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Sample records for bathing beaches

  1. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY STATE OF SAND IN THE MUNICIPAL BATHING BEACH IN SZCZECIN

    OpenAIRE

    Kinga Zatoń; Magdalena Błaszak

    2015-01-01

    Artificial beaches, i.e. places in the public sphere, are usually intended for recreation, located at water reservoirs, rivers, and their surface is naturally occurring or applied sand. The urban bathing beach located in Szczecin by the Deep lake has sand purchased and distributed on the beach by the Municipal Services Office in Szczecin (a few hundred ton). The beach is divided into sectors, a volleyball court is in one part, in the next section catering and sanitary facilities are located, ...

  2. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. PMID:27128352

  3. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY STATE OF SAND IN THE MUNICIPAL BATHING BEACH IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Zatoń

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial beaches, i.e. places in the public sphere, are usually intended for recreation, located at water reservoirs, rivers, and their surface is naturally occurring or applied sand. The urban bathing beach located in Szczecin by the Deep lake has sand purchased and distributed on the beach by the Municipal Services Office in Szczecin (a few hundred ton. The beach is divided into sectors, a volleyball court is in one part, in the next section catering and sanitary facilities are located, and the remaining area is a place intended for sunbathing and playing games. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of different ways of using the beach on changes of microbiological properties of the sand. The tests were taken from the beach sand in May 2013 (first term examinations, and in September, after several months of use (the second term of examinations. The sand was collected near catering and sanitary sector (the first object and from the area of the volleyball court (the second object, as well as the playground for children (the third object. The facilities were distanced from the shoreline of the lake by approx. 8 metres. The comparison included the number of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and the detected presence of coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the genus Salmonella and eggs of intestinal parasites. In any of the objects, or the periods of time, eggs of intestinal parasites and bacteria of the genus Salmonella were detected. The presence of coliform bacteria including E. coli was found in the sand collected from a catering-sanitary zone, there was also the biggest number of bacteria and fungi. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was similar in samples of sand taken from the volleyball court and from the playground, in this sand there was no bacteria belonging to the E. coli species, although in several samples from the playground other bacteria belonging to the coliform genus were detected. To

  4. Evaluating a microbial water quality prediction model for beach management under the revised EU Bathing Water Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Zeinab; Corkery, Aisling; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2016-02-01

    The revised Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) requires EU member states to minimise the risk to public health from faecal pollution at bathing waters through improved monitoring and management approaches. While increasingly sophisticated measurement methods (such as microbial source tracking) assist in the management of bathing water resources, the use of deterministic predictive models for this purpose, while having the potential to provide decision making support, remains less common. This study explores an integrated, deterministic catchment-coastal hydro-environmental model as a decision-making tool for beach management which, based on advance predictions of bathing water quality, can inform beach managers on appropriate management actions (to prohibit bathing or advise the public not to bathe) in the event of a poor water quality forecast. The model provides a 'moving window' five-day forecast of Escherichia coli levels at a bathing water compliance point off the Irish coast and the accuracy of bathing water management decisions were investigated for model predictions under two scenarios over the period from the 11th August to the 5th September, 2012. Decisions for Scenario 1 were based on model predictions where rainfall forecasts from a meteorological source (www.yr.no) were used to drive the rainfall-runoff processes in the catchment component of the model, and for Scenario 2, were based on predictions that were improved by incorporating real-time rainfall data from a sensor network within the catchment into the forecasted meteorological input data. The accuracy of the model in the decision-making process was assessed using the contingency table and its metrics. The predictive model gave reasonable outputs to support appropriate decision making for public health protection. Scenario 1 provided real-time predictions that, on 77% of instances during the study period where both predicted and E. coli concentrations were available, would correctly inform a

  5. Evaluating a microbial water quality prediction model for beach management under the revised EU Bathing Water Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Zeinab; Corkery, Aisling; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2016-02-01

    The revised Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) requires EU member states to minimise the risk to public health from faecal pollution at bathing waters through improved monitoring and management approaches. While increasingly sophisticated measurement methods (such as microbial source tracking) assist in the management of bathing water resources, the use of deterministic predictive models for this purpose, while having the potential to provide decision making support, remains less common. This study explores an integrated, deterministic catchment-coastal hydro-environmental model as a decision-making tool for beach management which, based on advance predictions of bathing water quality, can inform beach managers on appropriate management actions (to prohibit bathing or advise the public not to bathe) in the event of a poor water quality forecast. The model provides a 'moving window' five-day forecast of Escherichia coli levels at a bathing water compliance point off the Irish coast and the accuracy of bathing water management decisions were investigated for model predictions under two scenarios over the period from the 11th August to the 5th September, 2012. Decisions for Scenario 1 were based on model predictions where rainfall forecasts from a meteorological source (www.yr.no) were used to drive the rainfall-runoff processes in the catchment component of the model, and for Scenario 2, were based on predictions that were improved by incorporating real-time rainfall data from a sensor network within the catchment into the forecasted meteorological input data. The accuracy of the model in the decision-making process was assessed using the contingency table and its metrics. The predictive model gave reasonable outputs to support appropriate decision making for public health protection. Scenario 1 provided real-time predictions that, on 77% of instances during the study period where both predicted and E. coli concentrations were available, would correctly inform a

  6. 舟山朱家尖海水浴场夏季水质状况分析与评价%Monitoring and Assessment Bathing Beach of Zhoushan Zhujiajian in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘静芬

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2006-2011 six years, in summer, monitored the main quality index of Zhoushan Zhujiajian bathing beach, such as water temperature, pH, salinity, floater, petroleum and fecal coliform six indexes. The result indicated: bathing water quality overall was fine, the fecal coliform was the primary pollutants. In recent years the fecal coliforms had increasing trend, needed to pay more attention.%对2006—2011年夏季舟山朱家尖海水浴场主要水质指标,如水温、pH、盐度、漂浮物、石油类、粪大肠菌群6项指标进行了监测分析。监测结果表明,浴场水质总体优良,粪大肠菌群是首要污染物质,近年来有逐年递增的趋势,需引起重视。

  7. The distribution of adenovirus in bathing beach and commercial shellfish of China%全国海水浴场及经济贝类中腺病毒的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明红霞; 樊景凤; 梁玉波; 关道明

    2014-01-01

    为分析全国海水浴场、贝类增养殖区人类肠道腺病毒的污染状况,采用超滤浓缩方法,TaqM an探针实时定量PCR技术对其进行了定量。结果表明,全国10个海水浴场表层海水中腺病毒的阳性检出率为35%,含量为1.1×107~2.8×107 copies/L。在离岸100 m和1000 m处腺病毒的分布无显著差别( p>0.05);在调查的162份贝类样品中,腺病毒的阳性检出率为11.7%,含量为2.4×104~3.1×105 copies/g。6类经济贝类中牡蛎带病毒量最高。由此可见,全国范围内海水浴场表层海水和主要增养殖区经济贝类中腺病毒污染比较普遍,尤其以山东、辽宁和浙江三省最为严重,给洗浴者和消费者健康造成潜在威胁。人类肠道腺病毒可以很好地指示粪便污染,调查其在海水浴场和经济贝类中的分布,可以帮助公众预警胃肠道病毒的暴发流行,本研究为开展全国腺病毒的环境风险评估和分子流行病学调查奠定了良好的基础。%In order to analyze the contamination of human enteric viruses in bathing beach and economic shellfish along the primarily commercial shellfish-breeding areas in coastal cities ,we chose adenovirus as the object of this study .Vi-rus was concentrated by efficient ultra-centrifuge method ,then TaqMan real-time PCR was employed to quantify its concentration .The percentage of positive samples for adenovirus was 35% in ten bathing beaches of China .The con-centration was 1.1 × 107 -2.8 × 107 copies/L .The viral incidence in the water samples collected from 100 meters off the seashore was found not to be correlated with those from 1 000 meters out (p>0.05) .The percentage of positive samples for adenovirus was 11.7% in 162 samples ,the concentration ranged from 2.4 × 104 to 3.1 × 105 copies/g . During six chosen commercial shellfish ,Oyster apparently had the strongest ability to carry adenovirus .Hence ,the contamination of seawater and

  8. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town.

  9. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Weltz

    Full Text Available Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs. Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg and 5 times (Fish Hoek greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg and 4 times (Fish Hoek greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town.

  10. 秦皇岛西浴场浒苔暴发区浮游植物群落结构特征%Investigation on Phytoplankton Biocoenosis in Enteromorpha Prolifera Area of the West Bathing Beach of Qinhuangdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹佳君; 朱凌宇; 刘明华

    2016-01-01

    2015年8月12日至28日于秦皇岛西浴场浒苔暴发区共鉴定浮游植物3门20属26种,主要由硅藻和甲藻组成,优势种为尖刺拟菱形藻、中肋骨条藻、旋链角毛藻和浮动弯角藻,与历史资料相比,浮游植物种类没有发生明显变化,调查海域浮游植物平均细胞丰度为40.38×104 cells/L,多样性指数为1.78,均匀度指数为0.38。浒苔等大型藻类对单细胞浮游植物的化感作用导致浮游植物群落多样性与稳定性都出现了显著下降。%A total of 26 taxa which belong to 20 genera of 3 phyla were identified in the west bathing beach of Qinhuangdao city from August 12th to 28th in 2015. The phytoplankton Biocoeno-sis was mainly composed of Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta. The preponderant species were Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus and Eucompia zoodiacus. No significant change was found in the phytoplankton species compared with the history data. The average cell abundance was 40.38×104 cells/L, and Shannon-wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index were 1.78 and 0.38 respectively. Due to the allelopathic effect of E. prolifera, the diversity and stability of phytoplankton Biocoenosis trend to decline.

  11. Turkish Bath Museum and Henna Bath exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Demir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Beypazarı henna baths (bridal baths of a tradition lost since the mid-Twentieth Century, are today a part of our cultural memory. A practice of a time when wedding ceremonies in Beypazarı lasted seven days, the henna bath culture has been made into a book, based on the reminiscences of locals, which has become a permanent exhibit of Turkey’s first-ever bath museum inaugurated in Beypazarı in 2012. This study takes up the Beypazarı henna baths as a brief evaluation of Jean Baudrillard’s thoughts on simulation, Anthony Giddens’ thoughts on modernism, and the theories of nostalgia put forward by Svetlana Boym.

  12. Research on the methodology of spatial-temporal distribution of fecal coliform and human adenoviruses in bathing beaches%时空监测海水浴场粪大肠菌群和人类腺病毒方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明红霞; 樊景凤; 石峰; 梁玉波

    2013-01-01

    [目的]人类腺病毒(40/41)与人类急性胃肠炎显著相关,被用作娱乐水体中人类病毒污染的指示生物.粪大肠菌群(FC)作为传统的细菌指示生物,用来估计水环境中病原微生物的潜在风险.了解水传播的病原微生物的时空分布对公众健康和疾病的预防具有十分重要的意义.[方法]于2008年5月到10月,在中国10个典型海水浴场共采集30个表层海水样品,分别用定量PCR和细胞培养的方法分析人类腺病毒和FC.[结果]腺病毒的含量为1.7×106-1.1×108基因拷贝/L,其阳性检出率为30%,而普通PCR的阳性检出率为26.7%.其中7个海水浴场的FC超出了景观娱乐水质标准(2 000 CFU/L).时间分布趋势表明,人类腺病毒从8月份到10月份的污染较其他月份严重(P<0.05).在该实验条件下,不论是在同一浴场的不同站位还是在不同浴场,腺病毒的空间分布差异都不明显(P>0.05).同样,FC在不同浴场的时空分布也无明显差异(P>0.05),但是其分布与离岸距离的远近显著相关(P<0.05).此外,在我们所研究的浴场,细菌和病毒这两种指示生物之间并没有相关性.[结论]为避免在游泳季节胃肠道疾病的大规模爆发,必须加强卫生设施建设和肠道细菌、病毒两种指示生物的监测.%[Objective] Human adenoviruses (40/41) have been related to acute gastroenteritis,and used as an index of human viral pollution in bathing waters.Traditionally,fecal coliform (FC) was used as an bacterial indicator by using cultivation techniques to estimate risks posed by pathogen in environmental samples.The spatial-temporal detection of waterborne pathogens is of great importance to public health and the prevention of illness.[Methods] In this study,a total of 30 bathing water samples were collected from ten representative bathing beaches of China from May to October,2008.The quantification of human adenoviruses and FC were analyzed.[Results] The concentrations of

  13. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bath; Sponge bath ... Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For these people, daily bed baths can help keep their skin healthy, control odor, and increase comfort. If moving the ...

  14. MANSION BATHS OF CYPRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Kavalçalan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the very beginning of the human history, body cleanliness is one of the basic needs. At first, human beings have supplied the needs of cleaning from rivers and lakes. With the development of civilizations they have started to build baths. In Roman Period these baths have been combined with Gymnasiums and become a part of the social life while they were merely small places of bathing in Ancient Greek. In the course of time, bath architecture which gained new functions and typologies with the effects of different nations and geographic places has maintained its own existence in Turkish culture as a popular ingredient in it. In this paper, mansion baths that were built in Ottoman period in Cyprus are studied. Firstly all locations of baths were determinated, photographed and measured during the research. Then, the determinated baths have been tried to being described comprehensively in the light of the documents and knowledges that are achievable. Main plan in mansion baths was built on the basis of “dressing” and “hotness” sections. Also, there are installation parts like “water tank” and “boiler room”. The baths which have a peculiar schema in itself constitute the exceptional examples of bath typology. With this paper, introduction to science world of mansion baths which are generally ignored in most of the researches because of the small sizes, are aimed.

  15. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Beaches » LEARN: Human Health at the Beach LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. ...

  16. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Team Concert festivals are all about good music, good friends, and big crowds. But for some ... school, North Carolina: Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the ...

  17. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  18. Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Velonakis; Dimitra Dimitriadi; Emmanuel Papadogiannakis; Alkiviades Vatopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are significant components of beach sand. According to the research, all kind of microorganisms have been isolated from beach sand; certain genera and species are potential pathogens for humans and animals. In resort areas, especially during the summer, certain infections (e.g. gastroenteritis and dermatitis) are usually related to polluted bathing water. Lately, the interest of scientists is also focused on the potential association of some of the above diseases with the beach sand. Relatively, recent epidemiological studies in the USA revealed positive correlation between time spent at the beach and gastroenteritis. New parameters such as wind blowing and beach users’ density are also introduced for discussion in association with the sand microbial load. Regarding the preventative measures, the microbiological quality of beach sand can be improved by raising the general level of hygiene, as well as by using simple methods, such as sweeping and aeration of the sand, together with constant beach supervision.

  19. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres......This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  20. "EPA'S NATIONAL BEACHES STUDY: HUNTINGTON BEACH, 2003"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The original U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recreational water health studies, initiated in 1972 and completed in 1982, were designed to determine the relationship between swimming-associated gastroenteritis and the quality of the bathing water. However, these healt...

  1. [Immersion in a bath despite a safety bath chair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H B; Lange, A

    1989-01-01

    A case of submersion is described. A mother left her child aged 8 1/2 months sitting in a "safety bath chair" in a full bath and found the child lying under the water shortly afterwards. The infant was hypotonic for a brief period but rapidly recovered without sequelae. Use of a "safety bath chair" gives a false sense of security and its use is warned against. PMID:2911907

  2. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  3. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... while the effect of orbital velocity skewness is more limited. A 1 year long simulation of sediment transfers between the lower and the upper shorefaces on a natural beach compares well with transport rates estimated from long-term bar migration patterns and aeolian accretion on the same beach....

  4. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  5. Beach Ball Coronagraph Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Beach Ball” Coronagraph will be the first steps to simplify and revolutionize the next generation solar coronagraph design.  The solar corona...

  6. Chlorhexidine gluconate: to bathe or not to bathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Caroline; Louthan, Rufina Bavin; Wessels, Erica; McGowan, Mary-Bridgid; Downer, Shantee; Maiden, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite infection-prevention initiatives, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are still a common occurrence. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is an important antibacterial agent. Research indicates that the intervention of bathing with CHG can reduce the number of HAIs. Chlorhexidine gluconate is known to reduce the bioload of several bacteria, including multiple strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Research regarding the intervention of bathing with CHG was assessed and found to reduce central line-related blood stream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The reduction in HAIs was found to be greater as compared to bathing with soap and water. The reduction of these HAIs will allow for a saving of resources, finances and staff time, which may ultimately be passed on to the patient. While further research is indicated, a strong conclusion is drawn that bathing with CHG reduces the number of HAIs. PMID:23470709

  7. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  8. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be...

  10. Climate change and bathing water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2007-01-01

    In the new European bathing water directive, 2006/7/EG, two microbiological indicators, i.e. intestinal enterococci and Escherichia coli, are used to assess the state of the official outdoor bathing waters. In this directive also cyanobacteria are included, being a cause of insufficient bathing wate

  11. Bed bathing patients in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    L Downey; Lloyd, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of circumstances that may affect an individual's ability to maintain personal hygiene. Hospitalised patients, and in particular those who are bedridden, may become dependent on nursing staff to carry out their hygiene needs. Assisting patients to maintain personal hygiene is a fundamental aspect of nursing care. However, it is a task often delegated to junior or newly qualified staff. This article focuses on the principles of bed bathing patients in hospital, correct proced...

  12. [Ofuji papuloerythroderma: PUVA bath treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, S; Hohenleutner, U; Landthaler, M

    1999-05-01

    Papuloerythroderma of Ofuji is a rare skin disorder described primarily in Japanese patients. It occurs primarily in elderly men. The initial lesions are diffuse red papules, sparing the face, palms and soles. Later the papules coalesce into an erythroderma, with typical sparing of the skin folds and creases (the deck chair sign). Pruritus is usually intense. Lymphadenopathy, peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated IgE levels all are common. Both systemic corticosteroids and systemic PUVA therapy have been recommended. We describe a German male who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for papuloerythroderma of Ofuji and responded well to PUVA bath therapy with both improvement in skin findings and reduction in pruritus. PMID:10412634

  13. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants AGENCY... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act.... EPA encourages coastal and Great Lakes states and tribes that have received BEACH Act grants in...

  14. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  15. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  16. Taking a Bath In Tibetan Medicinal Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Lighting incense in a room and planting oneself into the environment scented by the smoke is one of the ways Tibetans keep fit. And they say they are taking a bath when doing so.According to the Tibetan medical code, the Tibetans had long produced many ways for "taking baths" to cleanse themselves, build up their physique and prolong life. Most popular ones include taking baths in

  17. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  18. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  19. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agelos Papaioannou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006 by chemometric methods. Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean, group B (clean and group C (contaminated. Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

  20. Pulling bubbles from a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justin C. T.; Blakemore, Andrea L.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2010-06-01

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many industrial processes where uniformity of coating is desirable. We report work on an idealized version of this situation, the drag-out of a single bubble in Landau-Levich-Derjaguin flow. We find that a well-defined critical wall speed exists, separating the two regimes of bubble persistence at the meniscus and bubble deposition on the moving wall. Experiments show that this transition occurs at Ca∗˜Bo0.73. A similar result is obtained theoretically by balancing viscous stresses and gravity.

  1. Horry County Beach Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Horry County has coordinated with DHEC OCRM to fully inventory, analyze, and documenteach of the ten required elements for an approvable local comprehensive beach...

  2. 1933 Long Beach, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...

  3. Russian bath%俄罗斯浴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The history of Russian bath originates in old times. From descriptions of Greece Herodotus1,it is possible to find out that the Scythians that lived in Ukraine in ancient times used bath.They established three poles inclined by the top ends to each other,and covered them with felt.Then threw into the tub put in the middle of this hut the red-hot stones. They brought hempen2 seeds into this felt bath and threw them on the heated stones.

  4. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  5. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendonça Cavalcante Davino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall. We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated.

  6. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  7. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  8. Amchitka beach surveys, 1978-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of 16 beaches on Amchitka Island began 28 October 1978 as part of Alaska Beached Bird Survey. The purpose of the surveys is to provide baseline data on...

  9. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation... Beach for New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq....

  10. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August...

  11. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  12. Suppression of decoherence by bath ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jun; Ma Hong-Ru

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of two coupled spins-1/2 coupled to a spin-bath is studied as an extended model of the TessieriWilkie Hamiltonian. The pair of spins served as an open subsystem is prepared in one of the Bell states and the bath consisting of some spins-1/2 is in a thermal equilibrium state from the very beginning. It is found that with increasing coupling strength of the bath spins, the bath forms a resonant antiferromagnetic order. The polarization correlation between the two spins of the subsystem and the concurrence of it are recovered to some extent in the isolated subsystem. This suppression of the subsystem decoherence may be used to control the quantum devices in practical applications.

  13. Finite size bath in qubit thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pekola, J. P.; Suomela, S.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a qubit weakly coupled to a finite-size heat bath (calorimeter) from the point of view of quantum thermodynamics. The energy deposited to this environment together with the state of the qubit provides a basis to analyze the heat and work statistics of this closed combined system. We present results on two representative models, where the bath is composed of two-level systems or harmonic oscillators, respectively. Finally, we derive results for an open quantum system composed of the...

  14. Beneficiation of beach magnetite sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver TEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, beneficiation of beach magnetite sand was investigated by applying high intensity dry magnetic separator. The effect of feed particle size, feed rate, roll rotation speed, induced magnetic field intensity, and separator knife angle on Fe grade and recovery of the magnetite concentrate were investigated. As a result of dry magnetic separation at about 750 Gauss magnetic field conducted with -0.212+0.106 mm size fraction under optimum conditions, a magnetite concentrate assaying 54.41% Fe was obtained with 63.46% recovery where the beach sand sample contained %48.41 Fe.

  15. Electrodeposition of gold from formaldehyde-sulfite baths: bath stability and deposits characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana L. Cardoso; Sebastião G. dos Santos Filho

    2011-01-01

    It was investigated Au(I)-sulfite baths containing formaldehyde. As a result, high stability was achieved for baths containing formaldehyde concentration close to 10 mL L-1 with a lifetime superior to 600 days. On the other hand, cyclic voltammograms indicated that the increase of formaldehyde concentration in the bath promotes decreasing of the maximum cathodic current, so that, if the formaldehyde concentration is high, the surface areal concentration of gold will be low. Also, the lowest s...

  16. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  17. Nickel electrodeposition from novel citrate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of electroplating bath suitable for nickel electrodeposition was developed. Trisodium citrate was used as a complexing agent and a buffer in the bath. The buffering capacity between trisodium citrate and boric acid were compared. The effects were investigated under different conditions of bath composition, current density, pH and temperature on the potentiodynamic cathodic polarization curves, cathodic current efficiency and throwing index, as well as the electrical conductivity of these baths. The optimum conditions for producing sound and satisfactory nickel deposits were: NiSO4·6H2O 350 g/L, NiC12·6H2O 45 g/L and Na3C6H5O7 30 g/L at pH=4 and 55 ℃. The surface morphology of the as-plated Ni deposit was examined by SEM. The results reveal that the nickel deposition obtained from the optimum conditions are composed of compact, non-porous fine grains covering the entire surface. X-ray analysis shows that nickel deposits obtained from the citrate bath have a fine crystal structure compared with deposits from the Watts bath.

  18. Occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Chinese inner sea: the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xubiao; Peng, Jinping; Wang, Jundong; Wang, Kan; Bao, Shaowu

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Bohai Sea was investigated for the first time. The Bohai Sea is the largest Chinese inner sea and its coastal region is one of the most densely urbanized and industrialized zones of China. Samples from three costal sites (i.e., Bijianshan, Xingcheng and Dongdaihe) were collected, quantified and identified for microplastic analysis. Effects of sample depth and tourism activity were investigated. Surface samples (2 cm) contained higher microplastic concentrations than deep samples (20 cm). Samples from the bathing beach exhibited higher microplastic concentrations than the non-bathing beach, suggesting the direct contribution of microplastics from tourism activity. Of eight types of microplastics that were found, PEVA (polyethylene vinyl acetate), LDPE (light density polyethylene) and PS (polystyrene) were the largest in abundances. Moreover, the non-plastic items from samples were analyzed and results revealed that the majority abundance of the observed non-plastics were viscose cellulose fibers. Further studies are required to evaluate the environmental hazards of microplastics, especially as they may "act as a contaminant transporter" to the Bohai Sea ecosystem. PMID:27149149

  19. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  20. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  1. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  2. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  3. Chlorhexidine: Patient Bathing and Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Salma; Sastry, Sangeeta

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. They are associated with a substantial increase in health care costs each year. Fortunately, many HAIs are preventable, and their eradication is a national priority. Chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing has been used as an infection prevention measure, either alone or bundled with other interventions, with mostly beneficial results. The recent surge in its use as an agent of choice for skin antisepsis has lead to concerns over emerging resistance among microorganisms. Moreover, compliance with CHG-bathing protocols is not routinely monitored. Policies developed to determine the best infection prevention practice must consider that a "one-size-fits-all" strategy may lead to the selection of CHG-tolerant microorganisms, thereby emphasizing the need for more robust guidelines and additional studies on the role of chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of HAIs.

  4. Pion String evolving in a thermal bath

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Fan; Mao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    By using the symmetry improved CJT effective formalism, we study a pion string of the $O(4)$ linear sigma model at finite temperature in chiral limit. In terms of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism we reconsider the production and evolution of the pion string in a thermal bath. Finally, we estimate the pion string density and its possible signal during the chiral phase transition.

  5. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  6. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2011-12-15

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards. PMID:22059560

  7. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  8. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  9. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters...

  10. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  11. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1....

  12. Freezing and melting of a bath material onto a cylindrical solid additive in an agitated bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh U.C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In melting and assimilation of a cylindrical shaped additive in an agitated hot melt bath during the process of preparation of cast iron and steel of different grades, an unavoidable step of transient conjugated conduction-controlled axisymmetric freezing and melting of the bath material onto the additive immediately after its dunking in bath occurs. Decreasing the time of completion of this step is of great significance for production cost reduction and increasing the productivity of such preparations. Its suitable mathematical model of lump-integral type is developed. Its nondimensional format indicates the dependence of this step upon independent nondimensional parameters- the bath temperature, θb the modified Biot number, Bim denoting the bath agitation, the property-ratio, B and the heat capacity-ratio, Cr of the melt bath-additive system, the Stefan number, St pertaining to the phase-change of the bath material. The model provides the closed-form expressions for both the growth of the frozen layer thickness, ξ onto the additive and the heat penetration depth, η in the additive. Both are functions of these parameters, but when they are transformed to the growth of the frozen layer thickness with respect to the heat capacity ratio per unit Stefan number; and the time per unit property-ratio, B, their expressions become only a function of single parameter, the conduction factor, Cof consisting of the parameters, B, Bim and θb. The closed-form expression for the growth of the maximum thickness of the frozen layer, its time of growth, the time of the freezing and melting; the heat penetration depth are also derived. When the heat penetration depth approaches the central axis of the cylindrical additive in case of the complete melting of the frozen layer developed Cof≤11/72. It is found that the decreasing Cof reduces both the time of this unavoidable step and the growth of the maximum frozen layer thickness and at Cof=0, the frozen layer

  13. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  14. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  15. Beach Nourishment and Artificial Surf Reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.H.; De Menezes, J.T.; Sperb, R.S.; Siegle, E.; Fontura, R.; Van de Graaff, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van der Schrieck, G.L.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Balneário Camboriú is a very touristy city in southern Brazil, situated in the five kilometer wide Camboriú Bay. Its main tourist attraction is the beach, which is 5800 m long and rather narrow with a dry width of 10 to 20 m. The city is facing several problems regarding the beach that have a negati

  16. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...

  17. Oscillons in a hot heat bath

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcello; Gleiser, Marcelo; Haas, Richard

    1996-01-01

    In models of real scalar fields with degenerate double-well potentials, spherically symmetric, large amplitude fluctuations away from the vacuum are unstable. Neglecting interactions with an external environment, the evolution of such configurations may entail the development of an oscillon; a localized, non-singular, time-dependent configuration which is {\\it extremely} long-lived. In the present study we investigate numerically how the coupling to a heat bath influences the evolution of collapsing bubbles. We show that the existence and lifetime of the oscillon stage is extremely sensitive to how strongly the field is coupled to the heat bath. By modeling the coupling through a Markovian Langevin equation with viscosity coefficient \\gamma, we find that for \\gamma \\gtrsim 5 \\times 10^{-4}m, where m is the typical mass scale in the model, oscillons are not observed.

  18. Use of Spatial Sampling and Microbial Source-Tracking Tools for Understanding Fecal Contamination at Two Lake Erie Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bertke, Erin E.; Finnegan, Dennis P.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Rhoades, John; Stumpe, Lester

    2006-01-01

    Source-tracking tools were used to identify potential sources of fecal contamination at two Lake Erie bathing beaches: an urban beach (Edgewater in Cleveland, Ohio) and a beach in a small city (Lakeshore in Ashtabula, Ohio). These tools included identifying spatial patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in each area, determining weather patterns that caused elevated E. coli, and applying microbial source tracking (MST) techniques to specific sites. Three MST methods were used during this study: multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexing of E. coli isolates and the presence of human-specific genetic markers within two types of bacteria, the genus Bacteroides and the species Enterococcus faecium. At Edgewater, sampling for E. coli was done during 2003-05 at bathing-area sites, at nearshore lake sites, and in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore areas. Spatial sampling at nearshore lake sites showed that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin; E. coli concentrations near the mouths of rivers and outfalls remote to the beach were elevated (greater than 235 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL)) but decreased along transport pathways to the beach. In addition, E. coli concentrations were generally highest in bathing-area samples collected at 1- and 2-foot water depths, midrange at 3-foot depths, and lowest in nearshore lake samples typically collected 150 feet from the shoreline. Elevated E. coli concentrations at bathing-area sites were generally associated with increased wave heights and rainfall, but not always. E. coli concentrations were often elevated in shallow ground-water samples, especially in samples collected less than 10 feet from the edge of water (near foreshore area). The interaction of shallow ground water and waves may be a mechanism of E. coli storage and accumulation in foreshore sands. Infiltration of bird feces through sand with surface water from rainfall and high waves may be concentrating

  19. Uniformly accelerated observer in a thermal bath

    CERN Document Server

    Kolekar, Sanved

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the quantum field aspects in flat spacetime for an uniformly accelerated observer moving in a thermal bath. In particular, we obtain an exact closed expression of the reduced density matrix for an uniformly accelerated observer with acceleration $a = 2\\pi T$ when the state of the quantum field is a thermal bath at temperature $T^\\prime$. We find that the density matrix has a simple form with an effective partition function $Z$ being a product, $Z = Z_T Z_{T^\\prime}$, of two thermal partition functions corresponding to temperatures $T$ and $T^\\prime$ and hence is not thermal, even when $T = T^\\prime$. We show that, even though the partition function has a product structure, the two thermal baths are, in fact, interacting systems; although in the high frequency limit $\\omega_k \\gg T$ and $\\omega_k \\gg T^\\prime$, the interactions are found to become sub-dominant. We further demonstrate that the resulting spectrum of the Rindler particles can be interpreted in terms of spontaneous and stimulated em...

  20. Leidenfrost drops on liquid baths: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexei; Maquet, Laurent; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste; Duchesne, Alexis; Brandenbourger, Martin; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that a liquid drop released over a very hot surface generally does not contact the surface nor boils but rather levitates over a thin vapor film generated by its own evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). In particular, the case of a hot (and flat) solid substrate has been extensively studied in recent years. In contrast, we here focus on Leidenfrost drops over a superheated liquid bath, addressing the problem theoretically and comparing our predictions with experimental results, detailed in a separate talk. We predict the geometry of the drop and of the liquid bath, based on the hydrostatic Young-Laplace and lubrication equations. A good agreement is observed with the available experimental data concerning the deformation of the liquid bath. The modeling also yields a rather complete insight into the shape of the drop. As in the case of a solid substrate, the vapor layer generally appears to be composed of a vapor pocket surrounded by a circular neck. The influences of the superheat and of the drop size are parametrically investigated. A number of scaling laws are established. Unlike the case of a solid substrate, no chimney instability was found in the range of drop size studied.

  1. Protecting coherence by reservoir engineering: intense bath disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zixian; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-08-01

    We put forward a scheme based on reservoir engineering to protect quantum coherence from leaking to bath, in which we intensely disturb the Lorentzian bath by N harmonic oscillators. We show that the intense disturbance changes the spectrum of the bath and reduces the qubit-bath interaction. Furthermore, we give the exact time evolution with the Lorentzian spectrum by a master equation and calculate the concurrence and survival probability of the qubits to demonstrate the effect of the intense bath disturbance on the protection of coherence. Meanwhile, we reveal the dynamic effects of counter-rotating interaction on the qubits as compared to the results of the rotating-wave approximation.

  2. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  3. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of...

  4. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  5. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  6. Faults--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Plastics and beaches: A degrading relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth

  9. Cavity-assisted quantum bath engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kater

    2013-03-01

    In practice, quantum systems are never completely isolated, but instead interact with degrees of freedom in the surrounding environment, eventually leading to decoherence. Precision measurement techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and interferometry, as well as envisioned quantum schemes for computation, simulation, and data encryption, rely on the ability to prepare and preserve delicate quantum superpositions and entanglement. The conventional route to long-lived quantum coherence involves minimizing coupling to a dissipative bath. Paradoxically, it is possible to instead engineer specific couplings to a quantum environment that allow dissipation to actually preserve coherence. I will discuss our recent demonstration of quantum bath engineering for a superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave cavity. By tailoring the spectrum of microwave photon shot noise in the cavity, we create a dissipative environment that autonomously relaxes the qubit to an arbitrarily specified coherent superposition of the ground and excited states. In the presence of background thermal excitations, this mechanism increases the state purity and effectively cools the dressed atom state to a low temperature. We envision that future multi-qubit implementations could enable the preparation of entangled many-body states suitable for quantum simulation and computation. This work was supported by the IARPA CSQ program.

  10. Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscock, Barbara H.

    1995-01-01

    In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

  11. Infant's physiological response to short heat stress during sauna bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissmann, A; Al-Karawi, J; Jorch, G

    2002-01-01

    Thermoregulatory response to Finnish sauna bath was investigated in 47 infants (age 3 - 14 month). Before taking a short sauna bath lasting 3 min, the infants stayed in a swimming pool for 15 min. Under these conditions sauna bathing did not increase the rectal temperature. Unexpectedly rectal temperature even decreased by 0.2 degrees C (p sauna bathing. The blood pressure amplitude decreased significantly after the swimming period from 47 mm Hg to 38 mm Hg (p sauna bathing to 42 mm Hg. All infants tolerated short heat exposure in the sauna without side effects. The circulatory adjustment was efficient. Even young infants were able to cope with the acute circulatory changes imposed by heat stress. Adequate thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptive responses to sauna bathing could be shown for the first time in infants between 3 and 14 months of age.

  12. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  13. Ultrasonic bath depth control and regulation in single cell recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong Dinh, Thien An; Jüngling, Eberhard; Strotmann, Karl-Heinz; Westhofen, Martin; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2006-09-01

    Control of the bath depth is critical in many applications of the patch-clamp technique, particularly when the capacitance of cells is determined to assess secretion or transmitter release or in studies of ion currents sensitive to small changes in the hydrostatic pressure. We describe an inexpensive technique for tight control of the bath depth with the aid of a commercially available ultrasound sensor. The sensor continuously determines changes in the distance to the bath surface with a resolution of about 10 mum. The signal from the sensor is digitized in a microcontroller card and used to send on or off signals at 100 Hz to a peristaltic pump that removes volume from the bath. The inflow into the bath can be realized in a versatile way. The capacitance of Sylgard-coated patch-clamp glass electrodes, demonstrated to be extremely sensitive to small changes in the area moistened by bath solution, is constant within the noise level of +/-3 fF when immersed into a depth-controlled bath, even during exchange of the bath medium. Thus, when small changes in the cell capacitance are measured in patch-clamp experiments, errors due to alterations in the pipette capacitance caused by bath depth fluctuations are eliminated.

  14. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling.

  15. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach,...

  16. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  17. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  18. Generalized Toric Codes Coupled to Thermal Baths

    CERN Document Server

    Viyuela, O; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of a generalized toric code based on qudits at finite temperature by finding the master equation coupling the code's degrees of freedom to a thermal bath. As a consequence, we find that for qutrits new types of anyons and thermal processes appear that are forbidden for qubits. These include creation, annihilation and diffusion throughout the system code. It is possible to solve the master equation in a short-time regime and find expressions for the decay rates as a function of the dimension $d$ of the qudits. Although we provide an explicit proof that the system relax to the Gibbs state for arbitrary qudits, we also prove that above a certain crossing temperature, qutrits initial decay rate is smaller than the original case for qubits. Surprisingly this behavior only happens with qutrits and not with other qudits with $d>3$.

  19. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket...

  20. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements....

  1. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets....

  2. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  3. Influence of bath temperature and bath composition on Co-Ag electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Valles, Elisa [Electrodep, Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (IN' ' 2UB) de la Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomez, Elvira, E-mail: e.gomez@ub.ed [Electrodep, Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (IN' ' 2UB) de la Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-08-01

    A study of the best conditions to prepare smooth heterogeneous Co-Ag films with low amounts of S from a thiourea-based electrolytic bath has been performed. Using a 0.01 M AgClO{sub 4} + 0.1 M Co(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} + 0.1 M thiourea + 0.1 M sodium gluconate + 0.3 M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} + 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} bath, low temperature (10 {sup o}C) allowed obtaining compact and smooth deposits containing 2 wt.% sulphur. Decreasing thiourea content 0.06 M and increasing gluconate concentration up to 0.3 M, better deposits (more compact with lower sulphur content (1.2 wt.%)) were obtained. A clear influence of the species present in the bath on the film quality was observed: while gluconate favoured film cohesion, boric acid hindered hydrogen adsorption. For all films, fcc-Ag, hcp-Co and hcp-CoAg{sub 3} phases were always detected by XRD, TEM and electron diffraction, their proportions varying with the electrodeposition conditions. Magnetic measurements revealed that the increase in the CoAg{sub 3} led to an increase in the film coercivity. GMR values were only measured at cryogenic temperatures, they being higher for the deposits with the lowest sulphur content revealing that sulphur exerts a negative effect on magnetoresistance.

  4. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  5. The development of a virtual heat bath for calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Bracken, D.S.; Rudy, C.R.

    1998-12-31

    All existing calorimeter systems for sensitive nuclear assay employ a heat bath surrounding the sample chamber. The purpose of the heat bath is to maintain a constant temperature so that a fixed temperature difference is maintained across the thermal resistance of the calorimeter. Present calorimeter systems all employ an active, feedback-controlled system to maintain a fixed temperature. An alternative would be to allow the heat-bath temperature to change, to measure it, and to compensate the assay for this change. Two significant observations make this approach possible: (1) the effect on the measurement of a temperature change in the heat bath is differential in form and (2) temperature measurement systems are very accurate when measuring differences in temperature (either in time or between two locations). From these observations, the authors have developed a virtual heat-bath compensation system. The control theory and results will be presented.

  6. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches PRAWN Attribute Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  7. Evaluation of Subterranean Subsidence at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of subsurface subsidence at Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach (NWSSB) areas which include Seal Beach National...

  8. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  9. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  10. Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    The wave climate, littoral current patterns, monthly and seasonal longshore drift rates, beach profile changes, and sediment budget of the beach sediments were determined along Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India) for the NE, SW monsoons...

  11. Effects of Organic Enrichment on Sandy Beach Meiofauna:A Laboratory Microcosm Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianing; ZHOU Hong,; ZHANG Zhinan; CONG Bingqing; XU Shuhui

    2011-01-01

    Meiofauna samples from intertidal sediments of Qingdao No.2 Bathing Beach,China,were collected for field study,and subjected to organic enrichment in a laboratory microcosm experiment for 21 d.There were three different treatments including non-organic addition as the control,low-organic enrichment (2 g DW green algae per 150 mL) and high-organic enrichment (10 g DW green algae per 150 mL).After 21 d,the meiofauna richness decreased in both organic enrichment treatments.Among the three treatments,total meiofauna abundance was significantly different,and the control groups had higher abundance than the other two treatment groups.However,the responses of the meiofauna abundance in the two organic enrichment treatments were non-significantly different.The relationship of meiofaunal abundance and nematode/copepod ratios to organic matter and oxygen level in the microcosm experiments were discussed.

  12. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  13. Adaptation of the Bath measures on disease activity and function in ankylosing spondylitis into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Hansen, G O; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adaptation of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BASG), and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) for defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and related diseases for use...

  14. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development. PMID:27376939

  15. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...

  16. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  17. Fine particle deposition at Vainguinim tourist beach, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Ilangovan, D.

    Vainguinim Beach is a small and narrow pocket beach located on the rocky coast of Dona Paula Bay, at the estuarine front of the Zuari River in Goa, India. The beach has been widely used for recreation and swimming by a large number of tourists...

  18. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  19. Beachwatch : The effect of daily morphodynamics on seasonal beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Not only the storm intensity, but also the capacity of the beach to recover during fair weather conditions, influences the erosion trends of beaches. Susanne Quartel concludes this in her thesis in which the daily changes of the intertidal beach of Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands, are described.

  20. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  1. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium valu

  2. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 μM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 μM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 μM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 μM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning.

  3. Toxin production and antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli isolated from bathing areas along the coastline of the Oslo fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Colin; Nordlie, Anne-Lise; Hjeltnes, Bjarne

    2014-09-01

    The presence of enterovirulent and/or antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli in recreational bathing waters would represent a clear health issue. In total, 144 E. coli isolated from 26 beaches along the inner Oslo fjord were examined for virulence determinants and resistance to clinically important antibiotics. No isolates possessed the genetic determinants associated with enterotoxigenic strains and none showed the prototypic sorbitol negative, O157:H7 phenotype. A small number (∼1 %) produced alpha-hemolysin. Occurrences and patterns of antibiotic resistances were similar to those of E. coli isolated previously from environmental samples. In total, 6 % of the strains showed one or more clinically relevant resistances and 1.4 % were multi-drug resistant. Microarray analyses suggested that the resistance determinants were generally associated with mobile genetic elements. Resistant strains were not clonally related, and were, furthermore not concentrated at one or a few beach sites. This suggests that these strains are entering the waters at a low rate but in a widespread manner. The study demonstrates that resistant E. coli are present in coastal bathing waters where they can come into contact with bathers, and that the resistance determinants are potentially transferable. Some of the resistances registered in the study are to important antibiotics used in human medicine such as fluoroquinolones. The spread of antibiotic resistant genes, from the clinical setting to the environment, has clear implications with respect to the current management of bacterial infections and the long term value of antimicrobial therapy. The present study is the first of its kind in Norway.

  4. Activated and non-activated dephasing in a spin bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E.; Kosloff, R.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze different decoherence processes in a system coupled to a bath. Apart from the well known standard dephasing mechanism which is temperature dependent an alternative mechanism is presented, the spin-swap dephasing which does not need initial bath activation and is temperature independent. We show that for dipole interaction in the weak coupling regime the separation of time scales between system and bath can not produce pure dephasing, the process being accompanied by dissipation. Activated and non-activated dephasing processes are analyzed in a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center.

  5. Investigation of The Traditional Seljuks and Principalities Period Baths Within The Conservation and Restoration: The Example of Isparta Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Betül GÖKARSLAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city Isparta is located around the Lakes Region in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Date of settlement in Isparta goes back to the upper Paleolithic era. Isparta went under the administration of Luvi and Arzava Phrygians, Lydia, Persia, Kingdom of Pergamon, Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Seljuks, Hamitoğulları Principality, Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey. Isparta is still a small Anatolian city along with its 12 district. Isparta represents the classical Turkish city concept with its mosques, covered bazaar, baths and churches. One of the most important historical structures of Isparta is bath. Baths came to be used less frequently with the construction of bathrooms in every apartment. The elderly people generally use the baths in Isparta. Due to a major decrease in their number, baths are not sufficiently functional and face with important protection issues. Traditional Isparta baths have been reviewed in detail in terms of their architecture and preservation within the scope of this study. Particularly the baths belonging to the era of Seljuk and Hamitoğulları Principality have major and urgent protection issues. Archive and literature review have been performed; architectural features of the structures have been examined; damages have been evaluated and reasons for deterioration have been analyzed. In the conclusion part, recommendations for protection and new functions have been stated so that these structures will be transferred to next generations by preserving their structural characteristics and individualities.

  6. Coastal erosion project, Diani beach, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballot, J.; Hoyng, C.; Kateman, I.; Smits, M.; De Winter, R.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. Since the seventies, the establishment of hotels and other facilities has increased the pressure on the Kenyan coast. During the last decade, hotel managers and residents in Diani Beach have been experiencing problems with erosion. The only measures taken to address the proble

  7. DOVER BEACH: SEMIOTICS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subur Laksmono Wardoyo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoding the dramatic situation, intertextuality, and connotation of a poetic text can be very helpful for its interpretation. How the theory of those three aspects of semiotics might be applied in Dover Beach is to be the focus of this article.

  8. Alongshore variability of nourished and natural beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schipper, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Alongshore variability in topography (i.e. height differences in bed level along the coast) can exist on both natural and nourished beaches. An important question prior to implementation of a nourishment project is how alongshore variability is going to evolve and, related to this variability, the e

  9. Diel cycles of hydrogen peroxide in marine bathing waters in Southern California, USA: In situ surf zone measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen peroxide is photochemically produced in natural waters. It has been implicated in the oxidative-induced mortality of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), a microbial water quality measure. To assess levels and cycling of peroxide in beach waters monitored for FIB, diel studies were carried out in surf zone waters in July 2009 at Crystal Cove State Beach, Southern California, USA. Maximum concentrations of 160-200 nM were obtained within 1 h of solar noon. Levels dropped at night to 20-40 nM, consistent with photochemical production from sunlight. Day-time production and night-time dark loss rates averaged 16 ± 3 nM h-1 and 12 ± 4 nM h-1 respectively. Apparent quantum yields averaged 0.07 ± 0.02. Production was largely dominated by sunlight, with some dependence on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) levels in waters with high absorption coefficients. Peroxide levels measured here are sufficient to cause oxidative-stress-induced mortality of bacteria, affect FIB diel cycling and impact microbial water quality in marine bathing waters.

  10. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  11. Universe unveiled the cosmos in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2015-01-01

    The bubbles were swirling all around me, massaging my body. As I luxuriated in this fantastic bath, I gasped realizing that those bubbles carried with them miniature galaxies bringing the entire Cosmos into my bathtub... Alfie is back. And so are George and other characters from the author’s previous book Einstein’s Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath. While the present book, Universe Unveiled - The Cosmos in My Bubble Bath, is completely independent, its storyline can be considered a sequel to the previous one. The scientific content spanning ancient world models to the most recent mysteries of cosmology is presented in an entirely nontechnical and descriptive style through the discussions between Alfie, the enlightened learner, and George, professor of astrophysics. Fantasies, based on these discussions that cover the scientific facts, are created by the magical bubble baths taken by Alfie. Universe Unveiled blends accurate science with philosophy, drama, humour, and fantasy to create an exciting co...

  12. Heat-bath Configuration Interaction: An efficient selected CI algorithm inspired by heat-bath sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Adam; Umrigar, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new selected configuration interaction plus perturbation theory algorithm that is based on a deterministic analog of our recent efficient heat-bath sampling algorithm. This Heat-bath Configuration Interaction (HCI) algorithm makes use of two parameters that control the tradeoff between speed and accuracy, one which controls the selection of determinants to add to a variational wavefunction, and one which controls the the selection of determinants used to compute the perturbative correction to the variational energy. We show that HCI provides an accurate treatment of both static and dynamic correlation by computing the potential energy curve of the multireference carbon dimer in the cc-pVDZ basis. We then demonstrate the speed and accuracy of HCI by recovering the full configuration interaction energy of both the carbon dimer in the cc-pVTZ basis and the strongly-correlated chromium dimer in the Ahlrichs VDZ basis, correlating all electrons, to an accuracy of better than 1 mHa, in just a few min...

  13. Spectral signatures for swash on reflective, intermediate and dissipative beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E;

    2014-01-01

    the three beach types. Swash energy at short-wave frequencies is dominant on reflective and intermediate beaches and swash at long-wave frequencies is dominant on dissipative beaches; consistent with previously reported spectral signatures for the surf zone on these beach types. The available swash spectra...... energy level compared to a relatively minor variation in the short-wave swash energy level. A universally common feature of spectra from all beach-states was an f− 4energy roll-off in the short-wave frequency band. In contrast to the broadly uniform appearance of the short-wave frequency band......, the appearance of the long wave frequency band was highly variable across the beach-states. We incorporate the results presented here and previously published observations into the morphodynamic beach-state model, and propose an ordered sequence of swash spectra under increasing and decreasing incident wave...

  14. Study and Practice of Forest-bathing Field in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunming; ZHENG; Xiaoya; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Japan has made remarkable achievements in the study and development of forest tourism for health care reason. Through the comprehensive investigation into the development of forest-bathing field in Japan, this paper studied the forest tourism for health care factor in Japan and concluded the evaluation standard and construction of forest-bathing field, as well as personnel training. In the end, some suggestions were proposed for the study and development of forest tourism for health care factor in Asia.

  15. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ., Dept. of Dermatology, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au) 15 refs.

  16. EOF cold model-study of bath behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Totti Maia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The EOF reactor was developed in Brazil in the eighties with unique features. The preheating of scrap and distribution of injection points oxidizing gases and fuels make up these features. This paper aims to reproduce the behavior of the metal bath an EOF of 45 tons comparing their top three gas injection equipment: supersonic lances, atmospheric injectors and tuyeres. The lances and tuyeres promoted greater agitation of the bath with atmospheric injectors a great opportunity for improvement.

  17. The Wife of Bath:Chaucer’s Satire on Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林枫

    2012-01-01

    The Canterbury Tales is a famous work written by Geoffrey Chaucer.And all pilgrims are described vividly,especially the Wife of Bath.This paper argues that the Wife of Bath is not a typical representative of feminism.She does not present a rebellious image.All her remarks and actions are just a means by which Chaucer uses to satirize women.

  18. Mesoscale Morphological Change, Beach Rotation and Storm Climate Influences along a Macrotidal Embayed Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shore profiles and environmental forcing were used to analyse morphological change of a headland bay beach: Tenby, West Wales (51.66 N; −4.71 W over a mesoscale timeframe (1996–2013. Beach profile variations were attuned with longer term shoreline change identified by previous research showing southern erosion and northern accretion within the subaerial zone and were statistically significant in both sectors although centrally there was little or no significance. Conversely a statistically significant volume loss was shown at all profile locations within the intertidal zone. There were negative phase relationships between volume changes at the beach extremities, indicative of beach rotation and results were statistically significant (p < 0.01 within both subaerial (R2 = 0.59 and intertidal (R2 = 0.70 zones. This was confirmed qualitatively by time-series analysis and further cross correlation analysis showed trend reversal time-lagged associations between sediment exchanges at either end of the beach. Wave height and storm events displayed summer/winter trends which explained longer term one directional rotation at this location. In line with previous regional research, environmental forcing suggests that imposed changes are influenced by variations in southwesterly wind regimes. Winter storms are generated by Atlantic southwesterly winds and cause a south toward north sediment exchange, while southeasterly conditions that cause a trend reversal are generally limited to the summer period when waves are less energetic. Natural and man-made embayed beaches are a common coastal feature and many experience shoreline changes, jeopardising protective and recreational beach functions. In order to facilitate effective and sustainable coastal zone management strategies, an understanding of the morphological variability of these systems is needed. Therefore, this macrotidal research dealing with rotational processes across the entire intertidal

  19. 78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR 45242. The requirements for infant bath seats are set forth... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath...

  20. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  1. Geotechnical properties of the Cassino Beach mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudio R. R.; Alves, Antonio M. L.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the marine soils properties, together with hydrodynamic and climatic data, plays an important role for a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of sandy and muddy coasts. This paper deals with reporting and basic interpretation of two campaigns of exploration and characterization of the mud of Cassino Beach, southern Brazil, carried out during the years of 2004 and 2005. Samples were obtained by means of cores collected at some locations offshore, and were submitted to various laboratory geotechnical tests, including determination of the physical index, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and shear resistance by both triaxial and shear vane tests. Results confirm the existence of a very soft soil deposit offshore Cassino Beach, highly plastic, compressible, and viscous, forming an important database for further studies.

  2. Environmental and behavioral conditions of bathing among elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Yuji; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tochihara, Yutaka; Nagai, Yumiko; Ito, Hiromitsu; Yoshitake, Shiro

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the bathing conditions of elderly Japanese, and sought to find factors relating to regional differences in death rates from bathtub accidents. A questionnaire survey was carried out in 11 areas of Japan. Questionnaires including questions regarding the length of time since houses had been built, types of facilities, and subjects' indoor thermal sensations and behavior while bathing were distributed to detached houses in each area twice, once in summer and once in winter. Completed questionnaires were collected from approximately 160 elderly people over 65 years old. Information regarding thermal sensations of rooms in winter revealed that a prefabricated bath and insulating window glass eased the cold in the bathroom. Unexpectedly, more subjects in the southern region than in the northern region reported being cold or a little cold while bathing in winter. In the present study, thermal sensations and behaviors while bathing seemed to be more affected by facilities and the location of houses than by the sex and age of the subjects. PMID:17435371

  3. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Newton

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise

  4. Beach soccer injuries during the Japanese National Championships

    OpenAIRE

    Shimakawa, Tomoyuki; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Kawasoe, Yoko; Yoshimura, Kouji; Chinen, Yuma; Eimon, Kazuya; Chibana, Wataru; Shirota, Shinichi; Kadekawa, Kei; Bahr, Roald; Uezato, Tomomi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and severity of injury in beach soccer are unknown. Purpose: To estimate the incidence rates, characteristics, and risk factors for injuries associated with beach soccer. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The same sports physician examined and recorded injuries incurred during the Japanese National Beach Soccer Championships in 2013 and 2014. Posttournament follow-up was made for all injuries. Match exposure for each player ...

  5. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    prone zone’ due to the sewage pipeline outfall; (4) the northern portion of Miramar beach comprises a ‘sand bar’ zone; (5) the entire Miramar beach has to be demarcated as a zone that needs conservation and manual cleaning; (6) the beach from Dando... for scheduled projects by framing suitable guidelines to involve public in the planning and implementation of projects; (10) transparency of OMC work is to be highlighted by making public the transcripts of proceedings. Findings from Written (public) Submissions...

  6. Heterotopic erotic oases - the public nude beach experience

    OpenAIRE

    Andriotis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of beaches for a broad spectrum of recreational activities, very little is known about the multitude of beach use in marginalized spaces offering a range of opportunities for transgressive behaviour. To explore the ways that the principles of Foucault’s heterotopia are articulated by users of a gay nude beach, functioning as an erotic oasis, this study adopted a covert ethnographic approach which involved non-participant observation. The results of the study offer a uni...

  7. The nude beach as a liminal homoerotic place

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrubio, J. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    As a socially, culturally and sexually constructed space, the nude beach has been the focus of academic research. Some studies have analysed the nude beach as a place where erotic relations and meanings among men are performed, constructed, negotiated and transformed. These studies however have seldom acknowledged the multiple dimensions of sexualised practices and subjectivities taking place at the nude beach among men. By adopting a homoerotic framework, this study analyses a number of sexu...

  8. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  9. Effects of Water Temperature during Foot Bath in Young Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Tatsuya Saito, Tatsuya Saito; Kato, Toshiaki; Onodera, Sho

    2013-09-01

    We examined the effects of environmental and water temperatures of foot baths on pulse rate, blood pressure, mean skin temperature, salivary amylase (SA) activity, relaxation level and thermal sensation during winter. Five females participated in the study. The subjects rested in a chair for 20 min and the above-noted physiological reactions during the last 5 min of the resting period were recorded as baseline (BASE) values. Next, the subjects received a 15-min foot bath in water at 40 °C (WT40) or 45 °C (WT45), with a 15-min recovery period. Although SA is thought to be an indicator of stress via the sympathetic nervous system, we did not find a correlation between SA activity and relaxation state. We considered the possible effect of seasonal variation on the physiological reaction to foot bathing. PMID:24174706

  10. [Assessment of a hospital bath chair: an ergonomic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comélio, Maria Estevam; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa

    2005-01-01

    A high rate of musculoskeletal disorders in members of the nursing team is observed in the literature. The use of special devices such as the bath chair has reduced the risk of back injuries in these workers and has also provided the patient with greater safety as well as comfort. The aim of the present study was to assess the ergonomic characteristics of a bath chair utilized in a hospital Separate questionnaires were applied for the nurses and the patients. The bath chair accessories presented several ergonomic problems. The perceived physical exertion according to the Borg-CR10 Scale indicated that a high level of exertion was required to manipulate the equipment (8.33). PMID:16514945

  11. Heat-Bath Cooling of Spins in Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Heat-bath cooling is a component of practicable algorithmic cooling of spins, an approach which might be useful for in vivo 13C spectroscopy, in particular for prolonged metabolic processes where substrates that are hyperpolarized ex-vivo are not effective. We applied heat-bath cooling to 1,2-13C2-amino acids, using the \\alpha\\ protons to shift entropy from selected carbons to the environment. For glutamate and glycine, the polarizations of both labeled carbons were enhanced, and in other experiments the total entropy of each spin system was shown to decrease. The effect of adding Magnevist, a gadolinium contrast agent, on heat-bath cooling of glutamate was investigated.

  12. Bath parameter dependence of chemically deposited Copper Selenide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation Of Cu2-xSe thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin fms (0.2-0.6/μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that completing the Cu2+ ions with EA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu2-xSe. (author)

  13. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  14. Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented....... It is demonstrated for a specific outfall how the method can be used to estimate the bathing water quality. The ambition with the paper has been to demonstrate how stochastic variations in a simple manner can be included in the analysis of water quality....

  15. Effects of Water Temperature during Foot Bath in Young Females

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Saito, Tatsuya; Kato, Toshiaki; Onodera, Sho

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of environmental and water temperatures of foot baths on pulse rate, blood pressure, mean skin temperature, salivary amylase (SA) activity, relaxation level and thermal sensation during winter. Five females participated in the study. The subjects rested in a chair for 20 min and the above-noted physiological reactions during the last 5 min of the resting period were recorded as baseline (BASE) values. Next, the subjects received a 15-min foot bath in water at 40 °C (WT...

  16. Quantum nonunital dynamics of spin-bath-assisted Fisher information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Hao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nonunital non-Markovian dynamics of qubits immersed in a spin bath is studied without any Markovian approximation. The environmental effects on the precisions of quantum parameter estimation are taken into account. The time-dependent transfer matrix and inhomogeneity vector are obtained for the description of the open dynamical process. The dynamical behaviour of one qubit coupled to a spin bath is geometrically described by the Bloch vector. It is found out that the nonunital non-Markovian effects can engender the improvement of the precision of quantum parameter estimation. This result contributes to the environment-assisted quantum information theory.

  17. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. PMID:27065444

  18. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments.

  19. Geography: 5th and 6th class - Organising a Beach Clean and Beach Clean Survey template

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    The children will conduct a beach clean to show the benefits of caring for their local environment and ocean, as well as becoming environmentally aware and active. The children will have developed a sense of place and space knowing learning about their local seashore.

  20. The recreational value of beaches in the Nelson Mandela Bay area, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Du Preez; Deborah Ellen Lee; Stephen Gerald Hosking

    2011-01-01

    Using beach visitation data collected via the administration of a questionnaire to 226 respondents, this paper estimates a random utility model of beach recreation. The relative value of selected attributes of beaches is estimated, and the recreational values of lost access to four Blue Flag beaches in the Nelson Mandela Bay area, namely Kings beach, Humewood beach, Hobie beach and Wells Estate beach, respectively are calculated to be R44.73, R24.61, R37.85 and R2.68 per person, per trip.

  1. Markovian master equation for a classical particle coupled with arbitrary strength to a harmonic bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Maxim F

    2014-12-01

    We consider a classical point particle bilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath. Assuming that the evolution of the particle is monitored on a timescale which is longer than the characteristic bath correlation time, we derive the Markovian master equation for the probability density of the particle. The relaxation operator of this master equation is evaluated analytically, without invoking the perturbation theory and the approximation of weak system-bath coupling. When the bath correlation time tends to zero, the Fokker-Planck equation is recovered. For a finite bath correlation time, the relaxation operator contains contributions of all orders in the system-bath coupling. PMID:25481131

  2. Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

  3. Debate on Uncertainty in Estimating Bathing Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Estimating the bathing water quality along the shore near a planned sewage discharge requires data on the source strength of bacteria, the die-off of bacteria and the actual dilution of the sewage. Together these 3 factors give the actual concentration of bacteria on the interesting spots on the...

  4. Bath County Computer Attitude Scale: A Reliability and Validity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Pauline A.; Nash, John B.

    The Bath County Computer Attitude Scale (BCCAS) has received limited attention concerning its reliability and validity with a U.S. adult population. As developed by G. G. Bear, H. C. Richards, and P. Lancaster in 1987, the instrument assessed attitudes toward computers in areas of computer use, computer-aided instruction, programming and technical…

  5. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  6. [Legionella pneumonia which occurred in a private whirlpool bath user].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Jun; Kondo, Hirobumi; Takayama, Youko; Sunagawa, Keisuke; Enari, Tadako; Ishii, Yoshikazu

    2004-10-01

    A 88 year old female with active rheumatoid arthritis treated by low dose of prednisolone and methotrexate was admitted to our hospital because of severe bilateral pulmonary infiltration and acute respiratory distress syndrome. On admission, she had consciousness disturbance and was intubated because of severe respiratory failure. We heard from her family of her habit she had taking a private whirlpool bath 2 or 3 times everyday. So, we suspected a Legionella pneumophila infection. We started intravenous erythromycin (EM) (1,500mg/day) and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1,000mg x 3days) and full controlled mechanical ventilation supported with PEEP. Her respiratory failure was gradually improved and she was discharged on the 44 the hospital day. Legionella pneumophila (serogroup 6) was isolated in her sputum by B-CYE alpha culture. Legionella pneumophila (serogroup 6) was isolated in her private whirlpool bath too. Both samples revealed the same by genetic analysis with pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This is the first adult case of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia infected from a private whirlpool bath confirmed by genetic analysis. We should always suspect Legionella pneumonia as one of the severe community-acquired pneumonia, because Legionella pneumophila were frequently detected among various water sources including the private whirlpool bath. PMID:15560380

  7. Waihi Beach to the future: An objective review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, J.; Van Dijk, R.; Van der Lans, J.; Loeffen, R.; Wagner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Waihi Beach is a village consisting out of 2300 inhabitants, located in the Bay of Plenty on the North Island of New Zealand. It can be seen as a 9 km long tombolo beach. Dunes used to protect most of the land, but have decreased in size through natural erosive processes and through urban developmen

  8. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  9. Stability of the beaches in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    Beach profiles were carried out in Dec.2003, 2004 and Jan,.2005. Annual profiles of Dec. 2003 and 2004 show a normal trend of beach dynamics. At Poompuhar 63 M sup(3) M sup(1) of sediments are found to be deposited. However, a total change...

  10. 1981 beached animal and plastic litter surveys report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 119.63 km of beach were walked in 41 surveys (Appendix 1.). Birds and mammals were found on 16 of these surveys. There were 0.03 birds/km beach walked,...

  11. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  12. A study on the reconstruction of Los Acantilados Beach, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, A.; Burger, B.; Hartog, W.M.; De Rijke, Q.C.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Mar del Plata is situated some 400 km South of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina. The city has two main incomes, namely industry and tourism. In summer, beaches of this Atlantic Ocean faced destination are packed with typical Argentine beach tents, which can be rented, and people fr

  13. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  14. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  15. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  16. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  17. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  18. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  19. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  20. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soomin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF of the electromyogram (EMG, rectal temperature (Tre, skin temperature (Tsk, skin blood flow (SBF, concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb, and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue.

  1. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time.

  2. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  3. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  4. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  5. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  6. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  7. Dust-bathing behavior of laying hens in enriched colony housing systems and an aviary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louton, H; Bergmann, S; Reese, S; Erhard, M H; Rauch, E

    2016-07-01

    The dust-bathing behavior of Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens was compared in 4 enriched colony housing systems and in an aviary system. The enriched colony housing systems differed especially in the alignment and division of the functional areas dust bath, nest, and perches. Forty-eight-hour video recordings were performed at 3 time-points during the laying period, and focal animal sampling and behavior sampling methods were used to analyze the dust-bathing behavior. Focal animal data included the relative fractions of dust-bathing hens overall, of hens bathing in the dust-bath area, and of those bathing on the wire floor throughout the day. Behavior data included the number of dust-bathing bouts within a predefined time range, the duration of 1 bout, the number of and reasons for interruptions, and the number of and reasons for the termination of dust-bathing bouts. Results showed that the average duration of dust bathing varied between the 4 enriched colony housing systems compared with the aviary system. The duration of dust-bathing bouts was shorter than reported under natural conditions. A positive correlation between dust-bathing activity and size of the dust-bath area was observed. Frequently, dust baths were interrupted and terminated by disturbing influences such as pecking by other hens. This was especially observed in the enriched colony housing systems. In none of the observed systems, neither in the enriched colony housing nor in the aviary system, were all of the observed dust baths terminated "normally." Dust bathing behavior on the wire mesh rather than in the provided dust-bath area generally was observed at different frequencies in all enriched colony housing systems during all observation periods, but never in the aviary system. The size and design of the dust-bath area influenced the prevalence of dust-bathing behavior in that small and subdivided dust-bath areas reduced the number of dust-bathing bouts but increased the incidence of sham dust

  8. Bath of my home (50 yeras report No.1); Wagaya no ofuro (50 nenshi No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-10

    Looking back at the history of bath after the war, the fuel, water heating method, hot water method, bathtub, shape of bathroom, bathing tools and bathing method have undergone surprising changes, from the period just after the war for which the number of households having their baths was small and public baths were at the height of their prosperity, to the present period for which households are generally equipped with a shower and bathtub. This paper describes the history of bath after the war in Japan, including the bathing methods and goods which came to stay in each period, placing the focus on the bathing acts and equipment. For 10 years since 1945, the housing shortage had been serious, and public baths had prospered. For this period, the bath heating fuel was mainly coal and firewood, and soap was still valuable. Since 1955, the housing situation had changed better, and the time had entered the age of bath-at-home. Since this period, aluminum bath furnaces had been mass-produced. Neutral shampoo appeared on the market and were sold like hot cakes.

  9. The Medical Risks and Benefits of Sauna, Steam Bath, and Whirlpool Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Saunas, steam baths, and whirlpools--popular fixtures at health clubs--are safe means of relaxation if used properly. Ignoring the recommendations for moderate, commonsense enjoyment of these baths may expose users to health risks, including sudden death, arrhythmias, and skin infections. A guide to safe use of such baths is presented. (Author/CB)

  10. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  11. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  12. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have...

  13. Nonequlibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.

    2008-12-15

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined. (orig.)

  14. Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Scalar Fields in a Thermal Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, A; Drewes, M; Mendizabal, S

    2008-01-01

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined.

  15. Appendix B: Inventory of coniferous forests near Bath, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanturf, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    A zoom stereoscope was used to interpret aerial color photographs of the Finger Lakes region near Bath, New York, and areas of conifers were delineated on acetate sheets. Scale was determined for each photograph and units were converted to acres. Photographically enlarged positive transparencies of imagery from LANDSAT bands 5,6, and 7 for the southern portion of the study area were placed in a cold additive viewer and registered with each other to provide a composite image. A green filter was used on band 5, blue on band 6, and red on band 7. Conifers appeared at dark, reddish purple. Average was determined using a grid. Results show that the total confer stands within 50 miles of Bath is approximately 176,000 acres of which 60,000 acres are in Pennsylvania. The study was conducted to determine the feasibility of locating a particleboard manufacturing firm in the Southern Tier.

  16. Activities of binary baths with 1% solute as standard states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The relationships of activities with 1% solute as standard state and mass fraction of solute, and hot-dip temperature, were given on the base of Miedema's model, Tanaka expression, some basic thermodynamic relationships; and discussion was carried out on Zn-Mn and Zn-Ti binary alloys by calculation, in which varied colors can be achieved on the hot-dip steel sheets. The results indicate that the activity of solute shows positive deviation relative to Henry's law for both Zn-Mn and Zn-Ti binary dilute solution. The degree of deviation increases with increasing solute and decreases with increasing bath temperature. As the solution is very dilute solution (w(Mn)≤40% for Zn-Mn alloy,w(Ti)≤8% for Zn-Ti alloy), the two binary baths can all be treated as ideal dilute solutions.

  17. Effective run-and-tumble dynamics of bacteria baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzzi, M; Di Leonardo, R; Angelani, L

    2013-10-16

    E. coli bacteria swim in straight runs interrupted by sudden reorientation events called tumbles. The resulting random walks give rise to density fluctuations that can be derived analytically in the limit of non-interacting particles or equivalently of very low concentrations. However, in situations of practical interest, the concentration of bacteria is always large enough to make interactions an important factor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the dynamic structure factor of a model bacterial bath for increasing values of densities. We show that it is possible to reproduce the dynamics of density fluctuations in the system using a free run-and-tumble model with effective fitting parameters. We discuss the dependence of these parameters, e.g., the tumbling rate, tumbling time and self-propulsion velocity, on the density of the bath.

  18. Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control

    CERN Document Server

    Soare, A; Hayes, D; Zhen, X; Jarratt, M C; Uys, H; Biercuk, M J

    2014-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through In-Phase/Quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6 GHz carrier appropriate for trapped $^{171}$Yb$^{+}$ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of an engineered bath, with the observed $T_{2}$ scaling as predicted by a quantitative model described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

  19. Water Condensation on Zinc Surfaces Treated by Chemical Bath Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Narhe, R.D. (Ramchandra D.); González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.A. (Daniel A.)

    2010-01-01

    Water condensation, a complex and challenging process, is investigated on a metallic (Zn) surface, regularly used as anticorrosive surface. The Zn surface is coated with hydroxide zinc carbonate by chemical bath deposition, a very simple, low-cost and easily applicable process. As the deposition time increases, the surface roughness augments and the contact angle with water can be varied from 75º to 150º , corresponding to changing the surface properties from hydrophobic to ultrahydrophobic a...

  20. Extracting work from a single heat bath through feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, D.; Seifert, U.

    2011-01-01

    Work can be extracted from a single heat bath if additional information is available. For the paradigmatic case of a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential, whose position has been measured with finite precision, we determine the optimal protocol for manipulating the center and stiffness of the potential in order to maximize this work in a finite-time process. The bound on this work imposed by a generalized second law inequality involving information can be reached only if both position an...

  1. Towards irreversibility with a finite bath of oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the routes by which a bath composed of a finite number of oscillators at zero temperature approaches the induction of dissipation when it nears the usual limit of dense spectrum spread in an infinite interval. It is shown that, when this limit is taken, different distributions of environment frequencies can lead to the same irreversible evolution. However, when we move away from it, the dynamics departs from irreversibility in qualitatively different manners.

  2. Airborne thermography for condition monitoring of a public baths building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Mats; Hellman, Erik; Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    2001-03-01

    Airborne and ground-based thermography surveys have been performed in order to detect moisture and energy related problems in the construction of a public swimming bath building. This paper describes the information potential and the advantages and limitations using a standard IR-camera and traditional inspection methods to gather information for retrofit priorities. The damage conditions indicated in the thermal images are confirmed by field inspections and photographic documentation.

  3. Observation on foreshore morphodynamics of microtidal sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.

    are located in a microtidal (tidal range < 2 m) coast, and hence the beaches are referred to as microtidal beaches. Studies on beach morphology were based on three characteristics, viz. width, slope and volume, estimated from cross-shore profiles... March 2008 to March 2011. The period from March 2008 to March 2009 was considered as first annual cycle, March 2009 to March 2010 as second annual cycle and March 2010 to March 2011 as third annual cycle. The cross-shore profile monitored during...

  4. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Jing Yi; Narayanan Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled h...

  5. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  6. Cyclic vomiting and compulsive bathing with chronic cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepyala, Pavan; Olden, Kevin W

    2008-06-01

    Cannabis is commonly recognized for its antiemetic properties. However, chronic cannabis use can lead to paroxysmal vomiting. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern identical to cyclic vomiting syndrome. Interestingly cyclic vomiting syndrome has been associated with compulsive bathing which patients report can relieve their intense feelings of nausea and lessen their vomiting intensity. We report a case of a patient with chronic cannabis use who developed symptoms similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome who also engaged in compulsive bathing behavior as observed by members of the medical and nursing staff. The patient reported that frequent hot showers would prevent him from vomiting and also relieve his concomitant abdominal pain. Previous hospitalizations at our hospital for the same complaint also noted similar showering behavior. During the hospital stay, the patient agreed to engage in a outpatient drug rehabilitation program which he subsequently completed. Abstinence from cannabis use caused the patients vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain to disappear completely. Likewise, his compulsive showering behavior also ceased. Other investigators have reported similar findings in patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome who initially used cannabis to treat their vomiting episodes but subsequently found that it contributed to their vomiting. Our patient has lead us to conclude that in patients seen for chronic severe vomiting and abdominal pain which has no obvious structural or chemical etiology and which is accompanied by compulsive showering and/or bathing behavior a diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome with concomitant cannabis abuse needs to be considered. PMID:18456571

  7. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  8. Measuring the Economic Effects of Sea Level Rise on Beach Recreation

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Whitehead; Ben Poulter; Dumas, Christopher F.; Okmyung Bin

    2009-01-01

    We develop estimates of the economic effects of climate change-induced sea level rise on recreation at seventeen southern North Carolina beaches. We estimate the relationship between recreation behavior and beach width and simulate the effects of sea level rise on recreation site choice and trip frequency. We find that reductions in beach width due to increased erosion from sea-level rise negatively affect the number and value of beach recreation trips. For beach goers who only take day trips...

  9. Real-Time Dry Beach Length Monitoring for Tailings Dams Based on Visual Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Hu; Shan Hu; Fei Kang; Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The length of dry beach is an important factor that influences the safety of tailings dams. However, there still is no accurate and reliable method that can conveniently measure the length of dry beach. In this paper, the authors focus on developing a novel method for dry beach length determination. The proposed method can effectively measure the dry beach length through an ordinary camera and four marking rods placed on the dry beach. Experimental results show that the proposed method can co...

  10. Wave-dominated, mesotidal headland-bay beach morphody-namic classsfications of the Shuidong Bay in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jitao; DING Yuanting; CHENG Huangxin; CAI Lailiang; CHEN Zishen

    2016-01-01

    Beach morphodynamic classifications have achieved extensive acceptance in foreign coastal geomorphological studies. Three beaches located in different zones of a headland-bay coast are classified according to a dimensionless fall parameter, a relative tide range parameter and a dimensionless embayment scaling parameter. Synchronous data, including wave, tide, sediment and beach morphology, are respectively collected from the tangential beach, the transitional beach and the shadow beach of the Shuidong Bay during each spring tide for 16 successive months. The research results indicate that (1) the beach in the tangential zone falls between two major categories which are low tide terrace beaches with rips and barred beaches; the beach in the transitional zone exhibits two main types which are low tide bar/rip beaches and barred dissipative beaches; and the beach in the shadow zone mainly mirrors dissipative states with presence or absence of bars; and (2) the sequential changes and differences of beach states in different coastal zones reflect spatial and temporal variabilities of the headland-bay coast, totally meeting the actual measured beach morphology changes, showing that studies on wave-dominated, meso-macrotidal beaches need to consider the influences of the tides. Meanwhile, the research mainly provides a framework about beach state studies, due to different beach states with different erosion patterns, which requires the need to strengthen the researches in this respect, in order to further enrich theoretical basis for a beach topography evolution, beach morphodynamic processes and beach erosion prevention in China.

  11. Beaches in the Function of Primary Resource of the Beach Tourism Product

    OpenAIRE

    Zadel, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    Development of tourism in the Republic of Croatia is closely related to bathing tourism. In the beginning, the development of tourism was linked to thermal spas and health resorts and later to coastal areas. Coastal zones represent a unique geographical area from the prospective of ecology, but also from a prospective of human race development. Coastal zones, especially those in the Mediterranean, are characterized by high population and economic activity which are causing conflicts when i...

  12. Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    de Lange, G; Blok, M S; Wang, Z H; Dobrovitski, V V; Hanson, R

    2011-01-01

    Understanding and mitigating decoherence is a key challenge for quantum science and technology. The main source of decoherence for solid-state spin systems such as quantum dots, donors in silicon and defects in diamond is the uncontrolled spin bath environment. Here, we demonstrate quantum control of a mesoscopic electron spin bath in diamond at room temperature. The resulting spin bath dynamics are probed using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre electron spin as a magnetic field sensor. We exploit the spin bath control to dynamically suppress dephasing of the NV spin by the spin bath. Furthermore, using ideas from dynamical decoupling, we directly measure the coherence and temporal correlations of different groups of bath spins. These results uncover a new arena for decoherence studies and may provide novel avenues for protecting the coherence of solid-state spin qubits. Moreover, spin bath control is a crucial ingredient of recent proposals for environment-assisted magnetometry, room-temperature quantum ...

  13. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Joonsuk; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-01-01

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly-coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

  14. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is included in...

  15. Backscatter--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach map area, California. The raster data...

  16. Surfin’ California with Whitman and The Beach Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    While Whitman only wrote one poem about California in 1860, The Beach Boys wrote and produced several songs about it in the years between 1962 and 1966. Apart from the hundred years separating Whitman and The Beach boys, a cultural gap also exists between them. Whitman represents the high point...... are haunted by and pick up on Whitman’s image of the Californian beach results in a kind of Bloomean misprision, in the sense that they (re)inscribe it in a sixties’ context of youth and consumer culture. To Whitman, the shores of the American West coast incarnate the home of perennial homelessness...... of American literary Romanticism, whereas The Beach Boys became the sixties’ most well-known pop icon of surf music and surf culture. Nevertheless, their common interest in California as a particular topographic image of the American West invites comparison and further study. This paper aims to make...

  17. Pollution of some recreation beaches of Mumbai, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Kadam, A.N.

    of Mumbai (Figure 1). It was therefore feared that they might have polluted the recreation beaches causing deleterious effects to the human health. Some such effects are known to be skin irritations, gastrointestinal diseases, transmission of typhoid...

  18. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    The coastal landscape in Denmark is characterized by multiple areas of geologic, biologic and recreational interests both at a national and international level. In the later years several guidelines have been set up in the coastal protection area. Recognizing the value of the healthy natural...... is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more...... and more attention is being paid to the recreational values of the beaches, i.e. tourism so that an additional purpose of Beach Nourishment is to increase the recreational space along the shore. Families using the beaches prefer small grain sizes and gentle slopes. Seen from a coastal protection point...

  19. Lido Beach National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lido Beach Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  20. Modes of embayed beach dynamics: analysis reveals emergent timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. T.; Murray, A.; Limber, P. W.; Ells, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    Embayed beaches, or beaches positioned between rocky headlands, exhibit morphologic changes over many length and time scales. Beach sediment is transported as a result of the day-to-day wave forcing, causing patterns of erosion and accretion. We use the Rocky Coastline Evolution Model (RCEM) to investigate how patterns of shoreline change depend on wave climate (the distribution of wave-approach angles) and beach characteristics. Measuring changes in beach width through time allows us to track the evolution of the shape of the beach and the movement of sand within it. By using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), these changes can be categorized into modes, where the first few modes explain the majority of the variation in the time series. We analyze these modes and how they vary as a function of wave climate and headland/bay aspect ratio. In the purposefully simple RCEM, sediment transport is wave-driven and affected by wave shadowing behind the headlands. The rock elements in our model experiments (including the headlands) are fixed and unerodable so that this analysis can focus purely on sand dynamics between the headlands, without a sand contribution from the headlands or cliffs behind the beach. The wave climate is characterized by dictating the percentage of offshore waves arriving from the left and the percentage of waves arriving from high angles (very oblique to the coastline orientation). A high-angle dominated wave climate tends to amplify coastline perturbations, whereas a lower-angle wave climate is diffusive. By changing the headland/bay aspect ratio and wave climate, we can perform PCA analysis of generalized embayed beaches with differing anatomy and wave climate forcings. Previous work using PCA analysis of embayed beaches focused on specific locations and shorter timescales (beach dynamics over longer timescales. The first two PCA modes, which explain a majority of the beach width time series variation (typically >70%), are a 'breathing' mode and a

  1. Park, Beach, Open Space, or Coastline Access 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percent of residents within ½ mile of a park, beach, open space, or coastline, for California, its regions, counties, cities/towns,...

  2. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  3. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  4. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. Seafloor character--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (raster data file is included in...

  6. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  7. Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Seal Beach NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  8. Artificial Beach Lighting Survey of St. George Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. George Island SGI is a significant sea turtle nesting beach for loggerhead and occasionally leatherback sea turtles in the Florida panhandle Lewis et al 1996 ....

  9. The Trail Inventory of Seal Beach NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  10. Longshore Currents of Random Waves on Different Plane Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 王淑平; 邱大洪; 王艳; 王风龙; 董国海

    2003-01-01

    Model tests and numerical calculation of longshore currents and wave heights produced by irregular waves on two beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 are studied. The cross-shore distributions of longshore current velocities and wave heights are given and the influences of wave heights, wave periods, and beach slopes on longshore currents are discussed. The discussion is also made on the influences of different eddy viscosity coefficients on the numerical results of longshore current velocities.

  11. Longshore currents of regular waves on different beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 王淑平; 邱大洪; 王艳; 王风龙; 董国海

    2003-01-01

    The experiment and numerical computations of longshore currents produced by regularwaves on the two beaches with the slopes of 1:100 and 1: 40 are made. The cross-shore distributions oflongshore current velocities and wave heights are given and the influences of wave heights, wave periodsand beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. The discussion is also made for the influencesof different eddy viscosity coefficients on the numerical results of longshore current velocities.

  12. Health effects of beach water pollution in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, W. H.; Chang, K C; Hung, R. P.; Kleevens, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies of beach water pollution were conducted in Hong Kong in the summers of 1986 and 1987. For the main study in 1987, a total of 18741 usable responses were obtained from beachgoers on nine beaches at weekends. The study indicated the overall perceived symptom rates for gastrointestinal, ear, eye, skin, respiratory, fever and total illness were significantly higher for swimmers than non-swimmers; and the swimming-associated symptom rates for gastrointestinal, s...

  13. Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application

    OpenAIRE

    Katsina Christopher BALA; Reyazul Haque KHAN

    2013-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS) standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to...

  14. Equilibrium Beach profile measurement and sediment analysis : Mustang Island, Texas.

    OpenAIRE

    Knezek, Erick B.

    1997-01-01

    CIVINS This engineering report describes the measurement techniques and results of an equilibrium beach profile survey and sediment analysis. The main objective of the project was to obtain an accurate equilibrium beach profile at a location on Mustang Island, and to compare the actual profile to a predicted profile. The predicted profile is based on the median grain size diameter of sediment samples taken from the dune crest to approximately 4000 ft offshore. The survey was accomplished u...

  15. Post-monsoon equilibrium beach profiles and longshore sediment transport rates at Candolim, Miramar and Keri beaches of Goa, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Jishad, M.; Gowthaman, R.; Rajasekaran, C.; Pednekar, P.S.

    exact match with the measured foreshore profiles. 1. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Cross-shore sediment transport processes. In Coastal Engineering Manual, USACE, Vicksburg, Mississippi, 2006, Chapter III, pp. 1110–1100. 2. Bruun, P..., 555– 556. 4. Shepard, F. P., Longshore bars and longshore troughs. US Army Corps of Engineers – Technical Memo 15. 1950, Beach Erosion Board Washington, DC, p. 32. 5. Gourlay, M. R., Beaches: profiles, processes and permeability. Department...

  16. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically

  17. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  18. Electrodeposition of Sr-Ti alloy films from DMSO bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrodeposition of Sr-Ti alloy films from non aqueous dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) bath has been carried out onto stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. The preparative parameters were studied and optimised. Alloy films with thickness 2 to 3 microns were obtained for 30 minutes of deposition. The films were uniform, dense and adhesive to the substrate. The electrodeposited Sr-Ti alloy films were oxidised at higher temperature in order to obtain SrTiO3 films. Electrical and microstructural properties were carried out. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  19. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  20. Langevin description of gauged scalar fields in a thermal bath

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Yuhei; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the oscillating gauged scalar field in a thermal bath. A Langevin type equation of motion of the scalar field, which contains both dissipation and fluctuation terms, is derived by using the real-time finite temperature effective action approach. The existence of the quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation between the non-local dissipation term and the Gaussian stochastic noise terms is verified. We find the noise variables are anti-correlated at equal-time. The dissipation rate for the each mode is also studied, which turns out to depend on the wavenumber.

  1. A new cobalt oxide electrodeposit bath for solar absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Enrique [Departmento de IPH, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Departmento de Quimica, Area de Electroquimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Viveros, Tomas [Departmento de IPH, Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-19

    A study was carried out in a Hull cell in order to optimize the deposition conditions of cobalt oxide (black cobalt) in an electrolytic bath, which uses cobalt nitrate for direct obtention of black cobalt. Thermal stability of the material was surveyed on several samples of black cobalt prepared on stainless-steel with a thickness of approximately of 2.5 {mu}m. It was found that the optical properties change, in respect to the initial values, with time of treatment until an equilibrium is reached. This equilibrium depends on the substrate and the temperature of the treatment used

  2. Did Life Begin on the Beach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Robert P.; Conde-Frieboesk Kilian

    2005-08-01

    Water is one of the prerequisites of life. Further requirements are the existence of a system of interacting organic molecules capable of capturing and converting the supply of external energy and elaborating the replicating function that is needed for propagation. None of this would be possible without the existence of some means of concentrating, selecting, and then containing these mutually interacting substances in proximity to one another, i.e., a primitive cell. Starting from this hypothesis we propose a model for the development of life on Earth. Our model embodies the following new features: (1) rapid cycles of catalysis and transport of material, (2) desegregation (separation by tidal action and degradation by catalysis) as well as segregation (by chromatography on tidal beaches), (3) cross-catalysis instead of auto-catalysis, as well as (4) compartmentalization, although the latter idea is of course not new. But our "lipid first" model, in contrast to earlier "peptide first" or "RNA first" models, provides for the compartments needed to act as a cradle for the subsequent development of information- rich molecules like peptides and RNA. If anything, the earliest information-rich molecules were probably membrane-spanning peptides/proteins.

  3. An Engineering Application Tool for Visual Assessment of the Equilibrium Beach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An engineering application tool for prediction of the static equilibrium bay (Beach Mod) is established to describe two bay shape formulas by use of the programming software "MATLAB" with a graphic user interface (GUI). The tool is user-friendly for engineering students for the design of beach shapes. This tool was tested through application on three types of beaches in Taiwan and Australia. By implementing the concept of Headland Control, the Beach Mod program allows users to draw a structure and create an artificial headland. The results indicate that Beach Mod can efficiently forecast beach changes as well as MEPBAY, a competing software package, while boasting a better user interface.

  4. Real-Time Dry Beach Length Monitoring for Tailings Dams Based on Visual Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of dry beach is an important factor that influences the safety of tailings dams. However, there still is no accurate and reliable method that can conveniently measure the length of dry beach. In this paper, the authors focus on developing a novel method for dry beach length determination. The proposed method can effectively measure the dry beach length through an ordinary camera and four marking rods placed on the dry beach. Experimental results show that the proposed method can conveniently measure the dry beach length with high accuracy, and therefore it can be adopted as an effective method in tailings dam real-time health monitoring.

  5. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  6. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  7. Daily Bathing with Chlorhexidine and Its Effects on Nosocomial Infection Rates in Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulji, Chittalsinh M; Clay, Kristin; Velasco, Cruz; Yu, Lolie C

    2015-01-01

    Infections remain a serious complication in pediatric oncology patients. To determine if daily bathing with Chlorhexidine gluconate can decrease the rate of nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients, we reviewed rates of infections in pediatric oncology patients over a 14-month span. Intervention group received daily bath with Chlorhexidine, while the control group did not receive daily bath. The results showed that daily bath with antiseptic chlorhexidine as daily prophylactic antiseptic topical wash leads to decreased infection density amongst the pediatric oncology patients, especially in patients older than 12 years of age. Furthermore, daily chlorhexidine bathing significantly reduced the rate of hospital acquired infection in patients older than 12 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that daily bathing with chlorhexidine may be an effective measure of reducing nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients.

  8. Effects of system-bath coupling on Photosynthetic heat engine: A polaron master equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, M; Zhao, X L; Yi, X X

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the polaron master equation, which offers the possibilities to interpolate between weak and strong system-bath coupling, to study how system-bath couplings affect charge transfer processes in Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) inspired quantum heat engine (QHE) model in a wide parameter range. The effects of bath correlation and temperature, together with the combined effects of these factors are also discussed in details. The results show a variety of dynamical behaviours. We interpret these results in terms of noise-assisted transport effect and dynamical localization which correspond to two mechanisms underpinning the transfer process in photosynthetic complexes: One is resonance energy transfer and the other is dynamical localization effect captured by the polaron master equation. The effects of system-bath coupling and bath correlation are incorporated in the effective system-bath coupling strength determining whether noise-assisted transport effect or dynamical localization...

  9. Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, Isaiah Olatunde

    II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then becomes a suitable technology of choice. Heterogeneous reaction in a basic aqueous solution that is responsible for the II-VI compound film growth in CBD requires a metal complex. We have identified the stability constant (k) of the metal complex compatible with CBD growth mechanism to be about 106.9. This value is low enough to ensure that the substrate adsorbed complex relax for subsequent reaction with the chalcogen precursor to take place. It is also high enough to minimize the metal ion concentration in the bath participating in the precipitation of the bulk compounds. Homogeneous reaction that leads to precipitation in the reaction bath takes place because the solubility products of bulk II-VI compounds are very low. This reaction quickly depletes the bath of reactants, limit the film thickness, and degrade the film quality. While ZnS thin films are still hard to grow by CBD because of lack of suitable complexing agent, the homogeneous reaction still limits quality and thickness of both US and ZnS thin films. In this study, the zinc tetraammine complex ([Zn(NH3) 4]2+) with k = 108.9 has been forced to acquire its unsaturated form [Zn(NH3)3]2+ with a moderate k = 106.6 using hydrazine and nitrilotriacetate ion as complementary complexing agents and we have successfully grown ZnS thin films. We have also, minimized or eliminated the homogeneous reaction by using ammonium salt as a buffer and chemical bath with low reactant concentrations. These have allowed us to increase the saturation thickness of ZnS thin film by about 400% and raise that of US film

  10. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  11. Total Quantum Zeno effect and Intelligent States for a two level system in a squeezed bath

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D; Stephany, J

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show that by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states which display Total Zeno Effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

  12. The sauna and sauna bathing habits--a psychoanalytic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorri, P

    1988-01-01

    Sauna bathing is a pleasant and relaxing experience that combines psychic, physical and social pleasures. A person's inner feelings about sauna bathing, its essential components are mainly unconscious. The sauna bath reduces the aggressive behaviour and enables bathers to forget the commonplace pressures of everyday life. The sauna evokes memories of childhood development, awakening feelings of maternal warmth and paternal power in the bather. The sauna is a positive mental health resource, even though its effects are transitory. PMID:3218893

  13. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-03-01

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous. PMID:21456831

  14. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous.

  15. Studying bath exhaustion as a method to apply microcapsules on fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet Aracil, María Angeles; Capablanca Francés, Lucía; MONLLOR PÉREZ Pablo; DÍAZ GARCÍA Pablo; Montava Seguí, Ignacio José

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Textile industry is one of the fields that have increased their consumption of microcapsules. They can be applied to textiles using different methods, such as, padding, bath exhaustion, spraying and foaming. Although the most extended industrial application is by padding, commercial brands also suggest bath exhaustion as a possible procedure. In the research reported herein, bath exhaustion treatments are compared to padding. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) technique showe...

  16. The Finnish sauna bath and its use in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, M L; Adamo, K B

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish tradition of sauna bathing is meant to be an experience in relaxation, and the length of time spent in the sauna and the preferred temperature vary considerably among individuals. The pleasures of sauna bathing can be considered safe and without undue risk of cardiac complications even for CVD patients, providing bathing is conducted sensibly for an appropriate period of time, and extremes in temperature are voided.

  17. Impact of mass bathing during Ardhkumbh on water quality status of river Ganga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, H; Sharma, S

    2006-05-01

    The study highlighted that mass bathing during Ardhkumbh caused the changes in the river water quality and indicated that water is not fit for either drinking or bathing purposes. The presence of faecal coliforms in water also hints at the potential presence of pathogenic microorganisms, which might cause water borne diseases. Although the water was found to be safe with respect to dissolved oxygen content, the values of BOD and COD exceeded the maximum permissible limit during bathing. PMID:17436540

  18. Collaboration between physician Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole in restoring the Sokobanja Turkish bath

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Gordana; Nešković Marina

    2015-01-01

    The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of twosection baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structur...

  19. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  20. Beach groin acts as barrier to longshore transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    The Bergen Avenue Groin in Harvey Cedars, N.J., a storm protection structure that confines alongshore-moving sediment to create wider beaches, has been found to act as a barrier to longshore sediment transport according to Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. Using a wave transformation-shoreline evolution model, Bruno examined the effectiveness of an existing stone groin on a commercially and historically valuable beach. His findings were summarized at the 21st Union of Panamerican Engineers meeting hosted by the American Association of Engineering Societies held in Washington, D.C., August 19-24.Groins are low, narrow jetties made of timber, stone, concrete, or steel that extend roughly perpendicular to the shoreline. They are designed to protect the shore from erosion by currents, tides or waves, or to trap sand and littoral drift to build up or make a beach. The advantage of a groin is that it is a permanent solution to beach erosion, as opposed to the continuing process of beach replenishment required in nonstructural processes such as beachfills. This same permanence, however, is often the downfall of structural solutions because of the long-term deleterious consequences associated with such devices.

  1. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong. PMID:26837834

  2. Compaction of upstream construction tailings dam beaches using dozers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, S.; Lappin, T. [Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Godwaldt, R. [Albian Sands Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The compacted shell and beaches of non-liquefiable sands are used to contain upstream construction tailings in the oil sands industry. Dozers are used to compact and densify the sands by trafficking repeatedly across the sand surface. The downward drainage of construction waters also contributes to the further compaction of the sands. This paper provided details of a study conducted on a loose beach deposit located at a Muskeg River mine site in Alberta. The trial was conducted to assess the level of effort required to densify the sands using CAT D7 dozers. The vertical extent of the resulting compaction was also measured. Cone penetration tests and surveys of surface settlement were used to assess the effectiveness of the densification. The beach was greater than 100 m, and trial area elevations were greater than the pond in order to allow for post track-packing subsidence. Testing was conducted prior to dozer track-packing in order to quantify the initial state of the testing area as well as after track-packing in order measure changes in cone resistance and density. Results of the trial indicated that the dozers are capable of densifying the sands to a depth of 4 m to 5 m below the beach surface. It was concluded that the systematic densification of upstream construction tailings beaches will allow oil sands mine operators to improve dyke stability while also increasing storage volumes within impoundments. 4 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  3. Effect of the geometric parameters of the EAF bath on the main characteristics of furnace operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkovskii, A. G.; Kats, Ya. L.

    2013-06-01

    The models of melting a semiproduct in an electric arc furnace (EAF) and metal mixing developed earlier are used to study the effect of the proportion of the bath sizes on the following main technicaleconomic characteristics of a heat: the expenditure of electric energy, the heat time, and the operating time under electric current. The range of the optimal values of the proportion of the EAF bath sizes is determined with allowance for bath stirring with CO bubbles during decarburization. It is useful to increase the bath depth of EAFs operating according to single-slag technology and to classify furnaces according to the type of charge and the method of its loading.

  4. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  5. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States. PMID:15792331

  6. Health risk assessment standards of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stankiewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Threat for human health appears during a massive cyanobacteria bloom in potable water used for human consumption or in basins used for recreational purposes. General health risk assessment standards and preventive measures to be taken by sanitation service were presented in scope of: – evaluation of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites / water bodies, – procedures in case of cyanobacteria bloom, including health risk assessment and decision making process to protect users’ health at bathing sites, – preventive measures, to be taken in case of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites and basins, where bathing sites are located.

  7. Heat-Bath Configuration Interaction: An Efficient Selected Configuration Interaction Algorithm Inspired by Heat-Bath Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Adam A; Tubman, Norm M; Umrigar, C J

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new selected configuration interaction plus perturbation theory algorithm that is based on a deterministic analog of our recent efficient heat-bath sampling algorithm. This Heat-bath Configuration Interaction (HCI) algorithm makes use of two parameters that control the trade-off between speed and accuracy, one which controls the selection of determinants to add to a variational wave function and one which controls the selection of determinants used to compute the perturbative correction to the variational energy. We show that HCI provides an accurate treatment of both static and dynamic correlation by computing the potential energy curve of the multireference carbon dimer in the cc-pVDZ basis. We then demonstrate the speed and accuracy of HCI by recovering the full configuration interaction energy of both the carbon dimer in the cc-pVTZ basis and the strongly correlated chromium dimer in the Ahlrichs VDZ basis, correlating all electrons, to an accuracy of better than 1 mHa, in just a few minutes on a single core. These systems have full variational spaces of 3 × 10(14) and 2 × 10(22) determinants, respectively. PMID:27428771

  8. Short-term observation of beach dynamics using cross-shore profiles and foreshore sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.; Vinayaraj, P.

    quantity of unimodal and bimodal sediment was found with moderately well sorted and moderately sorted nature. No significant correlation in beach morpho-sedimentary characteristics was found due to the non-uniform trend in beach morphodynamics and textural...

  9. Prospect of Oil/Gas Exploration in Beach Area of Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gansheng; Dou Lirong; Yuan Lingling; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Located in beach zone along Bohai Bay, the beach area of Bohai Bay basin is restricted between coastline and water depth of 5 m, stretching from Bayuquan to Huludao, Liaoning Province and Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province to Weihekou, Shandong Province.

  10. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.

    . Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...

  11. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  12. Land use and beach closure 2004-2013 in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the beach closure data and land use information around each beach in 2006 and 2011 in the United States. The original data are created by EPA...

  13. An experiment to restore coastal sand dunes at Miramar beach, Goa: An appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    . Loss of vegetation is attributed to continuous trampling by humans, resulting in the creation of loose free sand that gets transported landwards. During windy days, large quantities of beach sand are blown from the beach and subsequently accumulate...

  14. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  15. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  16. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCI + NaCI) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on the electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in the CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as CI2 gas followed by its trapping one soda lime cartridge, a complete oxidative dissolution of the refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the back-end: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions. (authors). 10 figs., 9 refs

  17. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation betw...

  18. The Entropy Production Distribution in Non-Markovian Thermal Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Inés Jiménez-Aquino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the distribution function for the total entropy production of a Brownian particle embedded in a non-Markovian thermal bath. The problem is studied in the overdamped approximation of the generalized Langevin equation, which accounts for a friction memory kernel characteristic of a Gaussian colored noise. The problem is studied in two physical situations: (i when the particle in the harmonic trap is subjected to an arbitrary time-dependent driving force; and (ii when the minimum of the harmonic trap is arbitrarily dragged out of equilibrium by an external force. By assuming a natural non Markovian canonical distribution for the initial conditions, the distribution function for the total entropy production becomes a non Gaussian one. Its characterization is then given through the first three cumulants.

  19. Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

  20. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LONGSHORE CURRENTS OVER PLANE AND BARRED BEACHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-wei; ZOU Zhi-li

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the vertical profile of the longshore currents over plane and barred beaches.The logarithmic law is applied to fit the data for the region below the wave trough and an adjusted logarithmic profile without the mass transport velocity is applied to the region above the wave trough.The results indicate that the logarithmic law fits the data well for both plane and barred beaches.The friction velocity and the relative roughness obtained by the data fitting are compared with relevant calculated results.

  1. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.

    2015-07-01

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  2. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  3. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W...

  4. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict...

  5. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  6. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend and remove Class E airspace at Vero Beach, FL (75 FR 65581... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach...

  7. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  8. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Palm Beach, FL. 110.185 Section 110.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... of Palm Beach, FL. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage A. The waters lying within an area... Palm Beach, shall only anchor within the anchorage areas hereby defined and established, except...

  9. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach... Beach, NY. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area is a trapezoidal area on the coastal Atlantic waters of Long Island to the south of Long Beach, New York. The regulated area is one and one quarter...

  10. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  11. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  12. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... from Tahoe Keys Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA at position 39 13'55'' N, 120...

  13. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Miami Beach, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. The area to the eastward of a line bearing 12° (N. 12° E.) through a point X, which is 11/2 nautical miles due east of the intersection of the Miami Beach shore line... Miami Beach, Fla. 110.188 Section 110.188 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  14. [Interference therapy and radon baths in the combined treatment of patients with reflex cervicobrachial syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, F E; Semenistaia, S V

    1998-01-01

    Patients with cervicobrachialgic syndromes on interference therapy, exercise treatment, massage of the cervical collar region received balneotherapy. 42 of them took water baths, 39 took dry air radon baths. These complexes proved effective in cervicobrachialgic syndromes, the effect being slightly dependent on the clinical symptoms of the disease. PMID:9987978

  15. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, Mette; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede;

    2008-01-01

    The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application.......The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application....

  16. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... modifications to reduce further the risk of injury associated with infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of August 30, 2013 (78 FR 53734),...

  17. [DNA metabolism in lymphocytes of experimental subjects during thermotherapy (sauna, Turkish bath)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, R; Egg, D; Klein, D; Kocsis, F; Altmann, H

    1983-01-01

    The unprogrammed DNA synthesis (UDS) in the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood was significantly higher in regular sauna-users than in those who had not had a sauna for some time. Sedimentation velocity of the supercoiled DNA in the lymphocytes was decreased 1 h and 24 h after Turkish bath, but the difference from values before the bath was not statistically significant.

  18. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. A brain slice bath for physiology and compound microscopy, with dual-sided perifusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, P M

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary in vitro brain slice studies can employ compound microscopes to identify individual neurons or their processes for physiological recording or imaging. This requires that the bath used to maintain the tissue fits within the working distances of a water-dipping objective and microscope condenser. A common means of achieving this is to maintain thin tissue slices on the glass floor of a recording bath, exposing only one surface of the tissue to oxygenated bathing medium. Emerging evidence suggests that physiology can be compromised by this approach. Flowing medium past both sides of submerged brain slices is optimal, but recording baths utilizing this principle are not readily available for use on compound microscopes. This paper describes a tissue bath designed specifically for microscopy and physiological recording, in which temperature-controlled medium flows past both sides of the slices. A particular feature of this design is the use of concentric mesh rings to support and transport the live tissue without mechanical disturbance. The design is also easily adapted for use with thin acute slices, cultured slices, and acutely dispersed or cultured cells maintained either on cover slips or placed directly on the floor of the bath. The low profile of the bath provides a low angle of approach for electrodes, and allows use of standard condensers, nosepieces and water-dipping objective lenses. If visualization of individual neurons is not required, the bath can be mounted on a simple stand and used with a dissecting microscope. Heating is integral to the bath, and any temperature controller capable of driving a resistive load can be used. The bath is robust, readily constructed and requires minimal maintenance. Full construction and operation details are given. PMID:21077881

  20. Textural and compositional variations in beach sands along Karachi coast

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, N. (Nicolás); Muhammad, M.J.; Zaidi, S.M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The texture of clastic sediments is a fairly reliable index of the erosional history and energy conditions of the depositional environment, while its mineralogy reflects the composition of the source rocks. The beach sands of Clifton, Sandspit, Hawkesbay and Paradise Point were studied to determine their erosional history, depositional environment and their source

  1. Bathymetry--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3319) of the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area, California. The...

  2. Coastal engineering: vol II. Harbor and beach problems

    OpenAIRE

    Massie, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Ship motions, channel depth, channel width, ship maneuvering models, maneuverability improvement, total channel optimization, coastal sand transport, radiation stress, wave set-up, radiation stress gradient, tidal forces, turbulent forces, bottom friction forces, longshore current computations, early coastal transport formula, sand transport mechanisms, model coastal transport formula, coastal dynamics with single line theory, sand transport along a beach profile, coastal changes with multipl...

  3. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.; James, I.; Jennings, P.J.; Keoyers, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of rad

  4. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  5. Development of a numerical 2-dimensional beach evolution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykal, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the description of a 2-dimensional numerical model constructed for the simulation of beach evolution under the action of wind waves only over the arbitrary land and sea topographies around existing coastal structures and formations. The developed beach evolution numerical mode...... groin, and a series of offshore breakwaters. The numerical model gave results in agreement with the measurements both qualitatively and quantitatively and reflected the physical concepts well for the selected conceptual cases.......This paper presents the description of a 2-dimensional numerical model constructed for the simulation of beach evolution under the action of wind waves only over the arbitrary land and sea topographies around existing coastal structures and formations. The developed beach evolution numerical model...... is composed of 4 submodels: a nearshore spectral wave transformation model based on an energy balance equation including random wave breaking and diffraction terms to compute the nearshore wave characteristics, a nearshore wave-induced circulation model based on the nonlinear shallow water equations...

  6. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  7. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  8. Modeling the Movement of Beach Alluvia in the Alongshore Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Bondareva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have worked out a design model for the dynamics of a mixed-composition beach in the vicinity of transverse structures. The model uses a modified formula for calculating alluvia, which is based on modified energy dependencies. The authors provide an algorithm for performing these calculations.

  9. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  10. Submarine Groundwater and Its Influence on Beach Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Alexandria; Payton, Adina

    2007-01-01

    Scientists believe that beach closures due to high indicator bacteria counts are linked to groundwater flowing a few feet beneath the sand. Groundwater discharging to the coast may be as important a source of coastal pollution as the more often implicated urban runoff.

  11. HEART RATE AND MOTION ANALYSIS BY GPS IN BEACH SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julen Castellano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate and physical (motion analysis responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg. were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax, with 59.3% of the time participating (TP corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods

  12. Surf zone diffusivity on a rip-channeled beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; MacMahan, J.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Thornton, E.

    2009-01-01

    Absolute and relative diffusivity are measured on a rip-channeled beach using 30 position-tracking drifters released in clusters (4–12 drifters) deployed on 7 days with different wave forcing and tidal elevations at Sand City, Monterey Bay, California. Diffusivity and dispersion were found to be lar

  13. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore

  14. Determination of 40K in Beach Sand and Seawater Samples at Sarımsaklı Beach of Aegean Sea (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Hacıyakupoğlu, Sevilay; Tezsezer, Seyda; Orucoglu, Esra

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with analyzing of naturally occurring 40K radioisotope in beach sand and seawater samples of Sarımsaklı beach at Aegean coastal region of Turkey and its contribution to natural radioactivity. By using gamma spectroscopy the mean radioactivity concentration was found as 1093.00 ± 115.07 Bq kg-1 for the beach sand and as 14.08 ± 3.50 Bq kg-1 for the seawater. The average external effective dose rate of beach sand was determined in air at 1 m above the ground as 45...

  15. Low-energy Beach ridge sedimentation in the Mississippi River delta plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, R.G.; Penland, S.

    1985-01-01

    Regressive beach ridge plains, such as Cheniere Caminada, Cheniere Caillou, and Cheniere Ronquille, are common depositional features within the Mississippi River delta plain in southeastern Louisiana. Vibracored sequences indicate beach ridge formation is a 3 stage process: Stage 1: Distributary Progradation, followed by Stage 2: Longshore Transport Interception, and completed by Stage 3: Beach Ridge Progradation. Cheniere Caminada is the largest beach ridge plain and is associated with the Late Lafourche delta. Radiocarbon dates indicate beach ridge building began approximately 720 years BP, when the Bayou Lafourche distributaries built seaward of the older, retreating Bayou Blue shoreline and intercepted westward longshore sediment transport, resulting in the progradation of Cheniere Caminada. Near the fan apex, beach ridges are 7-8 m thick and thin westward 2-3 m thick against the levees of Bayou Moreau. A typical beach ridge vertical sequence coarsens upward, with shoreface silty sands overlain by a thin cap of beach, washover, and aeolian sands. Beach ridge progradation in this area ceased approximately 300 years BP with the abandonment of Bayou Lafourche. The documentation of multiple regressive beach ridge plains suggest these deposits are stratigraphically more significant in the Mississippi River delta plain than recognized previously. The regressive beach ridge sequence documented in this study both stratigraphically and genetically contrasts with the classic transgressive chenier ridges of southwestern Louisiana.

  16. A geomorphological response of beaches to Typhoon Meari in the eastern Shandong Peninsula in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Dong; YANG Jichao; LI Guangxue; DADA Olusegun A; GONG Lixin; WANG Nan; WANG Xiangdong; ZHANG Bin

    2015-01-01

    Eight representative beach profiles on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula are observed and measured in 2011 and 2012 to determine the coastal processes under the lower tropical wind speed condition and the beach response to and recovery from the tropical storm Meari in a rare typhoon region. The results show that it is the enhancement and directional change of cross-shore and longshore sediment transports caused by Meari that leads to the beach morphological changes, and most of the sediment transports occur during the pre-Meari landing phase. The erosional scarp formation and the berm or beach face erosion are the main geomorphological responses of the beaches to the storm. The storm characteristics are more important than the beach shapes in the storm response process of the beaches on Shandong Peninsula. The typhoon is a fortuitous strong dynamic event, and the effect on the dissipative beach is more obvious than it is on the reflective beach in the study region. Furthermore, the beach trend is the main factor that controlls the storm effect intensity, and it is also closely related to the recovery of the beach profiles.

  17. Beach Soccer Injuries During the Japanese National Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Tomoyuki; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Kawasoe, Yoko; Yoshimura, Kouji; Chinen, Yuma; Eimon, Kazuya; Chibana, Wataru; Shirota, Shinichi; Kadekawa, Kei; Bahr, Roald; Uezato, Tomomi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and severity of injury in beach soccer are unknown. Purpose: To estimate the incidence rates, characteristics, and risk factors for injuries associated with beach soccer. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The same sports physician examined and recorded injuries incurred during the Japanese National Beach Soccer Championships in 2013 and 2014. Posttournament follow-up was made for all injuries. Match exposure for each player was recorded through video review to examine individual risk factors. Results: A total of 58 injuries were recorded during 54 matches. The overall injury rate was 179.0 (95% CI, 138.4-231.6), and the time-loss injury rate was 28.2 (95% CI, 14.7-54.1) per 1000 player-hours. The foot/toe (34.9%) was the most frequently injured area, followed by the lower leg (22.2%) and thigh (11.1%). There was only 1 ankle injury (1.6%). The most frequent injury type was contusions (60.3%), followed by lacerations/abrasions (14.3%) and sprains/ligament injuries (6.3%). Only 4 injuries resulted in ≥30 days of time-loss (7.4%). After adjusting for age, a previous history of severe injury and longer experience of beach soccer were significantly associated with injury risk. Conclusion: The time-loss injury rate in this study was comparable to the rates reported during the matches of soccer or futsal tournaments. However, a greater incidence of foot/toe injury and lacerations/abrasions as well as a lower incidence of ankle injury distinguished beach soccer from soccer and futsal, possibly related to the specific playing conditions of being barefoot on a sand surface. PMID:26862537

  18. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae

  19. Responses of ghost crabs to habitat modification of urban sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling-Wood, Talia P; Clark, Graeme F; Poore, Alistair G B

    2016-05-01

    Sandy beaches in highly urbanised areas are subject to a wide range of human impacts. Ghost crabs are a commonly used ecological indicator on sandy beaches, as they are key consumers in these systems and counting burrow openings allows for rapid assessment of population size. This study assessed the pressures of urbanisation on sandy beaches in the highly urbanised estuary of Sydney Harbour. Across 38 beaches, we examined which physical beach properties, management practices and human induced habitat modification best predicted ghost crab distributions. Of all variables measured, the frequency of mechanical beach cleaning was the most important predictor of crab abundance, with low burrow densities at the highest cleaning frequency and the highest densities at beaches cleaned at the intermediate frequency (≤3 times per week). These results indicate that ghost crab populations in Sydney Harbour are more robust to the impacts of urbanisation than previously thought. PMID:26970686

  20. BATH_IS5m - 5 meter ArcRaster grid of swath bathymetry of inshore area of Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  1. Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

  2. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... an air show which consist of aircraft performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  3. Effect of bath and luminal potassium concentration on ammonia production and secretion by mouse proximal tubules perfused in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagami, G T

    1990-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute changes in K+ concentration in vitro on ammonia production and secretion by the proximal tubule, we studied mouse S2 segments perfused with and bathed in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffers containing various K+ concentrations. All bath solutions contained L-glutamine as the ammoniagenic substrate. High bath and luminal K+ concentrations (8 mM), but not high luminal K+ concentration alone, inhibited total ammonia production rates by 26%, while low bath and lumin...

  4. Effect of chlorhexidine bathing in preventing infections and reducing skin burden and environmental contamination: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskey, Curtis J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Chlorhexidine bathing is effective in reducing levels of pathogens on skin. In this review, we examine the evidence that chlorhexidine bathing can prevent colonization and infection with health care-associated pathogens and reduce dissemination to the environment and the hands of personnel. The importance of education and monitoring of compliance with bathing procedures is emphasized in order to optimize chlorhexidine bathing in clinical practice. PMID:27131130

  5. Effect of chlorhexidine bathing in preventing infections and reducing skin burden and environmental contamination: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskey, Curtis J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Chlorhexidine bathing is effective in reducing levels of pathogens on skin. In this review, we examine the evidence that chlorhexidine bathing can prevent colonization and infection with health care-associated pathogens and reduce dissemination to the environment and the hands of personnel. The importance of education and monitoring of compliance with bathing procedures is emphasized in order to optimize chlorhexidine bathing in clinical practice.

  6. Stability of a very coarse-grained beach at Carmel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Monastery Beach at Carmel, California, is a pocket beach composed of very coarse to granular sediment. In profile, the beach has a well-defined berm crest; a steep foreshore; and a gently sloping, barless offshore covered by large, long-crested oscillation ripples. Carmel Submarine Canyon heads a few hundred meters offshore of the beach, and San Jose Creek, a small ephemeral steam, ponds onshore of the central part of the berm. Wave conditions vary greatly during a year because the beach lies open to the Pacific Ocean for azimuths between 270??-322??N whence come a variety of wave types. Even with a variable wave climate, Monastery Beach has maintained a swell profile for almost three years. Aperiodic beach surveys show that the beach responds little to seasonal changes in wave climate. Four survey lines maintained the same swell profile throughout the study period. The fifth line maintained a stable profile only across the foreshore; the berm was twice artificially breached during storms to prevent upstream flooding along San Jose Creek. In comparison, Carmel Beach, a nearby beach composed of medium sand, commonly alternates between swell and storm profiles. The increased stability of Monastery Beach relative to Carmel Beach is attributed to two factors: grain size differences and location within Carmel Bay. Rebuilding proceeded very slowly along the breached part of the berm at Monastery Beach. The probable cause of such a low recovery rate is that oscillation ripples trapped the sand that was carried offshore when San Jose Creek eroded the beach. The ripples, which are active under high-energy conditions, approach dormancy under low-energy conditions. Each ripple, therefore, acts like a reservoir, retaining sand during most swell conditions. ?? 1981.

  7. Quantum Thermal Bath for Path Integral Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Fabien; Dammak, Hichem; Hayoun, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The quantum thermal bath (QTB) method has been recently developed to account for the quantum nature of the nuclei by using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. QTB-MD is an efficient but approximate method when dealing with strongly anharmonic systems, while path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) gives exact results but in a huge amount of computation time. The QTB and PIMD methods have been combined in order to improve the PIMD convergence or correct the failures of the QTB-MD technique. Therefore, a new power spectral density of the random force within the QTB has been developed. A modified centroid-virial estimator of the kinetic energy, especially adapted to QTB-PIMD, has also been proposed. The method is applied to selected systems: a one-dimensional double-well system, a ferroelectric phase transition, and the position distribution of an hydrogen atom in a fuel cell material. The advantage of the QTB-PIMD method is its ability to give exact results with a more reasonable computation time for strongly anharmonic systems. PMID:26799437

  8. Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Lowen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as ”carrier”) which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  9. Anodization of hafnium in phosphate baths: radio tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of anodic oxidation of hafnium in different phosphate baths: phosphoric acid and its three sodium salts of 0.1 M concentration have been carried out using galvanostatic technique at 8 mA.cm-2 current density and at room temperature (300 K). The conventional plots V-t, I/C-t, I/C-V are drawn. Thickness estimates are made from capacitance data. The above plots are found to be linear up to 140 ± 20 V. The breakdown voltage remained almost same. The parameters formation rate, current efficiency and differential field are calculated and are found to be decreasing regularly with the increase in the pH of the electrolyte. In order to establish the mechanism of oxide film formation on hafnium in Na3PO4 electrolyte, the uptake and distribution of phosphate ions during formation and thinning of the oxide film are studied using 32PO---4 as radio tracer and a specially designed radio active cell. For thinning experiments 0.7 μ diamond paste is used. The total mechanism is found to be via vacancy diffusion plus some exchange interstitial capture. The active-inactive transformation study clearly shows the migration of phosphate ions from one layer to another. Finally the effect of temperature and current density on the amount of incorporation of ions is also studied and linear relationships are established. (author)

  10. The Thermal Bath of de Sitter from Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We consider the AdS/dS CFT correspondence and study the nature of the thermal bath of the de Sitter field theory using holography. Unlike the temperature of a thermal field theory in flat spacetime, the temperature of a superconformal field theory on de Sitter space is an integral part of the theory and leaves intact the conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. In the dual AdS side, there is no black hole. Instead we have cosmological expansion of the de Sitter factor. We consider a number of different observables, such as the entanglement entropy, two point correlation function, Wilson loops corresponding to static and spinning mesons in the field theory, and study their thermal properties using holography. The former two quantities have trivial temperature dependence due to conformal symmetry. We compute the energy of the quark anti-quark bound state for a static meson, as well as the energy and the angular momentum for a spinning meson. We find that there is a maximum distance, as well as a maximum spin for t...

  11. Cobalt Xanthate Thin Film with Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. A. Kariper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt xanthate thin films (CXTFs were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, onto amorphous glass substrates, as well as on p- and n-silicon, indium tin oxide, and poly(methyl methacrylate. The structure of the films was analyzed by far-infrared spectrum (FIR, mid-infrared (MIR spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These films were investigated from their structural, optical, and electrical properties point of view. Electrical properties were measured using four-point method, whereas optical properties were investigated via UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. Uniform distribution of grains was clearly observed from the photographs taken by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The transmittance was about 70–80% (4 hours, 50°C. The optical band gap of the CXTF was graphically estimated to be 3.99–4.02 eV. The resistivity of the films was calculated as 22.47–75.91 Ω·cm on commercial glass depending on film thickness and 44.90–73.10 Ω ·cm on the other substrates. It has been observed that the relative resistivity changed with film thickness. The MIR and FIR spectra of the films were in agreement with the literature analogues. The expected peaks of cobalt xanthate were observed in NMR analysis on glass. The films were dipped in chloroform as organic solvent and were analyzed by NMR.

  12. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  13. Microwave Induced Ethanol Bath Bonding for PMMA Microfluidic Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    High bonding strength, low deformation and convenient procedure are all very important aspects in the microfluidic device fabrication process. In this paper, an improved microwave induced bonding technology is proposed to fabricate microfluidic device based on methyl methacrylate (PMMA). This method employs pure ethanol as the bonding assisted solvent. The ethanol not only acts as the microwave absorbing material, but also works as the organic solvent in bath. The presented research work has shown that the bonding process can be completed in less than 45 s. Furthermore, the convenient bonding only applies microwave oven, beakers and binder clips. Then, we discuss effects of microwave power, bonding time on bonding strength and deformation of microstructures on PMMA microfluidic device. Finally, a 4 layers micro⁃mixer has been fabricated using the proposed bonding technique which includes 15 trapezoid micro⁃channels, 9 T⁃type mix units and an X⁃type mix unit. Experimental results show that the proposed bonding method have some advantages compared with several traditional bonding technologies, such as hot pressing bonding, ultrasonic bonding and solvent assisted bonding methods in respect of bonding strength, deformation and bonding process. The presented work would be helpful for low coat mass production of multilayer polymer microfluidic devices in lab.

  14. Transient state work fluctuation theorem for a classical harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a harmonic bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajarshi Chakrabarti

    2009-04-01

    Based on a Hamiltonian description we present a rigorous derivation of the transient state work fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for a classical harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a harmonic heat bath, which is dragged by an external agent. Coupling with the bath makes the dynamics dissipative. Since we do not assume anything about the spectral nature of the harmonic bath the derivation is not restricted only to the Ohmic bath, rather it is more general, for a non-Ohmic bath. We also derive expressions of the average work done and the variance of the work done in terms of the two-time correlation function of the fluctuations of the position of the harmonic oscillator. In the case of an Ohmic bath, we use these relations to evaluate the average work done and the variance of the work done analytically and verify the transient state work fluctuation theorem quantitatively. Actually these relations have far-reaching consequences. They can be used to numerically evaluate the average work done and the variance of the work done in the case of a non-Ohmic bath when analytical evaluation is not possible.

  15. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. I. Gaussian-white case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Tanimura, Y

    2000-01-01

    The quantum Fokker-Planck equation is derived for a system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinates but quadratic in the system coordinate. The relaxation induced dynamics of a harmonic system are investigated by s

  16. INFLUENCE OF TURKISH BATH CULTURE ON THE DESIGN OF SPA & WELLNESS VENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu APAYDIN BAŞA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, water has been one of the main determinants of the human lifestyle in every culture. Turkish baths, which are among the most important extant water structures, are the products of a building type that appeared with the merger of Turkish bathing culture with the Anatolian bathing culture. At present, Turkish baths are defined in a different way as the venues for socializing in addition to bathing. In continuous change, modern man desires to reach global health services in the globalizing world in order to both protect his wellness and obtain the most effective treatment. In addition to its physical implications, the concept of wellness also refers to emotional and socio-cultural well-being. This changing paradigm of wellness has created the concept of Spa & wellness. Spa & wellness center is the name given to water therapies that have been applied since the Romans. The main reason of this development and change is the prominence of sauna-vapor-water systems as supporting and complementary elements to medicine and the demands of the users in this regard. The man of the present time desires to reach the scientific and technological developments in modern science not only for health and treatment services, but also for beauty and to “stay young”. This desire has turned health tourism into an important tourism trend in the world. Therefore, spatial formations must be dwelled on for Spa & wellness centers to function properly. This study outlines the influences of traditional Turkish baths on the design of the present time Spa & wellness venues. In order to identify these influences, initially the Turkish bath culture and the interior characteristics of Turkish bath are examined. Then, Spa & wellness concept and design criteria are searched. Finally, in accordance with these examinations, the spatial interactions of the traditional Turkish baths with Spa & wellness centers are evaluated.

  17. Electroplated Fe-Pt thick films prepared in plating baths with various pH values

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, T; Furutani, K.; Masaki, T; T. Ohgai; Nakano, M; Fukunaga, H

    2016-01-01

    Fe-Pt thick-films were electroplated on a Ta substrate using a direct current, and the effect of the pH value of the plating bath on the magnetic properties of the films was evaluated. For the films prepared from the baths with the same bath composition, the Fe composition and the thickness increased with increasing the pH value. In order to remove the effect of the change in the film composition on the magnetic properties, we controlled the film composition at approximately Fe50Pt50 or Fe60P...

  18. Preparation of nanoparticle Ni -ZrO2 composite electroplating bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Weirong; LIU Jiachen; YU Tianlai; WANG Lijuan

    2004-01-01

    Nano-ZrO2 was used to prepare composite electroplating bath by adding different kinds of dispersants such as PEG and MZS. The composite electroplating bath was studied by means of sedimentation experiments and particle-size analysis. The results showed that dispersants with simple structure and small molecular weight could not play steric role,however, the highly dispersed and stabilized nanoparticle Ni-ZrO2 composite electroplating bath was obtained at pH value equaling to 3 by adding MZS which is a kind of macromolecule dispersant with plentiful branched chains.

  19. Fluid Flow Modeling of Arc Plasma and Bath Circulation in DC Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-hua; JIN Zhi-jian; ZHU Zi-shu

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the flow field, heat transfer and the electromagnetic phenomenon in a DC electric arc furnace has been developed. First the governing equations in the arc plasma region are solved and the calculated results of heat transfer, current density and shear stresses on the anode surface are used as boundary conditions in a model of molten bath. Then a two-dimensional time-dependent model is used to describe the flow field and electromagnetic phenomenon in the molten bath. Moreover, the effect of bottom electrode diameter on the circulation of molten bath is studied.

  20. On the operation of machines powered by quantum non-thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kofman, Abraham G.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-08-01

    Diverse models of engines energised by quantum-coherent, hence non-thermal, baths allow the engine efficiency to transgress the standard thermodynamic Carnot bound. These transgressions call for an elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. Here we show that non-thermal baths may impart not only heat, but also mechanical work to a machine. The Carnot bound is inapplicable to such a hybrid machine. Intriguingly, it may exhibit dual action, concurrently as engine and refrigerator, with up to 100% efficiency. We conclude that even though a machine powered by a quantum bath may exhibit an unconventional performance, it still abides by the traditional principles of thermodynamics.

  1. Bath's law Derived from the Gutenberg-Richter law and from Aftershock Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Helmsttetter, A; Helmsttetter, Agnes; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    The empirical Bath's law states that the average magnitude difference between a mainshock and its largest aftershock is 1.2, regardless of the mainshock magnitude. We first point out that the standard interpretation of Bath's law in terms of the two largest events of a self-similar set of independent events is incorrect, because it neglects the selection procedure entering the definition of aftershocks. We reconcile Bath's law with (i) the existence of a universal Gutenberg-Richter law for all earthquakes and (ii) with the empirical observation (productivity law) that each earthquake of magnitude m triggers other earthquakes at a rate ~10^(alpha m) with alpha~0.8.

  2. Climate-change impacts on sandy-beach biota: crossing a line in the sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A; Defeo, Omar

    2014-08-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are iconic assets that provide irreplaceable ecosystem services to society. Despite their great socioeconomic importance, beaches as ecosystems are severely under-represented in the literature on climate-change ecology. Here, we redress this imbalance by examining whether beach biota have been observed to respond to recent climate change in ways that are consistent with expectations under climate change. We base our assessments on evidence coming from case studies on beach invertebrates in South America and on sea turtles globally. Surprisingly, we find that observational evidence for climate-change responses in beach biota is more convincing for invertebrates than for highly charismatic turtles. This asymmetry is paradoxical given the better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which turtles are likely to respond to changes in climate. Regardless of this disparity, knowledge of the unique attributes of beach systems can complement our detection of climate-change impacts on sandy-shore invertebrates to add rigor to studies of climate-change ecology for sandy beaches. To this end, we combine theory from beach ecology and climate-change ecology to put forward a suite of predictive hypotheses regarding climate impacts on beaches and to suggest ways that these can be tested. Addressing these hypotheses could significantly advance both beach and climate-change ecology, thereby progressing understanding of how future climate change will impact coastal ecosystems more generally.

  3. Groundwater transport and the freshwater-saltwater interface below sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler B.; Wilson, Alicia M.

    2016-07-01

    Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the lower salt wedge by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. There is currently limited knowledge of what conditions allow an upper saline plume to exist and what factors control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01, in the absence of waves. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude and inflow of fresh groundwater. The simulated salinity configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces varied significantly. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. Steeper beach faces allowed stronger upper saline plumes to develop. Median sediment grain size of the beach is strongly correlated to both beach slope and permeability, and therefore the development of an upper saline plume. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used a range of theoretical dispersivities and the appropriate values of dispersivity to be used to represent real beaches remains unclear. We found the upper saline plume to weaken with the use of larger values of dispersivity. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes do not form in all beaches and may be less common than previously considered.

  4. Family on the beach : Representations of romantic and bourgeois family values by realistic genre painting of nineteenth-century Scheveningen beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, JJH

    2003-01-01

    Around 1800, the desire to go to the beach developed in Europe, and Scheveningen became one of the first beach places. In the same time, poets and painters romanticized the Scheveningen fishing culture and the fishers' moral behavior A group of nineteenth-century painters rediscovered Scheveningen-a

  5. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  6. Mixing Time in a Cylindrical Bath Agitated by Swirling Liquid Jet Generated with J-Shaped Lance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoko; Iguchi, Manabu

    A novel and efficient method is proposed to agitate a molten steel bath. A water model study is carried out to understand the mixing characteristic of the bath. A water jet is generated with a J-shaped lance in a cylindrical bath. The lance exit made of glass pipe is sharpened to form a single-hole nozzle and the nozzle is placed on the centerline of the bath. Mixing time in the bath is measured with an electric conductivity sensor. An empirical equation is proposed for correlating the measured values of the mixing time as a function of the water flow rate, vessel diameter, and so on.

  7. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  8. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  9. [Use of aluminum foil baths for embedding biological materials in epoxide resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaev, Iu M; Merkulov, V A

    1975-11-01

    The baths intended for embedding the biological material into epoxide resins are made of aluminium foil, 0.1 mm thick, cut in the form of rectangles (13 X 18 mm). The rectangular foil plates are placed on a soft microporous rubber separator 30--40 mm thick and by means of a form with the base equal to 5 X 10 mm the baths are pressed down by 4 mm deep. The baths are stuck to the paper stripes by rubber cement to ensure easy handling and numeration. In the process of embedding and polymerization the paper stripes having the baths are placed in the exsiccator with P2O5 and thermostate on special aluminium stands. PMID:775710

  10. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level.

  11. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Progress towards an effective non-Markovian description of a system interacting with a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferialdi, L.; Dürr, D.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a system coupled to a bath of independent harmonic oscillators. We transform the bath in chain structure by solving an inverse eigenvalue problem. We solve the equations of motion for the collective variables defined by this transformation, and we derive the exact dynamics for a harmonic oscillator in terms of the microscopic motion of the environmental modes. We compare this approach to the well-known generalized Langevin equation and we show that our dynamics satisfies this equation.

  13. Efficacy of chlorhexidine bathing for reducing healthcare associated bloodstream infections: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Young; Park, Dong-Ah; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Jinkyeong

    2015-01-01

    Background We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine if daily bathing with chlorhexidine decreased hospital-acquired BSIs in critically ill patients. Methods We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify randomized controlled trials that compared daily bathing with chlorhexidine and a control in critically ill patients. Results This meta-analysis included five RCTs. The overall incidence of meas...

  14. Dual Bath Electrodeposition of Alternate Multilayer Coatings of Zinc and Nickel Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINWen-li; FEIJing-yin; LIANGGuo-zheng

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of zinc and nickel alternate multilayer coatings produced by successive deposition from dual baths containing a revised zinc sulphate electrolyte and a new developed nickel bath has been investigated. Smooth and uniform zinc-nickel compositionally modulated multilayered (CMM) coatings with different multilayer configurations were obtained. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology showed the layered structure of the coatings clearly.

  15. Quantum Dynamics of a Harmonic Oscillator in a Defomed Bath in the Presence of Lamb Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeimohamad, M.; Mohammadi, M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dissipative quantum dynamics of a harmonic oscillator in the presence a deformed bath by considering the Lamb shift term. The deformed bath is modelled by a collection of deformed quantum harmonic oscillators as a generalization of Hopfield model. The Langevin equation for both the photon number and the fluctuation spectrum under the Weisskopf-Winger approximation are obtained and discussed.

  16. Data review leading to a conceptual model of the hydrogeology of the Combe Down area, Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, D. M. J.; Whitehead, E J; Butcher, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Bath and North East Somerset Council (B&NES) has obtained funds from the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions to carry-out stabilisation of stone mines located in the Combe Down area to the south-east of the city of Bath. There are potentially significant engineering geology and hydrogeology implications associated with the project. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been appointed by B&NES to provide independent geological advice. In this role, BGS has undert...

  17. Progress towards an effective non-Markovian description of a system interacting with a bath

    OpenAIRE

    Ferialdi, L.; Dürr, D.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a system coupled to a bath of independent harmonic oscillators. We transform the bath in chain structure by solving an inverse eigenvalue problem. We solve the equations of motion for the collective variables defined by this transformation, and we derive the exact dynamics for an harmonic oscillator in terms of the microscopic motion of the environmental modes. We compare this approach to the well-known Generalized Langevin Equation and we show that our dynamics satisfies this equa...

  18. Spectral and Geological Characterization of Beach Components in Northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how changes in beach components may reflect beach processes is essential since variations along beach profiles can shed light on river and ocean processes influencing beach sedimentation and beachrock formation. It is likely these influences are related to beach proximity within the Río Grande de Manatí river mouth. Therefore, this study focuses on characterizing beach components at two sites in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Playa Machuca and Playa Tombolo, which are separated by eolianites, differ greatly in sediment size, mineralogy, and beachrock morphology. Several approaches were taken to geologically and spectrally characterize main beach components at each site. These approaches included field and microscopic laboratory identification, granulometry, and a comparison between remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) obtained with a field spectroradiometer and pre-existing spectral library signatures. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between each method. This study may help explore the possibility of using only Rrs to characterize beach and shallow submarine components for detailed image analysis and management of coastal features.This study focuses on characterizing beach components at two sites in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Playa Machuca and Playa Tombolo, two beaches that are separated by eolianites, differ greatly in sediment size and mineralogy, as well as in beachrock morphology. Understanding how changes in beach components may reflect beach processes is essential, since it is likely that differences are mostly related to each beaches' proximity to the Río Grande de Manatí river mouth. Hence, changes in components along beach profiles can shed light on the river's and the ocean's influence on beach sedimentation and beachrock formation. Several approaches were taken to properly geologically and spectrally characterize the main beach components at each site. These approaches included field and microscopic laboratory identification

  19. Modeling the Economics of Beach Nourishment Decisions in Response to Coastal Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M.; Ashton, A. D.; Hoagland, P.; Jin, D.; Kite-Powell, H.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2012-12-01

    Beaches are constantly moving and changing. The dynamic transformations of beaches are mostly the result of the erosion of sand, which can occur through movements alongshore caused by waves, movements off-shore due to storms, or submersion due to sea-level rise. Predicted climate change impacts include potential changes in storminess and accelerated sea-level rise, which will lead to increased coastal erosion. At the same time, the number of people residing in coastal communities is increasing. The risks from eroding beaches (increased coastal flooding, damage to infrastructure, and displaced residents) are therefore increasing in number and scale; and coastal residents are taking actions to protect their homes. One such action is beach nourishment, where sand is added to a resident's property in order to widen the beach. We have developed an economic model of beach nourishment decision-making to investigate the relationship between the optimal volume and timing of beach nourishment and factors such as property value, erosion rate, and initial beach width. In this model, waterfront property owners nourish a beach when the losses in net rental income exceed the costs incurred from nourishing the beach. (Rental income is a function of property value, which in turn depends upon the width of the beach.) It is assumed that erosion and sea-level rise are related. We examine different nourishment scenarios, including one-time nourishment in the first year; constant annual nourishment; and a myopic decision process in which the homeowner nourishes the beach if property losses from erosion over the next five years are expected to exceed the cost of nourishment. One-time nourishment delays property flooding for both constant and accelerating sea level rise; however, this delay is more substantial under constant sea level rise. With continual nourishment, the beach can be maintained under constant sea-level rise, provided that the erosion rate is comparable to the additional

  20. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji

    2016-05-01

    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth’s environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments.

  1. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987, was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982. For this study, 60 patients with epicondylitis that was resistant to conservative treatment were randomized into two groups for comparison. In group 1, interference currents were administered twice a day for six weeks and group 2 received combination treatment with the hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and rising- temperature arm bath once a day for six weeks. Criteria for inclusion, control and appraisal were laid down prospectively. Several parameters were used, recorded and statistically evaluated as outcome measures.  These were active joint range of movement of the elbow, grip strength, pain provocation with muscle contraction, palpation pain and pain with functional activities.  The results showed a significant superiority of combination treatment over therapy with interference current. It is therefore recommended that hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature should be carried out before considering surgical treatment for chronic epicondylitis.

  2. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (bathing trunk nevus associated with lipoma and neurofibroma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant congenital melanocytic nevi are rare and occur in about one out of every 2,00,000 to 5,00,000 births. There is a significant association between bathing trunk nevus and neurofibromatosis and lipomatosis. Apart from this, association of bathing trunk nevus with abnormalities like spina bifida occulta, meningocele, club foot and hypertrophy or atrophy of deeper structures of a limb, have been described. We are herewith reporting two cases of bathing trunk nevi. In our first case, an eight-year-old girl presented with a bathing trunk nevus studded with multiple, large nodules. Histopathological examination of the biopsy taken from one nodule revealed features of both neurofibroma and lipoma. To the best of our knowledge, features of both these hamartomas in one nodule of a single patient are probably not reported in the literature. In our second case, a 12-year-old girl presented with bathing trunk nevus and she had spina bifida occulta. She also had lipoma in the lesion of bathing trunk nevus. Both of our patients had satellite melanocytic nevi over the face, forearm, upper back and legs. Our second patient, in addition, had small melanocytic nevi over the medial canthus and sclerocorneal junction of the right eye. By the time this girl presented to us, the melanocytic nevus started fading in color and it had become brownish. We are reporting these cases for their peculiarities and for their rare features.

  3. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  4. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action.

  5. Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in Malaysia: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-05-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  6. Cardiovascular consequence of reclining vs. sitting beach-chair body position for induction of anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Soren L.; Lyngeraa, Tobias S.; Maschmann, Christian P.;

    2014-01-01

    The sitting beach-chair position is regularly used for shoulder surgery and anesthesia may be induced in that position. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular challenge induced by induction of anesthesia is attenuated if the patient is placed in a reclining beach-chair position....... Anesthesia was induced with propofol in the sitting beach-chair (n = 15) or with the beach-chair tilted backwards to a reclining beach-chair position (n = 15). The last group was stepwise tilted to the sitting beach-chair position prior to surgery. Hypotension was treated with ephedrine. Continuous...... ± 12 vs. 45 ± 15 % reduction from baseline, p = 0.04) and ScO2 (7 ± 6 vs. 1 ± 8% increase from baseline, p = 0.02) and received less ephedrine (mean: 4 vs. 13 mg, p = 0.048). The higher blood pressure and lower need of vasopressor following induction of anesthesia in the reclining compared...

  7. Nematodes from wave-dominated sandy beaches: diversity, zonation patterns and testing of the isocommunities concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheskiere, Tom; Vincx, Magda; Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Rossano, Claudia; Scapini, Felicita; Degraer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Spatial patterns of nematode community structure from two geographically spaced intermediate, micro-tidal beaches (i.e. Mediterranean and Baltic) were investigated. Differences in the nematode assemblages were found to be significantly different and related to the morphodynamic characteristics of the studied zones (upper beach, swash/breakers and subtidal). Highest nematode densities and species diversities were recorded on the coarse-grained, more physically controlled, Italian beach in contrast to the more chemically controlled Polish beach. This is in contrast to the worldwide patterns of macrofaunal communities. As demonstrated by higher taxonomic distinctness measurements, upper beaches were found to harbour species from both the marine and terrestrial ecosystem and are considered to be important ecotones between these adjacent systems. The swash/breaker zones are characterised by the loss of distinctive species caused by the high water percolation in these zones. The concept of parallel ecological communities 'isocommunities' is only supported for the upper beach zones.

  8. Pleistocene and holocene beaches and estuaries along the Southern Barrier of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico I.; Cortizo, Luis C.; Schnack, Enrique J.

    The Buenos Aires aggradation plain has a good record of Quaternary sea-level fluctuations. To the east of the Tandilia Range, the elevations of the Pleistocene beaches respond to the tectonic behaviour of the Salado Basin. Holocene beaches indicate a maximum transgression higher than 2 m. The low relief permitted an extended horizontal record of beach/chenier plains interfingered with estuarine environments (coastal lagoons, marshes) covered by a sandy (Eastern) barrier. Between the Tandilia and Ventania ranges, the location of Pleistocene and Holocene beaches are related to a former higher relief; i.e. they are attached to low-altitude cliffs and underneath cliff-top dunes composing the Southern Barrier. At Claromecó, Pleistocene gravel beaches, mostly composed of caliche pebbles, occur at heights between 4 and 7 m, and are overlying estuarine Pleistocene environments. Beaches of the same age are at a level of 10 m at Mar del Plata Harbour and Arroyo Sotelo (west of Mar Chiquita Lagoon). Holocene beaches found at Punta Mogotes and Costa Bonita are at higher altitudes than on the Eastern Barrier (ca. 2-4 m). The Holocene estuarine sequences are related laterally to present operating inlets (Las Brusquitas, La Ballenera, Quequén Grande, Claromecó, Quequén Salado). They are seldon thicker than 2.4 m, and comprise basal layers of black muds; towards the top, the layers are thinner, of coarser grain size and white colours. Grain-size analyses were performed comparatively on Pleistocene, mid-Holocene and present beaches. Sangamonian beaches aregravelly or coarser than medium sand (mean). Holocene beaches are usually coarser than medium sand, but dominantly shelly to the north of Mar del Plata, and composed of volcanic clasts to the south of this city. Modern beaches are dominated by fine sand, except at some erosive beaches between the Mar del Plata capes. They have a lesser content of shells than those of mid-Holocene.

  9. A comparison of two methods for surveying mortality of beached birds in British Columbia.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, C; Burger, A E

    1994-01-01

    Systematic surveys of beached birds are often limited in their ability to classify the causes of death of the carcasses recovered. Two methods of determining the cause of death of seabirds encountered during surveys of beaches of southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, are compared. Birds were either subjected to external visual examinations by volunteer beach surveyors or submitted for gross postmortem examination by a veterinarian. The reliance on external examination of birds on b...

  10. 46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7... LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock... Light 348° true to the southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d)...

  11. Comparison or damage caused by beach seining vs. corallivory on coral transplants in Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Cros, Annick

    2001-01-01

    Two coral species were transplanted into three distinct management areas adjacent to the Mombasa Marine National Park, Kenya: a no fishing MPA a gear restricted reserve with no beach seining, and a reserve with beach seining. Corallivory from fish or breakage from beach seining were measured by percentage mortality of transplants. The branching species, Porites cylindrica was more susceptible to disturbances than the massive species Porites lutea which showed no difference in mortality rate b...

  12. Understanding, Assessing, and Resolving Light-Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Witherington, Blair E.; Martin, R. Erik

    2000-01-01

    Making the public aware of light-pollution problems on sea turtle nesting beaches is a fundamental step towards darkening beaches for sea turtles. Many of those responsible for errant lighting are unaware of its detrimental effects and are generally willing to correct the problem voluntarily once they become aware. Nonetheless, legislation requiring light management is often needed, and on many nesting beaches, it may be the only means to completely resolve light-pollu...

  13. Are strandline meiofaunal assemblages affected by a once-only mechanical beach cleaning? Experimental findings

    OpenAIRE

    Gheskiere, T; Vincx, M.; Pison, G.; Degraer, S.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing usage of sandy beaches as recreational resources has forced regional authorities of many tourist countries to remove all litter of fabricated origin and natural wrack from the beach. Consequently, a variety of heavy equipment has been developed during the last decades and is now used almost daily at many beaches. A field experiment, following a ‘before-after-control-impact’ (BACI) design, was conducted at the strandline of De Panne (Belgium) to investigate the impacts of mechan...

  14. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas;

    ” commercial nor the experimental immersion ERM vaccine provided significant protective immunity against the virulent Y.r. bt2 infections. IP. injection of the experimental vaccine without adjuvant induced full protection. Significant mortality were seen in all immersion and bath vaccinated groups...

  15. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  16. Terrestrial-based lidar beach topography of Fire Island, New York, June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Owen T.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Lee, Kathryn G.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-02-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) in Florida and the USGS Lower Mississippi-Gulf Water Science Center (LMG WSC) in Montgomery, Alabama, collaborated to gather alongshore terrestrial-based lidar beach elevation data at Fire Island, New York. This high-resolution elevation dataset was collected on June 11, 2014, to characterize beach topography and document ongoing beach evolution and recovery, and is part of the ongoing beach monitoring within the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. This USGS data series includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM).

  17. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

  18. Beach Profiles Characteristics Along Giao Thuy and Hai Hau Coasts,Vietnam: A Field Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN Viet Thanh; ZHENG Jin-hai; ZHANG Chi

    2012-01-01

    Giao Thuy and Hai Hau coasts are located in Nam Dinh province,Vietnam,with a total coastline of 54.42 km in length.The sea-dike system has been seriously damaged and there have been many dike breaches which caused floods and losses.This situation is considered of a general representative for coastal area in the northern part of Vietnam.A variety of studies have shown that the gradient in the longshore sediment transport rate and the offshore fine sediment lost are the main mechanisms causing the beach erosion.This study presents a field investigation of the beach profiles at Giao Thuy and Hai Hau beaches.Three types of empirical functions for the equilibrium beach profile are applied and compared with the observations.Results show that all observed beach profiles can be described by a single function.However,one specific equilibrium profile equation is not sufficient to assess all beach profiles.In Section 1 of Giao Thuy and Section 3 of Hai Thinh beaches,beach profiles are consistent with the logarithmic function,while the exponential function fits well in Section 2.This difference is explained with respect to coastal morphology,sediment characteristics and hydrodynamic conditions which vary in site.An analysis of the validity of the beach profile functions is recommended for the numerical modeling and engineering designs in this area.

  19. Response to storm conditions of two different beaches at the Mediterranean coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mrini, Aldelmounim; Anfuso, Giorgio; Nachite, Driss; Taaouati, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades the increased demand for the recreational use of beaches has resulted in the uptake of studies on the morphodynamic processes which are acting on beaches. This knowledge is fundamental for appropriate coastal erosion management, suitable tourist use of littoral and for the design and shape of human construction. The Mediterranean sectors of Moroccan littoral investigated in this study, Ksar Rimal and Cabo Negro beaches, are respectively located north and south of Cabo Negro promontory and, over recent years, have been subject to increasing tourist activity. This has consisted mainly of the construction of two tourist ports (Marina Smir and Kabila), residential developments, hotels and a motorway which runs parallel to the coast, affecting the dune ridges and two lagoons which are of great ecological interest. In detail, the dunes located in the backshore at Ksar Rimal beach, are nowadays occupied by summer houses threaten by coastal retreat. A wide, partially urbanized, backshore is observed at Cabo Negro beach. With the intention of characterize the morphodynamic and seasonal behavior and the response of the studied beaches to storm impact, a beach monitoring program was carried out in the period 2006-2008, with special attention to the February-March 2008 stormy period. On analyzing the information obtained, it was possible to characterize the morphology and sedimentology of the studied beaches, and to calculate beach volumetric variations. Ksar Rimal is an open, exposed beach characterized by an intermediate slope (tan β = 0.10) with medium-coarse sands. The beach showed a reflective beach state characterized by plunging breakers. Small morphological seasonal changes were observed, most important morphological and volumetric variations (about 20 m3/m) taking place after winter storms which usually gave rise to a more dissipative beach profile (tan β = 0.05) characterized by spilling breakers. Beach recovery was quite rapid, usually lasting 2

  20. Ecology of Interstitial Faunal Assemblage from the Beaches along the Coast of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Priyalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative study of interstitial fauna and environmental variables was carried out on five selected sandy beaches of the west coast of India. Species of nine interstitial taxa abound the beaches. Nematodes, harpacticoid copepods, turbellarians, and polychaetes constituted the bulk of the population. The available energy in the beaches ranged from 0.2245 to 16.08 joules/mg and the grain size varied from 0.93 to 2.88φ. Organic matter correlated significantly with coarse sand (Pearson correlation r=0.651; P10 indicated at Sakthikulangara beach validates the increased sensitivity of harpacticoids to environmental stress.

  1. Nematode community structure and diversity pattern in sandy beaches of Qingdao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Er; Mu, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhinan; Yang, Shichao; Zhang, Ting; Li, Jia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and structure of free-living marine nematode communities at three sandy beaches representing typical intertidal environments of a temperate zone in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Average nematode abundance ranged from 1006 to 2170 ind. 10 cm-2, and a total of 34 nematode genera were recorded, of which only 8 were common in all the studied beaches. Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were the lowest at the second beach where nematode abundance was the highest. The highest species diversity index coincided with the lowest nematode abundance at Shilaoren beach. Sediment median grain size, sorting coefficient, and chlorophyll-a content were essential for differentiation in nematode abundance and species diversity, whereas taxonomic diversity of nematode was homogeneous across the three beaches. In 0-20 cm sediment profile, nematode abundance declined abruptly with depth, whereas nematode diversity changed gently with obvious difference in 16-20 cm layer. Sediment granulometry and chlorophyll- a content were the two foremost factors which influenced the vertical distribution pattern of nematode generic diversity. Non-selective deposit feeders constituted the most dominant trophic group, followed by epistratum feeders. Bathylaimus (family: Tripyloididae) dominated at the second and Yangkou beach, while Theristus (family: Xyalidae) prevailed at Shilaoren beach. Omnivores and predators became important at Shilaoren beach because of the high proportion of Enoplolaimus. Even though, nematode community of the studied beaches did not differ significantly from each other.

  2. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius Rg > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at Rg < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate

  3. Huntington beach shoreline contamination investigation, phase III: coastal circulation and transport patterns : the likelihood of OCSD's plume impacting Huntington beach shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene; Xu, Jingping; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Robertson, George

    2003-01-01

    A consortium of agencies have conducted an extensive investigation of the coastal ocean circulation and transport pathways off Huntington Beach, with the aim of identifying any causal links that may exist between the offshore discharge of wastewater by OCSD and the significant bacterial contamination observed along the Huntington Beach shoreline. This is the third study supported by OCSD to determine possible land-based and coa Although the study identifies several possible coastal ocean pathways by which diluted wastewater may be transported to the beach, including internal tide, sea-breeze and subtidal flow features, there were no direct observations of either the high bacteria concentrations seen in the OCSD plume at the shelf break reaching the shoreline in significant levels or of an association between the existence of a coastal ocean process and beach contamination at or above AB411 levels. It is concluded that the OCSD plume is not a major cause of beach contamination; no causal links could be demonstrated. This conclusion is based on the absence of direct observation of plume-beach links, on analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline contamination and coastal ocean processes, and on the observation of higher levels of contamination at the beach than in the plume.

  4. Towards improved prediction and mitigation of beach overwash: Terrestrial LiDAR observation of dynamic beach berm erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J. E.; Gallien, T.; Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2012-12-01

    Globally, over 20 million people currently reside below high tide levels and 200 million are below storm tide levels. Future climate change along with the pressures of urbanization will exacerbate flooding in low lying coastal communities. In Southern California, coastal flooding is triggered by a combination of high tides, storm surge, and waves and recent research suggests that a current 100 year flood event may be experienced on a yearly basis by 2050 due to sea level rise adding a positive offset to return levels. Currently, Southern California coastal communities mitigate the threat of beach overwash, and consequent backshore flooding, with a combination of planning and operational activities such as protective beach berm construction. Theses berms consist of temporary alongshore sand dunes constructed days or hours before an extreme tide or wave event. Hydraulic modeling in urbanized embayments has shown that coastal flooding predictions are extremely sensitive to the presence of coastal protective infrastructure, requiring parameterization of the hard infrastructure elevations at centimetric accuracy. Beach berms are an example of temporary dynamic structures which undergo severe erosion during extreme events and are typically not included in flood risk assessment. Currently, little is known about the erosion process and performance of these structures, which adds uncertainty to flood hazard delineation and flood forecasts. To develop a deeper understanding of beach berm erosion dynamics, three trapezoidal shaped berms, approximately 35 m long and 1.5 m high, were constructed and failure during rising tide conditions was observed using terrestrial laser scanning. Concurrently, real-time kinematic GPS, high-definition time lapse photography, a local tide gauge and wave climate data were collected. The result is a rich and unique observational dataset capturing berm erosion dynamics. This poster highlights the data collected and presents methods for processing

  5. Effect and efficacy of thermal environment provided by a new bathing style, “mist sauna bathing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWASE Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mist sauna is a style of bathing in which hot water vapor is sprayed into a bathroom, establishing an air temperature of 40°C with saturated humidity. Bath heater and dryer equipment with mist sauna function was released onto the Japanese market in 2004. After their introduction, various studies investigated the effects of mist sauna bathing, and it has been demonstrated that mist sauna bathing has various effects and efficacies, not only hyperthermic effects but also other effects including on physical appearance. Mist sauna bathing occurs in a bathroom, usually without a toilet, in which the room temperature is approximately 40°C with 100% relative humidity. It has been shown that the mist sauna causes little hemodynamic change, which ensures its safety during bathing. Therefore, we can enjoy safer physiological bathing in a mist sauna than in traditional hot water immersion bathing. In addition, the mist sauna elicits benefits such as improved skin condition, heat acclimation, and autonomic balance. Since mist sauna bathing does not involve immersion of the body in bathtub water, it is less likely to result in an accident during bathing because of the low impact of hemodynamic changes. Recently, mist sauna bathing has drawn attention in the field of nursing care as a bathing style for the hospitalized elderly that can reduce the burden on care-giving personnel during bathing. It is expected that mist sauna will be adopted by homes and various facilities as a useful approach for various purposes, regardless of the user’s age or gender.

  6. Effects of Fishing and Fishing Closures on Beach Clams: Experimental Evaluation across Commercially Fished and Non-Fished Beaches before and during Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Management responses to reconcile declining fisheries typically include closed areas and times to fishing. This study evaluated this strategy for a beach clam fishery by testing the hypothesis that changes in the densities and size compositions of clams from before to during harvesting would differ between commercially fished and non-fished beaches. Sampling was spatially stratified across the swash and dry sand habitats on each of two commercially fished and two non-fished beaches, and temporally stratified across three six-week blocks: before, early and late harvesting. Small-scale spatio-temporal variability in the densities and sizes of clams was prevalent across both habitats and the components of variation were generally greatest at the lowest levels examined. Despite this, differences in the densities and sizes of clams among individual beaches were evident, but there were few significant differences across the commercially fished versus non-fished beaches from before to during harvesting. There was no evidence of reduced densities or truncated size compositions of clams on fished compared to non-fished beaches, contrasting reports of some other organisms in protected areas. This was probably due to a combination of factors, including the current levels of commercial harvests, the movements and other local-scale responses of clams to ecological processes acting independently across individual beaches. The results identify the difficulties in detecting fishing-related impacts against inherent levels of variability in clam populations. Nevertheless, continued experimental studies that test alternate management arrangements may help refine and determine the most suitable strategies for the sustainable harvesting of beach clams, ultimately enhancing the management of sandy beaches. PMID:26731102

  7. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2003-08-03 to 2004-05-23 (NODC Accession 0071431)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  8. [Collaboration between Physician Emerich Lindenmayer and Architect Jan Nevole in Restoring the Sokobanja Turkish Bath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Gordana; Nešković, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of two-section baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture. Based upon their specific function, these baths possess a special architectural expression, are often monumental, decorative and imaginative in their forms and ornamentation. Prince Miloš initiated repair works of the Soko Banja baths and spa springs immediately after the settlement became a part of the Serbian Principality in 1834. When work on restoring the men's baths started, a separate room with a tub was built for Prince Miloš, while the women's bath remained in ruins. In 1847, the Ministry of Interior sent Dr Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole, as an expert team, to assess the state of the hammam so that it could be included in the undertakings funded from the state budget. After the assessment and review of the existing issues and upon a detailed report submitted to the Ministry of Interior, complex repairs were conducted in 1850, according to Nevole's architectural design and his constant supervision. The approach implemented in the architectural renovation process was based on highly regarded principles of the time, thus preserving both the hammam's original function and its valuable architecture. PMID:26946778

  9. Collaboration between physician Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole in restoring the Sokobanja Turkish bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of twosection baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture. Based upon their specific function, these baths possess a special architectural expression, are often monumental, decorative and imaginative in their forms and ornamentation. Prince Miloš initiated repair works of the Soko Banja baths and spa springs immediately after the settlement became a part of the Serbian Principality in 1834. When work on restoring the men’s baths started, a separate room with a tub was built for Prince Miloš, while the women’s bath remained in ruins. In 1847, the Ministry of Interior sent Dr Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole, as an expert team, to assess the state of the hammam so that it could be included in the undertakings funded from the state budget. After the assessment and review of the existing issues and upon a detailed report submitted to the Ministry of Interior, complex repairs were conducted in 1850, according to Nevole’s architectural design and his constant supervision. The approach implemented in the architectural renovation process was based on highly regarded principles of the time, thus preserving both the hammam’s original function and its valuable architecture.

  10. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  11. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

  12. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  13. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  14. Effect of Bath ph on Electroless Ni-P Coating Deposited on Open-Cell Aluminum Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaan; Si, Fujian; Li, Dong; Liu, Yan; Cao, Zheng; Wang, Guoyong

    2015-09-01

    Different electroless Ni-P coatings were deposited on open-cell aluminum foams at various bath pH. The effect of bath pH on the morphology, structure, components, phases and corrosion resistance of the Ni-P coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), immersion test and electrochemical polarization measurement, respectively. The experimental results show that the bath pH not only changed the reactivity of the bath, but also had a influence on the microstructure and anticorrosive property of electroless Ni-P coating. The high pH bath raises the thickness of Ni-P coating but decreases the content of phosphorus element in the Ni-P coating. The corrosion resistance of the coated aluminum foams increases when the bath pH rises.

  15. Effects of sponge bathing on vagal tone and behavioural responses in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Kyung

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sponge bathing on physiological (vagal tone, heart rate, heart period, oxygen saturation) and behavioural responses in newly born premature infants in the intensive care unit of a university hospital in South Korea. A convenience sample was taken of 40 infants who were between 27 and 36 weeks gestational age at birth and free of congenital defects. The infants' physiological parameters were recorded 10 min before, during and after bathing. To determine behavioural status, tools were modified from the instruments used in a previous study by Scafidi et al. (1990). Analysis of the results showed that the premature infants reacted to sponge bathing with decreases in vagal tone and heart period and increases in heart rate. Oxygen saturation did not demonstrate any remarkable alteration during bathing. Also, there were no significant differences in behavioural signs, motor activity and behavioural distress. Results of this study indicated that nurses in a neonatal intensive care unit should decide according to a premature infant's physiological state whether or not to give a sponge bath. PMID:12100647

  16. Study of efficacy of bath PUVA therapy in the treatment of generalized plaque type psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh S

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory scaling disorder of the skin. Different patterns of psoriasis exist including plaque type, erythrodemic, pustular, palmoplantar and guttate. The most commonly involved sites are the elbows, knees, lumbosacral area and scalp. PUVA (Psoriasis Plus UVA therapy [administration of oral psoralen followed by exposure to UVA (320 to 440 nm] is widely used to treat severe psoriasis. Oral PUVA produces some adverse effects that may limit its applicability in a number of patients. The carcinogenic potential limits its use in patients with psoriasis who probably receive other carcinogenic treatments. Oral PUVA may induce complications such as nausea, vomiting and headache. In light of these problems Bath PUVA therapy is an important alternative to oral PUVA therapy. Bath PUVA is a kind of photochemotherapy in which UVA radiation after administration of topical psoralen in a warm water bath is used. We treated 30 patients with generalized plaque type psoriasis with 8-Mop Bath PUVA in Razi hospital. Bath PUVA cleared psoriasis more rapidly than oral PUVA and required fewer treatments (mean number of sessions: (17.6±2.1 and lower cumulative UVA dose. (49.2±15.4 J/cm². 83.3 percent of our patients showed complete response to treatment and 13.4 percent showed good response.

  17. [Case of hot tub lung with confirmation of exacerbation following jet bath use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriko; Takayanagi, Noboru; Yoneda, Kouichiro; Miyahara, Yousuke; Morokawa, Nasa; Yamaguchi, Shozaburo; Tokunaga, Daidou; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2008-09-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with exertional dyspnea. Chest CT revealed patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation and ill-defined centrilobular nodules scattered in both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid showed lymphocytosis. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed bronchiolocentric alveolitis and well-formed non-necrotizing granulomas were present. She had used a jet bath before the onset of symptoms and mycobacterial culture revealed the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in sputum sample, BAL samples and jet bath water. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed that the isolated MAC were essentially clonal. She had used the jet bath for the inhalation provocation study, and after the challenge she complained of dyspnea and have body temperature increased. We diagnosed hot tub lung due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Because avoidance of the jet bath caused improvement of her symptoms and reduced her fever and PaO2 increased by 10 Torr but did not improve the CT findings, antimycobacterial drugs were prescribed. The patient recovered fully. This case proves that the cause of hot tub lung is the use of jet bath through the inhalation provocation study. PMID:18939416

  18. Sinopec offers HK$10m to clean up affected beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sinopec has established a HK$10 million fund to assist green groups in cleaning up the millions of plastic pellets from a container ship that have been washed ashore on local beaches and fish farms. The 150 tons of polypropylene pellets were being shipped on board a freighter Yong Xin .lie 1 from Nansha Port to Shantou when signal l0 typhoon Vicente struck on ,luly 23. The pellets, in six containers, were blown into the sea. The pellets then washed onto the outlying islands of Hong Kong, stirring concerns over environmental damage to the ocean itself, as well as to marine life.

  19. Research on the Sea Turtle Population of Belek Beach

    OpenAIRE

    Sak, Serdar; BARAN, İbrahim

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the status of the sea turtle population of Belek Beach, which is within the boundaries of Antalya province, was investigated during the 1996 and 1997 breeding seasons. 153 nests were recorded, 134 of which hatched (87.6%) and from these nests 6295 hatchlings were able to reach the sea in 1996. 168 nests were recorded in 1997, 136 of which hatched (80.9%) and from these nests 7082 hatchlings were able to reach the sea. The nest density was recorded as 9.1 nests/kilometer in 1996...

  20. The pressure of tourism on the Mediterranean coastline and beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean tourism is usually defined as “3S tourism” – the three S’s standing for sea, sand, and sun. The term highlights the central importance of these three physical factors in the attraction exerted by the shores of Mare Nostrum. In this paper we set out to quantify the impact of the first two of the S’s – sea and sand. In our analysis, sandy beaches emerge as the basic production factor sustaining the tourism business, followed by the coast and the view of the sea. So great is the im...

  1. Modeling enterococcus densities measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and membrane filtration using environmental conditions at four Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the summer months of 2003 and 2004 at four US Great Lakes beaches were analyzed using regression analysis to identify relationships between meteorological, physical water characteristics, and beach characterist...

  2. 75 FR 20826 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Beach and Dune Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... cubic yards of beach compatible sand along the proposed project's beach. The sand will be hopper-dredged... endangered species, traffic/circulation, water resources including wetlands, and other issues...

  3. Quantitative percutaneous CO2 measurement following CO2 mineral water baths by means of the isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the quantitative determination of the carbon dioxide penetration through the human skin during a medical carbon dioxide mineral water bath is described. The natural isotope variation of carbon in the carbon dioxide of bath water, blood, and exspiratory gas are used for the calculation of the penetrated carbon dioxide amount. The method permits to optimize the effectiveness of medical carbon dioxide baths. (author)

  4. Public Beaches, Public Beaches for La Crosse County, Published in 2002, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, LaCrosse County Zoning Planning & Land Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Beaches dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2002. It is described as 'Public...

  5. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    .... FAA-2012-0099, Airspace Docket No. 12- ASO-11, published on April 11, 2012 (77 FR 21662), amends Class... Beach, FL, as published in the Federal Register of April 11, 2012 (77 FR 21662) (FR Doc. 2012-8558) is... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL...

  6. 76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No. 15445) on May 6, 2011. Dated: May...

  7. A Conceptual Model for Spatial Grain Size Variability on the Surface of and within Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Gallagher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grain size on the surface of natural beaches has been observed to vary spatially and temporally with morphology and wave energy. The stratigraphy of the beach at Duck, North Carolina, USA was examined using 36 vibracores (~1–1.5 m long collected along a cross-shore beach profile. Cores show that beach sediments are finer (~0.3 mm and more uniform high up on the beach. Lower on the beach, with more swash and wave action, the sand is reworked, segregated by size, and deposited in layers and patches. At the deepest measurement sites in the swash (~−1.4 to −1.6 m NAVD88, which are constantly being reworked by the energetic shore break, there is a thick layer (60–80 cm of very coarse sediment (~2 mm. Examination of two large trenches showed that continuous layers of coarse and fine sands comprise beach stratigraphy. Thicker coarse layers in the trenches (above mean sea level are likely owing to storm erosion and storm surge elevating the shore break and swash, which act to sort the sediment. Those layers are buried as water level retreats, accretion occurs and the beach recovers from the storm. Thinner coarse layers likely represent similar processes acting on smaller temporal scales.

  8. A baseline assessment of beach debris and tar contamination in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Rijn, van J.; Bron, P.S.; Leon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Data on beach debris and tar contamination is provided for 21 natural beach sites in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean. Transects amounting to a combined length of 991 m were sampled March–May 2011 and a total of 8960 debris items were collected. Highest debris and tar contamination were found on the

  9. Reconstruction of an interrupted primary beach plain succession using a Geographical Information System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, A. van der; Grootjans, A.P.; de Jong, J.; Rozema, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on a primary succession on a beach plain on the Dutch Wadden island of Schiermonnikoog. Vegetation succession started in 1959 when a sand dike was constructed to prevent structural erosion of the area by storm floods. Since then the sandy beach behind the dike has been protected f

  10. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  11. Quartz OSL dating of late Holocene beach ridges from the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remillard, A.M.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    Quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has been applied to sandy beach ridge systems from the Magdalen Islands in the center of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Quebec, Canada) to provide the first chronological framework for these features. Nineteen beach ridges (22 samples) from four di...

  12. Beach Response to Wave Energy Converter Farms Acting as Coastal Defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Silva, Rodolfo; Zanuttigh, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    of two beaches, i.e. the Bay of Santander in Spain and Las Glorias beach in Mexico, representing two different case studies where the long-shore sediment transport is dominant. The hydrodynamics induced by these devices is represented by means of a 2D elliptic modified mild-slope model that is calibrated...

  13. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  14. 76 FR 9278 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Isles Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a...

  15. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The water of Anaheim Bay Harbor between the east and west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal...

  16. 33 CFR 80.727 - Cape Canaveral, FL to Miami Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Canaveral, FL to Miami Beach, FL. 80.727 Section 80.727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., FL to Miami Beach, FL. (a) A line drawn across the seaward extremity of the Port Canaveral...

  17. Watershed Assessment with Beach Microbial Source Tracking and Outcomes of Resulting Gull Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kelly D; Gruber, Steve; Vondrak, Mary; Crumpacker, Andrea

    2016-09-20

    Total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation at a southern California beach involved ultraviolet treatment of watershed drainage that provided >97% reduction in fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. However, this pollutant control measure did not provide sufficient improvement of beach water quality, prompting further assessment. Investigation included microbial source tracking (MST) for human, gull, and canine fecal sources, monitoring of enterococci and fecal coliform, and measurement of chemical and physical water quality parameters for samples collected from watershed, groundwater, and beach sites, including a beach scour pond and tidal creek. FIB variability remained poorly modeled in regression analysis. However, MST revealed correlations between FIB and gull source tracking markers, leading to recommendations to manage gulls as a pollutant source. Beach conditions were followed for three years after implementation of a best management practice (BMP) to abate gulls using a falconry program for the beach and an upland landfill. The gull abatement BMP was associated with improved beach water quality, and this appears to be the first report of falconry in the context of TMDL implementation. Overall, MST data enabled management action despite an inability to fully model FIB dynamics in the coupled watershed-beach system.

  18. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shore and beach restoration and protection projects not specifically authorized by Congress, which... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small beach erosion control..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Shore Protection Policy §...

  19. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  20. 33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) (b) Area A-2. Consisting of two parts in the outer basin of Fish Harbor on the... southwesterly along the jetty about 900 feet to the shore; thence northerly about 500 feet; thence...

  1. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  2. 46 CFR 7.95 - St. Johns Point, FL to Miami Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Johns Point, FL to Miami Beach, FL. 7.95 Section 7.95 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.95 St. Johns Point, FL to Miami Beach, FL. (a) A line drawn from the...

  3. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the eastern shore of Fritz Is. at latitude 27°39′32.5″...

  4. Morphology, grain-size and faunistic composition of the macrotidal beaches of Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.I. Isla

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphodynamic models have been applied to macrotidal beaches. They are based on unimodal grain sizes and average dynamic parameters as the wave height and period at the breaker zone. Bimodal gravel beaches do not fit to these models because a grain size is subject to spatial segregations (gravel and granules at the upper beach zones and fine sand at the lower-tide terrace, and b wave dynamics vary temporarily during the tidal cycle: the beach has a reflective behaviour during high tide and dissipative during low tide. Superimposed to these morphodynamical constraints, along the Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego inherited factors control the coastal morphology. In low-lying coasts (South-American Plate portion, the Holocene sea-level fluctuation permitted the construction of beach ridge plains. On high-relief coasts (Scotia Microplate, the same fluctuation have little enough sediment available, and therefore pocket beaches developed between capes and sand accumulations at river outlets. Two areas were found of interest by their heavy mineral content: the Rio Chico beach-ridge plain, and the coastline between Ewan and Ladrillero estuaries. With regard to the molluscan beach composition, rocky bottom specimens dominate at the capes.

  5. RIP current zones along beaches in Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.

    currents were measured at 2-week intervals from November 1993 to October 1994 along these beaches to identify the zones of strong longshore currents and rip currents. Entire beaches were found to be unsafe for swimming during the southwest monsoon season...

  6. 76 FR 1190 - Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, City of Virginia Beach, VA; Final Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, City of Virginia Beach, VA; Final... National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In this final CCP, we describe how we will manage this refuge for the next... CONTACT: Jared Brandwein, Refuge Manager, Back Bay NWR, 4005 Sandpiper Road, Virginia Beach, VA......

  7. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks... has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law...

  8. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm Beach World Championship is scheduled to take place on... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World...

  9. Spatial variation in meiofaunal abundance of some coralline beaches of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Abundance of metazoan meiofauna was examined at 12 coralline sandy beaches of Mauritius island during September-October, 1987. Beach sediment comprised of moderately well sorted sand particles (Mz=0.53-2.80 phi ; x=1.70). Population density...

  10. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ..., Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 2916). We received no comments on...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach...

  11. 76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of ] Miami Beach,...

  12. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This...

  13. Testing and assessment of large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P.P.; Jones, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/N

  14. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances (S

  15. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach Island... Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  16. Monsoonal effects on beach and offshore sediments from kalbadevi bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra state, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Farnnades, D.

    DAV International Journal of Science Volume-3 Issue-1 2014 ISSN: 2277-5536 (Print); 2277-5641 (Online) 70 MONSOONAL EFFECTS ON BEACH AND OFFSHORE SEDIMENTS... FROM KALBADEVI BAY, RATNAGIRI, MAHARASHTRA STATE, INDIA Anil B. Valsangkar* and Domnica Farnnades ** National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004 *( E-mail:valsabv50@gmail.com) ABSTRACT Sediment samples representing the beach...

  17. Numerical modeling of transferred arc melting bath heating; Modelisation numerique du chauffage de bains par arc transfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, A. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Trenty, L.; Guillot, J.B. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the modeling of a transferred electric arc inside a bath of melted metal. After a recall of the context of the study, the problem of the modeling, which involves magnetohydrodynamic coupling inside the arc and the bath, is described. The equations that govern the phenomena inside the arc and the bath are recalled and the approach used for the modeling of the anode region of the arc is explained using a 1-D sub-model. The conditions of connection between arc and bath calculations are explained and calculation results obtained with a 200 kW laboratory furnace geometry are presented. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  18. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, A.; A. Shafeeq; Butt, M.A.; Z. H. Rizvi; M. A. Chughtai; Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath e...

  19. Herbs for medicinal baths among the traditional Yao communities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Long, Chunlin; Liu, Fengyan; Lee, Sangwoo; Guo, Qi; Li, Rong; Liu, Yuheng

    2006-11-01

    Medicinal baths are an important traditional way to prevent and cure common diseases among the traditional Yao communities of Jinping County, Yunnan Province, SW China. Approaches of anthropology, ethnobotany, and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used to investigate the herbs used for medicinal baths; and 110 medicinal plant species were found to be used by local people to treat a variety of diseases, such as rheumatic diseases, skin diseases, injuries from falls and gynecopathia. Of these 110 species, 6 (5%) had not been previously identified as having medicinal properties, while 87 (79%) were newly recorded for their use in medicinal baths. These new ethnobotanical and medicinal records are a rich source of further phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on folk herbs in SW China. PMID:16735101

  20. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011)]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  1. Einstein’s enigma or black holes in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2006-01-01

    "The bubbles were swirling all around me massaging my body ... As I luxuriated in this fantastic bubble bath, my eyes grew heavy and I drifted into a supremely blissful slumber." So begins Alfie's encounter with a remarkable and revelatory bathtub purchased from a mysterious neighbour named Al. Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath tells the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend Alfie, a freelance organiser of proposals. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. Prof. C.V. Vishveshwara is a renowned the...

  2. Polynitroaniline as brightener for zinc–nickel alloy plating from non-cyanide sulphate bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H P Sachin; Ganesha Achary; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2007-02-01

    Electro-polymerization of orthonitroaniline was carried out on graphite electrode in hydrochloric acid medium. Zinc–nickel alloy deposition was carried out in the presence of polynitroaniline in acid sulphate bath. The bath constituent and bath variables were optimized through Hull cell experiments. The current efficiency and throwing power were measured. High shift of potential towards more cathodic direction was observed in presence of addition agent. Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc–nickel coating obtained from the developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrograph shows fine-grained deposit in the presence of addition agent. The consumption of brightener in the lab-scale was 0.01 gL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

  3. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  4. Electrodeposition of chromium from trivalent chromium urea bath containing sulfate and chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The reduction of Cr( Ⅲ) to Cr( Ⅱ ) on copper electrode in trivalent chromium urea bath containing chromium sulfate and chromium chloride as chromium source has been investigated by potentiodynamic sweep. The transfer coefficient α for reduction of Cr( Ⅲ ) to Cr( Ⅱ ) on copper electrode was calculated as 0.46. The reduction is a quasi-reversible process. J-t responses at different potential steps showed that the generation and adsorption characteristics of carboxylate bridged oligomer are relevant to cathode potential. The interface behavior between electrode and solution for Cr( Ⅲ ) complex is a critical factor influencing sustained electrode position of chromium. The hypotheses of the electro-inducing polymerization of Cr( Ⅲ ) was proposed. The potential scope in which sustained chromium deposits can be prepared is from- 1.3 V to- 1.7 V (vs SCE) in the urea bath. Bright chromium deposits with thickness of 30 μm can be prepared in the bath.

  5. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111 orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.

  6. Calorimetric observation of single He2* excimers in a 100 mK He bath

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, F W; Rooks, M J; McClintock, P V E; McKinsey, D N; Prober, D E

    2016-01-01

    We report the first calorimetric detection of individual He2* excimers within a bath of superfluid 4He. The detector used in this work is a single superconducting titanium transition edge sensor (TES) with an energy resolution of ~1 eV, immersed directly in the helium bath. He2* excimers are produced in the surrounding bath using an external gamma-ray source. These excimers exist either as short-lived singlet or long-lived triplet states. We demonstrate detection of both states: in the singlet case the calorimeter records the absorption of a prompt 15 eV photon, and in the triplet case the calorimeter records a direct interaction of the molecule with the TES surface, which deposits a distinct fraction of the 15 eV, released upon decay, into the surface. We also briefly discuss the detector fabrication and characterization.

  7. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  8. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  9. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  10. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  11. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events.

  12. The impact of seasonality on service quality in beach hotels: the case of the Palm Beach Hotel and Bungalows

    OpenAIRE

    Moussoulides, Aris

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest issues that any business is facing nowadays is offering the highest quality of service possible to its clients. Having acknowledged the imminent importance of offering high quality of service in the Cypriot hotel industry, this report went on to investigate the impact that seasonality has on the quality of service in beach hotel. In order to do so in a feasible way and taking into consideration the limitation of the study, this report selected the case study method and used...

  13. Sediment transfer from beach to shoreface: The sediment budget of an accreting beach on the Danish North Sea coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2011-01-01

    The sediment budget along the southern part of the exposed Danish North Sea coast was assessed through a combination of cross-shore profile analysis, numerical modeling and field measurements of cross-shore and longshore sediment transport at the boundary between the upper and the lower shorefaces....... The beaches along this coast are accreting but observed sediment storage is far smaller than sediment supplied by southerly directed wave-driven currents. The excess sediment volumes are transferred seaward across the shoreface by systematically offshore-migrating nearshore bars that deliver sediment...

  14. 33 CFR 165.156 - Regulated Navigation Area: East Rockaway Inlet to Atlantic Beach Bridge, Nassau County, Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., thence easterly along the shore to the east side of the Atlantic Beach Bridge, State Route 878, over East... Rockaway Inlet to Atlantic Beach Bridge, Nassau County, Long Island, New York. 165.156 Section 165.156... to Atlantic Beach Bridge, Nassau County, Long Island, New York. (a) Location. The following area is...

  15. MODELING OF FLOW THROUGH A VERTICAL PERFORATED PIPE IN THE BEACH, AND THE MORPHODYNAMIC INTERPRETATION: THE PRESSURE EQUALIZATION MODULE SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that vertical perforated tubes placed below the beach surface will increase the drainage of the beach, and hence increase the deposition of sand on the beach. The system is called the PEM-system, Pressure Equalization System, and the Danish company SIC (www.shore.dk) is doing...

  16. Association of land use and its change with beach closure in the United States, 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and its change have great influences on water quality. However, their impacts on microbial contamination of beach water have been rarely investigated and their relationship with beach closure is still unknown. Here, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 20...

  17. Levels of Viable Enterococci Fecal Indicator Bacteria at a Marine Subtropical Beach: Assessing Temporal and Spatial Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach water quality monitoring is an important tool to inform the public of health risks from recreational beach use, as well as to assess the impacts of land-based sources of pollution on coastal ecosystems. Many beach monitoring programs in the US currently utilize a strategy o...

  18. Measurement of smooth muscle function in the isolated tissue bath-applications to pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R; Watts, Stephanie W; Cobbett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum - if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  19. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven.

  20. Nonequilibrium processes from generalized Langevin equations: Realistic nanoscale systems connected to two thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, H.; Genina, A.; Stella, L.; Lorenz, C. D.; Kantorovich, L.

    2016-05-01

    We extend the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) method [L. Stella, C. D. Lorenz, and L. Kantorovich, Phys. Rev. B 89, 134303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.134303] to model a central classical region connected to two realistic thermal baths at two different temperatures. In such nonequilibrium conditions a heat flow is established, via the central system, in between the two baths. The GLE-2B (GLE two baths) scheme permits us to have a realistic description of both the dissipative central system and its surrounding baths. Following the original GLE approach, the extended Langevin dynamics scheme is modified to take into account two sets of auxiliary degrees of freedom corresponding to the mapping of the vibrational properties of each bath. These auxiliary variables are then used to solve the non-Markovian dissipative dynamics of the central region. The resulting algorithm is used to study a model of a short Al nanowire connected to two baths. The results of the simulations using the GLE-2B approach are compared to the results of other simulations that were carried out using standard thermostatting approaches (based on Markovian Langevin and Nosé-Hoover thermostats). We concentrate on the steady-state regime and study the establishment of a local temperature profile within the system. The conditions for obtaining a flat profile or a temperature gradient are examined in detail, in agreement with earlier studies. The results show that the GLE-2B approach is able to treat, within a single scheme, two widely different thermal transport regimes, i.e., ballistic systems, with no temperature gradient, and diffusive systems with a temperature gradient.

  1. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  2. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  3. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB-head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB-head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF-HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  4. Mortality of discards from southeastern Australian beach seines and gillnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B; Brand, Craig P; Uhlmann, Sebastian S

    2008-06-19

    Two experiments were done in an Australian estuary to quantify the mortalities and contributing factors for key species discarded during 8 and 9 deployments of commercial beach (or shore) seines and gillnets, respectively. In both experiments, bycatches (2347 individuals comprising 16 species) were handled according to conventional practices and assessed for immediate mortalities before live samples of selected species were discarded into replicate cages along with appropriate controls, and monitored for short-term mortalities (surf bream Acanthopagrus australis (n = 290) were dead after 5 d, with most mortalities occurring between the second and fifth day. In the gillnet experiment, 42 and 11% of gilled-and-discarded A. australis (n = 161) and lesser salmon catfish Neoarius graeffei (n = 67), respectively, died during a 10 d monitoring period, mostly within the first 5 d. There were no deaths in any controls for these fish. Mixed-effects logistic models revealed that the mortality of A. australis discarded from both gears was significantly (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with their total length, while N. graeffei had a significantly (p < 0.05) greater (5-fold) probability of dying when jellyfish Catostylus sp. were present in the gillnet. Simple modifications to the operations of beach seines and gillnets and/or post-capture handling procedures, such as close regulation of size selectivity for the target species, careful removal of fish from meshes, and abstention from setting during high abundances of jellyfish will maximise the survival of discarded bycatch. PMID:18714684

  5. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  6. A system for beach video-monitoring: Beachkeeper plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Massimo; Schiaffino, Chiara F.; Isla, Federico I.; Ferrari, Marco

    2012-12-01

    A suitable knowledge of coastal systems, of their morphodynamic characteristics and their response to storm events and man-made structures is essential for littoral conservation and management. Nowadays webcams represent a useful device to obtain information from beaches. Video-monitoring techniques are generally site specific and softwares working with any image acquisition system are rare. Therefore, this work aims at submitting theory and applications of an experimental video monitoring software: Beachkeeper plus, a freeware non-profit software, can be employed and redistributed without modifications. A license file is provided inside software package and in the user guide. Beachkeeper plus is based on Matlab® and it can be used for the analysis of images and photos coming from any kind of acquisition system (webcams, digital cameras or images downloaded from internet), without any a-priori information or laboratory study of the acquisition system itself. Therefore, it could become a useful tool for beach planning. Through a simple guided interface, images can be analyzed by performing georeferentiation, rectification, averaging and variance. This software was initially operated in Pietra Ligure (Italy), using images from a tourist webcam, and in Mar del Plata (Argentina) using images from a digital camera. In both cases the reliability in different geomorphologic and morphodynamic conditions was confirmed by the good quality of obtained images after georeferentiation, rectification and averaging.

  7. Quantum breathing of an impurity in a one-dimensional bath of interacting bosons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Rossini, Davide; Polini, Marco; Minardi, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    By means of the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group (TDMRG) method we are able to follow the real-time dynamics of a single impurity embedded in a one-dimensional bath of interacting bosons. We focus on the impurity breathing mode, which is found to be well described by a single oscillation frequency and a damping rate. If the impurity is very weakly coupled to the bath, a Luttinger-liquid description is valid and the impurity suffers an Abraham-Lorentz radiation-reaction friction. For a large portion of the explored parameter space, the TDMRG results fall well beyond the Luttinger-liquid paradigm. PMID:23383804

  8. Zeno and Anti Zeno effect for a two level system in a squeezed bath

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D F

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the appearance of Zeno (QZE) or anti-Zeno (QAE) effect in an exponentially decaying system. We consider the quantum dynamics of a continuously monitored two level system interacting with a squeezed bath. We find that the behavior of the system depends critically on the way in which the squeezed bath is prepared. For specific choices of the squeezing phase the system shows Zeno or anti-Zeno effect in conditions for which it would decay exponentially if no measurements were done. This result allows for a clear interpretation in terms of the equivalent spin system interacting with a fictitious magnetic field.

  9. Dual Bath Electrodeposition of Alternate Multilayer Coatings of Zinc and Nickel Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Wen-li; FEI Jing-yin; LIANG Guo-zheng

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of zinc and nickel alternate multilayer coatings produced by successive deposition from dual baths containing a revised zinc sulphate electrolyte and a new developed nickel bath has been investigated. Smooth and uniform zinc-nickel compositionally modulated multilayered (CMM) coatings with different multilayer configurations were obtained. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology showed the layered structure of the coatings clearly.Key Words: multilayer coating, electrodeposited zinc and nickel, electrodeposition

  10. Mathematical simulation of gas induced bath flow in drained aluminum reduction cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相鹏; 李劼; 赖延清; 赵恒勤; 刘业翔

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the bubble driven bath flow in a drained cell with a center sump was presented, which spanned the fluid around half an anode and was developed to simulate the flow fields. The calculated results show reasonable agreement with the experiment. Then the model was developed to a full cell model, and bath flow pattern in the whole cell was predicted and analyzed. The flow pattern variation with the changes of the ACD, anode slope, anode immersion depth and current density, especially the fluid secondary recirculation, was modeled. According to the results, side channel or slots feeding technique was recommended in such a drained cell.

  11. A Case of Multiple Organ Failure due to Heat Stoke Following a Warm Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Young; Sung, Su Ah; Ko, Gang Jee; Boo, Chang Su; Jo, Sang Kyung; Cho, Won Yong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Heat stroke is a potentially fatal disorder that's caused by an extreme elevation in body temperature. We report here an unusual case of multiple organ failure that was caused by classical, nonexertional heat stroke due to taking a warm bath at home. A 68 year old diabetic man was hospitalized for loss of consciousness. He was presumed to have been in a warm bath for 3 hrs and his body temperature was 41℃. Despite cooling and supportive care, he developed acute renal failure, disseminated int...

  12. Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis- Where is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis...... of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles...

  13. Prediction of hot water usage in a solar heated community bathing centre in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, R.J.; Schwede, D. [School of Architecture and Building, Deakin Univ., Geelong, Victoria (Australia); Malla, A.; Zahnd, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu Univ., Nepal (Nepal); RIDS-Nepal (Nepal)

    2008-07-01

    A natural thermosyphon solar water heating system (SWHS) has been constructed at a high altitude research station in a remote northwestern region of Nepal. This SWHS is the prototype for a larger community bathing system proposed for a nearby village. This paper describes the community bathing centre and presents the results of a validated TRNSYS model that has been used to predict its performance and to test various operational strategies. Predictions from the model indicate that the design target of 550 showers can be provided each week if these showers are limited to 10 litres at 35 C and the centre is operated between 9am and 3pm. (orig.)

  14. Thin film dynamics on a vertically rotating disk partially immersed in a liquid bath

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasiev, K.; Münch, A.; Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    The axisymmetric flow of a thin liquid film is considered for the problem of a vertically rotating disk that is partially immersed in a liquid bath. A model for the fully three-dimensional free-boundary problem of the rotating disk, that drags a thin film out of the bath is set up. From this, a dimension-reduced extended lubrication approximation that includes the meniscus region is derived. This problem constitutes a generalization of the classic drag-out and drag-in problem to the case of a...

  15. Decoherence of a Quantum Nonlinear Oscillator Under a Non-zero Temperature Thermal Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic time τD for decoherence process of a quantum nonlinear oscillator system under a nonzero temperature thermal bath is studied by expanding the linear entropy. By numerical analysis, it is shown that at a non-zero temperature, the quantum coherence decays much faster than at zero temperature. Moreover, the non-zero temperature thermal bath will bring a crucialsuppression to the quantum effects of the observables, which causes these quantum effects to become unable to persist up to the Ehrenfest time but is insufficient to destroy the quantum-classical transition.

  16. Bath-symmetries and hybridization sum-rules for CDMFT and DCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Hamiltonian formulation of CDMFT and DCA, the point symmetries of the cluster imply symmetries of the hybridization, which can substantially reduce the number of independent parameters to fit the bath Green function. We review these symmetries and derive general sum-rules for the hybridizations, which allow to check the quality of a fit using a finite set of bath sites and imply what hybridizations vanish. As examples we discuss calculations for the Hubbard model in one-dimension and for 2 x 2 clusters

  17. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishveshwara, C.

    2006-07-01

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  18. Chemical bath deposited CdS films using magnetic treated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdS thin films were obtained by chemical bath deposition onto corning glass slides using precursor solutions previously treated in a steady magnetic field. The kinetic growth was affected in dependence of the magnetic field intensity used in the solution treatments. The growth rate is slower when magnetized solutions are used; however, the reaction exhaustion is more delayed. The magnetic treatments improve the conversion of starting materials in thin films. Thus, the bath is more efficient and thicker films can be obtained. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

    1999-01-01

    Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease. PMID:10213812

  20. Measuring the effects of morphological changes to sea turtle nesting beaches over time with LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Anderson, Sharolyn J.; Sutton, Paul C.

    2015-10-01

    Sea turtle nesting beaches in southeastern Florida were evaluated for changes from 1999 to 2005 using LiDAR datasets. Changes to beach volume were correlated with changes in several elevation-derived characteristics, such as elevation and slope. In addition, these changes to beach geomorphology were correlated to changes in nest success, illustrating that beach alterations may affect sea turtle nesting behavior. The ability to use LiDAR datasets to quickly and efficiently conduct beach comparisons for habitat use represents another benefit to this high spatial resolution data.

  1. The recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from beach sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study describes a metallurgical process that will extract, recover and produce REE oxides from beach sands obtained from Ombo, San Vicente, northern Palawan. The beach sands contain REE minerals of allanite and small amounts of monazite. Allanite is a sorosilicate mineral containing rare earths, thorium and uranium. Monazite is the anhydrous phosphate of cerium and the lanthanum group of rare earths with thorium commonly present in replacement for cerium and lanthanum. Collected beach sand were first pan-concentrated in-situ to produce heavy mineral concentrates. Screening using a 32 mesh (0.500 mm) sieve was done at the Nuclear Materials Research Laboratory to remove oversize sand particles. The -32 mesh fraction was treated with bromoform (sp. gr. 2.89) to separate the heavy minerals from siliceous gangue. Grinding to -325 mesh size (0.044mm) followed to liberate the minerals prior to leaching. Two acids leachants were used - concentrated HCl for the first trial and a mixture of concentrated HCl and HNO3 (10:1 volume ratio) for the second trial. Both leaching trials were carried out at 180oC for 7 hours or until dry. The resulting leached residues were re-dissolved in concentrated HCl and filtered. IonquestR 801, an organophosphorous extractant, was added to the filtrate to separate the radioactive thorium from REE. Sodium hydroxide was added to the aqueous phase to precipitate the REE. After filtering the precipitate, it was dissolved in HCl. The acid solution was repeatedly extracted three (3) times with IonquestR 801 to remove iron and other contaminants. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the final solution to precipitate the REE, which was then dried in the oven. The precipitate was calcined/roasted in the furnace at two different temperatures for different periods of time to burn off the organic matter and to form oxides. Results of the XRD analysis showed peaks of the calcined precipitate matching with the peaks of lanthanum oxide standard

  2. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean Beach, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major

  3. Beach protection by a system of permeable groins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczar-Karakiewicz, B.; Romanczyk, W.; Roy, N.

    2002-12-01

    A new type of permeable groin (called System of Groins Maltec-Savard - SGMS) has been installed at three eroded sites located in the coastal area on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada. In this area, the narrow sandy beaches with sandy or sand-silty cliff of variable height (10-15~m) are exposed to obliquely incident waves arriving from both west (summer) and east (autumn), and to tidal currents (maximum tidal rate is 4.3~m). The periods of summer waves equal 3-5~s, with wave heights of about 0.4-0.7~m. In the autumn, major storm waves reach periods of up to 7-10~s, with wave heights of 1.0-1.2~m. The new groins are sediment traps formed by a central double and permeable groin with several smaller lateral, groins installed on one or both sides of the central groin (Boczar-Karakiewicz et al., 2001). The permeable central and lateral groins are structured by inserting double ranges of wooden piles (diameter of about 10 cm). The space between the ranges of piles (some 0.8~m wide) is filled with tree branches (e.g., the top parts of pine trees, a waste product of the local forest industry). A permeable grid covering the top of the groins forms a cage that holds the branches in place. The lateral groins, are identical but much shorter than the central groin. The whole system dissipates the incident energy of wave- and tidally-generated currents and causes accretion of sand transported by these currents. The GSMS also allows the by-pass of some sediment to adjacent zones without groins. Observations and results of measurements from three experiments field show that: (1) a sandy beach in front of a coastal cliff secures its stability and attenuates the erosion caused by waves and tidal currents; (2) permeability and flexibility of the SGMS causes the accretion of sediment in the protected area without erosion in the neighboring zones; (3) the SGMS does not generate wave reflection and any secondary current; (4) the materials of the groins are easily

  4. Physical constraints of bath treatments of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with a sea lice burden (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treasurer, James W.; Grant, Andrew; Davis, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Licensed medicines available in the U.K. for treating Atlantic salmon infested with sea lice, dichlorvos, azamethiphos, and hydrogen peroxide, can only be administered by bath application. Adverse reactions have been reported to bath treatments including mortalities, inappetance, reduction in growth

  5. Comprehensive optical studies on SnS layers synthesized by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Minnam Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy; Park, Chinho; Chan-Wook, Jeon; Ramakrishna Reddy, K. T.

    2015-04-01

    A simple non-vacuum and cost effective wet chemical technique, chemical bath deposition was used to prepare tin sulphide (SnS) layers on glass substrates. The layers were formed by varying bath temperature in the range, 40-80 °C, keeping other deposition parameters as constant. An exhaustive investigation on their optical properties with bath temperature was made using the transmittance and reflectance measurements. The absorption coefficient was evaluated from the optical transmittance data utilizing Lambert's principle and is >104 cm-1 for all the as-prepared layers. The energy band gap of the layers was determined from the differential reflectance spectra that varied from 1.41 eV to 1.30 eV. Consequently, refractive index and extinction coefficient were obtained from Pankov relations and dispersion constants were calculated using Wemple-Didomenico method. In addition, other optical parameters such as the optical conductivity, dielectric constants, dissipation factor, high frequency dielectric constant and relaxation time were also calculated. Finally electrical parameters such as resistivity, carrier mobility and carrier density of as-prepared layers were estimated using optical data. A detailed analysis of the dependence of all above mentioned parameters on bath temperature is reported and discussed for a clean understanding of electronic characteristics of SnS layers.

  6. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  7. Expression of Individual Copies of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Stolyar, Sergei; Franke, Marion; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2001-01-01

    The expression of the two gene clusters encoding the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was assessed by analysis of transcripts and by use of chromosomal gene fusions. The results suggest that the two clusters are functionally redundant but that relative expression alters depending on the copper levels available for growth.

  8. Reclaim nickel and remove organics from the spent electroless nickel-plating bath by electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiu-juan; SHEN Jin; MENG Xian-lin; LI Shu-qin; YAN Lei; ZHOU Ding

    2006-01-01

    Typical wastes from nickel plating operations include excess drag-out solution. An electrochemical approach was made to recover the nickel and remove the organic pollutants from the spent electroless nickelplating bath. An electrolyte cell which was constructed by the cathode of porous nickel foam and the anode of Ti/RuO2 was used. During electrolysis, the nickel ion was electrodeposited at the cathode and the oxidation of the organics in the bath was conducted at the anode. The current ( i), time ( t), temperature (T) and pH of the solution affected the recovery efficiency of nickel with constant potential electrolysis. With the optimum experimental conditions of pH = 7. 6, i = 0.45 A, T = 65℃ and t = 2 h, the concentration of nickel ion was reduced from 2. 09 g/L to 0. 053 g/L and the recovery rate of nickel, the current efficiency and the consumed energy were 97.5%, 17.1%, 12.2 kWh/kg Ni, respectively. Meanwhile, total organic carbon (TOC) of the bath was reduced from 5 800 mg/L to 152. 5 mg/L and the removal efficiency of TOC was 97.3%. The recovery rate of nickel could keep to about 97% when electrodeposit was used to recover nickel for 40 hours in a laboratory batch reactor containing the spent bath. Dull nickel containing phosphorus was obtained on the cathode.

  9. Generation of macroscopic quantum-superposition states by linear coupling to a bath

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Bar-Gill, Nir; Kurizki, Gershon

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate through an exactly solvable model that collective coupling to any thermal bath induces effectively nonlinear couplings in a quantum many-body (multi-spin) system. The resulting evolution can drive an uncorrelated large-spin system with high probability into a macroscopic quantum-superposition state. We discuss possible experimental realizations.

  10. Direct electroless Ni-P deposition on AM50 magnesium alloy from sulfate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-yu; NIU Li-yuan; JIANG Zhong-hao; GU Chang-dong; LIAN Jian-she

    2006-01-01

    A bright electroless Ni-P deposition on AM50 magnesium alloy in a sulfate plating bath was proposed by using direct plating process with non-chromate pretreatment. The electroless Ni-P plating on AM50 magnesium alloy has an admirable appearance and good adhesion. The results indicate that the electroless Ni-P deposition with non-chromate pretreatment has better adhesion than that of zinc immersion coating. Anodic polarization curves indicate that the electroless Ni-P deposition obtained from the sulfate bath has similar corrosion-resistance to that obtained from basic nickel carbonate bath. The deposition process generates less pollutant by a non-chromate plating bath and is suitable for the magnesium alloys manufacture because of its low cost. The hardness of the electroless Ni-P plated AM50 is about HV 720.6 and HV 969.7 after heat treatments at 180 ℃ for 2 h. The wear resistance of Ni-P plated magnesium alloy specimens is about 5 to 9 times as high as that of bare magnesium alloys.

  11. System-bath correlation function probed by conventional and time-gated stimulated photon echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, Wim P. de; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1996-01-01

    We show how in the framework of the multimode Brownian oscillator model the system-bath correlation function can be derived from conventional and time-gated stimulated photon echo experiments and consideration of the linear optical spectra. Experiments are performed on the infrared dye DTTCI in room

  12. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  13. Cold-induced vasodilatation response at different water bath temperatures in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, L; Purkayastha, S S; Malhotra, M S

    1978-08-01

    The response of cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) at different water bath temperatures was studied in 20 monkeys (3.5 kg) in a conscious state in a thermoneutral room. The animals were controlled by seating in a monkey chair, and the right hind limb up to 7.5 cm from the heel was immersed in a water bath for 60 min. Four series of experiments were conducted at water bath temperatures of 0 degrees, 4 degrees, 8 degrees, and 12 degrees C, respectively, at weekly intervals and the skin temperatures were measured from three sites in the foot. Marked CIVD response was noted from the dorsum and, to a lesser extent, from the sole of the foot, but no response was seen from the tip of the middle toe at 0 degrees, 4 degrees, and 8 degrees C water bath temperatures. The pattern of CIVD response at 4 degrees C was identical to that of 0 degrees C, but the response at 8 degrees C was poor and was absent at 12 degrees C. Three patterns of CIVD--such as hunting, proportional control, and slow, steady, and continuous rewarming--was observed. However, 15% of the animals did not exhibit any CIVD. The observations show that the CIVD response of monkeys is remarkably similar to that of man. PMID:98160

  14. Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs: the emerging 'incense' and 'bath salt' phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, Jason; Collins, Gregory; Streem, David

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs (SLIDs), such as those commonly contained in products sold over the counter as "bath salts" and "incense," have risen tremendously in popularity in the past few years. These drugs can have powerful adverse effects, including acute psychosis with delusions, hallucinations, and potentially dangerous, bizarre behavior.

  15. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Kotaro; Akiyoshi, Toshiki; Azuma, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ohgai, Takeshi; Morimura, Takao; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ṡ 4H2O, NiCl2 ṡ 6H2O and CoCl2 ṡ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 %) in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  16. Dynamics of passive tracers in a bath of self-propelling granular particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoy, E.; Confesor, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    We report on our experimental investigation of the dynamics of a passive tracer in a bath of active self-propelling granular particles. We found a caging like dynamics of the passive tracer such that for low active particle concentrations the passive tracer exhibits longer periods of inactivity. For increasing active particle concentration the occurrence of short period inactivity increases.

  17. Optimisation of the formulation of a bubble bath by a chemometric approach market segmentation and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Bertetto, Mariella

    2003-03-01

    The optimisation of the formulation of a commercial bubble bath was performed by chemometric analysis of Panel Tests results. A first Panel Test was performed to choose the best essence, among four proposed to the consumers; the best essence chosen was used in the revised commercial bubble bath. Afterwards, the effect of changing the amount of four components (the amount of primary surfactant, the essence, the hydratant and the colouring agent) of the bubble bath was studied by a fractional factorial design. The segmentation of the bubble bath market was performed by a second Panel Test, in which the consumers were requested to evaluate the samples coming from the experimental design. The results were then treated by Principal Component Analysis. The market had two segments: people preferring a product with a rich formulation and people preferring a poor product. The final target, i.e. the optimisation of the formulation for each segment, was obtained by the calculation of regression models relating the subjective evaluations given by the Panel and the compositions of the samples. The regression models allowed to identify the best formulations for the two segments ofthe market.

  18. Dynamics of a two-level system coupled to a bath of spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haobin; Shao, Jiushu

    2012-12-01

    The dynamics of a two-level system coupled to a spin bath is investigated via the numerically exact multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) theory. Consistent with the previous work on linear response approximation [N. Makri, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2823 (1999)], 10.1021/jp9847540, it is demonstrated numerically that this spin-spin-bath model can be mapped onto the well-known spin-boson model if the system-bath coupling strength obeys an appropriate scaling behavior. This linear response mapping, however, may require many bath spin degrees of freedom to represent the practical continuum limit. To clarify the discrepancies resulted from different approximate treatments of this model, the population dynamics of the central two-level system has been investigated near the transition boundary between the coherent and incoherent motions via the ML-MCTDH method. It is found that increasing temperature favors quantum coherence in the nonadiabatic limit of this model, which corroborates the prediction in the previous work [J. Shao and P. Hanggi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5710 (1998)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5710 based on the non-interacting blip approximation (NIBA). However, the coherent-incoherent boundary obtained by the exact ML-MCTDH simulation is slightly different from the approximate NIBA results. Quantum dynamics in other physical regimes are also discussed.

  19. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... September 3, 2009 (74 FR 45719) proposing a safety standard for bath seats. The proposed standard was... Commission had proposed in a notice of proposed rulemaking it issued in 2003, 68 FR 74878 (December 29, 2003...)(5)(i)). As discussed in the preamble to the proposed rule (74 FR at 45720 through 45721),...

  20. 75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080 beginning...