f) Battery chargers must have an ammeter connected in the charging circuit. (g)...

  1. Models of novel battery architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Paul; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Talin, Alec

    2013-03-01

    We use a 1-dimensional model of electronic and ionic transport, coupled with experimental data, to extract the interfacial electrochemical parameters for LiCoO2-LIPON-Si thin film batteries. TEM imaging of batteries has shown that charge/discharge cycles can lead to breakdown of the interfaces, which reduces the effective area through which further Li ion transfer can occur. This is modeled phenomenologically by changing the effective cross sectional area, in order to correlate this structural change with the change in charge/discharge I-V curves. Finally, by adopting the model to radial coordinates, the geometrical effect of nanowire architectures for batteries is investigated.

  2. 移动式电动汽车充换电的服务理念及其实施%Mobile Battery Charging/Swapping Service for Electric Vehicles and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑾; 杨冠群; 唐国春

    2014-01-01

    电动汽车未来大规模发展需要众多公共充电设施的支持,但是出于地面场地的限制,以及大规模充电对配电网可能带来的冲击,极大地限制了固定式充电设施的布设。为了克服这些困难,提出一种全新的设想方案,即建立移动式电动汽车充换电系统,并分析了这一系统相对于固定式充电设施的优势,以及它从技术角度的可行性。%The massive development of electric vehicles in near future demands numerous public charging infrastructure’s backup. However, the restriction of ground space and the possible impacts of large-scale charging behavior on distribution network, significantly confine the installment of fixable charging infrastructure. In order to overcome these difficulties, a novel conjecture scheme-establish-ment of a mobile battery charging/swapping system for electric vehicles is presented. Furthermore, the advantages of the novel system over fixable charging infrastructure and the feasibility of implementation from the point of view of technology is analyzed.

  3. Aproximation to the Modelling of Charge and Discharge Processes in Electrochemical Batteries by Integral Equation; Aproximacion al Modelo de los Procesos de Carga y Descarga en Baterias Electroquimicas mediante Ecuaciones Integrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui, J. L. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A new way for the modelling of the charge and discharge processes in electrochemical batteries based on the use of integral equations is presented. The proposed method models the charge curves by by the so called fractional or cumulative integrals of a certain objective function f(t) that must be sought. The charge figures can be easily fitted by breaking down this objective function as the addition of two different Lorentz-type functions: the first one is associated to the own charge process and the second one to the overcharge process. The method allows calculating the starting voltage for overcharge as the intersection between both functions. The curve fitting of this model to different experimental charge curves, by using the Marquardt algorithm, has shown very accurate results. In the case of discharge curves, two possible methods for modelling purposes are suggested, well by using the same kind of integral equations, well by the simple subtraction of an objective function f(t) from a constant value V{sub o}D. Many other aspects for the study and analysis of this method in order to improve its results in further developments are also discussed. (Author) 10 refs.

  4. An Intelligent Power Management approach for Battery Operating Robotic Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Mathews*1; V. Gopi2

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about a robotic vehicle aims on the design of efficient charging system of batteries by means of tracked solar panels. The main attraction of this paper is the design concept of the charging and discharging cycles of the batteries based on the PIC micro-controller. The efficient charging system concept is designed on a PIC micro-controller. The energy system consists of two batteries and are, one for charging independently from the solar panel and the other batte...

  5. On the self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials and its effects in the torsion balance experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, J Q

    2003-01-01

    We concern ourselves with the self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials and some related topics on its effects in the present paper. The contribution of self-induced charge currents of metamaterial media to photon effective rest mass is briefly discussed. We concentrate primarily on the torque, which is caused by the interaction of self-induced charge currents in dilute plasma with interstellar magnetic fields, acting on the torsion balance in the torsion balance experiment. It is shown by our evaluation that the muons and alpha-particles in secondary cosmic rays will contribute an effective rest mass about 10^{-54} Kg to the photon, which is compared to the newly obtained upper limit on photon rest mass in Luo's rotating torsion balance experiment.

  6. 电动公交车换电站--电池充电站优化规划%Optimal Planning of Battery Charging and Exchange Stations for Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱斌; 石东源; 谢平平; 朱林

    2014-01-01

    充电设施的规划与建设是解决电动汽车发展瓶颈的重要问题。电动汽车在公共交通领域发展迅速,并广泛采用换电模式。文中充分考虑了电动公交汽车换电电量需求和充换电行为,提出了一种换电站-电池充电站建设模式,并给出了相应的优化规划方法。该方法首先使用近邻传播聚类算法对换电需求点进行空间聚类,以确定电池充电站的站址和规模,并利用化石燃料与电能的热值关系,将当前柴油公交车日消耗能量折算成电能以确定换电电量需求。然后,利用排队论方法对电池充电站内的工作情形进行建模,提出以拒绝服务率为主要约束,以综合建设成本最小为目标的优化模型。最后,以某城市实际统计数据为例给出了该市公交汽车换电站、电池充电站以及其充电设备、换电设备、电池的规划方案,为电动公交车充、换电站的实际规划提供参考。%The planning and deployment of electric vehicle battery charging devices is an important problem in tackling the bottleneck of electric vehicles.Although the charging mode is widely preferred,the exchange mode is still popular with public transport.A battery charging-exchange station construction mode is proposed along with the corresponding optimal planning strategy by taking the electric bus demand into consideration.The affinity propagation clustering algorithm is used to determine the sizing and siting of the battery charging stations.In order to identify the bus electricity demand,daily fuel consumption is converted into equivalent electricity usage.The queuing theory is put forward to model the daily management of battery charging stations.After that,a minimum construction cost optimization model is built with the service denying rate as the major constraint.Finally,actual statistics of a city are taken as an example to determine the quantity of charge/exchange devices and

  7. The $Q_{weak}$ Experiment: First Determination of the Weak Charge of the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Kargiantoulakis, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    The $Q_{weak}$ Collaboration has completed a challenging measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton ($\\vec{e}$p) scattering at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The initial result reported here is extracted from the commissioning part of the experiment, constituting about 4% of the full data set. The parity-violating asymmetry at a low momentum transfer $Q^2$=0.025 GeV$^2$ is $A_{ep}$ = -279 $\\pm$ 35 (stat) $\\pm$ 31 (syst) ppb, which is the smallest and most precise asymmetry ever measured in $\\vec{e}$p scattering. This result allowed the first determination of the weak charge of the proton $Q_W^p$ from a global fit of parity-violating elastic scattering (PVES) results from nuclear targets, where earlier data at higher $Q^2$ constrain uncertainties of hadronic structure. The value extracted from the global fit is $Q_W^p$ (PVES) = 0.064 $\\pm$ 0.012, in agreement with the standard model prediction $Q_W^p$ (SM) = 0.0710 $\\pm$ 0.0007. The neutral wea...

  8. Design and operation of a cryogenic charge-integrating preamplifier for the MuSun experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central detector in the MuSun experiment is a pad-plane time projection ionization chamber that operates without gas amplification in deuterium at 31 K; it is used to measure the rate of the muon capture process μ−+d→n+n+νμ. A new charge-sensitive preamplifier, operated at 140 K, has been developed for this detector. It achieved a resolution of 4.5 keV(D2) or 120 e− RMS with zero detector capacitance at 1.1 μ s integration time in laboratory tests. In the experimental environment, the electronic resolution is 10 keV(D2) or 250 e− RMS at a 0.5 μ s integration time. The excellent energy resolution of this amplifier has enabled discrimination between signals from muon-catalyzed fusion and muon capture on chemical impurities, which will precisely determine systematic corrections due to these processes. It is also expected to improve the muon tracking and determination of the stopping location

  9. Inclusive charged-particle multiplicity in the HERA-B fixed-target experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HERA-B fixed-target experiment at the DESY laboratory is dedicated to the search for CP violation in the system of neutral B-mesons. The key measurement is done in the B0(anti B0) → J/Ψ Ks0 channel. The B-mesons are produced by the interaction of protons from the HERA storage ring with eight targetwires of materials with different atomic numbers A. For a measurement of the asymmetry between B0 and anti B0 decays it is crucial to reach high resolutions of the primary vertex and the B-decay vertex. Therefore HERA-B has a vertex detector based on double-sided silicon microstrip detectors. For this thesis a new vertex reconstruction program for primary vertices, based on the Kalman-filter algorithm was developed. Significant improvements in the vertex pattern recognition compared to the so far used vertex reconstruction program were achieved. The resolution of primary vertices of less than 500 μm in conjunction with a similar resolution for secondary B-vertizes allows for a very good separation of B-mesons with an average decay length of 12 mm. With this new vertex reconstruction program, a measurement of the inclusive multiplicity of charged particles for different target materials at a center-of-mass energie of √(s) = 41.6 GeV was performed. The targetwires used are made of carbon, aluminum, titanium and tungsten respectively. Because of the situation of the experiment and the software at the time of this analysis, a restriction to tracks reconstructed inside the vertexdetector was necessary. The expected scaling behavior of the mean multiplicity in dependence of the atomic number A was confirmed. As a further result it was observed that the Lund based FRITIOF Monte Carlo which was used throughout this analysis underestimates the number of events with high multiplicity. (orig.)

  10. Combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines: Experiments and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, D L

    2002-06-07

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are being considered as an alternative to diesel engines. The HCCI concept involves premixing fuel and air prior to induction into the cylinder (as is done in current spark-ignition engine) then igniting the fuel-air mixture through the compression process (as is done in current diesel engines). The combustion occurring in an HCCI engine is fundamentally different from a spark-ignition or Diesel engine in that the heat release occurs as a global autoignition process, as opposed to the turbulent flame propagation or mixing controlled combustion used in current engines. The advantage of this global autoignition is that the temperatures within the cylinder are uniformly low, yielding very low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}, the chief precursors to photochemical smog). The inherent features of HCCI combustion allows for design of engines with efficiency comparable to, or potentially higher than, diesel engines. While HCCI engines have great potential, several technical barriers exist which currently prevent widespread commercialization of this technology. The most significant challenge is that the combustion timing cannot be controlled by typical in-cylinder means. Means of controlling combustion have been demonstrated, but a robust control methodology that is applicable to the entire range of operation has yet to be developed. This research focuses on understanding basic characteristics of controlling and operating HCCI engines. Experiments and detailed chemical kinetic simulations have been applied to the characterize some of the fundamental operational and design characteristics of HCCI engines. Experiments have been conducted on single and multi-cylinder engines to investigate general features of how combustion timing affects the performance and emissions of HCCI engines. Single-zone modeling has been used to characterize and compare the implementation of different control strategies. Multi

  11. Processed data from neutron scattering experiments described in PhD thesis "NMR and neutron total scattering studies of silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries"

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The results of processing the data in the dataset "Raw data for neutron scattering experiments described in PhD thesis "NMR and neutron total scattering studies of silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries""

  12. In operando monitoring of the state of charge and species distribution in zinc air batteries using X-ray tomography and model-based simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Tobias; Schröder, Daniel; Krewer, Ulrike; Manke, Ingo

    2014-10-28

    A novel combination of in operando X-ray tomography and model-based analysis of zinc air batteries is introduced. Using this approach the correlation between the three-dimensional morphological properties of the electrode - on the one hand - and the electrochemical properties of the battery - on the other hand is revealed. In detail, chemical dissolution of zinc particles and the electrode volume were investigated non-destructively during battery operation by X-ray tomography (applying a spatial resolution of 9 μm), while simulation yielded cell potentials of each electrode and allows for the prediction of long-term operation behavior. Furthermore, the analysis of individual zinc particles revealed an electrochemical dissolution process that can be explained using an adapted shrinking-core model. PMID:25220061

  13. 钒液流电池在不同温度下的充放电特性%Charge-discharge Characteristics of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery at various temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田戈; 贾明波; 李娟; 张中洋

    2014-01-01

    Influence of the temperature on the polarization curve, cyclic efficiency, charge-discharge capacity and self-discharge performance of vanadium redox flow battery was studied in temperature range 15℃~35℃ by using a 10-cell stack, and the mechanism was analyzed. The results show that, in the process of temperature rising, the current efficiency decreases, and voltage efficiency, charge-discharge capacity and self-discharge rate all gradually increase. In order to ensure stable operation of the vanadium battery, the temperature should be strictly controlled in the actual application.%利用10电池电堆考查了在15~35℃范围内温度对钒电池极化曲线、循环效率、充放电容量以及自放电性能的影响,并进行了机理分析,测试结果表明,在温度逐渐升高的过程中,除电流效率逐渐降低外,电压效率、充放电容量、自放电速率均逐渐升高,在实际应用过程中,应严格对温度进行控制以保证钒电池系统的稳定运行。

  14. Simulation and optimization of site and capacity selection in the planning of charge infrastructure for battery electric vehicle fleets; Simulation und Optimierung der Standort- und Kapazitaetsauswahl in der Planung von Ladeinfrastruktur fuer batterieelektrische Fahrzeugflotten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefen, Kostja

    2012-07-15

    Political, technological and economic factors have led to a new upswing in the development of Electric Mobility. In addition to the private sector, certain industrial fleets are especially suited as pilot customers for battery electric vehicles. Economic advantages compared to conventional vehicles are caused by low energy costs if vehicles reach high mileage and still have enough time to recharge the needed energy. To supply energy to all fleet vehicles, a proper charging infrastructure has to be available in the operational area. The focus of this work is the development of new simulation and optimization models for this strategic planning task. The developed simulation model allows a detailed analysis and evaluation of the impact of various business models. It allows the variation of the fleet size, the vehicle types, the battery capacity, the infrastructure configuration and charging rules in the operational concept. The developed optimization model allows the cost-minimal selection of supply locations and their capacity to ensure the required quality of service. For medium and large problem instances exact solution methods reach their limits, so that a separate heuristic method is presented. The developed methods were used in a real project to demonstrate the practicality.

  15. Network access charges, vertical integration, and property rights structure - experiences from the German electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the deregulation of the German electricity markets in 1998, the German government opted for a regulatory regime called negotiated third party access, which would be subject to ex-post control by the federal cartel office. Network access charges for new competitors are based on contractual arrangements between energy producers and industrial consumers. As the electricity networks are incontestable natural monopolies, the local and regional network operators are able to set (monopolistic) charges at their own discretion, restricted only by the possible interference of the federal cartel office (Bundeskartellamt). In this paper we analyze if there is evidence for varying charging behaviour depending on the supplier's economic independence (structure of property rights) or its level of vertical integration. For this purpose, we hypothesise that incorporated and vertically integrated suppliers set different charges than independent utility companies. Multivariate estimations show a relation between network access charges and the network operator's economic independence as well as level of vertical integration: on the low voltage level for an estimated annual consumption of 1700 kW/h, vertically integrated firms set-in accordance with our hypothesis-significantly lower access charges than vertically separated suppliers, whereas incorporated network operators charge significantly higher charges compared to independent suppliers. These results could not have been confirmed for other consumptions or voltage levels. (author)

  16. Charge Density Quantification of Polyelectrolyte Polysaccharides by Conductometric Titration: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Stefano; Mora, Luigi; Capretti, Giorgio; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    An easy analytical method for determination of the charge density of polyelectrolytes, including polysaccharides and other biopolymers, is presented. The basic principles of conductometric titration, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as well as in colloid and interface science, were adapted to quantify the charge densities of a…

  17. Study of the top quark electric charge at the CDF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Pavol [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the top quark electric charge using the jet charge tagging method on events containing a single lepton collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab between February 2002 and February 2010 at the center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. There are three main components to this measurement: determining the charge of the W (using the charge of the lepton), pairing the W with the b-jet to ensure that they are from the same top decay branch and finally determining the charge of the b-jet using the Jet Charge algorithm. We found, on a sample of 5.6 fb-1 of data, that the p-value under the standard model hypothesis is equal to 13.4%, while the p-value under the exotic model hypothesis is equal to 0.014%. Using the a priori criteria generally accepted by the CDF collaboration, we can say that the result is consistent with the standard model, while we exclude an exotic quark hypothesis with 95% confidence. Using the Bayesian approach, we obtain for the Bayes factor (2ln(BF)) a value of 19.6, that favors very strongly the SM hypothesis over the XM one. The presented method has the highest sensitivity to the top quark electric charge among the presented so far top quark charge analysis.

  18. Study of the top quark electric charge at the CDF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Pavol; /Comenius U.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the measurement of the top quark electric charge using the jet charge tagging method on events containing a single lepton collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab between February 2002 and February 2010 at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. There are three main components to this measurement: determining the charge of the W (using the charge of the lepton), pairing the W with the b-jet to ensure that they are from the same top decay branch and finally determining the charge of the b-jet using the Jet Charge algorithm. We found, on a sample of 5.6 fb{sup -1} of data, that the p-value under the standard model hypothesis is equal to 13.4%, while the p-value under the exotic model hypothesis is equal to 0.014%. Using the a priori criteria generally accepted by the CDF collaboration, we can say that the result is consistent with the standard model, while we exclude an exotic quark hypothesis with 95% confidence. Using the Bayesian approach, we obtain for the Bayes factor (2ln(BF)) a value of 19.6, that favors very strongly the SM hypothesis over the XM one. The presented method has the highest sensitivity to the top quark electric charge among the presented so far top quark charge analysis.

  19. Testing the schemes of lepton charge conservation law in the neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of various model about conservation of lepton charge one studied processes involving leptons of two first generations simultaneously. On the basis of the current (V-A)- and (V+A)-interactions of weak currents one derived and analyzed cross sections of reactions of inelastic neutrino (antineutrino)-electron and neutrino(antineutrino)-muon scatterings with regard of spiralities of charged leptons

  20. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in top-antitop quark production with the CDF II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, Julia; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2006-12-01

    The Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab) operates the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, the is therefore the only collider which is today able to produce the heaviest known particle, the top quark. The top quark was discovered at the Tevatron by the CDF and D0 collaborations in 1995. At the Tevatron, most top quarks are produced via the strong interaction, whereby quark-antiquark annihilation dominates with 85%, and gluon fusion contributes with 15%. Considering next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions in the cross section of top-antitop quark production, leads to a slight positive asymmetry in the differential distribution of the production angle {alpha} of the top quarks. This asymmetry is due to the interference of certain NLO contributions. The charge asymmetry A in the cosine of {alpha} is predicted [14] to amount to 4-6%. Information about the partonic rest frame, necessary for a measurement of A in the observable cos {alpha}, is not accessible in the experiment. Thus, they use the rapidity difference of the top and the antitop quark as sensitive variable. This quantity offers the advantage of Lorentz invariance and is uniquely correlated with the cosine of {alpha}, justifying the choice of the rapidity difference to describe the behavior of cos {alpha}. In preparation for a measurement of the charge asymmetry, they conduct several Monte Carlo based studies concerning the effect of different event selection criteria on the asymmetry in the selected event samples. They observe a strong dependence of the measured asymmetry on the number of required jets in the particular event sample. This motivates further studies to understand the influence of additional gluon radiation, which leads to more than four observed jets in an event, on the rapidity distribution of the produced top quarks. They find, that events containing hard gluon radiation are correlated with a strong negative shift of the rapidity

  1. On the Nature of High Field Charge Transport in Reinforced Silicone Dielectrics: Experiment and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    The high field charge injection and transport properties in reinforced silicone dielectrics were investigated by measuring the time-dependent space charge distribution and the current under dc conditions up to the breakdown field, and were compared with properties of other dielectric polymers. It is argued that the energy and spatial distribution of localized electronic states are crucial to determining these properties for polymer dielectrics. Tunneling to localized states likely dominates the charge injection process. A transient transport regime arises due to the relaxation of charge carriers into deep traps at the energy band tails, and is successfully verified by a Monte Carlo simulation using the multiple-hopping model. The charge carrier mobility is found to be highly heterogeneous due to non-uniform trapping. The slow moving electron packet exhibits a negative field dependent drift velocity possibly due to the spatial disorder of traps.

  2. On the nature of high field charge transport in reinforced silicone dielectrics: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanhui; Schadler, Linda S.

    2016-08-01

    The high field charge injection and transport properties in reinforced silicone dielectrics were investigated by measuring the time-dependent space charge distribution and the current under dc conditions up to the breakdown field and were compared with the properties of other dielectric polymers. It is argued that the energy and spatial distribution of localized electronic states are crucial in determining these properties for polymer dielectrics. Tunneling to localized states likely dominates the charge injection process. A transient transport regime arises due to the relaxation of charge carriers into deep traps at the energy band tails and is successfully verified by a Monte Carlo simulation using the multiple-hopping model. The charge carrier mobility is found to be highly heterogeneous due to the non-uniform trapping. The slow moving electron packet exhibits a negative field dependent drift velocity possibly due to the spatial disorder of traps.

  3. Void structure and density change of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Gazda, J. [Argonne National Lab., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine void structure, distribution, and density changes of several promising vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE). Combined effects of dynamically charged helium and neutron damage on density change, void distribution, and microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy have been determined after irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degree}C in the DHCE, and the results compared with those from a non-DHCE in which helium generation was negligible.

  4. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  5. Characterizing aging effects of lithium ion batteries by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impedance spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for characterizing aging effects of portable secondary batteries online because it provides information about different aging mechanisms. However, application of impedance spectroscopy 'in the field' has some higher requirements than for laboratory experiments. It requires a fast impedance measurement process, an accurate model applicable with several batteries and a robust method for model parameter estimation. In this paper, we present a method measuring impedance at different frequencies simultaneously. We propose to use a composite electrode model, capable to describe porous composite electrode materials. A hybrid method for parameter estimation based on a combination of evolution strategy and Levenberg-Marquardt method allowed a robust and fast parameter calculation. Based on this approach, an experimental investigation of aging effects of a lithium ion battery was carried out. After 230 discharge/charge cycles, the battery showed a 14% decreased capacity. Modeling results show that series resistance, charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient changed thereby their values by approximately 60%. A single frequency impedance measurement, usually carried out at 1 kHz, delivers only information about series resistance. Impedance spectroscopy allows additionally the estimation of charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient. This fact and the high sensitivity of model parameters to capacity change prove that impedance spectroscopy together with an accurate modeling deliver information that significantly improve characterization of aging effects

  6. Effect of additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrodes during formation and partial state of charge operation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivík, P.; Micka, Karel; Bača, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 209, JUL 1 2012 (2012), s. 15-19. ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : load acid battery electrodes * Doping with carbon * PSoC cycling Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.675, year: 2012

  7. A self-charging power unit by integration of a textile triboelectric nanogenerator and a flexible lithium-ion battery for wearable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiong; Li, Linxuan; Song, Huanqiao; Du, Chunhua; Zhao, Zhengfu; Jiang, Chunyan; Cao, Guozhong; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-17

    A novel integrated power unit realizes both energy harvesting and energy storage by a textile triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)-cloth and a flexible lithium-ion battery (LIB) belt, respectively. The mechanical energy of daily human motion is converted into electricity by the TENG-cloth, sustaining the energy of the LIB belt to power wearable smart electronics. PMID:25736078

  8. In situ neutron diffraction studies of lithium-ion batteries: Lithium distribution and temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical energy storage devices in the form of batteries are ubiquitous in society, used in everything from children’s toys to mobile electronic devices, providing portable power solutions. There is a continuous drive for the improvement of batteries. A large proportion of the function of batteries arises from the electrodes, and these are in turn mediated by the atomic-scale perturbations or changes in the crystal structure during an electrochemical process (e.g. battery use). Therefore, a method to both understand battery function and improve their performance is to probe the crystal structure evolution in situ while an electrochemical process is occurring inside a battery. Our work has utilized the benefits of in situ neutron diffraction (e.g. sensitivity towards lithium) to literally track the time-resolved evolution of lithium in cathode materials used in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. With this knowledge we have been able to directly relate electrochemical properties such as capacity and differences in charge/discharge to the content and distribution of lithium in the cathode crystal structure. The first part of this presentation will cover our lithiumcentred work on Li1+yMn2O4 electrodes. The second part will detail our efforts to probe battery function at different temperatures. This essentially adds another parameter that can be varied during in situ studies. Such in situ experiments that probe the time-resolved structural evolution during charge/discharge provide unparalleled insight into how electrodes evolve. Using this information a comprehensive atomic-scale picture of battery functionality can be created and permutations can be made to the electrodes that optimize battery performance.

  9. Paintable Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials...

  10. Dendrites Inhibition in Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanfar, Asghar

    The specific high energy and power capacities of rechargeable lithium metal (Li0) batteries are ideally suited to portable devices and are valuable as storage units for intermittent renewable energy sources. Lithium, the lightest and most electropositive metal, would be the optimal anode material for rechargeable batteries if it were not for the fact that such devices fail unexpectedly by short-circuiting via the dendrites that grow across electrodes upon recharging. This phenomenon poses a major safety issue because it triggers a series of adverse events that start with overheating, potentially followed by the thermal decomposition and ultimately the ignition of the organic solvents used in such devices. In this thesis, we developed experimental platform for monitoring and quantifying the dendrite populations grown in a Li battery prototype upon charging under various conditions. We explored the effects of pulse charging in the kHz range and temperature on dendrite growth, and also on loss capacity into detached "dead" lithium particles. Simultaneously, we developed a computational framework for understanding the dynamics of dendrite propagation. The coarse-grained Monte Carlo model assisted us in the interpretation of pulsing experiments, whereas MD calculations provided insights into the mechanism of dendrites thermal relaxation. We also developed a computational framework for measuring the dead lithium crystals from the experimental images.

  11. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, H. C.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Tests are performed on an improved battery charger. The primary purpose of the testing is to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. Tests are developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests show this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  12. Redox-flow battery of actinide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Np battery and U battery were developed. We suggested that Np redox-flow battery should be (-)|Np3+,Np4+||NpO2+,NpO22+|(+), and U battery (-)|[UIIIT2]-,[UIVT2]0||[UVO2T]-,[UVIO2T]0|(+). The electromotive force at 50 % charge of Np and U battery is 1.10 V and 1.04 V, respectively. The energy efficiency of 70 mA/cm2 of Np and U battery shows 99 % and 98 %, respectively. V redox-flow battery, electrode reactions of An battery, Np battery, U battery and future of U battery are described. The concept of V redox-flow battery, comparison of energy efficiency of Np, U and V battery, oxidation state and ionic species of 3d transition metals and main An, Purbe diagram of Np and U aqueous solution, shift of redox potential of β-diketones by pKa, and specifications of three redox-flow batteries are reported. (S.Y.)

  13. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  14. Modulation of folding energy landscape by charge–charge interactions: Linking experiments with computational modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tzul, Franco O.; Schweiker, Katrina L.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of how individual interactions contribute to the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein folding is critical for deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms that define the energy folding landscape. We applied a structure-based model that explicitly accounts for the interactions between charges, to folding–unfolding of four different protein pairs: rationally stabilized, via optimization of surface charge–charge interactions, variants, and respective wild types. ...

  15. A Reading of the Technology Guide of EV Charging and Battery Swap Facility Connected to Power Grid%电动汽车充换电设施接入电网技术规范解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛振宇; 李敬如; 杨卫红

    2014-01-01

    以支持新能源产业发展为指导思想,以满足电动汽车充电需求为基本目标,从电压等级选择、用户等级确定、接入点选择、供电电源配置、无功补偿及设备选型和电能质量要求等方面,解读电动汽车充换电设施接入电网的技术原则,为指导规划设计、规范运行管理、保障充换电设施及时可靠、合理有序的接入提供重要依据。%Taking supporting the development of new energy industry as the guiding ideology and satisfying the demand of EV charging as purpose, a detailed reading about the technical principle of the EV charging and battery swap facility connected to power grid is given. A series of items, including the selection of voltage level, the confirmation of user grade, point of common coupling selection, the configuration of power supply, reactive power compensation, electrical equipment selection and the demand of power quality, are unscrambled in detail. The guide plays an important role in guiding the distribution network planning and operation management, which could ensure that the EV charging and battery swap facility connected to the power grid reliably and orderly.

  16. Automated Battery Swap and Recharge to Enable Persistent UAV Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Toksoz, Tuna; Redding, Joshua; Michini, Matthew; Vavrina, Matthew; Vian, John; Michini, Bernard J.; How, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a hardware platform for automated battery changing and charging for multiple UAV agents. The automated station holds a bu er of 8 batteries in a novel dual-drum structure that enables a "hot" battery swap, thus allowing the vehicle to remain powered on throughout the battery changing process. Each drum consists of four battery bays, each of which is connected to a smart-charger for proper battery maintenance and charging. The hot-swap capability in combination with local...

  17. Ensure the electric power system's durability through battery monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Battery monitoring is used to acquire information about battery conditions. It’s a regular technology that most of us uses on daily bases. The charge gauge in a cellphone, consisting of bars which indicate the degree of charge left in the battery is an example. Battery monitoring gives the cellphone user information about the battery. The background to the thesis work is that this technology is requested for vehicles because empty or broken batteries are one of the most common causes for invo...

  18. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  19. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  20. The NTS-2 nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the first operational nickel hydrogen battery are described as well as experiences encountered during its testing and installation. Battery performance since launching of the NTS-2 satellite is discussed.