WorldWideScience

Sample records for batch processing system

  1. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown...

  2. Batch process. Changes and problems of a batch process; Bacchi prosesu no hensen to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, T. [Asahi Engineering (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    One of the characteristics of the manufacture of fine chemical products is multikind production. The life cycles of chemical industrial products have become shorter, and the difference between these life cycles and those of the manufacturing facility has become larger. The use of an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) has been demanded as the measure for solving the problems, and the advantages of a batch process have begun to be reconsidered. This paper describes the history of the development of a batch process, and then explains the problems of a batch process. The paper mentions the process control techniques, production information control systems, production support systems, training systems and process simulation systems as the main techniques supporting the development of a batch process. The paper mentions the modeling and standardizing of a batch process, systematic batch process designing methods and the modeling of a production control information system as the problems of a batch process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Batch process. Application of CAE technique to a batch process; Bacchi purosesu eno CAE gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Nakai, K.; Oba, S. [Aspentic Japan Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    This paper introduces recent topics of the application of the CAE technique to a batch process. A batch distillation modeling tool (BATCHFRAC) is aimed at modeling a distillation tower and a batch reactor for a batch process for fine chemical products, and is provided as an expanded additional function for ASPEN FLUS batch distillation. A batch process designing system (BATCH PLUS) is a comprehensive batch process simulator for efficiently carrying out the designing, the development or the analysis of a complicated recipe-based batch process concerning medical treatment, biotechnology and agriculture. A batch process information control system (Batch/21) is provided as a system having an expanded and additional function for a batch process of InfoPlus/21, an information control system which enables the observation, management and controlling of a process. 4 figs.

  4. Design and Analysis of Integrated Predictive Iterative Learning Control for Batch Process Based on Two-dimensional System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chen; Zhihua Xiong; Yisheng Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the two-dimensional (2D) system theory, an integrated predictive iterative learning control (2D-IPILC) strategy for batch processes is presented. First, the output response and the error transition model predictions along the batch index can be calculated analytically due to the 2D Roesser model of the batch process. Then, an integrated framework of combining iterative learning control (ILC) and model predictive control (MPC) is formed reasonably. The output of feedforward ILC is estimated on the basis of the predefined process 2D model. By min-imizing a quadratic objective function, the feedback MPC is introduced to obtain better control performance for tracking problem of batch processes. Simulations on a typical batch reactor demonstrate that the satisfactory tracking performance as wel as faster convergence speed can be achieved than traditional proportion type (P-type) ILC despite the model error and disturbances.

  5. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  6. Batching System for Superior Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  7. A general paradigm to model reaction-based biogeochemical processes in batch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yilin; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Burgos, William D.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the development and illustration of a numerical model of reaction-based geochemical and biochemical processes with mixed equilibrium and kinetic reactions. The objective is to provide a general paradigm for modeling reactive chemicals in batch systems, with expectations that it is applicable to reactive chemical transport problems. The unique aspects of the paradigm are to simultaneously (1) facilitate the segregation (isolation) of linearly independent kinetic reactions and thus enable the formulation and parameterization of individual rates one reaction by one reaction when linearly dependent kinetic reactions are absent, (2) enable the inclusion of virtually any type of equilibrium expressions and kinetic rates users want to specify, (3) reduce problem stiffness by eliminating all fast reactions from the set of ordinary differential equations governing the evolution of kinetic variables, (4) perform systematic operations to remove redundant fast reactions and irrelevant kinetic reactions, (5) systematically define chemical components and explicitly enforce mass conservation, (6) accomplish automation in decoupling fast reactions from slow reactions, and (7) increase the robustness of numerical integration of the governing equations with species switching schemes. None of the existing models to our knowledge has included these scopes simultaneously. This model (BIOGEOCHEM) is a general computer code to simulate biogeochemical processes in batch systems from a reaction-based mechanistic standpoint, and is designed to be easily coupled with transport models. To make the model applicable to a wide range of problems, programmed reaction types include aqueous complexation, adsorption-desorption, ion-exchange, oxidation-reduction, precipitation-dissolution, acid-base reactions, and microbial mediated reactions. In addition, user-specified reaction types can be programmed into the model. Any reaction can be treated as fast/equilibrium or slow

  8. Batch process. Optimum designing and operation of a batch process; Bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-05

    Since the control of a batch process becomes dynamic, it becomes necessary to handle the process differently from a continuous process in terms of the designing, operating and controlling of the process. This paper describes the characteristics and the problems to be solved of a batch process from three points of view, the designing, operation and controlling of the process. A major problem of a batch process is the designing difficulty. In a batch process, the amount of products capable of being manufactured per unit time by each apparatus and that by the whole plant structured by combining apparatuses are different, and therefore the time and apparatus capacity are wasted in some cases. The actual designing of a batch process involves various factors, such as the seasonal fluctuation of demand for products, the possibility of expanding the apparatuses in the future and the easiness of controlling the process, and the shipment of products during consecutive holidays and periodic maintenance, which are not included in the formulation of mathematical programming problems. Regarding the optimum operation of a batch process and the controlling of the same, descriptions of forming of a dynamic optimum operation pattern and verification of the sequence control system are given. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Batch process. Batch plant scheduling using an intelligent system developing tool (G2); Interijento system kaihatsu tsuru ( G2 ) wo mochiita bacchi puranto sukejuringu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuoka, H. [Itochu Technology Science Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    G2 is used in many industrial fields as a tool capable of forming in a comparatively short period of time various kinds of high-degree intelligent system including a scheduling system. This paper introduces G2, and then describes a batch scheduling system. The software techniques provided by G2 include the techniques concerning a real time system, an expert system, a graphic user interface, and object-oriented security network. G2 has a striking feature that it is a developing tool adapted to enable these software techniques to be utilized in a united environment. A program developed by G2 has a feature that it can be operated as it is without changing the source program at all even when the program is used in a machine of another OS. The paper introduces a beer production scheduling system as an actual example. 3 figs.

  10. Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation System on Ethanol Production from Whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to  find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was  to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The result showed that the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system was higher at some point of parameters compared with batch system. Growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of fed-batch fermentation were 0.122/h and 0.21 gP/gS respectively; growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of batch fermentation were 0.107/h, and 0.12 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively. Based on the data of biomass and ethanol concentrations, the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system were higher at some point of parameters compared to batch system. Periodic substrate addition performed on fed-batch system leads the yeast growth in low substrate concentrations and consequently  increasing their activity and ethanol productivity. Keywords: batch; ethanol; fed-batch; fermentation;Kluyveromyces marxianus, whey

  11. Consequence Identification for Maloperation in Batch Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉良; 张贝克; 马昕; 曹柳林; 吴重光

    2013-01-01

    Batch processes are important in chemical industry, in which operators usually play a major role and hazards may arise by their inadvertent acts. In this paper, based on hazard and operability study and concept of qualitative simulation, an automatic method for adverse consequence identification for potential maloperation is proposed. The qualitative model for production process is expressed by a novel directed graph. Possible operation deviations from normal operating procedure are identified systematically by using a group of guidewords. The pro-posed algorithm is used for qualitative simulation of batch processes to identify the effects of maloperations. The method is illustrated with a simple batch process and a batch reaction process. The results show that batch processes can be simulated qualitatively and hazards can be identified for operating procedures including maloperations. After analysis for possible plant maloperations, some measures can be taken to avoid maloperations or reduce losses re-sulted from maloperations.

  12. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 间歇结晶过程的分批优化%Batch-to-batch Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woranee Paengjuntuek; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2008-01-01

    It is the fact that several process parameters are either unknown or uncertain. Therefore, an optimal control profile calculated with developed process models with respect to such process parameters may not give an optimal performance when implemented to real processes. This study proposes a batch-to-batch optimization strat-egy for the estimation of uncertain kinetic parameters in a batch crystallization process of potassium sulfate produc-tion. The knowledge of a crystal size distribution of the product at the end of batch operation is used in the proposedmethodology. The updated kinetic parameters are applied for determining an optimal operating temperature policy for the next batch run.

  14. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  15. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence, the proc......This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence....... The feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...

  16. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  17. PBSNG—Batch System for Farm Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Fromm; K.Genser; 等

    2001-01-01

    FBSNG [1] is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS[1]),which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL.FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm.FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers,It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers.The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management.FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable” fair-share” scheduling.FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX.The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing,Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks.

  18. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  19. Computer Simulation of Batch Grinding Process Based on Simulink 5.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; HUANG Guang-yao

    2005-01-01

    How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored.

  20. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O Dos; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization.

  1. Batch process. Flexible paint production system using movable tanks; Idoso wo mochiita toryo no flexible seisan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, S. [Kansai Paint Co. Ltd., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Lab.

    1997-09-05

    In the paint manufacturing industry, there are many kinds of product depending on the use, and there are few kinds of paint which can be manufactured by a large facility capable of producing several tens of kL of paint. An average working ratio of facility in this industry is limited to between 60 to 70%, and the ratio of the personnel expense to the cost has recently increased. The changing to an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) for increasing the working ratio of the facility and the changing of the system to greatly improve the operation efficiency have been demanded. The concrete means for these requirements include changing the facility to a pipeless one. The paint manufacturing facility comprises four sections, i.e. a premixing section, dispersing section, mixing section and canning section. If the mixing tank is made movable and the equipment on the preceding and succeeding stages of the mixing tank is made pipeless, the facility can be changed to the one not substantially restricted by the quality of products from the dispersing section to the filtration section which can be formed. However, the drawbacks of this system include the following: a failure, if it occurs, influences the whole production line; learning the system operating method requires much time, causing many initial failure occur; and great expansion of the facility is difficult. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Adaptive quality prediction of batch processes based on PLS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-fu; ZHANG Jie; WANG Gui-zeng

    2006-01-01

    There are usually no on-line product quality measurements in batch and semi-batch processes,which make the process control task very difficult.In this paper,a model for predicting the end-product quality from the available on-line process variables at the early stage of a batch is developed using partial least squares (PLS)method.Furthermore,some available mid-course quality measurements are used to rectify the final prediction results.To deal with the problem that the process may change with time,recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.An application to a simulated batch MMA polymerization process demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Method to incorporate energy integration considerations in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain))

    Systemization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the product changeover problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation; and (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: developments from batch to continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew B; Schmidt, Andrew J; Jones, Susanne B

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described; however, they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available, process models have been developed, and mass and energy balances determined. From these models, process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  6. System Design of Batch Processing Modes in Processing-Assembly Enterprise with Transit Time Considered%考虑运输时间的加工装配型企业批量加工模式系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国柱; 孔继利

    2013-01-01

    在考虑相邻工序间运输时间的基础上,设计加工装配型企业批量加工模式系统的算法流程,并完成系统的开发.该系统可生成不同移动方式下的零件加工和搬运甘特图,能够计算生产周期、零件搬运次数、每次零件的搬运数量、开始搬运和完成搬运时间、开始加工和结束加工时间等详细信息.利用系统提供的生产周期,决策者可以决定一批新进入系统的零件是否在不需要生产系统进行单元重构的情况下,就可以满足订单交货期的要求.以系统提供的部分数据为基础,建立0-1规划模型来求解相邻工序间搬运零件所需的最少搬运设备数量.%With transit time of the in-between processes considered, a detailed algorithm procedure for the system design of batch processing modes in processing-assembly enterprise is presented. With this algorithm procedure, a software system is developed. The software system is able to generate a Gantt chart of processing and handling a batch of parts based on three kinds of transfer modes. Meanwhile, it is capable of yielding useful information, such as production cycle, the number of times that a batch of parts are handled , the number of parts for each handling process, start time and end time of handling (including the earliest and latest) , start time and end time of processing, and so on. The decision-makers can effectively decide whether the existing production system can produce goods whose delivery time can meet customer's requirement by using the information of production cycle without cell reconstruction for the production system. Furthermore, decision-makers can schedule the processing tasks of the batch parts, together with another batch. We finally construct a 0 - 1 programming model according to the system data. This model can obtain a solution with the least number of material movements for the in-between processes.

  7. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  8. Increased efficiency of batch-processed melt-textured YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzkendorf, D.; Habisreuther, T.; Bierlich, J.; Surzhenko, O.; Zeisberger, M.; Kracunovska, S.; Gawalek, W.

    2005-02-01

    Results on an established batch process preparing melt-textured YBCO in high quality and quantity will be reported. We used a standard composition Y1.5Ba2Cu3O7-X+1 wt% CeO2 without further doping to fabricate single-domain YBCO monoliths in different sizes and shapes (cylindrical, quadratic) as well as rectangular multi-seeded YBCO monoliths. Up to 2-3 kg melt-textured YBCO blocks are grown reproducibly in one box furnace run. Top seeding by self-made SmBCO was improved and rationalized. Optimization of oxygen annealing treatment leads to macro-crack free YBCO monoliths. Each YBCO monolith was characterized by integral levitation force and field mapping. In a single-domain quadratic monolith with an edge length of 38 mm a maximum induction of 1.44 T at 77 K and a distance of 0.5 mm was frozen. The reproducibility of the batch process is guaranteed. Mean maximum induction from 1.1 to 1.2 T at 77 K per batch was reached. A trapped magnetic field of 2.5 T was achieved between two single-domain monoliths in a gap of 1.5 mm at 77 K. Depending on the application function, elements with different sizes, designs and more or less complex geometry are constructed in several working steps by cutting, machining, bonding and passivation. Selected function elements were checked with field mapping at 77 K. Results of our function elements in HTSC reluctance motors using single-domain material are shown. We will report on a fly-wheel system and a system to levitate persons.

  9. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation optimization involves potentially conflicting multiple objectives such as product concentration and production media cost. Simultaneous optimization of these objectives would result in a multiobjective optimization problem, which is characterized by a set of multiple solutions, knows...... as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g...

  10. Batch process monitoring based on multilevel ICA-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang GE; Zhi-huan SONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we describe a new batch process monitoring method based on multilevel independent component analysis and principal component analysis (MLICA-PCA).Unlike the conventional multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method,MLICA-PCA provides a separated interpretation for multilevel batch process data.Batch process data are partitioned into two levels:the within-batch level and the between-batch level.In each level,the Gaussian and non-Ganssian components of process information can be separately extracted.I2,T2 and SPE statistics are individually built and monitored.The new method facilitates fault diagnosis.Since the two variation levels arc decomposed,the variables responsible for faults in each level can be identified and interpreted more easily.A case study of the Dupont benchmark process showed that the proposed method was more efficient and interpretable in fault detection and diagnosis,compared to the alternative batch process monitoring method.

  11. Performance evaluation of a photo-Fenton process applied to pollutant removal from textile effluents in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módenes, A N; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Manenti, D R; Borba, F H; Palácio, S M; Colombo, A

    2012-08-15

    In this work, the performance of a photo-Fenton process-based textile effluent treatment was investigated using both solar and artificial light sources. A full 3(3) factorial experimental design was applied for the optimisation with respect to three parameters: initial pH, amounts of Fe(2+) (0.01-0.09 g L(-1)) and H(2)O(2) (1-7 g L(-1)). The photo-Fenton process response was evaluated on the basis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and decolourisation. The optimum conditions of the photo-Fenton process were attained at concentration values of 0.05 g Fe(2+) L(-1) and 6.0 g H(2)O(2) L(-1) and pH 3, for both solar and artificial light sources. The effects of initial pH, and Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) concentrations were evaluated. From the monitoring of TOC, COD, turbidity and decolourisation over time, the progress of the mineralisation of dyes was analysed, forming nitrate, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite. Low amounts of residual peroxide and iron, which were below the limit allowed by Brazilian environmental legislation, were attained after 360 min of irradiation time for both artificial and solar sources. An operational cost of US$ 6.85 per m(3) of treated effluent was estimated using solar irradiation.

  12. Accuracy Enhancement of Electrotechnical System for Bulk Material Batching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukreev Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper an automatic system for batching and mixing the components of combined feed is considered. A novel algorithm has been proposed for the batching error correction caused by mass of the material column dropping into the batching bin. The proposed algorithm has been validated in a simulation model and in an experimental facility.

  13. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  14. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  15. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  16. Batch Covariance Relaxation (BCR) Adaptive Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    IR&D Final Report 7263-001F, March 15, 1980. [2] Hestenes, M. R. and Steifel, E., "Methods of Conjugate Gradients for Solving Linear Systems," Journal ...Wilkinson, J. H., "Notes on the Solution of Algebraic Linear Simultaneous Equations," Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, pp. 149-173...00 0 In F- P0 -a -- -~e -2 - - -4 - o 0 p.. to I ~ a I I PzN N oin g I ’ l g 1 C 0I ~ Nw c gL Il* . a* . * p. 4r I-in a a4i * Csea OCI I2e Co , lk. lX

  17. Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) user manual, S-056 experiment. Volume 1: System description. Volume 2: Batch IDAPS. Volume 3: Interactive IDAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Image data processing system (IDAPS) developed to satisfy the image processing requirements of the Skylab S-056 experiment is described. The S-056 experiment was designed to obtain high-resolution photographs of the sun in the far ultraviolet, or soft X-ray, portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thirty-five thousand photographs were obtained by the three flights of the program; and, faced with such a massive volume of imagery, the designers of the experiment decided to develop a computer-based system which would reduce the image processing workload. The purpose of the IDAPS User Manual is to give the IDAPS user the necessary information and instructions to effectively utilize the system.

  18. Biodiesel and FAME synthesis assisted by microwaves: Homogeneous batch and flow processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hernando; P. Leton; M.P. Matia; J.L. Novella; J. Alvarez-Builla [Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain). Planta Piloto de Quimica Fina

    2007-07-15

    Fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) have been prepared under microwave irradiation, using homogeneous catalysis, either in batch or in a flow system. The quality of the biodiesel obtained has been confirmed by GC analysis of the isolated product. While the initial experiments have been performed in a small scale laboratory batch reactor, the best experiment has been straightforward converted into a stop-flow process, by the use of a microwave flow system. Compared with conventional heating methods, the process using microwaves irradiation proved to be a faster method for alcoholysis of triglycerides with methanol, leading to high yields of FAME. Short communication. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. A new look at energy integration in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Systematization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the changeover product problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation, (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. This includes the heat exchanger network of all campaigns in an overall design, and contemplates the common matches between networks of campaigns of different products. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  20. Experimental optimization of a real time fed-batch fermentation process using Markov decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, V M; Karim, M N

    1997-07-20

    This article describes a methodology that implements a Markov decision process (MDP) optimization technique in a real time fed-batch experiment. Biological systems can be better modeled under the stochastic framework and MDP is shown to be a suitable technique for their optimization. A nonlinear input/output model is used to calculate the probability transitions. All elements of the MDP are identified according to physical parameters. Finally, this study compares the results obtained when optimizing ethanol production using the infinite horizon problem, with total expected discount policy, to previous experimental results aimed at optimizing ethanol production using a recombinant Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivation. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 317-327, 1997.

  1. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists.

  2. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  3. Preparative chromatography with supercritical fluids. Comparison of simulated moving bed and batch processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Stephanie; Johannsen, Monika; Brunner, Gerd

    2007-12-28

    Preparative chromatography is a key technology for the separation of fine chemicals in production scale. Most of the published studies are carried out using liquid solvents as mobile phase. However, the used organic solvents can often be replaced by supercritical fluids. A reduction or renouncement of organic solvents does not only correspond to the trend of the so-called green chemistry--a sustainable, environmentally friendly production of chemical products. But a changeover to chromatography with supercritical fluids can also be reasonable under economic criteria. In this contribution a comparison between the Batch-supercritical fluid chromatography (Batch-SFC) process and the simulated moving bed (SMB)-SFC process is presented. Because of the minor importance of solvent consumption and solvent recovery in SFC, the separation systems were optimized primarily in terms of their specific productivity. For three of the four investigated model systems, the specific productivity of the SMB process is significantly higher than the productivity of the Batch process. Due to the fact, that the process with the higher specific productivity is not inevitably the more economical process, supplementary the costs of the process were considered. Therefore the comparison of the two processes was done from an economic point of view considering the minimum product price that has to be realized to fulfill the defined economic aim. It was found that although the optimized specific productivities of the SMB process were significantly higher than the productivities of the Batch process, the Batch process is the more profitable process for the investigated production rate range between 0.4 and 5t/a.

  4. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  5. Study on the numerical simulation of batch sieving process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Hong-guang; MA Jiao; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Lun-jian

    2006-01-01

    Screening was widely used in many sectors of industry. However, it is rather incomplete to the cognition of the sieving process for us due to the daedal separation process involving interactions of thousands of particulates. To address this problem, two dimensional numerical simulation of batch sieving process was performed by adopting advanced discrete element method (DEM), which is one of the highly nonlinear digitized dynamic simulative methods and can be used to reveal the quantitative change from particle dimension level. DEM simulation results show that the jam phenomena of sieve-plate apertures of the "blinding particles" in the screen feed can be demonstrated vividly and results also reveal that the velocity of particle moving on the screen plate will vary along with the screen length. This conclusion will be helpful to the design and operation of screen.

  6. FRIT OPTIMIZATION FOR SLUDGE BATCH PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2009-01-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  7. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  8. Batch Private Keys Generation for RSA in Security Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; CHEN Xin

    2005-01-01

    RSA public key cryptosystem is extensively used in information security systems.However, key generation for RSA cryptosystem requires multiplicative inversion over finite field, which has higher computational complexity, compared with either multiplication in common sense or modular multiplication over finite field. In order to improve the performance of key generation, we propose a batch private keys generation method in this paper. The method derives efficiency from cutting down multiplicative inversions over finite field. Theoretical analysis shows that the speed of batch private keys generation for s users is faster than that of s times solo private key generation. It is suitable for applications in those systems with large amount of users.

  9. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  10. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  11. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  12. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen...... limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes...... with four different sets of process operating conditions for the stirrer speed, headspace pressure, and aeration rate. The start fills were tested with eight pilot scale experiments using a reference process operation. An on-line control strategy was then developed, utilizing the mechanistic model which...

  13. In-situ transesterification of seeds of invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera L.) in a microwave batch system (GREEN(3)) using hexane as co-solvent: Biodiesel production and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekati-Goudarzi, Mohamad; Boldor, Dorin; Nde, Divine B

    2016-02-01

    In-situ transesterification (simultaneous extraction and transesterification) of Chinese tallow tree seeds into methyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A high degree of oil extraction and efficient conversion of oil to biodiesel were found in the proposed range. The process was further optimized in terms of product yields and conversion rates using Doehlert optimization methodology. Based on the experimental results and statistical analysis, the optimal production yield conditions for this process were determined as: catalyst concentration of 1.74wt.%, solvent ratio about 3 (v/w), reaction time of 20min and temperature of 58.1°C. H(+)NMR was used to calculate reaction conversion. All methyl esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications.

  14. 中小型批次加工企业ERP系统物料管理模块设计%Batch processing for small and medium enterprises ERP system Material Management Module Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏德洲

    2015-01-01

    中小型批次加工企业物料管理ERP系统采用"指挥型"的信息系统设计理念,企业的管理层可根据制定的各种规则,指挥和监控企业日常业务的运营,使物料管理变"事后录入"为"事前确定",有效帮助企业提高管理水平,明确事件责任.%Batch processing of small and medium enterprises ERP materials management system using "command type" of information systems design, enterprise management according to various rule-making, directing and monitoring business daily business operations, so that the material management change "afterwards Input"to" pre-determined ", effectively help enterprises improve their management level,specifically responsible for the incidents.

  15. (Batch) Markovian arrival processes: the identifiability issue and other applied aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez César, Joanna Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor This dissertation is mainly motivated by the problem of statistical modeling via a specific point process, namely, the Batch Markovian arrival processes. Point processes arise in a wide range of situations of our daily activities, such as people arriving to a bank, claims of an insurance company or failures in a system. They are defined by the occurrence of an event at a specific time, where the event occurrences may be understood from different...

  16. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  17. Optimal operation of batch processes via the tracking of active constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Dominique; Srinivasan, Bala

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new measurement-based optimization framework for batch processes whereby optimal operation can be achieved via the tracking of active constraints. It is shown that, under mild assumptions and to a first-order approximation, tracking the necessary conditions of optimality is equivalent to tracking active constraints (both during the batch and at the end of the batch). Thus the optimal input trajectories can be adjusted using measurements without the use of a model of the process. When only batch-end measurements are available, the proposed method leads itself to an efficient batch-to-batch optimization scheme. The approach is illustrated via the simulation of a semibatch reactor under uncertainty.

  18. Recursive Gaussian Process Regression Model for Adaptive Quality Monitoring in Batch Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chemical batch processes with slow responses and a long duration, it is time-consuming and expensive to obtain sufficient normal data for statistical analysis. With the persistent accumulation of the newly evolving data, the modelling becomes adequate gradually and the subsequent batches will change slightly owing to the slow time-varying behavior. To efficiently make use of the small amount of initial data and the newly evolving data sets, an adaptive monitoring scheme based on the recursive Gaussian process (RGP model is designed in this paper. Based on the initial data, a Gaussian process model and the corresponding SPE statistic are constructed at first. When the new batches of data are included, a strategy based on the RGP model is used to choose the proper data for model updating. The performance of the proposed method is finally demonstrated by a penicillin fermentation batch process and the result indicates that the proposed monitoring scheme is effective for adaptive modelling and online monitoring.

  19. On-line Batch Process Monitoring with Improved Multi-way Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; LI Hongguang

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades,on-line monitoring of batch processes using multi-way independent component analysis (MICA) has received considerable attention in both academia and industry.This paper focuses on two troublesome issues concerning selecting dominant independent components without a standard criterion and determining the control limits of monitoring statistics in the presence of non-Gaussian distribution.To optimize the number of key independent components,we introduce a novel concept of system deviation,which is able to evaluate the reconstructed observations with different independent components.The monitored statistics are transformed to Gaussian distribution data by means of Box-Cox transformation,which helps readily determine the control limits.The proposed method is applied to on-line monitoring of a fed-batch penicillin fermentation simulator,and the experimental results indicate the advantages of the improved MICA monitoring compared to the conventional methods.

  20. Modeling of batch processes using explicitly time-dependent artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Botla; Kumar, Vadlagattu Varun; Rani, Kalipatnapu Yamuna

    2014-05-01

    A neural network architecture incorporating time dependency explicitly, proposed recently, for modeling nonlinear nonstationary dynamic systems is further developed in this paper, and three alternate configurations are proposed to represent the dynamics of batch chemical processes. The first configuration consists of L subnets, each having M inputs representing the past samples of process inputs and output; each subnet has a hidden layer with polynomial activation function; the outputs of the hidden layer are combined and acted upon by an explicitly time-dependent modulation function. The outputs of all the subnets are summed to obtain the output prediction. In the second configuration, additional weights are incorporated to obtain a more generalized model. In the third configuration, the subnets are eliminated by incorporating an additional hidden layer consisting of L nodes. Backpropagation learning algorithm is formulated for each of the proposed neural network configuration to determine the weights, the polynomial coefficients, and the modulation function parameters. The modeling capability of the proposed neural network configuration is evaluated by employing it to represent the dynamics of a batch reactor in which a consecutive reaction takes place. The results show that all the three time-varying neural networks configurations are able to represent the batch reactor dynamics accurately, and it is found that the third configuration is exhibiting comparable or better performance over the other two configurations while requiring much smaller number of parameters. The modeling ability of the third configuration is further validated by applying to modeling a semibatch polymerization reactor challenge problem. This paper illustrates that the proposed approach can be applied to represent dynamics of any batch/semibatch process.

  1. Modelling and pathway identification involving the transport mechanism of a complex metabolic system in batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Xi; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2014-06-01

    The bio-dissimilation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) can be characterized by a complex metabolic system of interactions among biochemical fluxes, metabolic compounds, key enzymes and genetic regulation. In this paper, in consideration of the fact that the transport ways of 1,3-PD and glycerol with different weights across cell membrane are still unclear in batch culture, we consider 121 possible metabolic pathways and establish a novel mathematical model which is represented by a complex metabolic system. Taking into account the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentration of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium point for the metabolic system of batch culture, the novel approach used here is to define quantitatively biological robustness of the intracellular substance concentrations for the overall process of batch culture. To determine the most possible metabolic pathway, we take the defined biological robustness as cost function and establish an identification model, in which 1452 system parameters and 484 pathway parameters are involved. Simultaneously, the identification model is subject to the metabolic system, continuous state constraints and parameter constraints. As such, solving the identification model by a serial program is a very complicated task. We propose a parallel migration particle swarm optimization algorithm (MPSO) capable of solving the identification model in conjunction with the constraint transcription and smoothing approximation techniques. Numerical results show that the most possible metabolic pathway and the corresponding metabolic system can reasonably describe the process of batch culture.

  2. Robustness of reinforced gradient-type iterative learning control for batch processes with Gaussian noise☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Yang; Xiao'e Ruan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a reinforced gradient-type iterative learning control profile is proposed by making use of system matrices and a proper learning step to improve the tracking performance of batch processes disturbed by exter-nal Gaussian white noise. The robustness is analyzed and the range of the step is specified by means of statistical technique and matrix theory. Compared with the conventional one, the proposed algorithm is more efficient to resist external noise. Numerical simulations of an injection molding process il ustrate that the proposed scheme is feasible and effective.

  3. Leaching Behavior Of Mineral Processing Waste: Comparison Of Batch And Column Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid–solid ratios (LS) to determ...

  4. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  5. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection......A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...

  6. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry

  7. Constrained Run-to-Run Optimization for Batch Process Based on Support Vector Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An iterative (run-to-run) optimization method was presented for batch processes under input constraints. Generally it is very difficult to acquire an accurate mechanistic model for a batch process. Because support vector machine is powerful for the problems characterized by small samples, nonlinearity, high dimension and local minima, support vector regression models were developed for the end-point optimization of batch processes. Since there is no analytical way to find the optimal trajectory, an iterative method was used to exploit the repetitive nature of batch processes to determine the optimal operating policy. The optimization algorithm is proved convergent. The numerical simulation shows that the method can improve the process performance through iterations.

  8. CONWIP card setting in a flow-shop system with a batch production machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Braglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical technique to determine the optimum number of cards to control material release in a CONWIP system. The work focuses on the card setting problem for a flow-shop system characterised by the presence of a batch processing machine (e.g. a kiln for long heat treatment. To control production, two different static approaches are developed: the first one is used when the bottleneck coincides with the batch processing machine and the second one is proposed when the bottleneck is another machine of the flow shop. In both contexts, by means of the appropriate model, one can optimize the performance of the flow-shop by maximizing the throughput and keeping the work in process at a minimum level. Numerical examples are also included in the paper to confirm the validity of the models and to demonstrate their practical utility.

  9. CONVERTING FROM BATCH TO CONTINUOUS INTENSIFIED PROCESSING IN THE STT? REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fluid dynamics, the physical dimensions and characteristics of the reaction zones of continuous process intensification reactors are often quite different from those of the batch reactors they replace. Understanding these differences is critical to the successful transit...

  10. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial Ghost (BG platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8–10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  11. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitz, Andrea; Sagmeister, Patrick; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph; Langemann, Timo

    2016-03-24

    The Bacterial Ghost (BG) platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs) from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8-10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  12. Intact cell mass spectrometry as a progress tracking tool for batch and fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmel, Michaela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Raus, Martin; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Šebela, Marek; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production during a fermentation process using industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum is a research topic permanently discussed since the accidental discovery of the antibiotic. Intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) can be a fast and novel monitoring tool for the fermentation progress during penicillin V production in a nearly real-time fashion. This method is already used for the characterization of microorganisms and the differentiation of fungal strains; therefore, the application of ICMS to samples directly harvested from a fermenter is a promising possibility to get fast information about the progress of fungal growth. After the optimization of the ICMS method to penicillin V fermentation broth samples, the obtained ICMS data were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis or an in-house software solution written especially for ICMS data comparison. Growth stages of a batch and fed-batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum are differentiated by one of those statistical approaches. The application of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) instruments in the linear positive ion mode from different vendors demonstrated the universal applicability of the developed ICMS method. The base for a fast and easy-to-use method for monitoring the fermentation progress of P. chrysogenum is created with this ICMS method developed especially for fermentation broth samples.

  13. Batch-processed melt-textured YBCO with improved quality for motor and bearing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Zeisberger, M.; Litzkendorf, D.; Surzhenko, O.; Kracunovska, S.; Prikhna, T. A.; Oswald, B.; Kovalev, L. K.; Canders, W.

    2004-10-01

    Results on an established batch process preparing melt-textured YBCO of high quality and in large quantities are reported. We used a standard composition Y1.5Ba2Cu3O7-x+1 wt % CeO2 without further doping to fabricate single domain YBCO monoliths in different sizes and shapes (cylindrical, quadratic) as well as rectangular multi-seeded YBCO monoliths. Up to 2-3 kg of melt-textured YBCO blocks were grown, reproducible in one box furnace run. Top seeding by a self-made SmBCO was improved and rationalized. Optimization of an oxygen annealing treatment led to macro-crack free YBCO monoliths. Each YBCO monolith was characterized by integral levitation force and field mapping. In a single domain, a quadratic monolith with a edge length of 38 mm, a maximum induction of 1.44 T at 77 K and a distance of 0.5 mm was frozen. The reproducibility of the batch process is guaranteed. Mean maximum induction from 1.1 to 1.2 T at 77 K per batch was reached. A trapped magnetic field of 2.5 T was achieved between two single domain monoliths in a gap of 1.5 mm at 77 K. Depending on the application, function elements with different sizes, designs and more or less complex geometry are constructed in several working steps by cutting, machining, bonding and passivation. Selected function elements were checked with field mapping at 77 K. The results of our function elements in HTSC reluctance motors with an output power of up to 200 kW using single domain material are shown. We report on a fly wheel system DYNASTORE and a system to levitate people.

  14. A Study of a Direct Interface of the Novice User To a Complex Batch Processed Computer Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Albert D.

    A research study investigated the validity of directly interfacing an uninitiated user with a complex, computerized batch processing system via a conversational, interactive language. A control group conducted mediated searches of the Educational Resources Information Center's (ERIC) files by consulting with an information specialist. Members of…

  15. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  16. Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1999-04-06

    The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.

  17. Efficient estimation of the maximum metabolic productivity of batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, Peter C.; Crowley, Michael F.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2017-01-31

    Production of chemicals from engineered organisms in a batch culture involves an inherent trade-off between productivity, yield, and titer. Existing strategies for strain design typically focus on designing mutations that achieve the highest yield possible while maintaining growth viability. While these methods are computationally tractable, an optimum productivity could be achieved by a dynamic strategy in which the intracellular division of resources is permitted to change with time. New methods for the design and implementation of dynamic microbial processes, both computational and experimental, have therefore been explored to maximize productivity. However, solving for the optimal metabolic behavior under the assumption that all fluxes in the cell are free to vary is a challenging numerical task. Previous studies have therefore typically focused on simpler strategies that are more feasible to implement in practice, such as the time-dependent control of a single flux or control variable.

  18. State estimation of a batch hydrogen production process using the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, Jamila; Magnin, Jean-Pierre [Grenoble University, LEPMI, UMR 5631 (CNRS-INPG-UJF), Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico chimie des Materiaux et Interfaces, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Flaus, Jean-Marie; Adrot, Olivier [Grenoble University, G-SCOP UMR 272 (CNRS-INPG-UJF), Laboratoire des Sciences pour la Conception, l' Optimisation et la Production, 46, avenue Felix Viallet, 38031 Grenoble (France); Willison, John C. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Metaux (UMR 5249 CEA-CNRS-UJF), iRTSV/LCBM, CEA-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2010-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the states of an anaerobic photosynthetic process used for biohydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. The process is described by a non-linear, time-discrete model and the state estimation is solved using an observer based on the Moving-Horizon State Estimation Method (MHSE). This approach is based on the minimization of a criterion (a non-linear function), in this case, the difference between the estimated output and the measured output of the system over a considered time horizon, where the solution is computed by using a numerical interval method. The observer was successfully applied to hydrogen production by R. capsulatus strain B10 in a batch process. (author)

  19. Brunovsky Normal Form of Monod Kinetics Models and Growth Rate Control of a Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Y.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical methodology that gives assistance to design of fed-batch stabilization and control is presented. The methodology is based both on Utility theory and optimal Control theory. The Utility theory deals with the expressed subjective preferences and allows for the expert preferences to be taken in consideration in complex biotechnological systems as criteria for control and optimization. The Control theory is used for parameters stabilization of a fed-batch cultivation process. The control is written based on information of the growth rate. The simulations show good efficiency of the control laws.

  20. Metaheuristics for Order Batching and Sequencing in Manual Order Picking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Henn; Verena Schmid

    2011-01-01

    Order picking deals with the retrieval of articles from their storage locations in order to satisfy customer requests. A major issue in manual order picking systems concerns of the transformation and consolidation of customer orders into picking orders (order batching). In practice, customer orders have to be completed by certain due dates in order to avoid delay in the shipment to customers or in production. The composition of the picking orders, their processing times and the sequence accor...

  1. Scale-up from batch to flow-through wet milling process for injectable depot formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehocký, Róbert; Pěček, Daniel; Štěpánek, František

    2016-12-01

    Injectable depot formulations are aimed at providing long-term sustained release of a drug into systemic circulation, thus reducing plasma level fluctuations and improving patient compliance. The particle size distribution of the formulation in the form of suspension is a key parameter that controls the release rate. In this work, the process of wet stirred media milling (ball milling) of a poorly water-soluble substance has been investigated with two main aims: (i) to determine the parametric sensitivity of milling kinetics; and (ii) to develop scale-up methodology for process transfer from batch to flow-through arrangement. Ball milling experiments were performed in two types of ball mills, a batch mill with a 30ml maximum working volume, and a flow-through mill with a 250ml maximum working volume. Milling parameters were investigated in detail by methodologies of QbD to map the parametric space. Specifically, the effects of ball size, ball fill level, and rpm on the particle breakage kinetics were systematically investigated at both mills, with an additional parameter (flow-rate) in the case of the flow-through mill. The breakage rate was found to follow power-law kinetics with respect to dimensionless time, with an asymptotic d50 particle size in the range of 200-300nm. In the case of the flow-through mill, the number of theoretical passes through the mill was found to be an important scale-up parameter.

  2. On-line Batch Process Monitoring and Diagnosing Based on Fisher Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xu; SHAO Hui-he

    2006-01-01

    A new on-line batch process monitoring and diagnosing approach based on Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) was proposed. This method does not need to predict the future observations of variables, so it is more sensitive to fault detection and stronger implement for monitoring. In order to improve the monitoring performance,the variables trajectories of batch process are separated into several blocks. The key to the proposed approach for on-line monitoring is to calculate the distance of block data that project to low-dimension Fisher space between new batch and reference batch. Comparing the distance with the predefine threshold, it can be considered whether the batch process is normal or abnormal. Fault diagnosis is performed based on the weights in fault direction calculated by FDA. The proposed method was applied to the simulation model of fed-batch penicillin fermentation and the results were compared with those obtained using MPCA. The simulation results clearly show that the on-line monitoring method based on FDA is more efficient than the MPCA.

  3. An LMI Method to Robust Iterative Learning Fault-tolerant Guaranteed Cost Control for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Limin; CHEN Xi; GAO Furong

    2013-01-01

    Based on an equivalent two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchsini model for a batch process in industry,a closed-loop robust iterative learning fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control scheme is proposed for batch processes with actuator failures.This paper introduces relevant concepts of the fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control and formulates the robust iterative learning reliable guaranteed cost controller (ILRGCC).A significant advantage is that the proposed ILRGCC design method can be used for on-line optimization against batch-to-batch process uncertainties to realize robust tracking of set-point trajectory in time and batch-to-batch sequences.For the convenience of implementation,only measured output errors of current and previous cycles are used to design a synthetic controller for iterative learning control,consisting of dynamic output feedback plus feed-forward control.The proposed controller can not only guarantee the closed-loop convergency along time and cycle sequences but also satisfy the H∞ performance level and a cost function with upper bounds for all admissible uncertainties and any actuator failures.Sufficient conditions for the controller solution are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),and design procedures,which formulate a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints,are presented.An example of injection molding is given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the ILRGCC design approach.

  4. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(2). (3) When using a flare to comply with § 63.487(a)(1): (i) The flare design (i.e., steam-assisted... process vents and § 63.490(e) for aggregate batch vent streams; (ii) For a boiler or process heater, a description of the location at which the vent stream is introduced into the boiler or process heater;...

  5. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above.

  6. Stage 2 Process Performance Qualification (PPQ): a Scientific Approach to Determine the Number of PPQ Batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhayattil, Ajay; Alsmeyer, Daniel; Chen, Shu; Hye, Maksuda; Ingram, Marzena; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    The approach documented in this article reviews data from earlier process validation lifecycle stages with a described statistical model to provide the "best estimate" on the number of process performance qualification (PPQ) batches that should generate sufficient information to make a scientific and risk-based decision on product robustness. This approach is based upon estimation of a statistical confidence from the current product knowledge (Stage 1), historical variability for similar products/processes (batch-to-batch), and label claim specifications such as strength. The analysis is to determine the confidence level with the measurements of the product quality attributes and to compare them with the specifications. The projected minimum number of PPQ batches required will vary depending on the product, process understanding, and attributes, which are critical input parameters for the current statistical model. This new approach considers the critical finished product CQAs (assay, dissolution, and content uniformity), primarily because assay/content uniformity and dissolution as well as strength are the components of the label claim. The key CQAs determine the number of PPQ batches. This approach will ensure that sufficient scientific data is generated to demonstrate process robustness as desired by the 2011 FDA guidance.

  7. Development of a Batch Fabrication Process for Chemical Nanosensors: Recent Advancements at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2014-01-01

    A major objective in aerospace sensor development is to produce sensors that are small in size, easy to batch fabricate and low in cost, and have low power consumption. Chemical sensors involving nanostructured materials can provide these characteristics as well as the potential for the development of sensor systems with unique properties and improved performance. However, the fabrication and processing of nanostructures for sensor applications currently is limited by the ability to control their location on the sensor platform, which in turn hinders the progress for batch fabrication. This presentation will discuss the following: the development of a novel room temperature methane (CH4) sensor fabricated using porous tin oxide (SnO2) nanorods as the sensing material, the advantages of using nanomaterials in sensor designs, the challenges encountered with the integration of nanostructures into microsensordevices, and the different methods that have been attempted to address these challenges. An approach for the mass production of sensors with nanostructures using a method developed by our group at the NASA Glenn Research Center to control the alignment of nanostructures onto a sensor platform will also be described.

  8. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  9. Functional Unfold Principal Component Regression Methodology for Analysis of Industrial Batch Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregaard, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan;

    2016-01-01

    process operating at Novozymes A/S. Following the FUPCR methodology, the final product concentration could be predicted with an average prediction error of 7.4%. Multiple iterations of preprocessing were applied by implementing the methodology to identify the best data handling methods for the model....... It is shown that application of functional data analysis and the choice of variance scaling method have the greatest impact on the prediction accuracy. Considering the vast amount of batch process data continuously generated in industry, this methodology can potentially contribute as a tool to identify......This work proposes a methodology utilizing functional unfold principal component regression (FUPCR), for application to industrial batch process data as a process modeling and optimization tool. The methodology is applied to an industrial fermentation dataset, containing 30 batches of a production...

  10. A batch modelling approach to monitor a freeze-drying process using in-line Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul; Lopes, João Almeida

    2010-11-15

    Freeze-drying or lyophilisation is a batch wise industrial process used to remove water from solutions, hence stabilizing the solutes for distribution and storage. The objective of the present work was to outline a batch modelling approach to monitor a freeze-drying process in-line and in real-time using Raman spectroscopy. A 5% (w/v) D-mannitol solution was freeze-dried in this study as model. The monitoring of a freeze-drying process using Raman spectroscopy allows following the product behaviour and some process evolution aspects by detecting the changes of the solutes and solvent occurring during the process. Herewith, real-time solid-state characterization of the final product is also possible. The timely spectroscopic measurements allowed the differentiation between batches operated in normal process conditions and batches having deviations from the normal trajectory. Two strategies were employed to develop batch models: partial least squares (PLS) using the unfolded data and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). It was shown that both strategies were able to developed batch models using in-line Raman spectroscopy, allowing to monitor the evolution in real-time of new batches. However, the computational effort required to develop the PLS model and to evaluate new batches using this model is significant lower compared to the PARAFAC model. Moreover, PLS scores in the time mode can be computed for new batches, while using PARAFAC only the batch mode scores can be determined for new batches.

  11. Chromium (III) recovery from waste acid solution by ion exchange processing using Amberlite IR-120 resin: batch and continuous ion exchange modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Alguacil,Francisco José; Alonso Gámez, Manuel; Lozano, Kuis Javier

    2004-01-01

    The use of ion exchange technology was studied to remove chromium (III) from acidic waste solution by Amberlite IR-120 resin. Batch and column experimental tests were conducted to provide data for theoretical models and verify the system performance of the adsorption process. Results of batch equilibrium tests indicated that Langmuir isotherm describes well the adsorption process, whereas experimental data also provide evidence that, under the present experimental conditions, chro...

  12. Batch process monitoring based on multiple-phase online sorting principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhaomin; Yan, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qingchao

    2016-09-01

    Existing phase-based batch or fed-batch process monitoring strategies generally have two problems: (1) phase number, which is difficult to determine, and (2) uneven length feature of data. In this study, a multiple-phase online sorting principal component analysis modeling strategy (MPOSPCA) is proposed to monitor multiple-phase batch processes online. Based on all batches of off-line normal data, a new multiple-phase partition algorithm is proposed, where k-means and a defined average Euclidean radius are employed to determine the multiple-phase data set and phase number. Principal component analysis is then applied to build the model in each phase, and all the components are retained. In online monitoring, the Euclidean distance is used to select the monitoring model. All the components undergo online sorting through a parameter defined by Bayesian inference (BI). The first several components are retained to calculate the T(2) statistics. Finally, the respective probability indices of [Formula: see text] is obtained using BI as the moving average strategy. The feasibility and effectiveness of MPOSPCA are demonstrated through a simple numerical example and the fed-batch penicillin fermentation process.

  13. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  14. Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel; Angarita, Monica; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Multi-column capture processes show several advantages compared to batch capture. It is however not evident how many columns one should use exactly. To investigate this issue, twin-column CaptureSMB, 3- and 4-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) and single column batch capture are numerically optimized and compared in terms of process performance for capturing a monoclonal antibody using protein A chromatography. Optimization is carried out with respect to productivity and capacity utilization (amount of product loaded per cycle compared to the maximum amount possible), while keeping yield and purity constant. For a wide range of process parameters, all three multi-column processes show similar maximum capacity utilization and performed significantly better than batch. When maximizing productivity, the CaptureSMB process shows optimal performance, except at high feed titers, where batch chromatography can reach higher productivity values than the multi-column processes due to the complete decoupling of the loading and elution steps, albeit at a large cost in terms of capacity utilization. In terms of trade-off, i.e. how much the capacity utilization decreases with increasing productivity, CaptureSMB is optimal for low and high feed titers, whereas the 3-column process is optimal in an intermediate region. Using these findings, the most suitable process can be chosen for different production scenarios.

  15. A high-yielding, generic fed-batch process for recombinant antibody production of GS-engineered cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yating;

    2009-01-01

    An animal component-free and chemically defined fed-batch process for GS-engineered cell lines producing recombinant antibodies has been developed. The fed-batch process relied on supplying sufficient nutrients to match their consumption, simultaneously minimizing the accumulation of byproducts....... This generic and high-yielding fed-batch process would shorten development time, and ensure process stability, thereby facilitating the manufacture of therapeutic antibodies by GS-engineered cell lines....

  16. Optimal selection of intermediate storage tank capacity in a periodic batch/semicontinuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, I.A.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1983-07-01

    Batch/semicontinuous chemical plants are usually designed either by assuming infinite intermediate storage or by assuming that the units themselves act as storage vessels, while the storage vessels are sized by rules of thumb or experience. In this paper, the case of an intermediate storage vessel which links one upstream batch/semicontinuous unit to one downstream batch/semicontinuous unit is analyzed. The units are assumed to operate with fixed cycle times and capacities. Expressions for determining the minimum storage tank capacity necessary to decouple the two units are derived from a mathematical model of the periodic process. Effects of the relative starting times of the two units on the required storage capacity are determined, thus suggesting the optimum process timings to minimize the same. Application of the results is illustrated by an example.

  17. Modelling of Fed-batch Fermentation Process with Droppings for L-lysine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velitchka Ivanova

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the development of dynamic unstructured model of L-lysine fed-batch fermentation process with droppings. This approach includes the following procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; identification of the specific rates (growth rate (mu , substrate utilization rate (nu, production rate (rho; establishment and optimization of the dynamic model of the process; simulation researches.

  18. Campylobacter carcass contamination throughout the slaughter process of Campylobacter-positive broiler batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-02-02

    Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses of Campylobacter colonized flocks was quantified at seven sampling sites throughout the slaughter process. For this purpose, in four slaughterhouses samples were collected from twelve Campylobacter positive batches. Broilers from all visits carried high numbers of campylobacters in their caeca (≥7.9log10cfu/g). Campylobacter counts on feathers (up to 6.8log10cfu/g), positively associated with the breast skin contamination of incoming birds and carcasses after plucking, were identified as an additional source of carcass contamination. A high variability in Campylobacter carcass contamination on breast skin samples within batches and between batches in the same slaughterhouse and between slaughterhouses was observed. In slaughterhouses A, B, C and D Campylobacter counts exceeded a limit of 1000cfu/g on 50%, 56%, 78% and 11% of carcasses after chilling, respectively. This finding indicates that certain slaughterhouses are able to better control Campylobacter contamination than others. Overall, the present study focuses on the descriptive analysis of Campylobacter counts in different slaughterhouses, different batches within a slaughterhouse and within a batch at several sampling locations.

  19. Real-World Experimentation Comparing Time-Sharing and Batch Processing in Teaching Computer Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    effectiveness of time-sharing and batch processing in teaching computer science . The experimental design was centered on direct, ’real world’ comparison...ALGOL). The experimental sample involved all introductory computer science courses with a total population of 415 cadets. The results generally

  20. Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rice Flour with Batch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sari Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid waste rice flour is abundant liquid wastes but it is still underutilized. So far, it is only used for process water in factory production, wastewater, and even regarded as environment pollution. Rice flour liquid waste has higher levels of glucose, starch and protein which can be used as one of ethanol producers. This study aims to assess the process of hydrolysis, fermentation, and batch distillation process, as well as to search for alternative raw materials products of bioethanol. There are three processes of making bioethanol, namely biological hydrolysis process done by using bacillus; the process of fermentation by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; and batch distillation. After the third process was done, the results were: glucose is 5% - 10% in the process of hydrolysis; ethanol content is 11% - 16% in the fermentation process; and the levels are high enough for bio-ethanol, which is 95% - 96% in the batch distillation process. So it can be concluded that the liquid waste of rice flour can be used as raw materials for the manufacture of alternative bioethanol.

  1. Ship Lock as General Queuing System with Batch Arrivals and Batch Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radmilović

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The real lock operations with ships and barge convoys areconsidered dependent on the transport technologies applied, ormore precisely, the kinds of ships/convoys requiring thelockage. The fleet can be divided as follows: (1 groups of singleships, (2 pushed and pulled tows of barges and (3 differentcombinations of previous systems (1 and (2. The groups ofships and tows passing through the lock have extremely stochasticcharacteristics thus forming various arrivals and setvicetime patterns. It means that uniform navigation or strongscheduling between locks and lock operations are not possibleeven though highly sophisticated equipment is at disposal.Therefore, in this paper an analytical method was developedusing bulk queuing systems for the analysis and planning oflock requirements supporting it with numerical example. Thedeveloped methodology can be applied to determine the meanqueue length of ships - convoys at lock anchorage, withoutblocking behaviour between upstream and downstream navigationfor single-lane traffic.

  2. Phase Transition Analysis Based Quality Prediction for Multi-phase Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵露平; 赵春晖; 高福荣

    2012-01-01

    Batch processes are usually involved with multiple phases in the time domain and many researches on process monitoring as well as quality prediction have been done using phase information. However, few of them consider phase transitions, though they exit widely in batch processes and have non-ignorable impacts on product qualities. In the present work, a phase-based partial least squares (PLS) method utilizing transition information is proposed to give both online and offline quality predictions. First, batch processes are divided into several phases using regression parameters other than prior process knowledge. Then both steady phases and transitions which have great influences on qualities are identified as critical-to-quality phases using statistical methods. Finally, based on the analysis of different characteristics of transitions and steady phases, an integrated algorithm is developed for quality prediction. The application to an injection molding process shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the traditional MPLS method and the phase-based PLS method.

  3. Temperature control of bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hai-peng; Song, Yi-ming

    2014-04-01

    An advanced control concept, Predictive Functional Control (PFC), is applied for temperature control of a bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with monofluid heating/cooling system. First principles process models are developed. Based on achieved models, significant process variables, which are difficult or impossible to measure online, are estimated from easily measured variables, and cascade PFC control strategy has been projected and implemented in Matlab R14. The dynamics of individual subunits is explicitly taken into consideration by internal model in the control algorithms, and model uncertainty, various process disturbances are compensated by modification of internal model. The experimental results present an excellent capability of tracking the set point, and the success of PFC technique as a process control paradigm is illustratively demonstrated.

  4. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts...... for subsequent polymer replication by injection moulding was analyzed. New tooling solutions to produce nano structured mould surfaces were investigated. Experiments based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large areas were performed. Three...... approaches were selected: (1) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition for direct patterning of a 4” silicon wafer; (2) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition as mask for 4” silicon wafer etching and subsequent nickel electroplating; (3) using the anodizing process to produce Ø500 nm structures on a 30x80 mm2...

  5. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  6. Analysis of selected problems of biomass combustion process in batch boilers - experimental and numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szubel Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to list numerous groups of heating units that are used in households, such as boilers, stoves and units used as supporting heat sources, namely fireplaces. In each case, however, the same operational problems may be evoked [1]. To understand the causes of energy losses in a boiler system, a proper definition of significant elements of the unit’s heat balance is necessary. In the group of energy losses, the flue gas loss and the incomplete combustion loss are the most significant factors. The problem with the loss resulting from incomplete combustion, which is related to the presence of combustible substances in the exhaust, is especially significant in case of biomass boilers [2, 3]. The paper presents results of the research and the optimisation of the biomass combustion process in the 180 kW batch boiler. The studies described have been focused on the reduction of the pollutants emission, which was primarily realised by the modifications of the air feeding system. Results of the experiments and the CFD simulations have been compared and discussed. Both in case of the model as well as the experiment, positive influence of the modifications on the emission have been observed.

  7. 间歇过程的故障分析和互锁控制器综合的集成%Integration of Fault Analysis and Interlock Controller Synthesis for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu Hashizume; Tomoyuki Yajima; Yukiko Kuwashita; Katsuaki Onogi

    2008-01-01

    Integration amongst various decision-making processes, such as planning, design, and operation is nec-essary to dynamic and flexible batch production. To achieve a batch production integration, utilization of common models used for various decision-making processes is an effective approach. From this point of view, a batch sys-tem common model as described by a Petri net is proposed. In this article, a fault diagnosis technique for batch processes is presented using information about fault propagation and the possibilities of integration of fault analysis and controller synthesis are discussed on the basis of the Petri net based common models.

  8. Batch Process Modelling and Optimal Control Based on Neural Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents several neural network based modelling, reliable optimal control, and iterative learning control methods for batch processes. In order to overcome the lack of robustness of a single neural network, bootstrap aggregated neural networks are used to build reliable data based empirical models. Apart from improving the model generalisation capability, a bootstrap aggregated neural network can also provide model prediction confidence bounds. A reliable optimal control method by incorporating model prediction confidence bounds into the optimisation objective function is presented. A neural network based iterative learning control strategy is presented to overcome the problem due to unknown disturbances and model-plant mismatches. The proposed methods are demonstrated on a simulated batch polymerisation process.

  9. Preferences based Control Design of Complex Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pavlov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented preferences based control design and stabilization of the growth rate of fed-batch cultivation processes. The control is based on an enlarged Wang-Monod-Yerusalimsky kinetic model. Expected utility theory is one of the approaches for utilization of conceptual information (expert preferences. In the article is discussed utilization of stochastic machine learning procedures for evaluation of expert utilities as criteria for optimization.

  10. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  11. Multivariate Statistical Process Control and Case-Based Reasoning for situation assessment of Sequencing Batch Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ordóñez, Magda Liliana

    2008-01-01

    ABSRACTThis thesis focuses on the monitoring, fault detection and diagnosis of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP), which are important fields of research for a wide range of engineering disciplines. The main objective is to evaluate and apply a novel artificial intelligent methodology based on situation assessment for monitoring and diagnosis of Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) operation. To this end, Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) in combination with Case-Based Reasoning (CBR)...

  12. Effect of feeding methods on the astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma in fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes Moriel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding methods on the production of astaxanthin by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 was studied, using continuous and pulsed fed-batch processes and low cost materials as substrates (sugar cane juice and urea. In continuous fed-batch processes, a cellular astaxanthin concentration of 383.73 µg/g biomass was obtained. But in pulsed fed-batch processes a reduction in the cellular astaxanthin concentration (303.34 µg/g biomass was observed. Thus the continuous fed-batch processes could be an alternative to industrial production of astaxanthin, allowing an increase in the biomass productivity without losses on astaxanthin production by the yeast.O efeito da alimentação na produção de astaxantina pela levedura Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 foi estudado, utilizando processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua e intermitente, e matérias-primas de baixo custo como substratos (caldo de cana de açúcar e uréia. Em processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua, uma concentração celular de astaxantina de 383,73 µg/g biomassa foi obtida. Entretanto, em processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação intermitente, uma redução na concentração celular de astaxantina (303,34 µg/g biomassa foi observada. Desta forma, processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua poderiam ser uma alternativa na produção industrial de astaxantina, permitindo um aumento na produtividade de biomassa sem perdas na produção de astaxantina pela levedura.

  13. Process evaluation of an alternating aerobic-anoxic process applied in a sequencing batch reactor for nitrogen removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei; PENG Yongzhen; WANG Shuying

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the nitrogen removal efficiency and save operational cost,the feasibility of the alternating aerobic-anoxic process(AAA process)applied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)system for nitrogen removal was investigated.Under sufficient influent alkalinity,the AAA process did not have an advantage over one aerobicanoxic(OAA)cycle on treatment efficiency because microorganisms had an adaptive stage at the alternating aerobic-anoxic transition,which would prolong the total cycling time.On the contrary,the AAA process made the system control more complicated.Under deficient influent alkalinity,when compared to OAA,the AAA process improved treatment efficiency and effluent quality with NH4+-N in the effluent below the detection limit.In the nitrification.the average stoichiometric ratio between alkalinity consumption and ammonia oxidation is calculated to be 7.07 mg CaCO3/mg NH4+-N.In the denitrification,the aver age stoichiometric ratio between alkalinity production and NO3- -N reduction is about 3.57 mg CaCO3/mg NO3- -N.As a result,half of the alkalinity previously consumed during the aerobic nitrification was recovered during the subsequent anoxic denitrification period.That was why the higher treatment efficiency in the AAA process was achieved without the supplement of bicarbonate alkalinity.If the lack of alkalinity in the influent was less than 1/3 of that needed.there is no need for external alkalinity addition and treatment efficiency was the same as that under sufficient influent alkalinity.Eyen if the lack of alkalinity in the influent was more than 1/3 of that needed.the AAA process was an optimal strategy because it reduced the external alkalinity addition and saved on operational cost.

  14. Fed-batch process for the psychrotolerant marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalk Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis is a cold-adapted γ-proteobacterium isolated from Antarctic sea ice. It is characterized by remarkably high growth rates at low temperatures. P. haloplanktis is one of the model organisms of cold-adapted bacteria and has been suggested as an alternative host for the soluble overproduction of heterologous proteins which tend to form inclusion bodies in established expression hosts. Despite the progress in establishing P. haloplanktis as an alternative expression host the cell densities obtained with this organism, which is unable to use glucose as a carbon source, are still low. Here we present the first fed-batch cultivation strategy for this auspicious alternative expression host. Results The key for the fed-batch cultivation of P. haloplanktis was the replacement of peptone by casamino acids, which have a much higher solubility and allow a better growth control. In contrast to the peptone medium, on which P. haloplanktis showed different growth phases, on a casamino acids-containing, phosphate-buffered medium P. haloplanktis grew exponentially with a constant growth rate until the stationary phase. A fed-batch process was established by feeding of casamino acids with a constant rate resulting in a cell dry weight of about 11 g l-1 (OD540 = 28 which is a twofold increase of the highest densities which have been obtained with P. haloplanktis so far and an eightfold increase of the density obtained in standard shake flask cultures. The cell density was limited in the fed-batch cultivation by the relatively low solubility of casamino acids (about 100 g l-1, which was proven by pulse addition of casamino acid powder which increased the cell density to about 20 g l-1 (OD540 = 55. Conclusion The growth of P. haloplanktis to higher cell densities on complex medium is possible. A first fed-batch fermentation strategy could be established which is feasible to be used in lab-scale or for industrial

  15. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  16. Batch-processed GdBCO-Ag bulk superconductors fabricated using generic seeds with high trapped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y., E-mail: ys206@cam.ac.u [Superconductivity Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Hari Babu, N. [Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST), Brunel University, West London UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Iida, K. [Superconducting Group, IFW-Dresden Helmoholtz Str. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Yeoh, W.K. [Australian Key Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dennis, A.R.; Pathak, S.K.; Cardwell, D.A. [Superconductivity Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Large, single grains of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) have been batch-processed to date by the top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process using NdBCO or SmBCO seed crystals. It has proved difficult, however, to economically batch-process light rare earth (LRE) LRE-Ba-Cu-O bulk high temperature superconductors, which have higher critical current densities and irreversibility fields than YBCO, and therefore greater potential for high field engineering applications. In this paper, we report a novel batch-process based on a cheap, readily available generic seed crystal, developed recently at Cambridge, and a TSMG melt processing technique based on cold seeding in air for the batch fabrication of Gd-Ba-Cu-O-Ag single grains. The superconducting properties of the (LRE)BCO single grains fabricated by this process are, in all respects, equivalent to those processed more conventionally in a reduced oxygen atmosphere.

  17. Optimal iterative learning control for end-point product qualities in semi-batch process based on neural network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG ZhiHua; DONG Jin; ZHANG Jie

    2009-01-01

    An optimal iterative learning control (ILC) strategy of improving endpoint products in semi-batch processes is presented by combining a neural network model. Control affine feed-forward neural network (CAFNN) is proposed to build a model of semi-batch process. The main advantage of CAFNN is to obtain analytically its gradient of endpoint products with respect to input. Therefore, an optimal ILC law with direct error feedback is obtained explicitly, and the convergence of tracking error can be analyzed theoretically. It has been proved that the tracking errors may converge to small values. The proposed modeling and control strategy is illustrated on a simulated isothermal semi-batch reactor, and the results show that the endpoint products can be improved gradually from batch to batch.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF INTERMITTENT CHLORINATION SYSTEM IN BIOLOGICAL EXCESS SLUDGE REDUCTION BY SEQUENCING BATCH REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Takdastan ، N. Mehrdadi ، A. A. Azimi ، A. Torabian ، G. Nabi Bidhendi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive biological sludge production is one of the disadvantages of aerobic wastewater treatment processes such as sequencing batch reactors. To solve the problem of excess sludge production, oxidizing some of the sludge by chlorine, thus reducing the biomass coefficient as well as the sewage sludge disposal may be a suitable idea. In this study, two sequencing batch reactors, each with 20 L volume and controlled by on-line system were used. After providing the steady state conditions in the reactors, sampling and testing of parameters were done during 8 months. The results showed that during the solid retention time of 10 days the kinetic coefficient of Y and Kd were 0.58 mg biomass/mg COD and 0.058/day, respectively. At the next stage, different concentrations of chlorine were used in the reactors intermittently. Results showed that 15 mg chlorine/gMLSS in the reactor was able to reduce the yield coefficient from 0.58 to 0.3 mg biomass/mg COD. In other words, the biological excess sludge was reduced about 48%. But the soluble chemical oxygen demand increased slightly in the effluent and the removal percentage decreased from 95% in the blank reactor to 55% in the test reactor.

  19. Modelling and Multi-Objective Optimal Control of Batch Processes Using Recurrent Neuro-fuzzy Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the modelling and multi-objective optimal control of batch processes, using a recurrent neuro-fuzzy network, are presented. The recurrent neuro-fuzzy network, forms a "global" nonlinear long-range prediction model through the fuzzy conjunction of a number of "local" linear dynamic models. Network output is fed back to network input through one or more time delay units, which ensure that predictions from the recurrent neuro-fuzzy network are long-range. In building a recurrent neural network model, process knowledge is used initially to partition the processes non-linear characteristics into several local operating regions, and to aid in the initialisation of corresponding network weights. Process operational data is then used to train the network. Membership functions of the local regimes are identified, and local models are discovered via network training. Based on a recurrent neuro-fuzzy network model, a multi-objective optimal control policy can be obtained. The proposed technique is applied to a fed-batch reactor.

  20. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  1. Estimation of Temperature Dependent Parameters of a Batch Alcoholic Fermentation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Atala, Daniel I. P.; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work, a procedure was established to develop a mathematical model considering the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics. Experiments were performed in batch mode in temperatures from 30 to 38°C. The microorganism used was Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the culture media, sugarcane molasses. The objective is to assess the difficulty in updating the kinetic parameters when there are changes in fermentation conditions. We conclude that, although the re-estimation is a time-consuming task, it is possible to accurately describe the process when there are changes in raw material composition if a re-estimation of parameters is performed.

  2. A fully defined, fed-batch, recombinant NS0 culture process for monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Paul A; Castro, Chris D

    2010-01-01

    To manufacture a glycoprotein, mammalian cells expressing the desired protein are often grown in fed-batch mode. Feeding an undefined, nonanimal hydrolysate helps the cells receive sufficient nutrition, but makes systems difficult to optimize. Even different lots of the same hydrolysate may have significant variability; furthermore, individual components may actually be detrimental to the cells. Switching to fully defined feeds could eliminate these issues. For monoclonal antibody (mAb) production by fed-batch NS0 cells, this article describes the replacement of a hydrolysate-based feed with a fully defined, animal-component-free feed system. The defined feed initially had 67 components, but additional experiments allowed a reduction to 25 components. The mAb titer is approximately 20% higher than in the undefined system, and the feed volume is circa 20% lower. The two systems generated antibodies with similar glycosylation profiles. Other benefits of the defined feed system include lower raw material costs, the ability to optimize key nutrient concentrations, greater confidence in raw material quality, and the elimination of potential, hydrolysate-associated endotoxin issues.

  3. The small intestine and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a batch process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Brian C

    2008-11-01

    Faults in a batch process model of the small intestine create the symptoms of all types of irritable bowel syndrome. The model has three sequential processing sections corresponding to the natural divisions of the intestine. It is governed by a brain controller that is divided into four sub-controllers, each with a unique neurotransmitter. Each section has a sub-controller to manage transport. Sensors in the walls of the intestine provide input and output goes to the muscles lining the walls of the intestine. The output controls the speed of the food soup, moves it in both directions, mixes it, controls absorption, and transfers it to the next section at the correct speed (slow). The fourth sub-controller manages the addition of chemicals. It obtains input from the first section of the process via the signalling hormone Cholecystokinin and sends output to the muscles that empty the gall bladder and pancreas. The correct amounts of bile salts and enzymes are then added to the first section. The sub-controllers produce output only when input is received. When output is missing the enteric nervous system applies a default condition. This default condition normally happens when no food is in the intestine. If food is in the intestine and a transport sub-controller fails to provide output then the default condition moves the food soup to the end of that section. The movement is in one direction only (forward), at a speed dependent on the amount and type of fibre present. Cereal, bean and vegetable fibre causes high speeds. This default high speed transport causes irritable bowel syndrome. A barrier is created when a section moving fast at the default speed, precedes a section controlled by a transport sub-controller. Then the sub-controller constricts the intestine to stop the fast flow. The barrier causes constipation, cramping, and bloating. Diarrhoea results when the section terminating the process moves at the fast default speed. Two problems can occur to prevent

  4. Comparisons between continuous and batch processing to produce clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Baptista-Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare CA production in continuous culture with and without cell recycling and in batch process by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Continuous cultivations with high cell concentration using cell recycling were performed utilizing a hollow fiber ultrafiltration module to separate cells from the filtrate broth. The continuous cultures without cell recycling and the batch cultivations were performed conventionally. The highest productivity was attained in the continuous cultivation with cell recycling (22.2 mg.L-1.h-1. The highest CA concentration was obtained in the batch process (470 mg.L-1.h-1.O ácido clavulânico (AC é um importante inibidor de beta-lactamases, enzimas que degradampartir do metabolismo secundário do Streptomyces clavuligerus, bactéria filamentosa e estritamente aeróbia. Considerando que a velocidade de produção de metabólitos secundários está ligada à concentração celular, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a produção de AC nos processos contínuos com e sem reciclo celular e em batelada, realizando cultivos dessa bactéria com alta densidade celular. Para cumprir com o objetivo proposto, foram realizados experimentos em biorreator operando na forma contínua com reciclo utilizando-se um módulo de filtração tangencial de fibra oca para a separação celular. Os processos contínuos sem reciclo e em batelada foram realizados de forma convencional. A produtividade em AC no cultivo contínuo com reciclo celular (22,2 mg.L-1h-1 foi superior aos processos convencionais, apesar de obter-se maior concentração do produto (470 mg.L-1 em batelada.

  5. Quality-by-Design approach to monitor the operation of a batch bioreactor in an industrial avian vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largoni, Martina; Facco, Pierantonio; Bernini, Donatella; Bezzo, Fabrizio; Barolo, Massimiliano

    2015-10-10

    Monitoring batch bioreactors is a complex task, due to the fact that several sources of variability can affect a running batch and impact on the final product quality. Additionally, the product quality itself may not be measurable on line, but requires sampling and lab analysis taking several days to be completed. In this study we show that, by using appropriate process analytical technology tools, the operation of an industrial batch bioreactor used in avian vaccine manufacturing can be effectively monitored as the batch progresses. Multivariate statistical models are built from historical databases of batches already completed, and they are used to enable the real time identification of the variability sources, to reliably predict the final product quality, and to improve process understanding, paving the way to a reduction of final product rejections, as well as to a reduction of the product cycle time. It is also shown that the product quality "builds up" mainly during the first half of a batch, suggesting on the one side that reducing the variability during this period is crucial, and on the other side that the batch length can possibly be shortened. Overall, the study demonstrates that, by using a Quality-by-Design approach centered on the appropriate use of mathematical modeling, quality can indeed be built "by design" into the final product, whereas the role of end-point product testing can progressively reduce its importance in product manufacturing.

  6. Polynomial Transfer Lot Sizing Techniques for Batch Processing on Consecutive Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    batch, while still specifying sizable batches? Goldratt , the developer of OPT (Optimized Production Technology) [7; 12, pp. 692-715; 101, answered this...and Jeffrey L Rummel, Batching to Minimize Flow Times on One Machine, Management Science, 33, #6, 1987, pp. 784-799. [71 Goldratt , Eliyahu and Robert

  7. Biological phosphorus removal inhibition by roxarsone in batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Liu, Li; Hu, Zhenhu; Chen, Guowei

    2013-06-01

    Roxarsone has been extensively used in the feed of animals, which is usually excreted unchanged in the manure and eventually enter into animal wastewater, challenging the biological phosphorus removal processes. Knowledge of its inhibition effect is key for guiding treatment of roxarsone-contaminated wastewater, and is unfortunately keeping unclear. We study the inhibition of roxarsone on biological phosphorus removal processes for roxarsone-contaminated wastewater treatment, in terms of the removal and rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphate. Results showed that presence of roxarsone considerably limited the COD removals, especially at roxarsone concentration exceeding 40 mg L(-1). Additionally, roxarsone inhibited both phosphorus release and uptake processes, consistent with the phosphate profiles during the biological phosphorus removal processes; whereas, roxarsone is more toxic to phosphorus uptake process, than release function. The results indicated that it is roxarsone itself, rather than the inorganic arsenics, inhibit biological phosphorus removal processes within both aerobic and anaerobic roxarsone-contaminated wastewater treatment.

  8. Measurement processing for state estimation and fault identification in batch fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dondo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an application of maximum likelihood identification and statistical detection techniques for determining the presence and nature of abnormal behaviors in batch fermentations. By appropriately organizing these established techniques, a novel algorithm that is able to detect and isolate faults in nonlinear and uncertain processes was developed. The technique processes residuals from a nonlinear filter based on the assumed model of fermentation. This information is combined with mass balances to conduct statistical tests that are used as the core of the detection procedure. The approach uses a sliding window to capture the present statistical properties of filtering and mass-balance residuals. In order to avoid divergence of the nonlinear monitor filter, the maximum likelihood states and parameters are periodically estimated. The maximum likelihood parameters are used to update the kinetic parameter values of the monitor filter. If the occurrence of a fault is detected, alternative faulty model structures are evaluated statistically through the use of log-likelihood function values and chi2 detection tests. Simulation obtained for xanthan gum batch fermentations are encouraging.

  9. The Optimum Mesophilic Temperature of Batch Process Biogas Production from Animal-based Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osita Obineche Obiukwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimum mesophilic temperature of biogas production from blends The optimum temperature of biogas production from blends of animal-based wastes was determined under controlled heat supply to the digester in a batch digestion process. Cow Dung (CD and Poultry Droppings (PD were blended in the ratio of CD: PD: 1:3. The digester was operated at average ambient temperature of 30°C as baseline. Biogas production from the waste blends was monitored under the temperatures of 32 to 45°C. Results obtained indicate maximum cumulative gas yield was observed at the temperature of 40°C. The 40°C temperature gave the highest biogas yield of 2685 mL followed by the 35°C temperature with the cumulative yield of 2535 mL. The ambient temperature of 30°C had the least cumulative biogas yield of 185 mL. These results indicate that increased and steady biogas production can be achieved under the optimum mesophilic temperature of 40°C when these animal-based wastes are digested in batch digestion process.

  10. Genetic algorithm for short-term scheduling of make-and-pack batch production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wuthichai Wongthatsanekorn; Busaba Phruksaphanrat

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a scheduling problem in industrial make-and-pack batch production process. This process equips with sequence-dependent changeover time, multipurpose storage units with limited capacity, storage time, batch splitting, partial equipment connectivity and transfer time. The objective is to make a production plan to satisfy al constraints while meeting demand requirement of packed products from various product fam-ilies. This problem is NP-hard and the problem size is exponentially large for a realistic-sized problem. Therefore, we propose a genetic algorithm to handle this problem. Solutions to the problems are represented by chromo-somes of product family sequences. These sequences are decoded to assign the resource for producing packed products according to forward assignment strategy and resource selection rules. These techniques greatly reduce unnecessary search space and improve search speed. In addition, design of experiment is carefully utilized to de-termine appropriate parameter settings. Ant colony optimization and Tabu search are also implemented for com-parison. At the end of each heuristics, local search is applied for the packed product sequence to improve makespan. In an experimental analysis, al heuristics show the capability to solve large instances within reason-able computational time. In al problem instances, genetic algorithm averagely outperforms ant colony optimiza-tion and Tabu search with slightly longer computational time.

  11. Characterization and properties of batch-processed melt-textured YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, A.W.; Adam, M.; Bornemann, H.J. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, PO Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature superconductor bulk parts are batch processed using a semi-automated processing technique based on the melt-texturation process. Levitation properties under static and dynamic load levels were analysed using a test bench with a three-dimensional force sensor unit. Measurements of levitation force give no detailed suggestions on texture, secondary domains or cracks. Therefore other measurements to control homogeneity of the bulk were performed. Texture on full-size pellets (FWHM < 5 deg., {delta}{sub {chi}} < 3 deg.) was verified by elastic neutron scattering. To study the influence of local texture on properties a pellet was divided into nine segments. Preliminary results indicate that a correlation between neutron data and levitation force needs further investigations. Flux maps of samples magnetized by permanent magnets or by a pulsed magnetization unit were used to verify the homogeneity and domain structure of the material and to evaluate macroscopic critical currents. (author)

  12. The Removal of Uranium onto Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles in Anoxic Batch Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of uranium (U onto nanoscale zero-valent iron particles has been studied for uranium-bearing mine water and synthetic uranyl solutions in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. The work has been conducted in order to investigate the differential nanoparticle corrosion behaviour and associated mechanisms of U removal behaviour in conditions representative of near-surface and deep groundwater systems. Batch systems were analysed over a 28-day reaction period during which the liquid and nanoparticulate solids were periodically analysed to determine chemical evolution of the solutions and particulates. Analysis of aqueous samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry recorded near-total U removal after 1 hour of reaction in all systems studied. However, in the latter stages of the reaction (after 48 hours, significant rerelease of uranium was recorded for the mine water batch system with dissolved O2 present. In contrast, less than 2% uranium rerelease was recorded for the anoxic batch system. Concurrent analysis of extracted nanoparticle solids using X-ray diffraction recorded significantly slower corrosion of the nanoparticles in the anoxic batch system, with residual metallic iron maintained until after 28 days of reaction compared to only 7 days of reaction in systems with dissolved O2 present. Results provide clear evidence that the corrosion lifespan and associated U6+ removal efficacy of nanoscale zero-valent iron replace enhanced in the absence of dissolved oxygen.

  13. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  14. Image processing in digital pathology: an opportunity to solve inter-batch variability of immunohistochemical staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eycke, Yves-Rémi; Allard, Justine; Salmon, Isabelle; Debeir, Olivier; Decaestecker, Christine

    2017-02-21

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a widely used technique in pathology to evidence protein expression in tissue samples. However, this staining technique is known for presenting inter-batch variations. Whole slide imaging in digital pathology offers a possibility to overcome this problem by means of image normalisation techniques. In the present paper we propose a methodology to objectively evaluate the need of image normalisation and to identify the best way to perform it. This methodology uses tissue microarray (TMA) materials and statistical analyses to evidence the possible variations occurring at colour and intensity levels as well as to evaluate the efficiency of image normalisation methods in correcting them. We applied our methodology to test different methods of image normalisation based on blind colour deconvolution that we adapted for IHC staining. These tests were carried out for different IHC experiments on different tissue types and targeting different proteins with different subcellular localisations. Our methodology enabled us to establish and to validate inter-batch normalization transforms which correct the non-relevant IHC staining variations. The normalised image series were then processed to extract coherent quantitative features characterising the IHC staining patterns.

  15. Control of a reactive batch distillation process using an iterative learning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Lee, Kwang Soon [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mansuk; Lee, Juhyun [Samsung Cheil Industries Inc., Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Quadratic criterion-based iterative learning control (QILC) was applied to a numerical reactive batch distillation process, in which methacrylic anhydride (MAN) is produced through the reaction of methacrylic acid with acetic anhydride. The role of distillation is to shift the equilibrium conversion toward the direction of the product by removing acetic acid (AcH), a by-product of the reaction. Two temperatures at both ends of the column were controlled by individual control loops. A nonlinear PID controller manipulating the reflux ratio was employed to regulate the top temperature at the boiling point of AcH. A constrained QILC was used for the tracking of the reactor temperature. A time-varying reference trajectory for the reactor temperature that satisfies the target conversion and purity of MAN was obtained through repeated simulations and confirmation experiments in the pilot plant. The QILC achieved satisfactory tracking in several batch runs with gentle control movements, while the PID control as a substitute of the QILC in a comparative study exhibited unacceptable performance.

  16. Image processing in digital pathology: an opportunity to solve inter-batch variability of immunohistochemical staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eycke, Yves-Rémi; Allard, Justine; Salmon, Isabelle; Debeir, Olivier; Decaestecker, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a widely used technique in pathology to evidence protein expression in tissue samples. However, this staining technique is known for presenting inter-batch variations. Whole slide imaging in digital pathology offers a possibility to overcome this problem by means of image normalisation techniques. In the present paper we propose a methodology to objectively evaluate the need of image normalisation and to identify the best way to perform it. This methodology uses tissue microarray (TMA) materials and statistical analyses to evidence the possible variations occurring at colour and intensity levels as well as to evaluate the efficiency of image normalisation methods in correcting them. We applied our methodology to test different methods of image normalisation based on blind colour deconvolution that we adapted for IHC staining. These tests were carried out for different IHC experiments on different tissue types and targeting different proteins with different subcellular localisations. Our methodology enabled us to establish and to validate inter-batch normalization transforms which correct the non-relevant IHC staining variations. The normalised image series were then processed to extract coherent quantitative features characterising the IHC staining patterns.

  17. The design and scheduling of chemical batch processes: building heuristics and probabilistic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda João

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of industrial cases published in the design and scheduling of batch multiproduct plants is short, and the difficulties to solve large models of this kind are well known, since their modeling usually consider variables integrality and data uncertainty. One way to address such difficulties is to use analytical studies to obtain significant improvements in algorithms and problem structures. Several MILP models from the open literature are selected focusing the successive generalizations on the options set, namely: from single machine to multiple parallel machines (identified by S or M in each stage; and from single product campaigns to multiple products campaigns (S or M too. Four models (hereby SS, MS, SM, MM that consider zero wait operations are thus analyzed and compared, and several heuristics are developed in order to produce good approximations to the objective function’s value and to the binary solution. Then, the probabilistic analysis of the heuristics was performed: the deviations on the objective function values, the deviations on the binary solutions, and the computational times are evaluated. The analysis both allowed the certification of the modeling and the numerical implementation. The model MS, addressing multiple machines and SPC, is found to be the most promising model to further developments that aim the design and scheduling of batch processes in stochastic and robust frameworks.

  18. A STATISTICAL REVIEW OF DWPF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS GENERATED DURING THE PROCESSING OF BATCHES 300 THROUGH 356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T

    2006-08-31

    In this report, the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides summaries and comparisons of composition measurements for glass samples that were generated during the processing of batches 300 through 356 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These analyses, which include measurements of samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as samples of glass standards, were provided to SCS by the DWPF Laboratory (DWPF Lab) of Waste Laboratory Services. The comparisons made by SCS were extensive given that these data allowed for contrasts between preparation methods and between the two spectrometers that are currently in use at the DWPF Lab. In addition to general comparisons, specific questions that were posed in the Technical Task Request (TTR) behind this effort were addressed in this report.

  19. Influence of exchange group of modified glycidyl methacrylate polymer on phenol removal: A study by batch and continuous flow processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Thiago Muza; da Silva, Carla Michele Frota; da Rocha, Paulo Cristiano Silva; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of water by phenol is potentially a serious problem due to its high toxicity and its acid character. In this way some treatment process to remove or reduce the phenol concentration before contaminated water disposal on the environment is required. Currently, phenol can be removed by charcoal adsorption, but this process does not allow easy regeneration of the adsorbent. In contrast, polymeric resins are easily regenerated and can be reused in others cycles of adsorption process. In this work, the interaction of phenol with two polymeric resins was investigated, one of them containing a weakly basic anionic exchange group (GD-DEA) and the other, a strongly basic group (GD-QUAT). Both ion exchange resins were obtained through chemical modifications from a base porous resin composed of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinyl benzene (DVB). Evaluation tests with resins were carried out with 30 mg/L of phenol in water solution, at pH 6 and 10, employing two distinct processes: (i) batch, to evaluate the effect of temperature, and (ii) continuous flow, to assess the breakthrough of the resins. Batch tests revealed that the systems did not follow the model proposed by Langmuir due to the negative values obtained for the constant b and for the maximum adsorption capacity, Q0. However, satisfactory results for the constants KF and n allowed assuming that the behavior of systems followed the Freundlich model, leading to the conclusion that resin GD-DEA had the best interaction with the phenol when in a solution having pH 10 (phenoxide ions). The continuous flow tests corroborated this conclusion since the performance of GD-DEA in removing phenol was also best at pH 10, indicating that the greater availability of the electron pair in the resin with the weakly basic donor group contributed to enhance the resin's interaction with the phenoxide ions.

  20. Alcoholic fermentation with flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidini, Carla Zanella; Marquez, Líbia Diniz Santos; de Almeida Silva, Helisângela; de Resende, Miriam Maria; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; Ribeiro, Eloízio Júlio

    2014-02-01

    Studies have been conducted on selecting yeast strains for use in fermentation for ethanol production to improve the performance of industrial plants and decrease production costs. In this paper, we study alcoholic fermentation in a fed-batch process using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain with flocculant characteristics. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal combination of the variables involved, with the sucrose concentration of 170 g/L, a cellular concentration in the inoculum of 40% (v/v), and a filling time of 6 h, which resulted in a 92.20% yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productivity of 6.01 g/L h and a residual sucrose concentration of 44.33 g/L. With some changes in the process such as recirculation of medium during the fermentation process and increase in cellular concentration in the inoculum after use of the CCD was possible to reduce the residual sucrose concentration to 2.8 g/L in 9 h of fermentation and increase yield and productivity for 92.75% and 9.26 g/L h, respectively. A model was developed to describe the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation kinetics by the substrate and the product. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.103 h(-1), with K(I) and K(s) values of 109.86 and 30.24 g/L, respectively. The experimental results from the fed-batch reactor show a good fit with the proposed model, resulting in a maximum growth rate of 0.080 h(-1).

  1. Quantitative modeling of viable cell density, cell size, intracellular conductivity, and membrane capacitance in batch and fed-batch CHO processes using dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Cary F; Li, Jincai; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to analyze typical batch and fed-batch CHO cell culture processes. Three methods of analysis (linear modeling, Cole-Cole modeling, and partial least squares regression), were used to correlate the spectroscopic data with routine biomass measurements [viable packed cell volume, viable cell concentration (VCC), cell size, and oxygen uptake rate (OUR)]. All three models predicted offline biomass measurements accurately during the growth phase of the cultures. However, during the stationary and decline phases of the cultures, the models decreased in accuracy to varying degrees. Offline cell radius measurements were unsuccessfully used to correct for the deviations from the linear model, indicating that physiological changes affecting permittivity were occurring. The beta-dispersion was analyzed using the Cole-Cole distribution parameters Deltaepsilon (magnitude of the permittivity drop), f(c) (critical frequency), and alpha (Cole-Cole parameter). Furthermore, the dielectric parameters static internal conductivity (sigma(i)) and membrane capacitance per area (C(m)) were calculated for the cultures. Finally, the relationship between permittivity, OUR, and VCC was examined, demonstrating how the definition of viability is critical when analyzing biomass online. The results indicate that the common assumptions of constant size and dielectric properties used in dielectric analysis are not always valid during later phases of cell culture processes. The findings also demonstrate that dielectric spectroscopy, while not a substitute for VCC, is a complementary measurement of viable biomass, providing useful auxiliary information about the physiological state of a culture.

  2. Hybrid Metaheuristics for Solving a Fuzzy Single Batch-Processing Machine Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA, variable neighborhood search (VNS, and simulated annealing (SA frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.

  3. EasyDD: A Program for Batch Processing and Visualization of Powder Diffraction Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2009-01-01

    In this article we report the release of a new program for batch processing and visualization of powder diffraction data. The program, which is free-of-charge for non-commercial use and can be obtained with its detailed documentation from our website www.scienceware.net, is currently in use by a number of researchers in University College London, University of Manchester, Utrecht University in the Netherland, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), and Diamond Light Source. The software is designed for the treatment of large volume of powder diffraction data, especially those obtained from the new generation of synchrotron detectors. The program has a great potential for future development to be a workbench for powder diffraction work.

  4. The Misselhorn Cycle: Batch-Evaporation Process for Efficient Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gleinser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the Misselhorn cycle is introduced as a power cycle that aims for efficient waste heat recovery of temperature sources below 100 °C. The basic idea shows advantages over a standard Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in overall efficiency and utilization of the heat source. The main characteristic of this cycle is the use of at least three parallel batch evaporators instead of continuous heat exchangers. The operational phases of the evaporators are shifted so that there is always one vaporizer in discharge mode. A transient MATLAB® model (The MathWorks: Natick, MA, USA is used to simulate the achievable performance of the Misselhorn cycle. The calculations of the thermodynamic states of the system are based on the heat flux, the equations for energy conservation and the equations of state found in the NIST Standard Reference Database 23 (Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties - REFPROP, National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaithersburg, MD, USA. In the isochoric batch evaporation, the pressure and the corresponding boiling temperature rise over time. With a gradually increasing boiling temperature, no pinch point limitation occurs. Furthermore, the heat source medium is passed through the evaporators in serial order to obtain a quasi-counter flow setup. It could be shown that these features offer the possibility to gain both high thermal efficiencies and an enhanced utilization of the heat source at the same time. A basic model with a fixed estimated heat transfer coefficient promises a possible system exergy efficiency of 44.4%, which is an increase of over 60% compared to a basic ORC with a system exergy efficiency of only 26.8%.

  5. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-06

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign.

  6. Elucidating Batch-to-Batch Variation Caused by Homocoupled Side Products in Solution-Processable Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangerven, Tim; Verstappen, Pieter; Patil, Nilesh;

    2016-01-01

    -coupling reactions does not always proceed as planned, which can result in the generation of side products containing D-D or A-A homocoupling motifs. Previous studies have reported a reduced performance in polymer and small molecule solar cells when such defect structures are present. A general consensus......Conjugated polymers and small molecules based on alternating electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) building blocks have led to state-of-the-art organic solar cell materials governing efficiencies beyond 10%. Unfortunately, the connection of D and A building blocks via cross...... on the impact of homocouplings on device performance is, however, still lacking as is a profound understanding of the underlying causes of the device deterioration. For differentiating the combined effect of molecular weight and homocouplings in polymer solar cells, a systematic study on a small molecule system...

  7. Continuous sterilization process developed for offal processing needs half the amount of energy necessary for batch processing. Continu sterilisatieproces voor slachtafval vergt helft minder energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, O.E.D. (Stork Duke, Boxmeer (Netherlands))

    1990-09-01

    Offal is processed into meat flour and fat by dehydration. During this process the offal has to be sterilized. This is normally done by batch processing. Stork Duke has developed a continuous sterilization process with financial support from the European Communities. As a result of less energy consumption and operational advantages the extra investments have payback periods from three to four years. Additional advantages are better product quality and reduced odor emission. 2 figs., 4 refs., 2 ills.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A FUZZY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR BATCH DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Frattini Fileti

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development and implementation of fuzzy control algorithms in order to control on-line the overhead product composition of a batch distillation column. Firstly, the influence of design parameters was evaluated through computational simulations and then the algorithms were experimentally tested by monitoring a pilot column. Binary mixtures of n-hexane/n-heptane were distilled. Temperature measurements and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are the basis for the inference of overhead and bottom compositions. Two different operational strategies were used for the experimental runs: constant overhead product composition and previously determined set-point trajectory. Using the first strategy, the performance of the fuzzy controllers is compared to the performance of conventional feedback digital controllers. Experimental results show that fuzzy control presents a better performance than the conventional digital feedback control and also that fuzzy controllers were able to deal successfully with variable set-point strategy, albeit using constant design parameter values. Under conventional control, the average reflux rate implemented was higher than the average reflux rate implemented with fuzzy algorithms. Consequently, the process becomes less time- and energy-consuming under fuzzy control. Since fuzzy methodology is a promising new way of looking at process control problems and their solutions, the results of this work could provide control system designers with a better evaluation of the potential worth of fuzzy control.

  9. [Development of a batched image delete system for multi-vender picture archiving and communication system environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Amano, Masafumi; Yuasa, Masao; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Tada, Akihisa; Harada, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    A picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for multi-vendor imaging servers is useful, since it can provide a variety of image-processing services. However, to delete an image file in the PACS, it is necessary to delete not only the image but all its associated images that are stored in multiple servers: this is a lengthy and painstaking process. To reduce this workload, we have developed a system consisting of a computer program with a graphical user interface that can delete the target image and all related images by means of batch processing. The developed system creates an extensible markup language (XML)-format file that describes the operation for deleting an image and forwards the XML file to the main server. Using a Windows file-sharing system (SMB/CIFS), each server shares the XML file and deletes the images in its own database in response to the instructions described in the XML file. We can also rigorously manage information concerning the deleted images using the information that is output from the main server to external storage. We also discuss the degree of load reduction in our system compared with that of ordinary systems.

  10. Biodesulfurization of Malaysian coals using mixed microbial cultures in batch and continuous processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafpour, G.D.; Azizan, A.; Harun, A. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The determination of chemolithotrophic microorganisms capable to grown on coal with high sulfur content, made it possible to develop mixed culture processes for coal desulfurization. The ability of the microbial cultures to metabolize different sulfur compounds originated from coal in the range of 3-5% sulfur, were demonstrated in batch experimental stage. Biodesulfurization of coal as suspended solid coal particles were carried out in a broth media for coal content of 1-5% solid. Four species of microbial culture were grown on coal and acclimated for optimal growth. The coal samples obtained from Malaysian coal mine with 2-5% of sulfur content were used in batch and continuous cultures experiments. The microbial cultures were used to reduce pyrite sulfur, inorganic sulfur content of coal. The culture isolated from pharmaceutical wastewater shown that more than 80% of sulfur content of coal was reduced. The growth of microorganisms on coal shown that maximum solid content of 5% was tolerable maximum grow on 3% coal shown high cell density. Nutrient media with acidic PH value of 3-4 was required for growth of Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Thiobacillus fierrooxidans. The growth was limited at PH = 2 but at PH 3-4 growth was stimulated. Phosphate buffer was used with coal solution to monitor the PH. The PH was initially adjusted but was not controlled during the period of incubation. An optimum PH for Thiobacillus species with maximum desulfuriation was 2.65. High coal content about 10% was shown that bacterial was unable to grow. The cell dry weight, cell optical density and sulfur content of coal samples using TGA and elemental analyzer were conducted for all experiments. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Modeling and Optimization for Scheduling of Chemical Batch Processes%间歇化工过程和模型优化调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱宇; 潘明; 黄亚才

    2009-01-01

    Chemical batch processes have become significant in chemical manufacturing. In these processes, large numbers of chemical products are produced to satisfy human demands in daily life. Recently, economy globalization has resulted in growing worldwide competitions in traditional chemical process industry. In order to keep competitive in the global marketplace, each company must optimize its production management and set up a reactive system for market fluctuation. Scheduling is the core of production management in chemical processes. The goal of this paper is to review the recent developments in this challenging area. Classifications of batch scheduling problems and optimization methods are introduced. A comparison of six typical models is shown in a general benchmark example from the literature. Finally, challenges and applications in future research are discussed.

  12. Computer aided design, analysis and experimental investigation of membrane assisted batch reaction-separation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz; Buchaly, Carsten; Kreis, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take into acco...... and separation functionalities and to design/analyse the hybrid scheme. The generated hybrid scheme has been validated through experiments involving an esterification reaction....

  13. Biosorption of heavy metals in a photo-rotating biological contactor--a batch process study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandi, Sanaz; Lewis, David M

    2013-06-01

    Metal removal potential of indigenous mining microorganisms from acid mine drainage (AMD) has been well recognised in situ at mine sites. However, their removal capacity requires to be investigated for AMD treatment. In the reported study, the capacity of an indigenous AMD microbial consortium dominated with Klebsormidium sp., immobilised in a photo-rotating biological contactor (PRBC), was investigated for removing various elements from a multi-ion synthetic AMD. The synthetic AMD was composed of major (Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, Ca, Na, Ni) and trace elements (Fe, Al, Cr, Co, Se, Ag, Mo) at initial concentrations of 2 to 100 mg/L and 0.005 to 1 mg/L, respectively. The PRBC was operated for two 7-day batch periods under pH conditions of 3 and 5. The maximum removal was observed after 3 and 6 days at pH 3 and 5, respectively. Daily water analysis data demonstrated the ability of the algal-microbial biofilm to remove an overall average of 25-40 % of the major elements at pH 3 in the order of Na > Cu > Ca > Mg > Mn > Ni > Zn, whereas a higher removal (35-50 %) was observed at pH 5 in the order of Cu > Mn > Mg > Ca > Ni > Zn > Na. The removal efficiency of the system for trace elements varied extensively between 3 and 80 % at the both pH conditions. The batch data results demonstrated the ability for indigenous AMD algal-microbial biofilm for removing a variety of elements from AMD in a PRBC. The work presents the potential for further development and scale-up to use PBRC inoculated with AMD microorganisms at mine sites for first or secondary AMD treatment.

  14. Biological phosphorus removal in sequencing batch reactor with single-stage oxic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liao, De-Xiang; Zhang, Jie

    2008-09-01

    The performance of biological phosphorus removal (BPR) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with single-stage oxic process was investigated using simulated municipal wastewater. The experimental results showed that BPR could be achieved in a SBR without anaerobic phase, which was conventionally considered as a key phase for BPR. Phosphorus (P) concentration 0.22-1.79 mg L(-1) in effluent can be obtained after 4h aeration when P concentration in influent was about 15-20 mg L(-1), the dissolved oxygen (DO) was controlled at 3+/-0.2 mg L(-1) during aerobic phase and pH was maintained 7+/-0.1, which indicated the efficiencies of P removal were achieved 90% above. Experimental results also showed that P was mainly stored in the form of intracellular storage of polyphosphate (poly-P), and about 207.235 mg phosphates have been removed by the discharge of rich-phosphorus sludge for each SBR cycle. However, the energy storage poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was almost kept constant at a low level (5-6 mg L(-1)) during the process. Those results showed that phosphate could be transformed to poly-P with single-stage oxic process without PHA accumulation, and BPR could be realized in net phosphate removal.

  15. Optimality of affine control system of several species in competition on a Sequential Batch Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Rodriguez; Ramirez, Hector; Gajardo, Pedro; Rapaport, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we analyze the optimalty of affine control system of several species in competition for a single substrate on a Sequential Batch Reactors (SBR), with the objective being to reach a given (low) level of the substrate. We allow controls to be bounded measurable functions of time plus possible impulses. A suitable modification of the dynamics leads to a slightly different optimal control problem, without impulsive controls, for which we apply different optim...

  16. Tabu Search Heuristics for the Order Batching Problem in Manual Order Picking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Henn; Gerhard Wäscher

    2010-01-01

    In manual order picking systems, order pickers walk or ride through a distribution warehouse in order to collect items requested by (internal or external) customers. In order to perform these operations efficiently, it is usually required that customer orders are combined into (more substantial) picking orders of limited size. The Order Batching Problem considered in this paper deals with the question of how a given set of customer orders should be combined such that the total length of all t...

  17. Bioethanol production from starchy biomass by direct fermentation using saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilonzo, P.M.; Margaritis, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Yu, J.; Ye, Q. [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Biochemical Engineering Research Inst. and State Key Lab

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using amylolytic yeasts for the direct fermentation of starchy biomass to ethanol was discussed. Although amylolytic yeasts such as Saccharomycopsis, Lipomyces, and Schwaniomyces secrete both {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes that synergistically enhance starch degradation, they are not suitable for industrial bio-ethanol production because of low tolerance for ethanol and slow fermentation rate. For that reason, this study examined the direct ethanol fermentation of soluble starch or dextrin with the amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cells systems. Saccharomyces diastaticus secretes glucoamylase and can therefore assimilate and ferment starch and starch-like biomass. The main focus of the study was on parameters leading to higher ethanol yields from high concentration of dextrin and soluble starch using batch cultures. A natural attachment method was proposed in which polyurethane foam sheets were used as the carrier for amylolytic yeasts immobilization in ethanol fermentations. The support was chosen because it was inexpensive, autoclavable, pliable and could be tailored to suit process requirements regarding net surface charge, shape and size. It was found that Saccharomyces diastaticus was very efficient in terms of fermentation of high initial concentrations of dextrin or soluble starch. Higher concentrations of ethanol were produced. In batch fermentations, the cells fermented high dextrin concentrations more efficiently. In particular, in batch fermentation, more than 92 g-L of ethanol was produced from 240 g-L of dextrin, at conversion efficiency of 90 per cent. The conversion efficiency decreased to 60 per cent but a higher final ethanol concentration of 147 g/L was attained with a medium containing 500 g/L of dextrin. In an immobilized cell bioreactor, Saccharomyces diastaticus produced 83 g/L of ethanol from 240 g/L of dextrin, corresponding to ethanol volumetric productivity of 9.1 g

  18. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered int

  19. Heterogeneous batch distillation processes for waste solvent recovery in pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Gerbaud, Vincent; Arias-Barreto, Alien; Joulia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile – water, n hexane – ethyl acetate and chloroform – methanol, commonly found in pharmaceutical industry.

  20. A fast-initiating ionically tagged ruthenium complex: a robust supported pre-catalyst for batch-process and continuous-flow olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borré, Etienne; Rouen, Mathieu; Laurent, Isabelle; Magrez, Magaly; Caijo, Fréderic; Crévisy, Christophe; Solodenko, Wladimir; Toupet, Loic; Frankfurter, René; Vogt, Carla; Kirschning, Andreas; Mauduit, Marc

    2012-12-14

    In this study, a new pyridinium-tagged Ru complex was designed and anchored onto sulfonated silica, thereby forming a robust and highly active supported olefin-metathesis pre-catalyst for applications under batch and continuous-flow conditions. The involvement of an oxazine-benzylidene ligand allowed the reactivity of the formed Ru pre-catalyst to be efficiently controlled through both steric and electronic activation. The oxazine scaffold facilitated the introduction of the pyridinium tag, thereby affording the corresponding cationic pre-catalyst in good yield. Excellent activities in ring-closing (RCM), cross (CM), and enyne metathesis were observed with only 0.5 mol % loading of the pre-catalyst. When this powerful pre-catalyst was immobilized onto a silica-based cationic-exchange resin, a versatile catalytically active material for batch reactions was generated that also served as fixed-bed material for flow reactors. This system could be reused at 1 mol % loading to afford metathesis products in high purity with very low ruthenium contamination under batch conditions (below 5 ppm). Scavenging procedures for both batch and flow processes were conducted, which led to a lowering of the ruthenium content to as little as one tenth of the original values.

  1. Indirect and Mixed Direct-Indirect Heat Integration of Batch Processes Based on Pinch Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Favrat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper introduces a methodology for the heat integration of industrial batch processes. Based on Pinch Analysis principles, this methodology resorts to intermediate heat storage to prevent adverse effects on the operating flexibility, which are often associated with direct heat exchange only. A systematic procedure, backed with a graphical representation, allows the determination of the minimum number of heat storage units assuming vertical heat transfer and their range of feasible operation as a function of the amount of heat recovery. Understanding the cause and the bottleneck effect of the socalled storage pinch, heuristic rules are proposed to screen major options corresponding to minimum cost solutions. For a given number of heat storage units, these rules could be automated to a large extent, making the procedure suitable for targeting purposes. The operating temperature of the heat storage units can be optimized with ease, while other continuous degrees of freedom are more difficult to address using the proposed methodology. Preliminary guidelines are proposed to extend the methodology to mixed direct-indirect heat integration.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS’00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000 and revised

  2. Slide Set: Reproducible image analysis and batch processing with ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanes, Benjamin A

    2015-11-01

    Most imaging studies in the biological sciences rely on analyses that are relatively simple. However, manual repetition of analysis tasks across multiple regions in many images can complicate even the simplest analysis, making record keeping difficult, increasing the potential for error, and limiting reproducibility. While fully automated solutions are necessary for very large data sets, they are sometimes impractical for the small- and medium-sized data sets common in biology. Here we present the Slide Set plugin for ImageJ, which provides a framework for reproducible image analysis and batch processing. Slide Set organizes data into tables, associating image files with regions of interest and other relevant information. Analysis commands are automatically repeated over each image in the data set, and multiple commands can be chained together for more complex analysis tasks. All analysis parameters are saved, ensuring transparency and reproducibility. Slide Set includes a variety of built-in analysis commands and can be easily extended to automate other ImageJ plugins, reducing the manual repetition of image analysis without the set-up effort or programming expertise required for a fully automated solution.

  3. Batch-mode Reinforcement Learning for improved hydro-environmental systems management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Galelli, S.; Restelli, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the great progresses made in the last decades, the optimal management of hydro-environmental systems still remains a very active and challenging research area. The combination of multiple, often conflicting interests, high non-linearities of the physical processes and the management objectives, strong uncertainties in the inputs, and high dimensional state makes the problem challenging and intriguing. Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) is one of the most suitable methods for designing (Pareto) optimal management policies preserving the original problem complexity. However, it suffers from a dual curse, which, de facto, prevents its practical application to even reasonably complex water systems. (i) Computational requirement grows exponentially with state and control dimension (Bellman's curse of dimensionality), so that SDP can not be used with water systems where the state vector includes more than few (2-3) units. (ii) An explicit model of each system's component is required (curse of modelling) to anticipate the effects of the system transitions, i.e. any information included into the SDP framework can only be either a state variable described by a dynamic model or a stochastic disturbance, independent in time, with the associated pdf. Any exogenous information that could effectively improve the system operation cannot be explicitly considered in taking the management decision, unless a dynamic model is identified for each additional information, thus adding to the problem complexity through the curse of dimensionality (additional state variables). To mitigate this dual curse, the combined use of batch-mode Reinforcement Learning (bRL) and Dynamic Model Reduction (DMR) techniques is explored in this study. bRL overcomes the curse of modelling by replacing explicit modelling with an external simulator and/or historical observations. The curse of dimensionality is averted using a functional approximation of the SDP value function based on proper non

  4. Testing SLURM open source batch system for a Tierl/Tier2 HEP computing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Salomoni, Davide; Italiano, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    In this work the testing activities that were carried on to verify if the SLURM batch system could be used as the production batch system of a typical Tier1/Tier2 HEP computing center are shown. SLURM (Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management) is an Open Source batch system developed mainly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SchedMD, Linux NetworX, Hewlett-Packard, and Groupe Bull. Testing was focused both on verifying the functionalities of the batch system and the performance that SLURM is able to offer. We first describe our initial set of requirements. Functionally, we started configuring SLURM so that it replicates all the scheduling policies already used in production in the computing centers involved in the test, i.e. INFN-Bari and the INFN-Tier1 at CNAF, Bologna. Currently, the INFN-Tier1 is using IBM LSF (Load Sharing Facility), while INFN-Bari, an LHC Tier2 for both CMS and Alice, is using Torque as resource manager and MAUI as scheduler. We show how we configured SLURM in order to enable several scheduling functionalities such as Hierarchical FairShare, Quality of Service, user-based and group-based priority, limits on the number of jobs per user/group/queue, job age scheduling, job size scheduling, and scheduling of consumable resources. We then show how different job typologies, like serial, MPI, multi-thread, whole-node and interactive jobs can be managed. Tests on the use of ACLs on queues or in general other resources are then described. A peculiar SLURM feature we also verified is triggers on event, useful to configure specific actions on each possible event in the batch system. We also tested highly available configurations for the master node. This feature is of paramount importance since a mandatory requirement in our scenarios is to have a working farm cluster even in case of hardware failure of the server(s) hosting the batch system. Among our requirements there is also the possibility to deal with pre-execution and post

  5. The role of DPB at anoxic stage in a novel package type BNR process with batch settler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Sang-Hyung; Nam, Se-Yong; Park, Myung-Gyun

    2003-01-01

    In this research, package type BNR process was developed to remove nutrients as well as suspended solids from domestic sewage. The effect of HRT reduction of settler on the removal of pollutants as well as the role of DPBs at anoxic reactor were investigated. The proposed package system was composed of sludge denitrification tank, anaerobic, anoxic, oxic, and batch settler. This system could remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively at low COD/N ratio and also remove SS more effectively than other ordinary BNR system having the conventional settlers. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen (T-N) in optimal condition was about 75.1% under the TCOD/TKN ratio as low as 5.7. The average concentration of the effluent TCOD, ortho-P, NH4+-N, NO3- -N and SS in the package type BNR system of 2 h settler retention time were 15.6. 1.38, 1.4, 10.3 and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. In anoxic state, denitrifying dephosphatation, that is uptaking phosphate by using nitrate-nitrogen as an electron acceptor was observed. The removed NO3- -N concentration by denitrifying dephosphatation was 1.62 mg NO3- -N/mg PO4(3-)-P.

  6. Bio-Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mine by Fungi: Batch and Fixed Bed Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Soleimanifar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD containing high concentrations of iron and sulphate, low pH and variableconcentrations of heavy metals leads to many environmental problems. The concentrations of Cu and Mnare high in the AMD of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman province, south of Iran. In thisstudy, the bio-remediation of Cu and Mn ions from acid mine drainage was investigated using two nativefungi called Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium which were extracted from the soil andsediment samples of the Shour River at the Sarcheshmeh mine. The live fungi was first harvested andthen killed by boiling in 0.5 N NaOH solution. The biomass was finally dried at 60 C for 24 h andpowdered. The optimum biosorption parameters including pH, temperature, the amount of biosorbent andcontact time were determined in a batch system. The optimum pH varied between 5 and 6. It was foundthat the biosorption process increased with an increase in temperature and the amount of biosorbent.Biosorption data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a good match.Kinetic studies were also carried out in the present study. The results show that the second-order kineticsmodel fits well the experimental data. The biosorption experiments were further investigated with acontinuous system to compare the biosorption capacities of two systems. The results show thatbiosorption process using a continuous system increases efficiency up to 99%. A desorption process waseventually performed in order to recover Copper and Manganese ions. This process was successful andfungi could be used again.

  7. Fed-batch bioreactor process with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rech

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 was transformed with two yeast integrative plasmids containing Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 and LAC12 genes that codify beta-galactosidase and lactose permease respectively. The BLR030 recombinant strain was selected due to its growth and beta-galactosidase production capacity. Different culture media based on deproteinized cheese whey (DCW were tested and the best composition (containing DCW, supplemented with yeast extract 1 %, and peptone 3 % (w/v was chosen for bioreactor experiments. Batch, and fed-batch cultures with linear ascending feeding for 25 (FB25, 35 (FB35, and 50 (FB50 hours, were performed. FB35 and FB50 produced the highest beta-galactosidase specific activities (around 1,800 U/g cells, and also the best productivities (180 U/L.h. Results show the potential use of fed-batch cultures of recombinant S. cerevisiae on industrial applications using supplemented whey as substrate.

  8. Production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor and its application in decolorization of dyestuffs : (Ⅰ) Production of laccase by batch and repeated-batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor wasstudied. The effect of cultivation conditions on laccase productionby Coriolus versicolor was examined to obtain optimal medium andcultivation conditions. Both batch and repeated-batch processeswere performed for laccase production. In repeated-batchfermentation with self-immobilized mycelia, total of 14 cycles wereperformed with laccase activity in the range between 3.4 and 14.8U/ml.

  9. REMOVAL OF REACTIVE BLUE 19 BY ADDING POLYALUMINUM CHLORIDE TO SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    1Sh. Mehrali, *1M. R. Alavi Moghaddam, 2S. H. Hashemi

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate Reactive Blue 19 dye removal efficiency in aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process by adding polyaluminum chloride (PACl). PACl was added to the reactors in concentrations of 0, 1, 5, 15 and 30 mg-Al/L (SBR1 to SBR5) after filling periods. Initial dye concentrations were selected to be 40 mg/L for all reactors. The averages of dye removal efficiencies were more than 57% in all reactors. The maximum and minimum dye removal efficiencies we...

  10. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  11. Modelling of L-valine Repeated Fed-batch Fermentation Process Taking into Account the Dissolved Oxygen Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of variable volume fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  12. Experience with a distributed control system toolkit in a batch application; Erfahrungen mit einem Prozessleitsystem Toolkit in einer Batch-Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbach, B. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Hennecke, H. [Lang und Peitler Automation GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    At Bayer AG structured automation solutions have been implemented for years on Simatic S5 systems using a software specially developed for this purpose. Due to the benefits gained during implementation and especially during commissioning as well as due to the uniform documentation, this structure was transferred to the new Siemens distributed control system PCS7 in form of the Bayer S7 ToolKit. The S7 ToolKit has been applied successfully in various projects. The following article describes the application of the Bayer S7 ToolKit with regard to basic functions and batch applications. (orig.) [German] Bei der Bayer AG wird seit Jahren eine strukturierte Automatisierung bei Simatic S5-Projekten mit einem eigens dafuer entwickelten Softwaresystem realisiert. Durch die positiven Erfahrungen sowohl in der Projektierung, der vereinfachten Inbetriebnahme und der einheitlichen Dokumentation wurde diese Struktur auch auf das neue Siemens-Prozessleitsystem PCS7 in Form des S7 ToolKits uebetragen. In einer Reihe von Projekten wurde das Bayer S7 ToolKit schon angewendet. Im folgenden wird ueber den Einsatz des ToolKits in Verbindung mit Grundfunktions-Fahrweisen und einer Batch-Anwendung berichtet. (orig.)

  13. Operational conditions for successful partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based on process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Kim, Mingu; Nakhla, George

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using kinetic models. During the 4-month operation, dissolved oxygen (DO) and influent ammonia concentration were selected as operating variables to evaluate nitrite accumulation. Stable partial nitrification was observed with two conditions, influent ammonia concentration of 190 mg N/L and a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg/L as well as influent ammonia concentration of 100 mg N/L and a DO of 0.15-2.0 mg/L with intermittent aeration. At a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg O2/L and influent ammonia concentration of 90 mg N/L, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria growth was not suppressed. Kinetic parameters were determined or estimated with batch tests and model simulation. The kinetic model predicted the SBR performance well.

  14. On time discretizations for the simulation of the batch settling-compression process in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Mejías, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the recently introduced Bürger-Diehl simulation model for secondary settling tanks was to resolve spatial discretization problems when both hindered settling and the phenomena of compression and dispersion are included. Straightforward time integration unfortunately means long computational times. The next step in the development is to introduce and investigate time-integration methods for more efficient simulations, but where other aspects such as implementation complexity and robustness are equally considered. This is done for batch settling simulations. The key findings are partly a new time-discretization method and partly its comparison with other specially tailored and standard methods. Several advantages and disadvantages for each method are given. One conclusion is that the new linearly implicit method is easier to implement than another one (semi-implicit method), but less efficient based on two types of batch sedimentation tests.

  15. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency.

  16. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production.

  17. VERIFICATION OF SMOM AND QMOM POPULATION BALANCE MODELING IN CFD CODE USING ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR BATCH PARTICULATE PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wan; Terry A.Ring

    2006-01-01

    For many processes of industrial significance, due to the strong coupling between particle interactions and fluid dynamics, the population balance must be solved as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. In this work, a CFD based population balance model is tested using a batch crystallization reactor. In this CFD model, the population balance is solved by the standard method of moments (SMOM) and the quadrature method of moments (QMOM). The results of these simulations are compared to analytical solutions for the population balance in a batch tank where 1) nucleation, 2) growth, 3) aggregation, and 4) breakage are taking place separately. The results of these comparisons show that the first 6 moments of the population balance are accurately predicted for nucleation, growth, aggregation and breakage at all times.

  18. Isomaltulose production using free cells: optimisation of a culture medium containing agricultural wastes and conversion in repeated-batch processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguti, Haroldo Y; Buzzato, Michele F; Sato, Hélia H

    2007-04-01

    The enzyme glucosyltransferase is an industrially important enzyme since it produces non-cariogenic isomaltulose (6-O-alpha-D-glucopyronosyl-1-6-D-fructofuranose) from sucrose by intramolecular transglucosylation. The experimental designs and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied for the optimisation of the nutrient concentrations in the culture medium for the production of glucosyltransferase by Erwinia sp. D12 in shaken flasks at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C. A statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied, the factors had a significant effect (P free Erwinia sp. D12 cells in a batch process using an orbital shaker. The influence of the parameters sucrose concentration, temperature, pH, and cell concentration on the conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose was studied. The free cells showed a high conversion rate of sucrose into isomaltulose using batch fermentation, obtaining an isomaltulose yield of 72.11% from sucrose solution 35% at 35 degrees C.

  19. Safety and reliability analysis in a polyvinyl chloride batch process using dynamic simulator-case study: Loss of containment incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Datu; Tani, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Kimitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    2006-10-11

    In this paper, a novel methodology in batch plant safety and reliability analysis is proposed using a dynamic simulator. A batch process involving several safety objects (e.g. sensors, controller, valves, etc.) is activated during the operational stage. The performance of the safety objects is evaluated by the dynamic simulation and a fault propagation model is generated. By using the fault propagation model, an improved fault tree analysis (FTA) method using switching signal mode (SSM) is developed for estimating the probability of failures. The timely dependent failures can be considered as unavailability of safety objects that can cause the accidents in a plant. Finally, the rank of safety object is formulated as performance index (PI) and can be estimated using the importance measures. PI shows the prioritization of safety objects that should be investigated for safety improvement program in the plants. The output of this method can be used for optimal policy in safety object improvement and maintenance. The dynamic simulator was constructed using Visual Modeler (VM, the plant simulator, developed by Omega Simulation Corp., Japan). A case study is focused on the loss of containment (LOC) incident at polyvinyl chloride (PVC) batch process which is consumed the hazardous material, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).

  20. 利用PHPExcel类实现Excel数据批量操作%Excel Data Batch Processing Using PHPExcel Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡必波

    2015-01-01

    Based on Excel table of the campus one-stop service system, this paper mainly introduces the interactive examples of batch data import and export of Excel table with PHPExcel class, and summarizes some methods, techniques and notes of PHPExcel class. For the actual project, the batch data operation of Excel table has signed and guiding significance.%以校园一站式服务系统导出的Excel表为计算基础,主要介绍使用PHPExcel类对Excel表进行数据批量导入导出的交互实例,并通过实例分析总结PHPExcel类使用的一些方法、技巧,以及注意事项。对于实际项目中EXCEL表的批量数据操作有借签和指导意义。

  1. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 3 - FRIT 418 GLASS SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A; Tommy Edwards, T

    2009-03-03

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the phase stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (Tg) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The Tg of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP). These measurements were performed before DWPF start-up and the results were incorporated in Volume 7 of the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). Additional information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not consider some of the processing scenarios now envisioned for DWPF to accelerate throughput. Changes in DWPF processing strategy have required this WAPS specification to be revisited to ensure that the resulting phases have been bounded. Frit 418 was primarily used to process HLW Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) at 38% waste loading (WL) through the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated a cache of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate the SB3-Frit 418 system at a 38 wt % WL for glass

  2. Modelling and synthesis of pharmaceutical processes: moving from batch to continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil

    understanding of the pharmaceutical process has resulted in major improvements in the field. Process systems engineering (PSE) approaches, which have been successfully applied in the design, analysis and optimization of chemical and petrochemical processes, might be also important for the improvement...... selection are analysed. The objective of the reaction analysis section is to collect reaction data and by using model-based methods to investigate possibilities of reaction improvement by evaluating the reaction conditions, the operating mode, the solvent role, and the reactor design. In the third section...... as a motivating example. The second case study focuses on the application of the developed solvent selection methodology for solvent swap problems. The third case study focused on multiphase reaction systems and improvements through the combination of reaction-separation. Finally, model-based analysis...

  3. High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99).

  4. SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.

    2010-10-07

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory

  5. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  6. 法夫酵母产虾青素的反复分批及反复分批补料发酵%Repeated batch and fed-batch process for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖安风; 倪辉; 李利君; 蔡慧农

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of batch and repeated batch process was carried out for astaxanthin fermentation of Phaffia rhodozyma to develop a more economical method for astaxanthin industrial production. In shaking flask fermentation, the change of biomass and astaxanthin production was studied to compare the five-day cycle with four-day cycle of repeated batch culture of P. thodozyma. Astaxanthin production increased at first and then decreased subsequently in seven cycles, yet the yield of astaxanthin in the next six cycles remains higher than that of the first cycle. Comparing the average production of astaxanthin in the seven cycles, four-day cycle performed even better than five-day cycle. Subsequently, a repeated fed-batch process was used in a 5-1 bioreactor. The experimental data showed that biomass and astaxanthin production of the second batch could reach the level of the first batch, no matter that the carbon source was glucose or hydrolysis sugar of starch. This result showed that this strain had good stability, and thus repeated batch and fed-batch process could be applied in astaxanthin fermentation for economical purpose.%以生物量和虾青素产量为指标,考察法夫酵母多批次半连续培养产虾青素的稳定性.实验结果显示,在摇瓶上分别以4 d和5 d为周期反复分批培养法夫酵母,虾青素产量呈现先增加再下降的趋势,但第2代至第7代虾青素产量仍高于第 1代,并且4 d为周期的虾青素平均产量略高于5 d的.在5 L罐法夫酵母进行反复分批补料发酵中,不管是补加30%的葡萄糖还是补加30%的淀粉水解糖,第2个批次发酵的生物量和虾青素产量均达到第1个批次的水平,表明菌种稳定性较好.

  7. Ethanol Production from Whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus in Batch Fermentation System: Kinetics Parameters Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Ariyanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. It is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. In environmental point of view, whey is kind of waste which has high pollution level due to it’s contain high organic compound with BOD and COD value 50 and 80 g/L respectively. On the other side, whey also contain an amount of lactose (4.5%-5%; lactose can be used as carbon source and raw material for producing ethanol via fermentation using yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus. The objective of this research is to investigate the ethanol production kinetics from crude whey through fermentation using Kluyveromyces marxianus and to predict the model kinetics parameter. The yeast was able to metabolize most of the lactose within 16 h to give 8.64 g/L ethanol, 4.43 g/L biomass, and remain the 3.122 g/L residual lactose. From the results presented it also can be concluded that common kinetic model for microbial growth, substrate consumption, and product formation is a good alternative to describe an experimental batch fermentation of Kluyveromyces marxianus grown on a medium composed of whey. The model was found to be capable of reflecting all batch culture phases to a certain degree of accuracy, giving the parameter value: μmax, Ks, YX/S, α, β : 0.32, 10.52, 0.095, 1.52, and 0.11 respectively. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 27th September 2012; Revised: 29th November 2012; Accepted: 7th December 2012[How to Cite: D. Ariyanti, H. Hadiyanto, (2013. Ethanol Production from Whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus in Batch Fermentation System: Kinetics Parameters Estimation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 179-184. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4044.179-184][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4044.179-184 ] View in  |

  8. Fingerprint detection and process prediction by multivariate analysis of fed-batch monoclonal antibody cell culture data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Michael; Soos, Miroslav; Neunstoecklin, Benjamin; Morbidelli, Massimo; Butté, Alessandro; Leardi, Riccardo; Solacroup, Thomas; Stettler, Matthieu; Broly, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a sequential data analysis path, which was successfully applied to identify important patterns (fingerprints) in mammalian cell culture process data regarding process variables, time evolution and process response. The data set incorporates 116 fed-batch cultivation experiments for the production of a Fc-Fusion protein. Having precharacterized the evolutions of the investigated variables and manipulated parameters with univariate analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) are used for further investigation. The first major objective is to capture and understand the interaction structure and dynamic behavior of the process variables and the titer (process response) using different models. The second major objective is to evaluate those models regarding their capability to characterize and predict the titer production. Moreover, the effects of data unfolding, imputation of missing data, phase separation, and variable transformation on the performance of the models are evaluated.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells: Influence of Mild Hypothermia and Specific Growth Rates in Batch and Chemostat Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vergara

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are the main host for producing recombinant proteins with human therapeutic applications mainly because of their capability to perform proper folding and glycosylation processes. In addition, mild hypothermia is one of the main strategies for maximising the productivity of these systems. However, little information is available on the effect of culture temperature on the folding and degradation processes of recombinant proteins that takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum.In order to evaluate the effect of the mild hypothermia on processing/endoplasmatic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD processes, batch cultures of CHO cells producing recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rht-PA were carried out at two temperatures (37°C and 33°C and treated with specific inhibitors of glycosylation and ERAD I (Ubiquitin/Proteasome system or ERAD II (Autophagosoma/Lisosomal system pathways. The effect of mild hypothermia was analysed separately from its indirect effect on specific cell growth rate. To do this, chemostat cultures were carried out at the same incubation conditions as the batch cultures, controlling cell growth at high (0.017 h-1 and low (0.012 h-1 dilution rates. For a better understanding of the investigated phenomenon, cell behaviour was also analysed using principal component analysis (PCA.Results suggest that rht-PA is susceptible to degradation by both ERAD pathways studied, revealing that processing and/or ERAD processes are sensitive to temperature cultivation in batch culture. Moreover, by isolating the effect of culture temperature from the effect of cell growth rate verifyed by using chemostat cultures, we have found that processing and/or ERAD processes are more sensitive to reduction in specific growth rate than low temperature, and that temperature reduction may have a positive effect on protein processing. Interestingly, PCA indicated that the integrated performance displayed by CHO

  10. Spatial Data Batch Processing using Python%基于Python的空间数据批量处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海波; 向洪普

    2011-01-01

    结合工作实践,在分析Python语言特点的基础上,介绍其在空间数据批量处理方面的应用。编制的程序实例可供相关人员参考。%Combining with working practice,the paper introduces application of python in spatial data batch processing based on analyzing the characteristics of Python.The programming examples can be referred by related professionals.

  11. A Genetic Algorithm for Feeding Trajectory Optimisation of Fed-batch Fermentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a genetic algorithm is proposed with the purpose of the feeding trajectory optimization during a fed-batch fermentation of E. coli. The feed rate profiles are evaluated based on a number of objective functions. Optimization results obtained for different feeding trajectories demonstrate that the genetic algorithm works well and shows good computational performance. Developed optimal feed profiles meet the defined criteria. The ration of the substrate concentration and the difference between actual cell concentration and theoretical maximum cell concentration is defined as the most appropriate objective function. In this case the final cell concentration of 43 g·l-1 and final product concentration of 125 g·l-1 are achieved and there is not significant excess of substrate.

  12. A process for energy-efficient high-solids fed-batch enzymatic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, M J; Tozzi, E J; Karuna, N; Jeoh, T; Powell, R L; McCarthy, M J

    2015-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is a key step in the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Economically feasible large-scale implementation of the process requires operation at high solids loadings, i.e., biomass concentrations >15% (w/w). At increasing solids loadings, however, biomass forms a high viscosity slurry that becomes increasingly challenging to mix and severely mass transfer limited, which limits further addition of solids. To overcome these limitations, we developed a fed-batch process controlled by the yield stress and its changes during liquefaction of the reaction mixture. The process control relies on an in-line, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rheometer to monitor real-time evolution of yield stress during liquefaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that timing of enzyme addition relative to biomass addition influences process efficiency, and the upper limit of solids loading is ultimately limited by end-product inhibition as soluble glucose and cellobiose accumulate in the liquid phase.

  13. Versatile modeling and optimization of fed batch processes for the production of secreted heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Brigitte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretion of heterologous proteins depends both on biomass concentration and on the specific product secretion rate, which in turn is not constant at varying specific growth rates. As fed batch processes usually do not maintain a steady state throughout the feed phase, it is not trivial to model and optimize such a process by mathematical means. Results We have developed a model for product accumulation in fed batch based on iterative calculation in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and used the Solver software to optimize the time course of the media feed in order to maximize the volumetric productivity. The optimum feed phase consisted of an exponential feed at maximum specific growth rate, followed by a phase with linearly increasing feed rate and consequently steadily decreasing specific growth rate. The latter phase could be modeled also by exact mathematical treatment by the calculus of variations, yielding the explicit shape of the growth function, however, with certain indeterminate parameters. To evaluate the latter, one needs a numerical optimum search algorithm. The explicit shape of the growth function provides additional evidence that the Excel model results in correct data. Experimental evaluation in two independent fed batch cultures resulted in a good correlation to the optimized model data, and a 2.2 fold improvement of the volumetric productivity. Conclusion The advantages of the procedure we describe here are the ease of use and the flexibility, applying software familiar to every scientist and engineer, and rapid calculation which makes predictions extremely easy, so that many options can be tested in silico quickly. Additional options like further biological and technological constraints or different functions for specific productivity and biomass yield can easily be integrated.

  14. The optimal manufacturing batch size with rework under time-varying demand process for a finite time horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Sarah; Supadi, Siti Suzlin; Omar, Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Rework is one of the solutions to some of the main issues in reverse logistic and green supply chain as it reduces production cost and environmental problem. Many researchers focus on developing rework model, but to the knowledge of the author, none of them has developed a model for time-varying demand rate. In this paper, we extend previous works and develop multiple batch production system for time-varying demand rate with rework. In this model, the rework is done within the same production cycle.

  15. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Sequence Batch Reactor Wastewater Treatment System Using Synthetic Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian; JIANG Xiao-Qin; YANG Lin-Zhang; ZHANG Jian; QIAO Qing-Yun; HE Chen-Da; YIN Shi-Xue

    2006-01-01

    The rate of nitrous oxide emission from a laboratory sequence batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment system using synthetic wastewater was measured under controlled conditions. The SBR was operated in the mode of 4 h for aeration, 3.5 h for stirring without aeration, 0.5 h for settling and drainage, and 4 h of idle. The sludge was acclimated by running the system to achieve a stable running state as indicated by rhythmic changes of total N, dissolved oxygen,chemical oxygen demand, NO2-, NO3-, NH4+, pH, and N2O. Under the present experimental conditions measured nitrous oxide emitted from the off-gas in the aerobic and anaerobic phases, respectively, accounted for 8.6%-16.1% and 0-0.05%of N removed, indicating that the aerobic phase was the main source of N2O emission from the system. N2O dissolved in discharged water was considerable in term of concentration. Thus, measures to be developed for the purpose of reducing N2O emission from the system should be effective in the aeration phase.

  16. A batch system for HEP applications on a distributed IaaS cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, I.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Leavett-Brown, D. Harris C.; Paterson, M.; Penfold-Brown, D.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.; Charbonneau, A.; Impey, R.; Podaima, W.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of academic and commercial Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) clouds is opening access to new resources for the HEP community. In this paper we will describe a system we have developed for creating a single dynamic batch environment spanning multiple IaaS clouds of different types (e.g. Nimbus, OpenNebula, Amazon EC2). A HEP user interacting with the system submits a job description file with a pointer to their VM image. VM images can either be created by users directly or provided to the users. We have created a new software component called Cloud Scheduler that detects waiting jobs and boots the user VM required on any one of the available cloud resources. As the user VMs appear, they are attached to the job queues of a central Condor job scheduler, the job scheduler then submits the jobs to the VMs. The number of VMs available to the user is expanded and contracted dynamically depending on the number of user jobs. We present the motivation and design of the system with particular emphasis on Cloud Scheduler. We show that the system provides the ability to exploit academic and commercial cloud sites in a transparent fashion.

  17. Nisin production of Lactococcus lactis N8 with hemin-stimulated cell respiration in fed-batch fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kördikanlıoğlu, Burcu; Şimşek, Ömer; Saris, Per E J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, nisin production of Lactococcus lactis N8 was optimized by independent variables of glucose, hemin and oxygen concentrations in fed-batch fermentation in which respiration of cells was stimulated with hemin. Response surface model was able to explain the changes of the nisin production of L. lactis N8 in fed-batch fermentation system with high fidelity (R(2) 98%) and insignificant lack of fit. Accordingly, the equation developed indicated the optimum parameters for glucose, hemin, and dissolved oxygen were 8 g L(-1) h(-1) , 3 μg mL(-1) and 40%, respectively. While 1711 IU mL(-1) nisin was produced by L. lactis N8 in control fed-batch fermentation, 5410 IU mL(-1) nisin production was achieved within the relevant optimum parameters where the respiration of cell was stimulated with hemin. Accordingly, nisin production was enhanced 3.1 fold in fed-batch fermentation using hemin. In conclusion the nisin production of L. lactis N8 was enhanced extensively as a result of increasing the biomass by stimulating the cell respiration with adding the hemin in the fed-batch fermentation.

  18. Shortcut Procedure for Inverted Batch Distillation Column (Ⅰ) Multicomponent Ideal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inverted batch distillation colunm(stripper) is opposed to a conventional batch distillation column(rectifier). It has a storage vessel at the top and products leave the column at the bottom. The batch stripper is favourable to separate mixtures with a small amount of light components by removing the heavy components as bottom products. In this paper, we are presenting a shortcut procedure based on our earlier work for design and simulation of the inverted batch distillation column, which is equivalent to the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland procedure for continuous distillation. Given a separation task, we propose to compute the minimum number of stages(Nbmin)and the minimum reboil ratio(Rbmin) required in a batch stripper,which are the stages and reboil ratio required in a hypothetical inverted batch distillation colnmn operating in total reboil ratio or having an infinite number of stages,respectively. Then, it is shown that the performance of inverted batch columns with a finite number of stages and reboil ratios could be correlated in Gilliland coordinates with the minimum stages Nbmin and the minimum reboil ratio Rbmin.

  19. Treatment of anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater through chemical precipitation and a sequencing batch reactor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Song, Qianwu; Wang, Wenjun; Wu, Shaowei; Dai, Jiankun

    2012-06-30

    Chemical precipitation, in combination with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process, was employed to remove pollutants from anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater. The effects of the chemicals along with various Mg:N:P ratios on the chemical precipitation (struvite precipitation) were investigated. When brucite and H(3)PO(4) were applied at an Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3:1:1, an ammonia-removal rate of 81% was achieved, which was slightly more than that (80%) obtained with MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O at Mg:N:P molar ratios greater than the stoichiometric ratio. To further reduce the ammonia loads of the successive biotreatment, an overdose of phosphate with brucite and H(3)PO(4) was applied during chemical precipitation. The ammonia-removal rate at the Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3.5:1:1.05 reached 88%, with a residual PO(4)-P concentration of 16 mg/L. The economic analysis showed that the chemical cost of chemical precipitation could be reduced by about 41% when brucite and H(3)PO(4) were used instead of MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O. The subsequent biological process that used a sequencing batch reactor showed high removal rates of contaminants. The quality of the final effluent met the requisite effluent-discharging standards.

  20. Recipe Development Process Re-Design with ANSI/ISA-88 Batch Control Standard in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita De Minicis

    2014-11-01

    which must be appropriately shared among local laboratories and plants. To this extent, the ANSI/ISA-88 batch manufacturing standard, rising in the context of process control and automation, is rapidly becoming widely used in pharmaceutical companies. This paper presents a step-by-step approach to assessing the compliance to the ANSI/ISA-88 standard along with a BPM-oriented methodology applicable to the re-design of any generic recipe development process. Redesigning a recipe development process is a complex activity and can mask several pitfalls and criticalities. Thus, along with the methodology, some general evidence and suggestions are provided based on the experience of a project carried out in a large multinational pharmaceutical company.

  1. Changing the batch system in a Tier 1 computing center: why and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, Andrea; Dal Pra, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    At the Italian Tierl Center at CNAF we are evaluating the possibility to change the current production batch system. This activity is motivated mainly because we are looking for a more flexible licensing model as well as to avoid vendor lock-in. We performed a technology tracking exercise and among many possible solutions we chose to evaluate Grid Engine as an alternative because its adoption is increasing in the HEPiX community and because it's supported by the EMI middleware that we currently use on our computing farm. Another INFN site evaluated Slurm and we will compare our results in order to understand pros and cons of the two solutions. We will present the results of our evaluation of Grid Engine, in order to understand if it can fit the requirements of a Tier 1 center, compared to the solution we adopted long ago. We performed a survey and a critical re-evaluation of our farming infrastructure: many production softwares (accounting and monitoring on top of all) rely on our current solution and changing it required us to write new wrappers and adapt the infrastructure to the new system. We believe the results of this investigation can be very useful to other Tier-ls and Tier-2s centers in a similar situation, where the effort of switching may appear too hard to stand. We will provide guidelines in order to understand how difficult this operation can be and how long the change may take.

  2. On-line controlling system for nitrogen and phosphorus removal of municipal wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun LI; Yongjiong NI; Yongzhen PENG; Guowei GU; Jingen LU; Su WEI; Guobiao CHENG; Changjin OU

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish an on-line controlling system for nitrogen and phosphorus removal synchronously of municipal wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR for municipal wastewater treatment was operated in sequences: filling, anaerobic, oxic, anoxic, oxic, settling and discharge. The reactor was equipped with on-line monitoring sensors for dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH. The variation of DO, ORP and pH is relevant to each phase of biological process for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in this SBR. The characteristic points of DO, ORP and pH can be used to judge and control the stages of process that include: phosphate release by the turning points of ORP and pH; nitrification by the ammonia valley of pH and ammonia elbows of DO and ORP; denitrification by the nitrate knee of ORP and nitrate apex ofpH; phosphate uptake by the turning point ofpH; and residual organic carbon oxida-tion by the carbon elbows of DO and ORP. The controlling system can operate automatically for nitrogen and phosphorus efficiently removal.

  3. Metaheuristics for the Order Batching Problem in Manual Order Picking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In manual order picking systems, order pickers walk or drive through a distribution warehouse in order to collect items which are requested by (internal or external customers. In order to perform these operations efficiently, it is usually required that customer orders are combined into (more substantial picking orders of limited size. The Order Batching Problem considered in this paper deals with the question of how a given set of customer orders should be combined such that the total length of all tours is minimized which are necessary to collect all items. The authors introduce two metaheuristic approaches for the solution of this problem: the first one is based on Iterated Local Search; the second on Ant Colony Optimization. In a series of extensive numerical experiments, the newly developed approaches are benchmarked against classic solution methods. It is demonstrated that the proposed methods are not only superior to existing methods but provide solutions which may allow distribution warehouses to be operated significantly more efficiently.

  4. 间歇生产过程鲁棒统计监控及其应用%A Robust Statistical Batch Process Monitoring Framework and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢磊; 张建明; 王树青

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce the variations of the product quality in batch processes, multivariate statistical process control methods according to multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) or multi-way projection to latent structure (MPLS) were proposed for on-line batch process monitoring. However, they are based on the decomposition of relative covariance matrix and strongly affected by outlying observations. In this paper, in view of an efficient projection pursuit algorithm, a robust statistical batch process monitoring (RSBPM) framework,which is resistant to outliers, is proposed to reduce the high demand for modeling data. The construction of robust normal operating condition model and robust control limits are discussed in detail. It is evaluated on monitoring an industrial streptomycin fermentation process and compared with the conventional MPCA. The results show that the RSBPM framework is resistant to possible outliers and the robustness is confirmed.

  5. Repeated batch cell-immobilized system for the biotechnological production of xylitol as a renewable green sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouh, Boutros; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2013-04-01

    The present paper studies the biotechnological production of xylitol using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate in a repeated batch fermentation system with immobilized cells of Candida guilliermondii FTI20037. Immobilized cell system is considered as an attractive alternative to reuse the well-grown and adapted yeast cells in a new fresh fermentation media, without the need of the inoculum stage. In this work, seven repeated batches were performed in a fluidized bed bioreactor using immobilized cells in calcium alginate beads. According to the obtained results it was observed that the immobilized cells of C. guilliermondii can be reused for six successive batches maintaining an average xylitol yield (Y(p/s)) of 0.7 g/L and a volumetric productivity (Q(p)) of 0.42 g/Lh at the end of 432 h of fermentation. On the other hand, in the seventh batch (504 h), a decrease of 44 % in the final concentration of xylitol was observed. This reduction can be explained by the possible diffusion and accumulation of insoluble substances, found in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate, in the interior of the immobilization support resulting in substrate mass transfer limitations.

  6. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling o

  7. An integrated model of scheduling, batch delivery and supplier selection in a make-to-order manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a supply chain, which consists of a manufacturer, a retailer and several suppliers in which the retailer orders jobs to the manufacturer and the suppliers provide the requiring parts. The manufacturer schedules and processes the orders and dispatches them to the retailer either individually or collectively in batches. The manufacturer incurs a penalty cost for each tardy job and a transportation cost for every delivered batch and therefore, searches for a schedule that yields minimum number of tardy jobs and batches. Moreover, the manufacturer tries to optimize its supplying cost through locating the suppliers that offer appropriate release times and costs for manufacturing parts. Since the release times of parts directly affect scheduling of orders, in this research, we develop an integrated mathematical model for the manufacturer that incorporates suppliers' selection issue into the scheduling and batching decisions. Furthermore, we present a heuristic algorithm (greedy algorithm and also a local search to quickly determine the optimal or near-optimal solutions. The computational analysis shows the importance of the integrated model and also the superiority and effectiveness of the heuristic algorithms.

  8. Application of Continuous-Time Batch Markovian Arrival Processes and Particle Tracking Model to Probabilistic Sediment Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Christina; Hung, Serena

    2016-04-01

    To more precisely describe particle movement in surface water, both the random particle arrival process at the receiving water and the stochastic particle movement in the receiving water should be carefully considered in sediment transport modeling. In this study, a stochastic framework is developed for a probabilistic description of discrete particle transport through a probability density function of sediment concentrations and transport rates. In order to more realistically describe the particle arrivals into receiving waters at random times and with a probabilistic particle number in each arrival, the continuous-time batch Markovian arrival process is introduced. The particle tracking model (PTM) composed of physically based stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for particle trajectory is then used to depict the random movement of particles in the receiving water. Particle deposition and entrainment processes are considered in the model. It is expected that the particle concentrations in the receiving water and particle transport rates can be mathematically expressed as a stochastic process. Compared with deterministic modeling, the proposed approach has the advantage of capturing any randomly selected scenarios (or realizations) of flow and sediment properties. Availability of a more sophisticated stochastic process for random particle arrival processes can assist in quantifying the probabilistic characteristics of sediment transport rates and concentrations. In addition, for a given turbidity threshold, the risk of exceeding a pre-established water quality standard can be quantified as needed.

  9. Batch processing of overlapping molecular spectra as a tool for spatio-temporal diagnostics of power modulated microwave plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voráč, Jan; Synek, Petr; Potočňáková, Lucia; Hnilica, Jaroslav; Kudrle, Vít

    2017-02-01

    Power modulated microwave plasma jet operating in argon at atmospheric pressure was studied by spatio-temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in order to clarify the influence of modulation on plasma parameters. OES was carried out in OH, NH, N2 and {{{N}}}2+ spectral regions using a spectrometer with intensified CCD detector synchronised with 101–103 Hz sine modulating signal. A special software, able to fit even the overlapping spectra, was developed to batch process the massive datasets produced by this spatio-temporal study. Results show that studied species with the exception of {{{N}}}2+ have balanced rotational and vibrational temperatures across the modulation frequencies. Significant influence of modulation can be clearly observed on temperature spatial gradients. Whereas for low modulation frequencies where the temperatures reach sharp maxima upon discharge tip, the high frequency modulation produces thermally homogeneous plasma.

  10. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis. Annual subcontract report, 11 March 1991--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisnant, R.A. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price.

  11. Fusion of product and process data: Batch-mode and real-time streaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent De Sapio; Spike Leonard

    1999-12-01

    In today's DP product realization enterprise it is imperative to reduce the design-to-fabrication cycle time and cost while improving the quality of DP parts (reducing defects). Much of this challenge resides in the inherent gap between the product and process worlds. The lack of seamless, bi-directional flow of information prevents true concurrency in the product realization world. This report addresses a framework for product-process data fusion to help achieve next generation product realization. A fundamental objective is to create an open environment for multichannel observation of process date, and subsequent mapping of that data onto product geometry. In addition to the sensor-based observation of manufacturing processes, model-based process data provides an important complement to empirically acquired data. Two basic groups of manufacturing models are process physics, and machine kinematics and dynamics. Process physics addresses analytical models that describe the physical phenomena of the process itself. Machine kinematic and dynamic models address the mechanical behavior of the processing equipment. As a secondary objective, an attempt has been made in this report to address part of the model-based realm through the development of an open object-oriented library and toolkit for machine kinematics and dynamics. Ultimately, it is desirable to integrate design definition, with all types of process data; both sensor-based and model-based. Collectively, the goal is to allow all disciplines within the product realization enterprise to have a centralized medium for the fusion of product and process data.

  12. Evaluation of degree of readsorption of radionuclides during sequential extraction in soil: comparison between batch and dynamic extraction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald; Hou, Xiaolin

    Sequential extraction techniques have been widely used to fractionate metals in solid samples (soils, sediments, solid wastes, etc.) due to their leachability. The results are useful for obtaining information about bioavailability, potential mobility and transport of element in natural environments...... developed in our laboratory for heavy metal fractionation has shown the reduction of readsorption problem in comparison with the batch techniques. Moreover, the system shows many advantages over the batch system such as speed of extraction, simple procedure, fully automatic, less risk of contamination....... However, the techniques have an important problem with redistribution as a result of readsorption of dissolved analytes onto the remaining solids phases during extraction. Many authors have demonstrated the readsorption problem and inaccuracy from it. In our previous work, a dynamic extraction system...

  13. Metabolic Control in Mammalian Fed-Batch Cell Cultures for Reduced Lactic Acid Accumulation and Improved Process Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Konakovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and cell-specific metabolic rates usually change dynamically over time, making the “feed according to need” strategy difficult to realize in a commercial fed-batch process. We here demonstrate a novel feeding strategy which is designed to hold a particular metabolic state in a fed-batch process by adaptive feeding in real time. The feed rate is calculated with a transferable biomass model based on capacitance, which changes the nutrient flow stoichiometrically in real time. A limited glucose environment was used to confine the cell in a particular metabolic state. In order to cope with uncertainty, two strategies were tested to change the adaptive feed rate and prevent starvation while in limitation: (i inline pH and online glucose concentration measurement or (ii inline pH alone, which was shown to be sufficient for the problem statement. In this contribution, we achieved metabolic control within a defined target range. The direct benefit was two-fold: the lactic acid profile was improved and pH could be kept stable. Multivariate Data Analysis (MVDA has shown that pH influenced lactic acid production or consumption in historical data sets. We demonstrate that a low pH (around 6.8 is not required for our strategy, as glucose availability is already limiting the flux. On the contrary, we boosted glycolytic flux in glucose limitation by setting the pH to 7.4. This new approach led to a yield of lactic acid/glucose (Y L/G around zero for the whole process time and high titers in our labs. We hypothesize that a higher carbon flux, resulting from a higher pH, may lead to more cells which produce more product. The relevance of this work aims at feeding mammalian cell cultures safely in limitation with a desired metabolic flux range. This resulted in extremely stable, low glucose levels, very robust pH profiles without acid/base interventions and a metabolic state in which lactic acid was consumed instead of being produced from day 1. With

  14. Optimal Control of a Fed-batch Fermentation Process by Neuro-Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ilkova

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method for optimal control of a fermentation process is presented, that is based on an approach for optimal control - Neuro-Dynamic programming. For this aim the approximation neural network is developed and the decision of the optimization problem is improved by an iteration mode founded on the Bellman equation. With this approach computing time and procedure are decreased and quality of the biomass at the end of the process is increased.

  15. An integral term adaptive neural control of fed-batch fermentation biotechnological process; Control neuronal adaptable con termino integral para un proceso biotecnologico de fermentacion por lote alimentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruch, Ieroham; Hernandez, Luis Alberto; Barrera Cortes, Josefina [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    A nonlinear mathematical model of aerobic biotechnological process of a fed-batch fermentation system is derived using ordinary differential equations. A neurocontrol is applied using Recurrent Trainable Neural Network (RTNN) plus integral term; the first network performs an approximation of the plant's output; the second network generates the control signal so that the biomass concentration could be regulated by the nutrient influent flow rate into the bioreactor. [Spanish] Un modelo matematico no lineal de un proceso biotecnologico aerobio de un sistema de fermentacion por lote alimentado es presentado mediante ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Es propuesto un control utilizando dos redes neuronales recurrentes entrenables (RNRE) con la adicion de un termino integral; la primera red representa un aproximador de la salida de la planta y la segunda genera la senal de control tal que la concentracion de la biomasa pueda ser regulada mediante la alimentacion de un flujo con nutrientes al biorreactor.

  16. Production of high-oleic acid tallow fractions using lipase-catalyzed directed interesterification, using both batch and continuous processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie; Stevenson

    2000-08-01

    Immobilized lipases were used to catalyze batch-directed interesterification of tallow, resulting in oleins containing significantly higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids than obtained by fractionation without lipase. After 14 days, a reaction catalyzed by 2% Novozym 435 yielded 57% olein unsaturation, compared with 45% in a no-enzyme control. Free fatty acid levels increased to 2-3% during reactions. Incubation of the enzyme in multiple batches of melted fat caused a gradual loss of interesterification activity, apparently due to progressive dehydration. The activity could be restored by addition of water to the reaction medium. Immobilized lipase was also used to catalyze directed interesterification in a continuous flow reactor. Melted tallow was circulated through a packed bed enzyme reactor and a separate crystallization vessel. The temperatures of the two parts of the apparatus were controlled separately to allow crystallization to occur separately from interesterification. Operation of the reactor with conventionally dry, prefractionated tallow allowed the formation of an olein consisting of up to 60% unsaturated fatty acids. The greatest changes in olein fatty acid composition were achieved when the fractionation temperature was kept constant at a value that promoted selective crystallization of trisaturated triglycerides that were continuously produced by enzymic interesterification. The enzyme could be reused without apparent loss of activity, and its activity was apparently enhanced by preincubation in melted tallow for up to several days. Control of both the water activity of the enzyme and tallow feedstock and of the absorption of atmospheric water vapor were required to maintain enzyme activity, during multiple reuse and minimize free fatty acid formation. This method may form the basis for a process to produce highly mono-unsaturated tallow fractions for use in food applications (e.g. frying) where a "healthy" low saturated fat product is required.

  17. Simultaneous removal of nutrients from milking parlor wastewater using an AO2 sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a lab-scale, anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor ((AO)2 SBR) to simultaneously remove biological organics, nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy milking parlor wastewater was investigated in this study. Three hydraulic retention times (HRT = 2.1, 2.7, and 3.5 days) and three mixing-to-process time ratios (TM/TP = 0.43, 0.57, and 0.68) were evaluated as two controlling factors using a 3 × 3 experimental design to determine the optimal combination. Results showed that the HRT of 2.7 days with TM/TP = 0.57 was the best to achieve simultaneous nutrients removal for the influent with initial soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of about 2000 mg L(-1) (only 0.55 mg L(-1) NH4-N, < 0.1 mg L(-1) nitrate, and 0.14 mg L(-1) soluble phosphorus in the effluent). Good correlations between pH and ORP, and ORP and DO, were also obtained with correlation coefficients all higher than or equal to 0.975. These relationships could be used to develop real-time control strategies to optimize the duration of each operating phase in the (AO)2 SBR system to save energy and enhance treatment efficiency.

  18. Cu2+ removal and recovery by Spi SORB: batch stirred and up-flow packed bed columnar reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannela, Raveender; Verma, Sanjay Kumar

    2006-06-01

    The biosorption of Cu(2+) by free and poly acrylamide gel (PAG) immobilized Spirulina platensis (SpiSORB) was characterized under batch and continuous packed bed columnar reaction systems. The biosorption of Cu(2+) was shown to be highest at pH of 6.0 for both types of biomass. The PAG immobilization process did not interfere with the Cu(2+) binding sites present on biomass leading to cent percent (ca. 250 mg g(-1) of dry biomass) retention of biosorption as compared to free cells. Transmission electron microscopy on Cu(2+) localization revealed that majority of metal is being sequestered by the cell wall only. The infrared spectrum of metal treated S. platensis biomass indicated the possible involvement of amide, amino, and carboxyl groups in metal binding. Up-flow packed bed columnar reactor containing 2.0 g of PAG immobilized S. platensis shown a maximum of 143-fold volume reduction factor at the residence time of 4.6 min for Cu(2+) alone and found to decrease dramatically when Zn(2+ )is present in a bimetallic solution.

  19. Systematic Modelling and Crystal Size Distribution Control for Batch Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    Crystallization processes form an important class of separation methods that are frequently used in the chemical, the pharmaceutical and the food industry. The specifications of the crystal product are usually given in terms of crystal size, shape and purity. In order to predict the desired cryst...

  20. Quantitative and qualitative transitions of methanogen community structure during the batch anaerobic digestion of cheese-processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-08-01

    Qualitative and quantitative shifts in methanogen community structure, associated with process performance data, were investigated during the batch anaerobic digestion of a cheese-processing wastewater, whey permeate. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques were applied to obtain qualitative and quantitative microbial data sets, respectively, based on methanogen 16S rRNA genes. Throughout the operation, dynamic variations in both qualitative and quantitative community structures were observed, with repeated shifts in dominance between the aceticlastic Methanosarcinaceae (suggested mainly by the detection of a Methanosarcina-like population) and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales (suggested mainly by the detection of a Methanofollis-like population). This trend corresponded well to the diauxic utilization of acetate and longer-chain fatty acids (C(3)-C(6)), mainly propionate. Joint-plot non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) analysis demonstrated that the qualitative and quantitative community shifts had significant correlations with the composition of residual organic acids and the methane production rate, respectively. This suggests the potential use of microbial community shift analysis as an indicative tool for diagnosing anaerobic digestion processes. The results suggest that more attention should be directed to quantitative, as well as qualitative, approaches for a better understanding of anaerobic digestion, particularly in terms of biogas production efficiency, under dynamic and transitional conditions.

  1. Removal efficiency of fluoride by novel Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide by batch process from water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandip Mandal; Swagatika Tripathy; Tapswani Padhi; Manoj Kumar Sahu; Raj Kishore Patel

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride ion removal from aqueous solution using synthesized Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide has been reported.Mg-Cr-Cl was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction,Fourier-transform infrared,thermo-gravimetric analysis,differential thermal analysis,and scanning electron microscope.Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode as a function of adsorption dosages,contact time,pH,and initial fluoride concentration to get optimum adsorption capacity.The adsorption kinetic study showed that the adsorption process followed first order kinetics.The fluoride removal was 88.5% and 77.4% at pH 7 with an adsorbent dose of 0.6 g/100 mL solution and initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L and 100 mg/L,respectively.The equilibrium was established at 40 min.Adsorption experiment data were fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with Ra =0.9924.Thermodynamic constants were also measured and concluded that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.The removal percentage decreased slowly with increasing pH.This process is suitable for industrial effluents.The regeneration of the material is not possible.

  2. Microbial Protein Production from Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 in a Submerged Batch Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Golaghaiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Microbial protein production can resolve one of the major world challenges, i.e. lack of protein sources. Candida tropicalis growth was investigated to specify a medium to reach the highest cell proliferation and protein production.Material and Methods: Fractional factorial design and the index of signal to noise ratio were applied for optimization of microbial protein production. Optimization process was conducted based on the experimental results of Taguchi approach designs. Fermentationwas performed at 25oC and the agitation speed of 300 rpm for 70 h. Ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose concentrations were considered as process variables. Optimization of the culture medium composition was conducted in order to obtain the highest cell biomass concentration and protein content. Experiment design was performed based on the Taguchi approach and L-16 orthogonal arrays using Qualitek-4 software.Results and Conclusion: Maximum biomass of 8.72 log (CFU ml-1 was obtained using the optimized medium with 0.3, 0.15, 2 and 80 g l-1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose, respectively. Iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate with 41.76% (w w-1 and 35.27% (w w-1 contributions, respectively, were recognized as the main components for cell growth. Glucose and glycine with 17.12% and 5.86% (w w-1 contributions,respectively, also affected cell production. The highest interaction severity index of +54.16% was observed between glycine and glucose while the least one of +0.43% was recorded for ammonium sulfate and glycine. A deviation of 7% between the highestpredicted cell numbers and the experimented count confirms the suitability of the applied statistical method. High protein content of 52.16% (w w-1 as well as low fat and nucleic acids content suggest that Candida tropicalis is a suitable case for commercial processes.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  3. Antibiotic abatement in different advanced oxidation processes coupled with a biological sequencing batch biofilm reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplugas, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Benito, J.; Sans, C.

    2009-07-01

    During the last decade, the lack of fresh water is becoming a major concern. Recently, the present of recalcitrant products such as pharmaceuticals has caused a special interest due to their undefined environmental impact. Among these antibiotics are one of the numerous recalcitrant pollutants present in surface waters that might not be completely removed in the biological stage of sewage treatment plants because of their antibacterial nature. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have proved to be highly efficient for the degradation of most organic pollutants in wastewaters. (Author)

  4. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... individual HAP partial pressures in multicomponent systems are described in paragraph (b)(9) of this section...: Eepisode = Emissions, kg/episode. K = Constant, 2.494 × 10−6 (ppmv)−1 (gm-mole/scm) (kg/gm) (min/hr), where... × 10−−6 (ppmv)−1 (gm-mole/scm) (kg/gm) (min/hr), where standard temperature is 20 °C....

  5. CMOS compatible generic batch process towards flexible memory on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-12-01

    Today\\'s mainstream flexible electronics research is geared towards replacing silicon either totally, by having organic devices on organic substrates, or partially, by transferring inorganic devices onto organic substrates. In this work, we present a pragmatic approach combining the desired flexibility of organic substrates and the ultra-high integration density, inherent in silicon semiconductor industry, to transform bulk/inflexible silicon into an ultra-thin mono-crystalline fabric. We also show the effectiveness of this approach in achieving fully flexible electronic systems. Furthermore, we provide a progress report on fabricating various memory devices on flexible silicon fabric and insights for completely flexible memory modules on silicon fabric.

  6. Comparison of three combined sequencing batch reactor followed by enhanced Fenton process for an azo dye degradation: Bio-decolorization kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, A; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Maknoon, R; Kowsari, E

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this research was to compare three combined sequencing batch reactor (SBR) - Fenton processes as post-treatment for the treatment of azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18). Three combined treatment systems (CTS1, CTS2 and CTS3) were operated to investigate the biomass concentration, COD removal, AR18 dye decolorization and kinetics study. The MLSS concentration of CTS2 reached 7200 mg/L due to the use of external feeding in the SBR reactor of CTS2. The COD concentration remained 273 mg/L and 95 mg/L (initial COD=3270 mg/L) at the end of alternating anaerobic-aerobic SBR with external feeding (An-A MSBR) and CTS2, respectively, resulting in almost 65% of Fenton process efficiency. The dye concentration of 500 mg/L was finally reduced to less than 10mg/L in all systems indicating almost complete AR18 decolorization, which was also confirmed by UV-vis analysis. The dye was removed following two successive parts as parts 1 and 2 with pseudo zero-order and pseudo first-order kinetics, respectively, in all CTSs. Higher intermediate metabolites degradation was obtained using HPLC analysis in CTS2. Accordingly, a combined treatment system can be proposed as an appropriate and environmentally-friendly system for the treatment of the azo dye AR18 in wastewater.

  7. An improved solution of local window parameters setting for local singularity analysis based on Excel VBA batch processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daojun; Cheng, Qiuming; Agterberg, Frits; Chen, Zhijun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper Excel VBA is used for batch calculation in Local Singularity Analysis (LSA), which is for the information extracting from different kinds of geoscience data. Capabilities and advantages of a new module called Batch Tool for Local Singularity Index Mapping (BTLSIM) are: (1) batch production of series of local singularity maps with different settings of local window size, shape and orientation parameters; (2) local parameter optimization based on statistical tests; and (3) provision of extra output layers describing how spatial changes induced by parameter optimization are related to spatial structure of the original input layers.

  8. Heat transfer system safety: Comparing the effectiveness of batch venting and a light-ends removal kit (LERK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ian Wright

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer fluids (HTF should be analysed at least once per year to determine the extent of thermal degradation. Under normal operating conditions, mineral-based HTFs will thermally degrade and the bonds between hydrocarbons break to form shorter-chain hydrocarbons known as “light-ends”. These light-ends accumulate in a HTF system and present a future potential fire risk. Light-ends can be removed from a HTF system via a batch vent or installation of a temporary or permanently installed light-ends removal kit (LERK. Data was collected prior to and following batch venting or installation of a LERK. The main study parameter was closed flash temperature as open flash temperature and fire point did not change considerably. Analysis showed that both methods increased closed flash temperature in excess of 130 °C three months after the intervention, so both methods were deemed effective. Data showed that the percentage change achieved with the LERK, compared to batch venting, was 2-fold higher at three months and 10-fold higher at 6 months. The duration of effect was longer with the LERK with closed flash temperature being stable and consistently above 130 °C for 50 months after being permanently installed. This case highlights the effectiveness of a permanently fitted LERK which is effective for the longer-term control of closed flash temperature. However, mobile LERKs could be an option for manufacturers looking to manage closed flash temperature on a shorter-term basis or as an alternative to batch venting.

  9. Asymptotic Modelling of Crystallisation in Two Layers Systems. Application to Methane Hydrate Formation in Batch Reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Cournil, Michel; Herri, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    6 pages; This paper proposes to re-visit the problem of gas-liquid crystallization in the framework of a two-layer model and with the help of data coming from experiments on methane hydrate crystallization in a semi-batch reactor. Preliminary quantitative discussion of the order of magnitude of different effects makes possible realistic simplifications in the theoretical models. In particular, the role of the interfacial film is clearly defined. As previous authors did, we use a formulation i...

  10. Improved production of human type II procollagen in the yeast Pichia pastoris in shake flasks by a wireless-controlled fed-batch system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myllyharju Johanna

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe a new technical solution for optimization of Pichia pastoris shake flask cultures with the example of production of stable human type II collagen. Production of recombinant proteins in P. pastoris is usually performed by controlling gene expression with the strong AOX1 promoter, which is induced by addition of methanol. Optimization of processes using the AOX1 promoter in P. pastoris is generally done in bioreactors by fed-batch fermentation with a controlled continuous addition of methanol for avoiding methanol toxification and carbon/energy starvation. The development of feeding protocols and the study of AOX1-controlled recombinant protein production have been largely made in shake flasks, although shake flasks have very limited possibilities for measurement and control. Results By applying on-line pO2 monitoring we demonstrate that the widely used pulse feeding of methanol results in long phases of methanol exhaustion and consequently low expression of AOX1 controlled genes. Furthermore, we provide a solution to apply the fed-batch strategy in shake flasks. The presented solution applies a wireless feeding unit which can be flexibly positioned and allows the use of computer-controlled feeding profiles. By using the human collagen II as an example we show that a quasi-continuous feeding profile, being the simplest way of a fed-batch fermentation, results in a higher production level of human collagen II. Moreover, the product has a higher proteolytic stability compared to control cultures due to the increased expression of human collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase as monitored by mRNA and protein levels. Conclusion The recommended standard protocol for methanol addition in shake flasks using pulse feeding is non-optimal and leads to repeated long phases of methanol starvation. The problem can be solved by applying the fed-batch technology. The presented wireless feeding unit, together with an on-line monitoring

  11. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  12. Dynamics of hydrogen-producing bacteria in a repeated batch fermentation process using lake sediment as inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Stefano; Paganin, Patrizia; Varrone, Cristiano; Tabacchioni, Silvia; Chiarini, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of lake sediment as inoculum for hydrogen production through dark fermentation in a repeated batch process. In addition, we investigated the effect of heat treatment, applied to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria, on the bacterial composition and metabolism. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and molecular cloning, both performed using the 16S rDNA gene as target gene, were used to monitor the structure of the bacterial community. Hydrogen production and bacterial metabolism were analysed via gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both treated and non-treated inocula were able to produce high amounts of hydrogen. However, statistical analysis showed a clear difference in their bacterial composition and metabolism. The heat treatment favoured the growth of different Clostridia sp., in particular of Clostridium bifermentans, allowing the production of a constant amount of hydrogen over prolonged time. These cultures showed both butyrate and ethanol fermentation types. Absence of heat treatment allowed species belonging to the genera Bacillus, Sporolactobacillus and Massilia to outgrow Clostridia sp. with a reduction in hydrogen production and a significant metabolic change. Our data indicate that lake sediment harbours bacteria that can efficiently produce hydrogen over prolonged fermentation time. Moreover, we could show that the heat treatment stabilizes the bacterial community composition and the hydrogen production.

  13. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  14. miRNA profiling of high, low and non-producing CHO cells during biphasic fed-batch cultivation reveals process relevant targets for host cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Fabian; Fischer, Simon; Sczyrba, Alexander; Otte, Kerstin; Hesse, Friedemann

    2016-05-10

    Fed-batch cultivation of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is one of the most widely used production modes for commercial manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics. Furthermore, fed-batch cultivations are often conducted as biphasic processes where the culture temperature is decreased to maximize volumetric product yields. However, it remains to be elucidated which intracellular regulatory elements actually control the observed pro-productive phenotypes. Recently, several studies have revealed microRNAs (miRNAs) to be important molecular switches of cell phenotypes. In this study, we analyzed miRNA profiles of two different recombinant CHO cell lines (high and low producer), and compared them to a non-producing CHO DG44 host cell line during fed-batch cultivation at 37°C versus a temperature shift to 30°C. Taking advantage of next-generation sequencing combined with cluster, correlation and differential expression analyses, we could identify 89 different miRNAs, which were differentially expressed in the different cell lines and cultivation phases. Functional validation experiments using 19 validated target miRNAs confirmed that these miRNAs indeed induced changes in process relevant phenotypes. Furthermore, computational miRNA target prediction combined with functional clustering identified putative target genes and cellular pathways, which might be regulated by these miRNAs. This study systematically identified novel target miRNAs during different phases and conditions of a biphasic fed-batch production process and functionally evaluated their potential for host cell engineering.

  15. Novel micro-bioreactor high throughput technology for cell culture process development: Reproducibility and scalability assessment of fed-batch CHO cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Ashraf; Otero, Jose Manuel; Mikola, Mark; Hsu, Amy; Zhang, Jinyou; Aunins, John; Schreyer, H Brett; Hope, James A; Russo, A Peter

    2010-05-01

    With increasing timeline pressures to get therapeutic and vaccine candidates into the clinic, resource intensive approaches such as the use of shake flasks and bench-top bioreactors may limit the design space for experimentation to yield highly productive processes. The need to conduct large numbers of experiments has resulted in the use of miniaturized high-throughput (HT) technology for process development. One such high-throughput system is the SimCell platform, a robotically driven, cell culture bioreactor system developed by BioProcessors Corp. This study describes the use of the SimCell micro-bioreactor technology for fed-batch cultivation of a GS-CHO transfectant expressing a model IgG4 monoclonal antibody. Cultivations were conducted in gas-permeable chambers based on a micro-fluidic design, with six micro-bioreactors (MBs) per micro-bioreactor array (MBA). Online, non-invasive measurement of total cell density, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) was performed. One hundred fourteen parallel MBs (19 MBAs) were employed to examine process reproducibility and scalability at shake flask, 3- and 100-L bioreactor scales. The results of the study demonstrate that the SimCell platform operated under fed-batch conditions could support viable cell concentrations up to least 12 x 10(6) cells/mL. In addition, both intra-MB (MB to MB) as well as intra-MBA (MBA to MBA) culture performance was found to be highly reproducible. The intra-MB and -MBA variability was calculated for each measurement as the coefficient of variation defined as CV (%) = (standard deviation/mean) x 100. The % CV values for most intra-MB and intra-MBA measurements were generally under 10% and the intra-MBA values were slightly lower than those for intra-MB. Cell growth, process parameters, metabolic and protein titer profiles were also compared to those from shake flask, bench-top, and pilot scale bioreactor cultivations and found to be within +/-20% of the historical averages.

  16. 批处理工艺处理水基切削废液工程实例%Engineering example of the treatment of water-based waste cutting fluid by batch processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琦平; 衡祥; 乔春生

    2011-01-01

    介绍了采用批处理工艺对金属水基切削废液进行预处理的工程实例.通过批处理槽的破乳、絮凝、气浮作用,使废水COD和油类的去除率分别达到84.8%、92.3%.批处理槽出水与生活污水混合后通过生物处理和深度处理,系统总的出水优于(GB 8978-1996)一级标准.%An engineering example of using batch processing for the pretreatment of metal water-based waste cutting fluid is introduced. The COD and oil removal rate of the wastewater are 84.8% ,92.3% ,respectively,by means of demulsification, flocculation and air-flotation processes in the batch processing tank. After mixing the effluent from the batch processing tank with domestic sewage ,and through biological treatment and advanced treatment ,the quality of the total effluent water of the system is superior to the first grade of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978-1996).

  17. Identification of genes whose expressions are enhanced or reduced in baker's yeast during fed-batch culture process using molasses medium by DNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Jun; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Tanaka, Fumiko; Watanabe, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Tokashiki, Tadaaki; Tamura, Hiromi

    2005-06-25

    Genes whose expression levels are enhanced or reduced during the cultivation process that uses cane molasses in baker's yeast production were identified in this study. The results showed that baker's yeast grown in molasses medium had higher fermentation ability and stress tolerance compared with baker's yeast grown in synthetic medium. Molasses apparently provided not only sugar as a carbon source but also provided functional components that enhanced or reduced expression of genes involved in fermentation ability and stress tolerance. To identify the genes whose expression is enhanced or reduced during cultivation in molasses medium, DNA microarray analysis was then used to compare the gene expression profile of cells grown in molasses with that of cells grown in synthetic medium. To simulate the commercial baker's yeast production process, cells were cultivated using a fed-batch culture system. In molasses medium, genes involved in the synthesis or uptake of vitamins (e.g., biotin, pyridoxine and thiamine) showed enhanced expression, suggesting that vitamin concentrations in molasses medium were lower than those in synthetic medium. Genes involved in formate dehydrogenase and maltose assimilation showed enhanced expression in molasses medium. In contrast, genes involved in iron utilization (e.g., siderophore, iron transporter and ferroxidase) showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium, suggesting that iron starvation occurred. The genes involved in the metabolism of amino acids also showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium. This identification of genes provides information that will help improve the baker's yeast production process.

  18. 基于 Python 的 ArcGIS 地理数据批处理%The Batch Processing of ArcGIS Geographic Data Based on Python

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣辉; 张玉贤; 佃袁勇; 毕创; 任赳龙

    2015-01-01

    ArcGIS地理处理工具一般只针对单个数据集执行,而运用Python脚本语言可以实现地理数据的批处理。本文以原始DEM影像插值生成特定空间分辨率的DEM影像为例,给出数据批处理的具体实现过程。%ArcGIS geoprocessing tools are usually used to process single dataset , however , the batch processing of geographic data can be achieved by using Python language .This article represents the specific processes of achieving the batch processing of geographic data , and gives an example of generating DEM images of specific special resolution with original DEM images .

  19. Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevoigt Elke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced to a certain extent without jeopardising growth and stress tolerance, the yeast's capacity to synthesize glycerol was adjusted by fine-tuning the activity of the rate-controlling enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH. Two engineered strains whose specific GPDH activity was significantly reduced by two different degrees were comprehensively characterized in a previously developed Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP fed-batch process. Results The prototrophic strain CEN.PK113-7D was chosen for decreasing glycerol formation capacity. The fine-tuned reduction of specific GPDH activity was achieved by replacing the native GPD1 promoter in the yeast genome by previously generated well-characterized TEF promoter mutant versions in a gpd2Δ background. Two TEF promoter mutant versions were selected for this study, resulting in a residual GPDH activity of 55 and 6%, respectively. The corresponding strains were referred to here as TEFmut7 and TEFmut2. The genetic modifications were accompanied to a strong reduction in glycerol yield on glucose; the level of reduction compared to the wild-type was 61% in TEFmut7 and 88% in TEFmut2. The overall ethanol production yield on glucose was improved from 0.43 g g-1 in the wild type to 0.44 g g-1 measured in TEFmut7 and 0.45 g g-1 in TEFmut2. Although maximal growth rate in the engineered strains was reduced by 20 and 30%, for TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 respectively, strains' ethanol stress robustness was hardly affected; i.e. values for final ethanol concentration (117 ± 4 g

  20. Differential responses of gut microbiota to the same prebiotic formula in oligotrophic and eutrophic batch fermentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Qianpeng; Feng, Zhou; Bridgewater, Laura; Wang, Linghua; Zhao, Liping; Pang, Xiaoyan

    2015-08-25

    The same prebiotics have produced inconsistent effects on microbiota when evaluated in different batch fermentation studies. To understand the reasons behind these discrepancies, we compared impact of one prebiotic formula on the same inoculated fecal microbiota in two frequently used batch systems: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, oligotrophic) and basal culture medium (BCM, eutrophic). The microbiota was monitored using 454 pyrosequencing. Negative controls (no prebiotic) of both systems showed significant shifts in the microbiota during fermentation, although their pH remained relatively stable, especially in BCM, with increases in Bilophila and Escherichia/Shigella but a decrease in Faecalibacterium. We identified prebiotic responders via redundancy analysis by including both baseline and negative controls. The key positive and negative responders in the two systems were very different, with only 8 consistently modulated OTUs (7 of the 28 positive responders and 1 of the 35 negative responders). Moreover, some OTUs within the same genus responded to the prebiotic in opposite ways. Therefore, to obtain a complete in vitro evaluation of the modulatory effects of a prebiotic on microbiota, it is necessary to use both oligotrophic and eutrophic systems, compare treatment groups with both baseline and negative controls, and analyze the microbiota changes down to the OTU level.

  1. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration’s disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR’s urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA.

  2. 乙醇-乙酸乙酯体系的间歇萃取精馏研究%Study on Batch Extractive Distillation of Ethanol- Ethyl Acetate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑锋; 袁旭宏; 黄海明; 陈红; 叶余原; 尤玉静; 熊双喜

    2014-01-01

    In the conventional batch extractive distillation experimental device, the batch extractive distillation process of ethanol- ethyl acetate system by using N,N-dimethy formamide and dimethy sulphoxide as extracting agents was studied. Effects of total reflux time, extractant, azeotrope composition, volume ratio of solvent to mixture ,adding salt, adding alkali and other factors on the extractive distillation separation of ethanol- ethyl acetate system were investigated, then the best extractive distillation conditions were obtained .%在常规的间歇萃取精馏实验装置中,研究了以 N,N-二甲基酰胺(DMF)和二甲亚砜(DMSO)作萃取剂;在间歇萃取精馏塔中分离乙醇-乙酸乙酯体系的过程。对全回流时间、不同萃取剂、恒沸物组成、溶剂和混合物的体积比、加盐及加碱等因素考察,分析萃取精馏分离乙醇-乙酸乙酯共沸体系的影响,从而得出最佳的萃取条件。

  3. DETERMINATION OF SELECTED SPECIES TEXTURE PROCESSED CHEESE AND PROCESSED PRODUCTS DIFFERENT BATCHES UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS KEEP THEM FOR EATING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čapla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated the texture of processed cheese and processed products. The products we have retained as it is assumed that they kept and used by ordinary consumers. This means that the product purchased certain period has elapsed, we included in our test conditions. Texture analysis help provide the basic methods and explaining procedures for analysis, also provide for the initiation of new types of tests or review new products and therefore be dealt with differences in the products according to specific requirements. Sensory panels also play an important role in the evaluation of food products, but the use of texture analyzer eliminates human error and tests carried out are consistent and accurate. Analysis of texture help manufacturers monitor and analyze the texture characteristics of their products. From the producers can modify the product key factors such as characteristics of the milk into cheese and can also modify manufacturing processes to the functional properties of cheese. Fulfilling the basic requirements to maintain their properties and cheese functionality.

  4. Screening and assessment of performance and molecule quality attributes of industrial cell lines across different fed-batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Bielser, Jean-Marc; Brühlmann, David; Jordan, Martin; Broly, Hervé; Stettler, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge in the selection process of recombinant cell lines for the production of biologics is the choice, early in development, of a clonal cell line presenting a high productivity and optimal cell growth. Most importantly, the selected candidate needs to generate a product quality profile which is adequate with respect to safety and efficacy and which is preserved across cell culture scales. We developed a high-throughput screening and selection strategy of recombinant cell lines, based on their productivity in shaking 96-deepwell plates operated in fed-batch mode, which enables the identification of cell lines maintaining their high productivity at larger scales. Twelve recombinant cell lines expressing the same antibody with different productivities were selected out of 470 clonal cell lines in 96-deepwell plate fed-batch culture. They were tested under the same conditions in 50 mL vented shake tubes, microscale and lab-scale bioreactors in order to confirm the maintenance of their performance at larger scales. The use of a feeding protocol and culture conditions which are essentially the same across the different scales was essential to maintain productivity and product quality profiles across scales. Compared to currently used approaches, this strategy has the advantage of speeding up the selection process and increases the number of screened clones for getting high-producing recombinant cell lines at manufacturing scale with the desired performance and quality.

  5. A special reactor design for investigations of mixing time effects in a scaled-down industrial L-lysine fed-batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling; Pfefferle; Bachmann; Leuchtenberger; Deckwer

    1999-09-01

    A specially designed model reactor based on a 42-L laboratory fermentor was equipped with six stirrers (Rushton turbines) and five cylindrical disks. In this model reactor, the mixing time, Theta(90), turned out to be 13 times longer compared with the 42-L standard laboratory fermentor fitted with two Rushton turbines and four wall-fixed longitudinal baffles. To prove the suitability of the model reactor for scaledown studies of mixing-time-dependent processes, parallel exponential fed-batch cultivations were carried out with the leucine-auxotrophic strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum DSM 5715, serving as a microbial test system. L&HYPHEN;Leucine, the process-limiting substrate, was fed onto the liquid surface of both reactors. Cultivations were conducted using the same inoculum material and equal oxygen supply. The model reactor showed reduced sugar consumption (-14%), reduced ammonium consumption (-19%), and reduced biomass formation (-7%), which resulted in a decrease in L-lysine formation (-12%). These findings were reflected in less specific enzyme activity, which was determined for citrate synthase (CS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-C), and aspartate kinase (AK). The reduced specific activity of CS correlated with lower CO(2) evolution (-36%) during cultivation. The model reactor represents a valuable tool to simulate the conditions of poor mixing and inhomogeneous substrate distribution in bioreactors of industrial scale. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. 纯棉织物B型活性印花冷堆固色%Cold print-batch process of cotton fabric with B type reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友波; 唐群; 吴君风

    2012-01-01

    Cotton printing is carried out with cold batching fixation using B-type reactive dyes. In this process, alkaline is first padded into high count polyester fabric, and then the reactive printed cotton fabric is batched and dwelled together with the treated polyester fabric. The factors affecting the printing effects are analyzed, including specifications of polyester fabric, the padder pressure and thickener types. Cold batching fixation and steaming fixation are compared. It is found that the cold batching fixation features high color yield of up to 90% and good color fastness.%纯棉织物用异双活性基的B型活性染料印花后冷堆固色,通过将固色碱液施于经纬密度较高的涤纶布上,再将其与印有活性染料的纯棉织物一起打卷,使该含有碱剂的涤纶织物衬于棉织物之中.通过试验,分析了影响印花效果的因素,包括涤纶的组织规格、轧车压力、糊料种类等;比较了冷堆固色与汽蒸固色的效果,发现B型活性染料采用冷堆固色方法,固色率可达90%,且色牢度好.

  7. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment by Perlite Nanomineral, Batch and Continuous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Kumars Seifpanahi; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Badii, Khshayar; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the adsorption activity of perlite nanoparticles for removal of Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions at Iran Sarcheshmeh copper acid mine drainage was discussed. Thus, raw perlite that provided from internal resource was modified and prepared via particles size reduction to nano scale and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transforms infrared and BET specific surface area analysis. The results of acid mine drainage show that pH of acid mine drainage is 5.1 and Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions are 10.5, 4.1 and 8.3 ppm, respectively. Firstly in the batch system the influence of adsorbent dose and temperature parameters were considered and then isothermal and kinetic models were investigated. According to the results the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model showed better correlation with the experimental data than other isotherm and kinetic models. Obtained thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° show that the Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions adsorption from acid mine drainage is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, perlite nanoparticles adsorbent was packed inside a glass column and used for the removal of heavy metals in 1, 3, 5 ml/min acid mine drainage flow rates, the breakthrough curves show that the column was saturated at 180, 240 and 315 min for different flow rates, respectively. According to the obtained results, this abundant, locally available and cheap silicate mineral showed a great efficiency for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from acid mine drainage and can be utilized for much volume of acid mine drainage or industrial scale. W pracy omówiono zdolności adsorpcyjne nano-cząsteczek perlitu wykorzystywanych o usuwania jonów Cu2+, Fe2+ i Mn2+ z kwaśnych wód kopalniach w kopalni miedzi w Sarcheshmeh w Iranie. Surowy perlit pozyskiwany ze źródeł własnych został zmodyfikowany i odpowiednio spreparowany poprzez zre-dukowanie cz

  8. Systematic classification of unseeded batch crystallization systems for achievable shape and size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, David; Nagy, Zoltan K.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the current work is to develop a systematic classification scheme for crystallization systems considering simultaneous size and shape variations, and to study the effect of temperature profiles on the achievable final shape of crystals for various crystallization systems. A classification method is proposed based on the simultaneous consideration of the effect of temperature profiles on nucleation and growth rates of two different characteristic crystal dimensions. Hence the approach provides direct indication of the extent in which crystal shape may be controlled for a particular system class by manipulating the supersaturation. A multidimensional population balance model (PBM) was implemented for unseeded crystallization processes of four different compounds. The effect between the nucleation and growth mechanisms on the final aspect ratio (AR) was investigated and it was shown that for nucleation dominated systems the AR is independent of the supersaturation profile. The simulation results confirmed experimentally also show that most crystallization systems tend to achieve an equilibrium shape hence the variation in the aspect ratio that can be achieved by manipulating the supersaturation is limited, in particular when nucleation is also taken into account as a competing phenomenon.

  9. Parametric and energy consumption optimization of Basic Red 2 removal by electrocoagulation/egg shell adsorption coupling using response surface methodology in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Zhao, Meixia; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Lili; Liu, Xingjuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) model was applied for optimization of Basic Red 2 (BR2) removal using electrocoagulation/eggshell (ES) coupling process in a batch system. Central composite design was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of process parameters including current density, reaction time, initial pH and ES dosage on the BR2 removal efficiency and energy consumption. The analysis of variance revealed high R(2) values (≥85%) indicating that the predictions of RSM models are adequately applicable for both responses. The optimum conditions when the dye removal efficiency of 93.18% and energy consumption of 0.840 kWh/kg were observed were 11.40 mA/cm(2) current density, 5 min and 3 s reaction time, 6.5 initial pH and 10.91 g/L ES dosage.

  10. 基于动态SDG模型的间歇过程HAZOP方法研究%Study of HAZOP analysis for batch processes based on dynamic SDG model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰娟; 周江涛; 曹青

    2011-01-01

    HAZOP( Hazard and Operability Analysis) is one of the most widely used methods for safety assessment. However, after surveying most of the existing techniques of process safety assessment and corresponding software at home and abroad, it was found that little research had been done to the HAZOP analysis for batch process. Therefore, a new modeling method which integrated Petri Net deeply into SDG( Signed Directed Graph)model was presented. This model aimed at HAZOP analysis for batch process specially, with SDG as its main body and Petri Net the assistant. As Petri Net could well describe the discrete-event character of batch process, and SDG explicitly represented the continuous nature of it, the combination of them made the presented model an effective tool for HAZOP analysis of batch process.%危险与可操作性分析(HAzOP)是目前应用最为广泛的安全评价方法之一.然而,通过对国内外已实施的生产过程安全评价方法及相关计算机辅助安全评价软件调查发现,目前对间歇过程HAZOP分析的研究还较少.因此,将Petri网与符号定向图(SDG)相结合,以SDG模型为主,Petri网模型为辅,建立专门针对间歇过程HAZOP分析的动态SDG模型.由于Petri网可以准确描述间歇过程的离散事件特性,而SDG能够恰当描述间歇过程的连续特性,二者结合使该模型成为间歇过程HAZOP分析的有力工具.

  11. Optimal Iterative Learning Control for Batch Processes Based on Linear Time-varying Perturbation Model%基于线性时变扰动模型的间歇过程最优迭代学习控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊智华; ZHANG Jie; 董进

    2008-01-01

    A batch-to-batch optimal iterative learning control (ILC) strategy for the tracking control of product quality in batch processes is presented. The linear time-varying perturbation (LTVP) model is built for product quality around the nominal trajectories. To address problems of model-plant mismatches, model prediction errors in the previous batch run are added to the model predictions for the current batch run. Then tracking error transition models can be built, and the ILC law with direct error feedback is explicitly obtained. A rigorous theorem is pro-posed, to prove the convergence of tracking error under ILC. The proposed methodology is illustrated on a typical batch reactor and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  12. HLW Feed Delivery AZ101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements [Initial Release at Rev 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-02-28

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC.

  13. Batch By Batch Longitudinal Emittance Blowup MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, T; Butterworth, A; Jaussi, M; Molendijk, J

    2012-01-01

    The transverse bunch emittance increases significantly at 450 GeV from the time of injection till the ramp due to IBS. By selectively blowing up the longitudinal emittance of the incoming batch at each injection, it should be possible to reduce the transverse emittance growth rates due to IBS. An MD was conducted on April 22nd 2012 to test the feasibility and performance of the batch-by-batch longitudinal emittance blowup. There were three main goals during the MD. First, to test the developed hardware, firmware, and software for the batch-by-batch blowup. Then, to measure the transverse emittance growth rates of blown-up and "witness" batches to quantify any improvement, and finally to test the ALLInjectSequencer class, which deals with the complicated gymnastics of introducing or masking the new batch to various RF loops.

  14. Controle multivariado de processos em batelada com duração variável Multivariate statistical control of unsynchronized batch processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio S. Fogliatto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Processos em batelada são utilizados em diversos setores industriais (por exemplo, na manufatura de alimentos e fármacos. Nesses processos, matérias-primas são carregadas em uma unidade de processamento e submetidas a uma série de transformações até a obtenção do produto final. O desempenho do processo é descrito por variáveis, monitoradas ao longo da batelada. Dados resultantes desses processos tendem a apresentar uma estrutura de correlação e autocorrelação significativa, sendo usualmente monitorados usando cartas de controle baseadas na análise de componentes principais (CCPs. Neste artigo, investiga-se o caso especial, bastante freqüente na prática, de bateladas com duração variável, as quais não podem ser diretamente monitoradas através das CCPs. Para tanto, propõe-se uma nova estratégia de controle multivariado da qualidade. No procedimento proposto, bateladas não são alinhadas ou time warped relativamente a suas trajetórias, mas completadas utilizando um esquema de fácil implementação prática. Desta forma, preserva-se toda a informação sobre a variabilidade ao longo do eixo do tempo nos perfis das variáveis de processo. O conjunto de dados completados é analisado utilizando o método Statis e o monitoramento do desempenho da batelada é realizado diretamente nos gráficos de planos fatoriais, a partir dos quais cartas de controle não-paramétricas são derivadas. Um exemplo utilizando dados simulados ilustra a proposta metodológica.Batch processes are widely used in several industrial sectors, such as food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. In a typical batch, raw materials are loaded in the processing unit and submitted to a series of transformations, yielding the final product. Process performance is described by variables which are monitored as the batch progresses. Data arising from such processes are likely to display a strong correlation-autocorrelation structure, and are usually monitored using

  15. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  16. Pt(II) coordination complexes as visible light photocatalysts for the oxidation of sulfides using batch and flow processes

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Sánchez, A.; Gómez-Ballesteros, R.; Tato, F.; Soriano, F.J.; Pascual-Coca, G.; Cabrera, S.; J. Alemán

    2016-01-01

    A new catalytic system for the photooxidation of sulfides based on Pt(ii) complexes is presented. The catalyst is capable of oxidizing a large number of sulfides containing aryl, alkyl, allyl, benzyl, as well as more complex structures such as heterocycles and methionine amino acid, with complete chemoselectivity. In addition, the first sulfur oxidation in a continuous flow process has been developed

  17. Inside the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by De-Oiled Allspice Husk in batch and continuous processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Olivares, J; Pérez-Alonso, C; Barrera-Díaz, C; López, G; Balderas-Hernández, P

    2010-09-15

    A new adsorbent material for removing lead ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The residue of the allspice extraction process (De-Oiled Allspice Husk) was used on the removal of Pb(II) from water solutions. The lead sorption capacity of De-Olied Allspice Husk (DOAH) was studied in batch and continuous processes. It was found that percentage removals of Pb(II) depend on the pH and the initial lead concentrations. The Pb(II) uptake process was maximum at pH 5 in a range concentrations of 5-25 mg L(-1). The overall sorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model under conditions of pH 5 (0.1 g adsorbent per 100 mL of contaminated solution) 0.001 mass/volume ratio and 25 degrees C. The sorption capacity of lead(II) onto DOAH in batch process was 5.00, 8.02, 11.59, 15.23 and 20.07 mg g(-1), when the concentration solutions were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L(-1) respectively. These values are lower than obtained in continuous process, where lead was removed by 95% and the experimental results were appropriately fitted by the Yoon-Nelson model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides information regarding the interactions between lead ions and the adsorbent surface indicating that the formation of 2 complexes depends on the functional groups associated.

  18. Model-based analysis of high shear wet granulation from batch to continuous processes in pharmaceutical production--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    The manufacturing of pharmaceutical dosage forms, which has traditionally been a batch-wise process, is now also transformed into a series of continuous operations. Some operations such as tabletting and milling are already performed in continuous mode, while the adaptation towards a complete continuous production line is still hampered by complex steps such as granulation and drying which are considered to be too inflexible to handle potential product change-overs. Granulation is necessary in order to achieve good flowability properties and better control of drug content uniformity. This paper reviews modelling and supporting measurement tools for the high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process, which is an important granulation technique due to the inherent benefits and the suitability of this unit operation for the desired switch to continuous mode. For gaining improved insight into the complete system, particle-level mechanisms are required to be better understood, and linked with an appropriate meso- or macro-scale model. A brief review has been provided to understand the mechanisms of the granulation process at micro- or particle-level such as those involving wetting and nucleation, aggregation, breakage and consolidation. Further, population balance modelling (PBM) and the discrete element method (DEM), which are the current state-of-the-art methods for granulation modelling at micro- to meso-scale, are discussed. The DEM approach has a major role to play in future research as it bridges the gap between micro- and meso-scales. Furthermore, interesting developments in the measurement technologies are discussed with a focus towards inline measurements of the granulation process to obtain experimental data which are required for developing good models. Based on the current state of the developments, the review focuses on the twin-screw granulator as a device for continuous HSWG and attempts to critically evaluate the current process. As a result, a set of open

  19. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  20. Cold-walled UHV/CVD batch reactor for the growth of Si1_x/Gex layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Christensen, Carsten; Andersen, C.R.;

    1997-01-01

    A novel cold-walled, lamp-heated, ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) batch system for the growth of SiGe layers is presented. This system combines the batch capability of the standard UHV/CVD furnace with the temperature processing available in rapid thermal processing (Rm) equi...

  1. Automated process planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, W.

    1978-01-01

    Program helps process engineers set up manufacturing plans for machined parts. System allows one to develop and store library of similar parts characteristics, as related to particular facility. Information is then used in interactive system to help develop manufacturing plans that meet required standards.

  2. 基于改进MPLS的间歇过程监测与故障诊断%Batch process monitoring and fault diagnosis based on improved MPLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学金; 崔久莉; 齐咏生; 王普; 王锡昌

    2013-01-01

    针对间歇过程三维数据预处理中不同展开方式的多向偏最小二乘(MPLS)方法在线应用时存在的缺陷,提出改进的MPLS方法。该方法结合传统沿变量展开与批次展开的优势,不仅包含了批次间的信息,在一定程度上去除了过程的非线性及动态性,而且解决了在线应用时数据填充的问题;其次,该方法采用随时间更新的协方差代替固定的主元协方差充分考虑了得分向量的动态特性;最后,引进时变贡献图的故障诊断方法,实现了对故障源的实时跟踪。将该方法应用到工业青霉素发酵过程中,并与传统的MPLS方法进行比较。结果表明:该方法具有更好的监控性能,并能够及时检测故障及跟踪故障源。%Aiming at the defect of three-dimensional data pre-processing of traditional partial least squares (MPLS) in batch process online monitoring, an improved method of MPLS was researched to do online monitoring and fault diagnosis in this paper. In the data pre-processing, the method combined the advantages of traditional expanding methods. It contained information of different batches that removed the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics of the process at a certain extent, as well as resolving the problem of data filled in online applications. Then, the method researched in this paper used time-varying covariance to replace the fixed one of principal components, which fully considers the dynamic characteristics of the score vector. In addition, time-varying contribution plots were proposed to diagnose anomalous batch process. The improved method is applied to detecting and identifying faults in the simulation benchmark of fed-batch penicillin production and is compared with traditional MPLS method. The results show that the improved method has better performance in process monitoring, identify and faults in time and follows the tracks of fault source instantly.

  3. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process.

  4. Batch efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Schwickerath, U; Uria, C; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  5. Batch efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian, E-mail: Ulrich.Schwickerath@cern.c, E-mail: Ricardo.Silva@cern.c [CERN IT, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  6. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-10-01

    To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production.

  7. Batch process. Batch super-fractionation as analysis technique (Development of a pretreatment apparatus for the analysis of microcomponents in the water); Bunseki gijutsu toshiteno bacchi seimitsu joryu - suichu niokeru biryo seibun no bunseki yozen shori sochi no kaihatsu -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    One, S.

    1997-09-05

    To analyze high boiling point organic contaminants in the water, first, the contaminants are extracted by using organic solvents, and condensed to such concentrations that they are in the ranges suited to the sensitivities of the analyzers used. Using a newly developed pretreatment apparatus for the analysis of microcontaminants in the water, samples to be analyzed are prepared by automatic condensation of the extracted samples by batch distillation. All of the series operations, i.e. cleaning the apparatus, introducing samples, condensing the samples, taking out the samples and cleaning the apparatus are automated. In the automation, a computer system for an ASTM distilling apparatus, a drop counter for measuring the amount of evaporated liquid and a float type liquid level control apparatus for controlling the measurement of the liquid level are utilized. In order to detect the contaminants remaining in the apparatus after cleaned, a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer is used as an ultramicroanalysis technique. The sequence of the automatic operation was programmed by using a personal computer, and the operation data were logged, whereby data necessary for quantitative analysis, such as the calculation of material balance were stored. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Modelling of a Batch Whey Cultivation of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis MC 5 with Investigation of Mass Transfer Processes in the Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mitko Petrov; Tatiana Ilkova; Juris Vanags

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a mathematical model of a batch fermentation of lactose oxidation from a natural substratum in a cultivation by the strain Kluyweromyces marxianus var. lactis MC 5. In the model of the process, the mass transfer in the bioreactor for oxygen concentration in the gas phase (GP) and in the liquid phase (LP) is based on the dispersion model of the GP. In addition, perfect mixing in LP is included. Nine models were investigated for specific growth rate and specific oxygen consu...

  9. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  10. Batch system for study of Cr(VI) Bio sorption by dried waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzadkia, M.; Gholami, M.; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R.; Yaghmaeian, K.; Shams Khorramabadi, G.

    2009-07-01

    Activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems contains both bacteria and protozoa. The cell wall of bacteria essentially consists of various compounds, such as carboxyl, acidic polysaccharides,lipids, amino acids and other components. (Author)

  11. Improvement of Efficiency and Electrical Energy Consumption of AB74 Degradation Process using A Novel Cylindrical Batch Photochemical Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Olya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of electric energy consumption in degradation of Indigo Carmine based on a new cylindrical batch suspension photocatalytic reactor designing concerning the main engineering parameters such as mixing, reaction kinetic, mass transfer, catalyst illumination, and inherent potential of contaminant was done. The most degradation efficiency was observed within in air flow rate 1.2L.min-1, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.0294mol.L-1, pH between 2-3, initial dye concentration 10mg.L-1, and initial TiO2 dose 2g.L-1. Applying optimum condition eventuated 76.09% TOC reduction after 60 min reaction time. The results show that designed reactor is extremely affective in reduction of operational cost.

  12. Modelling the trade off between period lenght and stages in a period batch control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a nonparametric interest rate term structure model and investigate its implications on term structure dynamics and prices of interest rate derivative securities. The nonparametric spot interest rate process is estimated from the observed short-term interest ra

  13. Robust optimization for nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha regulon with cost sensitivity constraint in batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Chongyang; Chang, Liang; Xie, Jun; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2016-09-01

    Time-delay dynamical systems, which depend on both the current state of the system and the state at delayed times, have been an active area of research in many real-world applications. In this paper, we consider a nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha-regulonwith unknown time-delays in batch culture of glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol induced by Klebsiella pneumonia. Some important properties and strong positive invariance are discussed. Because of the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentrations of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium points for the time-delay system, a quantitative biological robustness for the concentrations of intracellular substances is defined by penalizing a weighted sum of the expectation and variance of the relative deviation between system outputs before and after the time-delays are perturbed. Our goal is to determine optimal values of the time-delays. To this end, we formulate an optimization problem in which the time delays are decision variables and the cost function is to minimize the biological robustness. This optimization problem is subject to the time-delay system, parameter constraints, continuous state inequality constraints for ensuring that the concentrations of extracellular and intracellular substances lie within specified limits, a quality constraint to reflect operational requirements and a cost sensitivity constraint for ensuring that an acceptable level of the system performance is achieved. It is approximated as a sequence of nonlinear programming sub-problems through the application of constraint transcription and local smoothing approximation techniques. Due to the highly complex nature of this optimization problem, the computational cost is high. Thus, a parallel algorithm is proposed to solve these nonlinear programming sub-problems based on the filled function method. Finally, it is observed that the obtained optimal estimates for the time-delays are highly satisfactory

  14. Model-based analysis of high shear wet granulation from batch to continuous processes in pharmaceutical production - A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    , aggregation, breakage and consolidation. Further, population balance modelling (PBM) and the discrete element method (DEM), which are the current state-of-the-art methods for granulation modelling at micro- to meso-scale, are discussed. The DEM approach has a major role to play in future research...... reviews modelling and supporting measurement tools for the high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process, which is an important granulation technique due to the inherent benefits and the suitability of this unit operation for the desired switch to continuous mode. For gaining improved insight...... into the complete system, particle-level mechanisms are required to be better understood, and linked with an appropriate meso- or macro-scale model. A brief review has been provided to understand the mechanisms of the granulation process at micro- or particle-level such as those involving wetting and nucleation...

  15. BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Bischl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.

  16. Time-limited polling systems with batch arrivals and phase-type service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.M.; Haan, de R.; Boucherie, R.J.; Ommeren, van J.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a general framework to analyze polling systems with either the autonomous-server or the time-limited service discipline. According to the autonomous-server discipline, the server continues servicing a queue for a certain period of time. According to the time-limited service

  17. Biofouling characteristics and identification of preponderant bacteria at different nutrient levels in batch tests of a recirculating cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Chao-Cheng; Xia, Lu; Yang, Fei; Chang, Xin; Wang, Yong-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of nutrient levels on biofouling control is an important requirement for management strategies in a recirculating cooling water system. Nutrient limitation may be one way to control biofouling development without increasing biocide dosing. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of nutrient levels on biofouling characteristics and to identify the preponderant bacteria in the batch tests with a simulated cooling water system. The biofouling characteristics were assessed by varying the biofoulant mass and the bacteria respiratory activity, which was estimated by measuring oxygen uptake rates. According to the results obtained in nutrient factor experiments, the biofouling could be better controlled at carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 30 mg N/L, 8 mg N/L and 1.0 mg P/L, respectively. Increasing carbon concentrations shortened the biofouling initial growth period and resulted in higher biofoulant mass. The preponderant bacteria strains involved in biofouling under two culture conditions were identified by applying both physiological and biochemical tests and further molecular biology techniques with phylogenetic affiliation analysis. Enterobacter (family Enterobacteriaceae), Staphylococcus (family Micrococcaceae), Bacillus (family Bacillaceae), Proteus (family Enterobacteriaceae), Neisseria (family Neisseriaceae) and Pseudomonas (family Pseudomonadaceae) were dominant in the conditions of lower carbon concentration (30 mg/L). Enterobacter are autotrophs, but the other five bacteria are all heterotrophs. In the conditions of higher carbon concentration (70 mg/L), Klebsiella (family Enterobacteriaceae), Enterobacter and Microbacterium (family Microbacteriaceae) were dominant; Enterobacter and Microbacterium are heterotrophs.

  18. 27 CFR 19.748 - Dump/batch records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.748... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Account § 19.748 Dump/batch records. (a) Format of dump/batch records. Proprietor's dump/batch records shall contain,...

  19. Simulation of batch adsorption systems; Simulacao de sistemas adsorvedores operando em batelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Cristiano C.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Stachiw, Rosalvo [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the treatments used to adequate the wastewater from petroleum industry according to environmental laws, is the treatment by the adsorption process. Powdered activated carbon is the commonly used adsorber material, for this great affinity with various organic compounds. But there are alternative adsorber materials that can substitute activated carbon, with a low cost, and limited applicability. In this work, will be used the software resulting from Efli project, developed at Federal University of Technology - Parana, to compare the alternative adsorber materials (oil shale compounds and fluid catalytic cracking) efficiency to that of activated carbon. (author)

  20. Quartz resonator processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  1. Application oriented batch fabrication and system level integration of thermal-piezoresistive and piezoelectric M/NEMS resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Emad

    Today micro- and nano-electromechanical (MEMS and NEMS) resonant sensors are integral to numerous industrial, environmental, and biomedical applications. Traditionally capacitive and piezoelectric have been the primary options for transduction of high frequency resonant structures. When direct contact with the surrounding environment is needed, however, capacitive resonators are not suitable candidates due to their low Qs and vulnerability to contaminants. Recent developments in the field of high frequency thermally actuated MEMS resonators with piezoresistive detection have enabled a great deal of opportunities for realization of more robust, reliable and sensitive sensing platforms. Such monolithic structures can be conveniently implemented at micro and nanoscale without any fabrication challenges or the need for material integration. Self-sustained oscillation capability and design flexibility for sensory applications are among other unique properties that thermal-piezoresistive transduction offers. The objective of the present research is to explore the untapped potentials of thermal-piezoresistive transduction for expanding the horizons of the field of N/MEMS resonant sensors. Moreover, a new class of piezoelectric MEMS resonant structures capable of operating in liquid media is developed and its potential as a direct real-time chemical and biological sensor is investigated. Low-cost batch fabrication of nanoelectromechanical devices and controllable feature size reduction of such will be among other topics being addressed in the current study. In particular, the crystalline structure of silicon will be exploited to realize nanowires with smooth surface and any length and cross-sectional dimensions using only conventional microfabrication processes.

  2. Contamination level of four priority phthalates in North Indian wastewater treatment plants and their fate in sequencing batch reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Rajpal, Ankur; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The contamination level of four phthalates in untreated and treated wastewater of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their fate in a full scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based WWTP was evaluated in this study. The four phthalates were diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). All compounds were present in untreated wastewater with DEHP being present in the highest mean concentration of 28.4 ± 5.3 μg L(-1). The concentration was in the range of 7.3 μg L(-1) (BBP) to 28.4 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in untreated wastewater and 1.3 μg L(-1) (DBP) to 2.6 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in treated wastewater. The nutrient removal process and advance tertiary treatment based WWTPs showed the highest phthalate removal efficiencies of 87% and 93%, respectively. The correlation between phthalate removal and conventional performance of WWTPs was positive. Fate analysis of these phthalates in a SBR based WWTP showed that total removal of the sum of phthalates in a primary settling tank and SBR was 84% out of which 55% is removed by biodegradation and 29% was removed by sorption to primary and secondary sludge. The percentage removal of four phthalates in primary settling tanks was 18%. Comparison of the diluted effluent DEHP concentration with its environmental quality standards showed that the dilution in an effluent receiving water body can reduce the DEHP emissions to acceptable values.

  3. Simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal from salmon industry wastewater: the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration and organic load rate on batch and continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiliñir, C; Hernández, S; Aspé, E; Roeckel, M

    2012-06-30

    Although simultaneous denitrification-anaerobic digestion has been studied extensively, the use of salmon effluents as organic matter source has received little attention. This study evaluated the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration, and organic load rate (OLR) on simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal using salmon effluents. The study was carried out in a batch reactor with suspended biomass at 37 °C and pH 7.5, and in continuous biofilm tubular reactors at 37 °C fed with a mixture of a synthetic substrate and a saline protein-rich salmon-plant effluent. The results of the batch and continuous experiments showed that nitrate abatement was greater than 95% at all the studied C/N ratios, without effect of the C/N ratio on NO(3)(-)-N transformation and ammonia production. An increase of nitrate concentration increased organic matter consumption as well as the hydrolytic rate. The organic matter reduction varied between 88% and 40% in the continuous process. For a continuous process, the increase of the OLR decreases the removal of organic matter.

  4. Enhancement of canthaxanthin production from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 in a fed-batch process using trace elements and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Nasri Nasrabadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Under fed-batch process conditions, the statistical analysis of trace elements was performed by application of Plackett-Burman design (for screening tests and response surface methodology (for predicting the optimal points to achieve the highest level of canthaxanthin production from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1. Plackett-Burman design was conducted on eleven trace elements (i. e., aluminum, boron, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, vanadium and zinc to select out elements that significantly enhance the canthaxanthin production of D. natronolimnaea HS-1. Plackett-Burman design revealed that Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions had the highest effect on canthaxanthin production of D. natronolimnaea HS-1 (P<0.05. These three elements were used for further optimization. By means of response surface methodology for the fed-batch process, the optimum conditions to achieve the highest level of canthaxanthin (8923±18 µg/L were determined as follow: Fe3+ 30 ppm, Cu2+ 28.75 ppm and Zn2+ 27 ppm.

  5. Modelling of a Batch Whey Cultivation of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis MC 5 with Investigation of Mass Transfer Processes in the Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitko Petrov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a mathematical model of a batch fermentation of lactose oxidation from a natural substratum in a cultivation by the strain Kluyweromyces marxianus var. lactis MC 5. In the model of the process, the mass transfer in the bioreactor for oxygen concentration in the gas phase (GP and in the liquid phase (LP is based on the dispersion model of the GP. In addition, perfect mixing in LP is included. Nine models were investigated for specific growth rate and specific oxygen consumptions rate: Monod, Mink, Tessier, Aiba, Andrews, Haldane, Luong, Edward and Han-Levenspiel. In regard to the parameter estimation, the worst observed error was used for all experiments as an objective function. This approach is a special case of multi objective parameter estimation problems allowing the parameter estimation problem to become a min-max problem. The results obtained (values of criteria, relative error and statistics λ for the specific growth rate showed that the best fit to experimental data is achieved when applying the Mink model. In a combination a Mink, and Monod, Mink, Luong, Haldane, and Han-Levenspiel are used for specific oxygen consumptions rate. Based on the investigation, it was discovered that the best fit belonged to the models of Mink and Haldane, Mink and Luong and Mink and Han-Levenspiel. Therefore, these particular models are used for modeling the batch processes.

  6. Antifoam Degradation Products in Off Gas and Condensate of Sludge Batch 9 Simulant Nitric-Formic Flowsheet Testing for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-14

    Ten chemical processing cell (CPC) experiments were performed using simulant to evaluate Sludge Batch 9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on eight of the ten. The other two were SRAT cycles only. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has previously shown antifoam decomposes to form flammable organic products, (hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), trimethylsilanol (TMS), and propanal), that are present in the vapor phase and condensate of the CPC vessels. To minimize antifoam degradation product formation, a new antifoam addition strategy was implemented at SRNL and DWPF to add antifoam undiluted.

  7. 一种批处理块级数据去重方法%A CHUNK-BASED DE-DUPLICATION METHOD BASED ON BATCH PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天明; 吴海涛

    2016-01-01

    数据去重能消除备份中的冗余数据,节省存储资源和网络带宽,因而成为当前数据存储领域的研究热点。针对常用的块级数据去重技术指纹查询开销高、系统吞吐率低等问题,提出一种批处理块级数据去重方法,通过内存缓冲区对指纹进行排序,实现磁盘索引的顺序查询。同时文件以一种双指针有向无环图的结构存储在系统中,以消除文件读时引起的随机磁盘 I /O 开销。实验结果表明,该方法有效克服了指纹查询的磁盘 I /O 瓶颈,提高了数据去重时的系统读写性能。%Data de-duplication technology,which eliminates the redundant data from backups to save network bandwidth and storage resources,has become a hot research topic in current data storage field.The commonly used chunk-based de-duplication technology suffers from high overhead in fingerprint lookup and low system throughput.In light of this,the paper proposes a chunk-based de-duplication method using batch process,which sorts the fingerprints in memory buffer to achieve the sequential lookup of disk indexes.Moreover,the files are stored to the system in a structure of bi-pointer-based directed acyclic graphs so as to eliminate random small disk I /O costs caused by file read.Experimental results show that this method breaks the disk I /O bottleneck of fingerprint lookup and hence improves read-write performance of the system during data de-duplication.

  8. 基于支持向量机MPLS的间歇过程故障诊断方法%On-line Fault Detection Using SVM-based Dynamic MPLS for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运锋; 汪志锋; 袁景淇

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a nonlinear dynamic multiway partial least squares (MPLS) based on support vector machines (SVM) is developed for on-line fault detection in batch processes. The approach, referred to as SVM-based DMPLS, integrates the SVM with the MPLS model. Process data from normal historical batches are used to develop the MPLS model, and a series of single-input-single-output SVM networks are adopted to approximate nonlinear inner relationship between input and output variables. In addition, the application of a time-lagged window technique not only makes the complementarities of unmeasured data of the monitored batch unnecessary, but also significantly reduces the computation and storage requirements in comparison with the traditional MPLS. The proposed approach is validated by a simulation study of on-line fault detection for a fed-batch penicillin production.

  9. Effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on system performance and bacterial community dynamics in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Neo, Sin-Yi; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on the system performance and the bacterial community dynamics in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were investigated, along with the fate and removal of CeO2 NPs within the SBR. Significant impact was observed on nitrification; NH4+-N removal efficiency decreased from almost 100% to around 70% after 6 days of continuous exposure to 1.0 mg/L of CeO2 NPs, followed by a gradual recovery until a stable value of around 90% after 20 days. Additionally, CeO2 NPs also led to a significant increase in the protein content in the soluble microbial products, showing the disruptive effects of CeO2 NPs on the extracellular polymeric substance matrix and related activated sludge structure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed remarkable changes in the bacterial community structure in the activated sludge after exposure to CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs were effectively removed in the SBR mainly via sorption onto the sludge. However, the removal efficiency decreased from 95 to 80% over 30 days. Mass balance evaluation showed that up to 50% of the NPs were accumulated within the activated sludge and were removed with the waste sludge.

  10. Conveyance Systems and Vegetative Growth in Peach (Prunuspersica (l. Batch high low Tropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit trees known as deciduous species are native to the northern temperate zones that are well adapted to environmental conditions in regions of high Colombian Andean tropics, especially in the highlands boyacense where approximately 80% of the planted area. Conveyance systems (pruning of fruit plants are management practices which apply technical criteria for productivity in temperate climates producing countries. It is known in Boyacá, except traditional open vessel driving and other forms of effects, which is why the study was to evaluate six different types of driving on the vegetative growth of two peach varieties. We measured plant height, stem diameter, length of primary branches, percentage of lignification, and canopy projection based on each form (treatment. Was observed that the different types of pruning positively influenced with respect to the absolute control in the vegetative growth of the plants and the lignification of the primary branches, with the highest incidence in the range Rubidoux. The results also showed that the more a tree height growth and lignification of primary branches was husito.

  11. Case Study on Lean Manufacturing System Implementation in Batch Printing Industry Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Saihong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean Manufacturing is a popular tool to be implemented in printing industry fields for the purpose of achieving the successful production goals and it is a well-organized method used to eliminate the waste or non-value added activities. Lean Manufacturing consists of several tools like 5S, TPM, Kanban, Kaizen and others. In this paper, the researcher is focus on TPM (Total Productive Maintenance. TPM is a concept used for maintaining plants and equipment with the involvement of all employees in the company in order to increase the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE. In this paper, the researcher will identify the problem faced in company’s production line and then implement lean tools in order to improve the productivity. Afterward, the researcher will carry out time study on company’s production line. The purpose of time study is to getting the result for OEE and the time taken for producing one piece of product. The researcher is then designed and suggested one-piece flow system to the management with showing the result on simulation that getting improvement in productivity. The result was simulated by using Flexsim and shows that 7.59 seconds was saved in producing one piece of calendar. At the end, the result shows that OEE increase from 34.3% to 60% and the company total save around 6 hours per month by implement one-piece flow. At last, by verifying the distribution of collected data, the researcher will perform Anderson Darling Normality test to ensure the distribution of data are normal.

  12. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  13. Development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria; Martínez, Manuel Rosendo; Schielen, Wilhelmus Joseph Gerardus

    2010-09-14

    In many countries, foot and mouth disease (FMD) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (NCP); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against NCP. Vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. We have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (FAL-ELISA), to detect and quantify NCP in vaccine-antigen batches regardless of its volume and composition. Samples are filtered through PVDF-filter microplates pre-coated with a monoclonal antibody against NCP. Filtration removes all unbound components in the sample and captured NCP are detected by anti-NCP conjugate followed by incubation with the substrate, luminol/peroxide. Analytical detection limit was 2 ng for purified NCP and 4 ng for vaccine-antigen batches spiked with NCP, which makes this assay sensitive enough to be applied to purity control of FMD vaccines. Vaccine components did not interfere with the antibody and substrate reactions in the assay. FAL-ELISA is an alternative for the in vivo tests, observing the objective to Replace, Reduce and Refine the use of animals for quality control of immunobiologicals.

  14. Biogenic hydrogen conversion of de-oiled jatropha waste via anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation: process performance, microbial insights, and CO2 reduction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2014-01-01

    We report the semicontinuous, direct (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation) hydrogen fermentation of de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW). The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was studied and results show that the stable and peak hydrogen production rate of 1.48 L/L ∗ d and hydrogen yield of 8.7 mL H2/g volatile solid added were attained when the reactor was operated at HRT 2 days (d) with a DJW concentration of 200 g/L, temperature 55 °C, and pH 6.5. Reduced HRT enhanced the production performance until 1.75 d. Further reduction has lowered the process efficiency in terms of biogas production and hydrogen gas content. The effluent from hydrogen fermentor was utilized for methane fermentation in batch reactors using pig slurry and cow dung as seed sources. The results revealed that pig slurry was a feasible seed source for methane generation. Peak methane production rate of 0.43 L CH4/L ∗ d and methane yield of 20.5 mL CH4/g COD were observed at substrate concentration of 10 g COD/L, temperature 30 °C, and pH 7.0. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that combination of cellulolytic and fermentative bacteria were present in the hydrogen producing ASBR.

  15. Biogenic Hydrogen Conversion of De-Oiled Jatropha Waste via Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor Operation: Process Performance, Microbial Insights, and CO2 Reduction Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the semicontinuous, direct (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation hydrogen fermentation of de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT was studied and results show that the stable and peak hydrogen production rate of 1.48 L/L*d and hydrogen yield of 8.7 mL H2/g volatile solid added were attained when the reactor was operated at HRT 2 days (d with a DJW concentration of 200 g/L, temperature 55°C, and pH 6.5. Reduced HRT enhanced the production performance until 1.75 d. Further reduction has lowered the process efficiency in terms of biogas production and hydrogen gas content. The effluent from hydrogen fermentor was utilized for methane fermentation in batch reactors using pig slurry and cow dung as seed sources. The results revealed that pig slurry was a feasible seed source for methane generation. Peak methane production rate of 0.43 L CH4/L*d and methane yield of 20.5 mL CH4/g COD were observed at substrate concentration of 10 g COD/L, temperature 30°C, and pH 7.0. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that combination of celluloytic and fermentative bacteria were present in the hydrogen producing ASBR.

  16. Influence of the food to microorganisms (F/M) ratio and temperature on batch anaerobic digestion processes with and without zeolite addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, S; Gonzalez, P; Mena, C; Guerrero, L; Borja, R

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the food to microorganisms (F/M) ratio and temperature on batch anaerobic digestion processes carried out with and without zeolite addition as a microbial carrier. Three laboratory-scale experimental runs were conducted using a synthetic substrate with a COD:N:P ratio of 500:5:1. The first run (I) was conducted at a constant temperature of 27°C, increasing the F/M ratio from 0.21 to 0.40 (g COD/g VSS). During the second run (II) the temperature and the F/M ratio increased from 27°C to 37°C and from 0.21 to 0.40, respectively. Finally, in the third experimental run (III) the F/M ratio achieved high values (1.92 and 1.30) either by varying the substrate concentration at a constant biomass concentration or by increasing the biomass concentration at a constant substrate concentration. Higher biomass growth rate, COD removal and methane production were found in the reactors with zeolite, especially at the highest F/M assayed during the first run. The highest ammonium removals were also achieved at the highest F/M ratio (0.40) in the reactors with zeolite. Within the range studied (25°C-37°C) in the reactors with zeolite operating at 37°C, the second run demonstrated the low influence of temperature on substrate consumption and ammonia removal, with 93% and 70% of COD and ammonia removal efficiencies, respectively. The third run corroborated the results previously obtained and fit the experimental results to simple kinetic models, the Monod model being the most adequate for predicting the behavior of the systems studied. The maximum specific microorganism growth rate (μ(max)) values for the reactors with zeolite were almost twice as high as those obtained for the reactors without zeolite for similar F/M ratios.

  17. The Impact of the Processing Batch Length in GNSS Data Analysis on the Estimates of Earth Rotation Parameters with Daily and Subdaily Time Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Thaller, D.; Schaer, S.; Beutler, G.; Jaeggi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Microwave observations from GNSS are traditionally analyzed in the post-processing mode using (solar) daily data batches. The 24-hour session length differs by only about four minutes from two revolution periods of a GPS satellite (corresponding to one sidereal day). The deep 2:1 resonance of the GPS revolution period with the length of the sidereal day may cause systematic effects in parameter estimates and spurious periodic signals in the resulting parameter time series. The selection of other (than daily) session lengths may help to identify systematic effects and to study their impact on GNSS-derived products. Such investigations are of great interest in a combined multi-GNSS analysis because of substantial differences in the satellites' revolution periods. Three years (2008-2010) of data from a global network of about 90 combined GPS/GLONASS receivers have been analyzed. Four different session lengths were used, namely the traditional 24 hours (UTC), two revolutions of a GLONASS satellite (16/17 sidereal days), two revolutions of a GPS satellite (one sidereal day), and a session length of 18/17 sidereal days, which does not correspond to either two GPS or two GLONASS revolution periods. GPS-only, GLONASS-only, and GPS/GLONASS-combined solution are established for each of the session lengths. Special care was taken to keep the GPS and GLONASS solutions fully consistent and comparable in particular where the station selection is concerned. We generate ERPs with a subdaily time resolution of about 1.4 hours (1/17 sidereal day). Using the session-specific normal equation systems (NEQs) containing the Earth rotation parameters with the 1.4 hours time resolution we derive in addition ERPs with a (sidereal) daily resolution. Note that this step requires the combination of the daily NEQs and a subsequent re-binning of 17 consecutive ERPs with 1/17 day time resolution into one (sidereal) daily parameter. These tests will reveal the impact of the session length on ERP

  18. Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valster, Rinske M; Wullings, Bart A; van der Kooij, Dick

    2010-11-01

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml) collected from 21 engineered freshwater systems, with added polyethylene cylinders to promote biofilm formation, were inoculated with L. pneumophila and subsequently incubated at 37°C for 20 days. Growth of L. pneumophila was observed in 16 of 18 water types when the host protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis was added. Twelve of the tested water types supported growth of L. pneumophila or indigenous Legionella anisa without added H. vermiformis. In 12 of 19 BBT flasks H. vermiformis was indicated as a host, based on the ratio between maximum concentrations of L. pneumophila and H. vermiformis, determined with quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and the composition of clone libraries of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments. Analyses of 609 eukaryotic clones from the BBTs revealed that 68 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed the highest similarity to free-living protozoa. Forty percent of the sequences clustering with protozoa showed ≥99.5% similarity to H. vermiformis. None of the other protozoa serving as hosts in in vitro studies were detected in the BBTs. In several tests with growth of L. pneumophila, the protozoa Diphylleia rotans, Echinamoeba thermarum, and Neoparamoeba sp. were identified as candidate hosts. In vitro studies are needed to confirm their role as hosts for L. pneumophila. Unidentified protozoa were implicated as hosts for uncultured Legionella spp. grown in BBT flasks at 15°C.

  19. A sequencing batch reactor system for high-level biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from abattoir wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Romain; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bernet, Nicolas; Marcos, Marcelino; Yilmaz, Gulsum; Keller, Jürg

    2009-06-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system is demonstrated to biologically remove nitrogen, phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to very low levels from abattoir wastewater. Each 6 h cycle contained three anoxic/anaerobic and aerobic sub-cycles with wastewater fed at the beginning of each anoxic/anaerobic period. The step-feed strategy was applied to avoid high-level build-up of nitrate or nitrite during nitrification, and therefore to facilitate the creation of anaerobic conditions required for biological phosphorus removal. A high degree removal of total phosphorus (>98%), total nitrogen (>97%) and total COD (>95%) was consistently and reliably achieved after a 3-month start-up period. The concentrations of total phosphate and inorganic nitrogen in the effluent were consistently lower than 0.2 mg P l(-1) and 8 mg N l(-1), respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the sludge was enriched in Accumulibacter spp. (20-40%), a known polyphosphate accumulating organism, whereas the known glycogen accumulating organisms were almost absent. The SBR received two streams of abattoir wastewater, namely the effluent from a full-scale anaerobic pond (75%) and the effluent from a lab-scale high-rate pre-fermentor (25%), both receiving raw abattoir wastewater as feed. The pond effluent contained approximately 250 mg N l(-1) total nitrogen and 40 mg P l(-1) of total phosphorus, but relatively low levels of soluble COD (around 500 mg l(-1)). The high-rate lab-scale pre-fermentor, operated at 37 degrees C and with a sludge retention time of 1 day, proved to be a cheap and effective method for providing supplementary volatile fatty acids allowing for high-degree of biological nutrient removal from abattoir wastewater.

  20. Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2010-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml) collec

  1. Time programmed feed of semi-batch reactors with non-linear radical copolymerizations: an experimental study of the system styrene+divinylbenzene using SEC/MALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Miguel; Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário Rui

    2007-01-01

    The radical crosslinking copolymerization of mono and divinyl monomers was experimentally studied with a 2.5 dm3 semi-batch reactor using styrene + divinylbenzene as a model system. The analysis of products was carried out by SEC with a MALLS detector. The influence of the feed policy of divinylbenzene on the time evolution of the copolymer molecular weights and z-average mean square radius of gyration was assessed. A detailed kinetic model, in the absence of intramolecular reactions but taki...

  2. Determination of model parameters for zinc (II) ion biosorption onto powdered waste sludge (PWS) in a fed-batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Fikret; Cikla, Sinem

    2007-12-01

    Biosorption of zinc (II) ions onto pre-treated powdered waste sludge (PWS) was investigated using a completely mixed tank operating in fed-batch mode instead of an adsorption column. Experiments with variable feed flow rate (0.05-0.5 L h(-1)), feed Zn(II) ion concentrations (37.5-275 mg L(-1)) and amount of adsorbent (1-6 g PWS) were performed using fed-batch operation at pH 5 and room temperature (20-25 degrees C). Break-through curves describing variations of aqueous (effluent) zinc ion concentrations with time were determined for different operating conditions. Percent zinc removal from the aqueous phase decreased, but the biosorbed (solid phase) zinc ion concentration increased with increasing feed flow rate and zinc concentration. A modified Bohart-Adams equation was used to determine the biosorption capacity of PWS (q'(s)) and the rate constant (K) for zinc ion biosorption. Biosorption capacity (q'(s)=57.7 g Zn kg(-1) PWS) of PWS in fed-batch operation was found to be comparable with powdered activated carbon (PAC) in column operations. However, the adsorption rate constant (K=9.17 m(3) kg(-1) h(-1)) in fed-batch operation was an order of magnitude larger than those obtained in adsorption columns because of elimination of mass transfer limitations encountered in the column operations. Therefore, a completely mixed tank operated in fed-batch mode was proven to be more advantageous as compared to adsorption columns due to better contact between the phases yielding faster adsorption rates.

  3. Physiological description of multivariate interdependencies between process parameters, morphology and physiology during fed-batch penicillin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of productivity and economics of industrial bioprocesses requires characterization of interdependencies between process parameters and process performance. In the case of penicillin production, as in other processes, process performance is often closely interlinked with the physiology and morphology of the organism used for production. This study presents a systematic approach to efficiently characterize the physiological effects of multivariate interdependencies between bioprocess design parameters (spore inoculum concentration, pO2 control level and substrate feed rate), morphology, and physiology. Method development and application was performed using the industrial model process of penicillin production. Applying traditional, statistical bioprocess analysis, multivariate correlations of raw bioprocess design parameters (high spore inoculum concentration, low pO2 control as well as reduced glucose feeding) and pellet morphology were identified. A major drawback of raw design parameter correlation models; however, is the lack of transferability across different process scales and regimes. In this context, morphological and physiological bioprocess modeling based on scalable physiological parameters is introduced. In this study, raw parameter effects on pellet morphology were efficiently summarized by the physiological parameter of the biomass yield per substrate. Finally, for the first time to our knowledge, the specific growth rate per spore was described as time-independent determinant for switching from pellet to disperse growth during penicillin production and thus introduced as a novel, scalable key process parameter for pellet morphology and process performance.

  4. UHPLC-MS/MS quantification combined with chemometrics for the comparative analysis of different batches of raw and wine-processed Dipsacus asper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi; Du, Yingshan; Su, Dandan; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang

    2017-02-20

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry approach was established for the simultaneous determination of 4-caffeoylquinic acid, loganic acid, chlorogenic acid, loganin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, dipsacoside B, asperosaponin VI and sweroside in raw and wine-processed Dipsacus asper. Chloramphenicol and glycyrrhetinic acid were employed as internal standards. The proposed approach was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability as well as recovery. Intra- and inter-assay variability for all analytes were 2.8-4.9 and 1.7-4.8%, respectively. The standard addition method determined recovery rates for each analytes (96.8-104.6%). In addition, the developed approach was applied to 20 batches of raw and wine-processed samples of Dipsacus asper. Principle component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed a clear separation between the raw group and wine-processed group. After wine-processing, the contents of loganic acid, chlorogenic acid, dipsacoside B and asperosaponin VI were up-regulated, whilst the contents of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, loganin and sweroside were down-regulated. Our results demonstrated that ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry quantification combined with chemometrics is a viable method for quality evaluation of the raw Dipsacus asper and its wine-processed products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. A Visualized E-Kanban System for Small-Batch JIT Production%一种实现小批量准时化生产的可视化电子看板系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金青; 张忠; 潘雪涛; 王晓宇; 葛冰

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the traditional kanban system is not suitable to multi-product and small-batch production. To solve this problem, a new solution called visualization kanban technique is proposed such that just-in-time (JIT) strategy can be applied to the multi-product and small-batch production. As an industrial case problem, this technique is applied to an electronic product production process. For this production process, the new kanban operation flow chart is designed and it works well. The system frame-work , the key technique and the suitable environment condition are proposed too. Compared with the tradi-tional kanban system, the visualization kanban system has been demonstrated to be more efficient and ap-plicable to multi-product and small-batch production.%针对传统看板方式不适用于多品种、小批量订单生产的诸多问题,提出了一种新的、基于可视化电子看板技术的解决方案,使得准时化生产方式能成功运用于多品种、小批量订单的市场环境。以电子产品的生产场景为例,采用过程分析的方法,进行了新看板运行流程的设计,提出了可视化电子看板系统的结构、关键技术和适用环境条件。

  6. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability, i.e

  7. User's instructions for the Guyton circulatory dynamics model using the Univac 1110 batch and demand processing (with graphic capabilities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    The model presents a systems analysis of a human circulatory regulation based almost entirely on experimental data and cumulative present knowledge of the many facets of the circulatory system. The model itself consists of eighteen different major systems that enter into circulatory control. These systems are grouped into sixteen distinct subprograms that are melded together to form the total model. The model develops circulatory and fluid regulation in a simultaneous manner. Thus, the effects of hormonal and autonomic control, electrolyte regulation, and excretory dynamics are all important and are all included in the model.

  8. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chongyang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  9. GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis IN A TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR USING AMMONIUM NITRATE AS THE NITROGEN SOURCE IN A FED-BATCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNH4NO3 simultaneously provides a readily assimilable nitrogen source (ammonia and a reserve of nitrogen (nitrate, allowing for an increase in Arthrospira platensis biomass production while reducing the cost of the cultivation medium. In this study, a 22plus star central composite experimental design combined with response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of light intensity (I and the total amount of added NH4NO3 (Mt on a bench-scale tubular photobioreactor for fed-batch cultures. The maximum cell concentration (Xm, cell productivity (PX and biomass yield on nitrogen (YX/N were evaluated, as were the protein and lipid contents. Under optimized conditions (I = 148 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 9.7 mM NH4NO3, Xm = 4710 ±34.4 mg·L-1, PX = 478.9 ±3.8 mg·L-1·d-1 and YX/N = 15.87 ±0.13 mg·mg-1 were obtained. The best conditions for protein content in the biomass (63.2% were not the same as those that maximized cell growth (I = 180 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 22.5 mM NH4NO3. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that ammonium nitrate is an interesting alternate nitrogen source for the cultivation of A. platensisin a fed-batch process and could be used for other photosynthetic microorganisms.

  10. Takagi-Sugeno model based analysis of EWMA RtR control of batch processes with stochastic metrology delay and mixed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Wong, David Shan-Hill; Wang, Yan-Wei; Fang, Huajing

    2014-07-01

    In many batch-based industrial manufacturing processes, feedback run-to-run control is used to improve production quality. However, measurements may be expensive and cannot always be performed online. Thus, the measurement delay always exists. The metrology delay will affect the stability and performance of the process. Moreover, since quality measurements are performed offline, delay is not fixed but is stochastic in nature. In this paper, a modeling approach Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) model is presented to handle stochastic metrology delay in both single-product and mixed-product processes. Based on the Markov characteristics of the delay, the membership of the T-S model is derived. Performance indices such as the mean and the variance of the closed-loop output of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control algorithm can be derived. A steady-state error of the process output always exists, which leads the output deviating from the target. To remove the steady-state error, an algorithm called compensatory EWMA run-to-run (COM-EWMA-RtR) algorithm is proposed. The validity of the T-S model analysis and the efficiency of the proposed COM-EWMA-RtR algorithm are confirmed by simulation.

  11. Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis for Batch Process Based on Feature Extract in Fisher Subspace%基于Fisher子空间特征提取的间歇过程监控和故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭; 阎威武; 邵惠鹤

    2006-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process control methods have been widely used in biochemical industries. Batch process is usually monitored by the method of multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA). In this article, a new batch process monitoring and fault diagnosis method based on feature extract in Fisher subspace is proposed.The feature vector and the feature direction are extracted by projecting the high-dimension process data onto the low-dimension Fisher space. The similarity of feature vector between the current and the reference batch is calculated for on-line process monitoring and the contribution plot of weights in feature direction is calculated for fault diagnosis. The approach overcomes the need for estimating or tilling in the unknown portion of the process variables trajectories from the current time to the end of the batch. Simulation results on the benchmark model of penicillin fermentation process can demonstrate that in comparison to the MPCA method, the proposed method is more accurate and efficient for process monitoring and fault diagnosis.

  12. Automatic flow-batch system for cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey from Argentina using online sample treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Marina A; Grünhut, Marcos; Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Di Nezio, María S; Centurión, María E

    2012-05-16

    An automatic flow-batch system that includes two borosilicate glass chambers to perform sample digestion and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey samples was designed. The sample digestion was performed by using a low-cost halogen lamp to obtain the optimum temperature. Optimization of the digestion procedure was done using a Box-Behnken experimental design. A linear response was observed from 2.30 to 11.20 μg Hg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 3.20% (n = 11, 6.81 μg Hg L(-1)), the sample throughput was 4 sample h(-1), and the detection limit was 0.68 μg Hg L(-1). The obtained results with the flow-batch method are in good agreement with those obtained with the reference method. The flow-batch system is simple, allows the use of both chambers simultaneously, is seen as a promising methodology for achieving green chemistry goals, and is a good proposal to improving the quality control of honey.

  13. Batch production of micron size particles from poly(ethylene glycol) using supercritical CO2 as a processing solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, Sameer P.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, L. P. B. M.

    2007-01-01

    The major advantage of using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent in polymer processing is an enhancement in the free volume of a polymer due to dissolved CO2, which causes a considerable reduction in the viscosity. This allows spraying the polymer melt at low temperatures to produce micr

  14. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  15. 基于神经网络的SBBR系统建模方法%Modeling based on neural network for sequencing batch biofilm reactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿晓霞; 梁汉超; 周健; 余建平

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to build the model of sequencing batch biofilm reactor. This problem has been studied and solved by using the neural network technique. The 7-12-3 back-propagation neural network technique is developed for the system with excluding abnormal data according to pauta criterion,adjusting the network connection weights by training samples,monitoring the training process timely with test samples and the LM algorithm. The model output result being compared with actually measured data,the coefficient of COD is 0.857,ammonia is 0.918,and phosphate is 0.942, meeting the modeling requirement of sewage treatment process.%针对序批式生物膜系统难以构建水质模型的问题,采用神经网络技术进行建模方法研究.根据拉伊达准则剔除异常数据,并用训练样本调整网络连接权值,用检验样本实时动态监控训练过程,用LM算法构建了一个7-12-3结构的BP神经网络模型.将模型输出结果与实测数据进行比较,其相关系数分别为ROOD=0.857,RNH4+-N=0.918,RPO43--P=0.942,能够满足污水处理过程建模的要求.

  16. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  17. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard references. Methods to determine individual HAP partial pressures in multicomponent systems are.... ER19jn00.008 Where: Episode = Emissions, kg/episode K = Constant, 2.494 × 10−6 (ppmv)−1(gm-mole/scm) (kg/gm... measurement point, kg/hr. K = Constant, 2.494 × 10−6 (ppmv)−1 (gm-mole/scm) (kg/gm) (min/hr), where...

  18. On-line Monitoring for Phosphorus Removal Process and Bacterial Community in Sequencing Batch Reactor%SBR工艺除磷过程与种群结构在线监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔有为; 王淑莹; 李晶

    2009-01-01

    For efficient energy consumption and control of effluent quality, the cycle duration for a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) needs to be adjusted by real-time control according to the characteristics and loading of waste-water. In this study, an on-line information system for phosphorus removal processes was established. Based on the analysis for four systems with different ecological community structures and two operation modes, anaerobic-aerobic process and anaerobic-anaerobic process, the characteristic patterns of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH were related to phosphorous dynamics in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic phases, for determination of the end of phosphorous removal. In the operation mode of anaerobic-aerobic process, the pH profile in the anaerobic phase was used to estimate the relative amount of phosphorous accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulat- ing organisms (GAOs), which is beneficial to early detection of ecology community shifts. The on-line sensor val-ue of pH and ORP may be used as the parameters to adjust the duration for phosphorous removal and community shifts to cope with influent variations and maintain appropriate operation conditions.

  19. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  20. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and greasy sludge from flotation process: Batch versus CSTR experiments to investigate optimal design

    OpenAIRE

    Girault, R.; Bridoux, G.; Nauleau, F.; Poullain, C.; Buffet, J.; Peu, P.; Sadowski, A.G.; Béline, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sluvdge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determi...

  2. Photo-removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by photolytic and photocatalytic processes in a batch reactor under UV-C radiation ({lambda}{sub max} = 254 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Yargeau, Viviane [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Berk, Dimitrios, E-mail: dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, photolytic and photocatalytic removal of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under UVC radiation ({lambda} = 254 nm) was investigated. The light intensity distribution inside the batch photoreactor was characterized by azoxybenzene actinometry. The intensity of incident radiation was found to be a strong function of position inside the reactor. 12 mg L{sup -1} of SMX was completely removed within 10 min of irradiation under UVC photolysis, compared to 30 min under TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. COD measurement was used as an indication of the mineralization efficiency of both processes and higher COD removal with photocatalysis was shown. After 6 h of reaction with photolysis and photocatalysis, 24% and 87% removal of COD was observed, respectively. Two of the intermediate photo-products were identified as sulfanilic acid and 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole by direct comparison of the HPLC chromatograms of standards to those of treated solutions. Ecotoxicity of treated and untreated solutions of SMX towards Daphnia magna was also investigated. It was found that a 3:1 ratio of sample to standard freshwater and a high initial concentration of 60 mg L{sup -1} of SMX were used to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The photo-products formed during photocatalytic and photolytic processes were shown to be generally more toxic than the parent compound.

  3. Material insights of HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor resistive random access memory devices processed by batch atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Kim, Hee-Dong; Roelofs, Robin; Perez, Eduardo; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wenger, Christian

    2016-06-01

    With the continuous scaling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, in-depth understanding of the physical mechanism and the material issues, particularly by directly studying integrated cells, become more and more important to further improve the device performances. In this work, HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) RRAM devices were processed in a standard 0.25 μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process line, using a batch atomic layer deposition (ALD) tool, which is particularly designed for mass production. We demonstrate a systematic study on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN/Si RRAM devices to correlate key material factors (nano-crystallites and carbon impurities) with the filament type resistive switching (RS) behaviours. The augmentation of the nano-crystallites density in the film increases the forming voltage of devices and its variation. Carbon residues in HfO2 films turn out to be an even more significant factor strongly impacting the RS behaviour. A relatively higher deposition temperature of 300 °C dramatically reduces the residual carbon concentration, thus leading to enhanced RS performances of devices, including lower power consumption, better endurance and higher reliability. Such thorough understanding on physical mechanism of RS and the correlation between material and device performances will facilitate the realization of high density and reliable embedded RRAM devices with low power consumption.

  4. Material insights of HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor resistive random access memory devices processed by batch atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Kim, Hee-Dong; Roelofs, Robin; Perez, Eduardo; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wenger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous scaling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, in-depth understanding of the physical mechanism and the material issues, particularly by directly studying integrated cells, become more and more important to further improve the device performances. In this work, HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) RRAM devices were processed in a standard 0.25 μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process line, using a batch atomic layer deposition (ALD) tool, which is particularly designed for mass production. We demonstrate a systematic study on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN/Si RRAM devices to correlate key material factors (nano-crystallites and carbon impurities) with the filament type resistive switching (RS) behaviours. The augmentation of the nano-crystallites density in the film increases the forming voltage of devices and its variation. Carbon residues in HfO2 films turn out to be an even more significant factor strongly impacting the RS behaviour. A relatively higher deposition temperature of 300 °C dramatically reduces the residual carbon concentration, thus leading to enhanced RS performances of devices, including lower power consumption, better endurance and higher reliability. Such thorough understanding on physical mechanism of RS and the correlation between material and device performances will facilitate the realization of high density and reliable embedded RRAM devices with low power consumption. PMID:27312225

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Medina-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  8. On-line Scheduling Of Multi-Server Batch Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; van Harten, A.; Schuur, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Thes

  9. Enhancement of biomass and fermentation activity of surplus brewers' yeast in a fed-batch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strel, B. (Ministry of Science and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Industrial Property Office); Grba, S.; Maric, V. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology)

    1993-04-01

    The growth of surplus brewers' yeast in a fedbatch process was studied with the aim of increasing the fermentation activity of the yeast cells and of optimizing the growth conditions: 20 h cultivation at 30deg C and pH 5.0-5.5 using beet molasses as substrate, with a regulated feeding rate, showed satisfactory results. Under the chosen conditions, the final amount of biomass increased more than fivefold, achieving a specific growth rate of 0.1 h[sup -1] and substrate yield coefficient of 0.54 g.g[sup -1]. The increase in fermentation activity of yeast cells during cultivation correlated very well with the concentration of reduced glutathione, which increased from 1.2 to 2.7 mg.g[sup -1] (dry matter). At the same time the fermentation activity increased fivefold, which related to the nitrogen content of the yeast cells. Ethanol formation throughout the cultivation did not exceed 0.5 g.l[sup -1]. (orig.).

  10. Polysaccharide production in batch process of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C comparing Frantz, modified Frantz and Cartlin 6 cultivation media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Marcelo Fossa da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide of N. meningitidis serogroup C constitutes the antigen for the vaccine against meningitis. The goal of this work was to compare three cultivation media for production of this polysaccharide: Frantz, modified Frantz medium (with replacement of glucose by glycerol, and Catlin 6 (a synthetic medium with glucose. The comparative criteria were based on the final polysaccharide concentrations and the yield coefficient cell/polysaccharide (Y P/X. The kinetic parameters: pH, substrate consumption and cell growth were also determined. For this purpose, 9 cultivation runs were carried out in a 80 L New Brunswick bioreactor, under the following conditions: 42 L of culture medium, temperature 35ºC, air flow 5 L/min, agitation frequency 120 rpm and vessel pressure 6 psi, without dissolved oxygen or pH controls. The cultivation runs were divided in three groups, with 3 repetitions each. The cultivation using the Frantz medium presented the best results: average of final polysaccharide concentration = 0.134 g/L and Y P/X=0.121, followed by Catlin 6 medium, with results of 0.095 g/L and 0.067 respectively. Considering the principal advantages in the use of the synthetic medium, i.e. facilitation of a cultivation and purification steps of the polysaccharide production process, there is a possibility that in the near future, Catlin 6 will replace the traditional Frantz medium.

  11. The impact of pH inhomogeneities on CHO cell physiology and fed-batch process performance - two-compartment scale-down modelling and intracellular pH excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Matthias; Braun, Philipp; Doppler, Philipp; Posch, Christoph; Behrens, Dirk; Herwig, Christoph; Fricke, Jens

    2017-01-12

    Due to high mixing times and base addition from top of the vessel, pH inhomogeneities are most likely to occur during large-scale mammalian processes. The goal of this study was to set-up a scale-down model of a 10-12 m(3) stirred tank bioreactor and to investigate the effect of pH perturbations on CHO cell physiology and process performance. Short-term changes in extracellular pH are hypothesized to affect intracellular pH and thus cell physiology. Therefore, batch fermentations, including pH shifts to 9.0 and 7.8, in regular one-compartment systems are conducted. The short-term adaption of the cells intracellular pH are showed an immediate increase due to elevated extracellular pH. With this basis of fundamental knowledge, a two-compartment system is established which is capable of simulating defined pH inhomogeneities. In contrast to state-of-the-art literature, the scale-down model is included parameters (e.g. volume of the inhomogeneous zone) as they might occur during large-scale processes. pH inhomogeneity studies in the two-compartment system are performed with simulation of temporary pH zones of pH 9.0. The specific growth rate especially during the exponential growth phase is strongly affected resulting in a decreased maximum viable cell density and final product titer. The gathered results indicate that even short-term exposure of cells to elevated pH values during large-scale processes can affect cell physiology and overall process performance. In particular, it could be shown for the first time that pH perturbations, which might occur during the early process phase, have to be considered in scale-down models of mammalian processes.

  12. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  13. Growth and nitrogen removal capacity of Desmodesmus communis and of a natural microalgae consortium in a batch culture system in view of urban wastewater treatment: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorì, Giulia; Samorì, Chiara; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2013-02-01

    The microalgal biomass applications strongly depend on cell composition and the production of low cost products such as biofuels appears to be economically convenient only in conjunction with wastewater treatment. As a preliminary study, in view of the development of a wastewater treatment pilot plant for nutrient removal and algal biomass production, a biological wastewater system was carried out on a laboratory scale growing a newly isolated freshwater algal strain, Desmodesmus communis, and a natural consortium of microalgae in effluents generated by a local wastewater reclamation facility. Batch cultures were operated by using D. communis under different growth conditions to better understand the effects of CO₂, nutrient concentration and light intensity on the biomass productivity and biochemical composition. The results were compared with those obtained using a natural algal consortium. D. communis showed a great vitality in the wastewater effluents with a biomass productivity of 0.138-0.227 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹ in the primary effluent enriched with CO₂, higher biomass productivity compared with the one achieved by the algal consortium (0.078 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹). D. communis cultures reached also a better nutrient removal efficiency compared with the algal consortium culture, with almost 100% for ammonia and phosphorous at any N/P ratio characterizing the wastewater nutrient composition. Biomass composition was richer in polysaccharides and total fatty acids as the ammonia concentration in the water decreased. In view of a future application of this algal biomass, due to the low total fatty acids content of 1.4-9.3 wt% and the high C/N ratio of 7.6-39.3, anaerobic digestion appeared to be the most appropriate biofuel conversion process.

  14. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  15. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT).......This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...... contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes...

  16. Master-Batch Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Plastic industry promotes the development of the master-batch sector The plastic processing industry in China has developed rapidly. The output is increasing rapidly and the quality is improving constantly.

  17. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  18. Transient and Stationary Losses in a Finite-Buffer Queue with Batch Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the number of losses, caused by the buffer overflows, in a finite-buffer queue with batch arrivals and autocorrelated interarrival times. Using the batch Markovian arrival process, the formulas for the average number of losses in a finite time interval and the stationary loss ratio are shown. In addition, several numerical examples are presented, including illustrations of the dependence of the number of losses on the average batch size, buffer size, system load, autocorrelation structure, and time.

  19. A generic multi-dimensional model-based system for batch cooling crystallization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous deposits of flame-made aerosol nanoparticles were formed by filtration through a porous substrate (α-alumina, average pore diameter 3.7 μm). The aerosol was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) showing average primary an...

  20. Performance of a Batch System Hydrolic Press for Cocoa Butter Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not significant different with carbofuran treatment which could suppress nematoda population by 89.7%. The same result also occur on the treatment of P. diminuta at density level 2.108 cfu/seedling, which could suppress nematoda population by 64.2%. Seedling growth were treated with MHB also significantly increase compared with seedling without treatment and inoculation of nematodas, especially on the treatment of B.subtilis at density level 108 cfu and P.diminuta at density level of 108 cfu, with increasing level of 35.4% and 34.2 %, respectively.Keywords: MHB (Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria, Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.,  Pratylenchus coffeae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas diminuta.

  1. Personal Investigations Processing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIPS is a system that maintains the Security/Suitability Investigations Index (SII) for OPM. It contains over 11 million background investigation records of Federal...

  2. 电解铝用阳极沥青配料系统改造与应用%Improvement and application of pitch batching system for anode production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东; 卫镇东

    2012-01-01

    The problems exited in the pitch batching system in Yankuang Croup Keao Company Electrolytic Aluminium Plant were analyzed. In the original system, two-loop feeding system was adopted, which can switch in each time between the original system and standby system, and could be helpful to stabilize the anode production.%针对充矿集团原铝用阳极沥青配料系统事故率高和出现问题解决时间长的情况,进行了深入探讨和研究,在原系统基础上进行双回路改造,实现了一用一备及瞬时切换,既解决了因事故影响阳极生产的问题,又给事故处理提供了充足时间,大大稳定了生阳极生产.

  3. 基于时间Petri网优化设计单杂质间歇过程用水网络%Optimal design of water-using network based on the time petri net in batch process with single contaminant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焕; 肖武; 贺高红; 都健

    2012-01-01

    Nearly twenty years, the study on water-using network in batch processes arouses wide concern and has achieved some development. Formerly, the common approachs for water integration in batch process are the graphic method and mathematical programming, but the objective or restraint irrelevant to water quality and quantity can't be solved by the graphic method, as for the mathematical with complex calculation, it is more difficult to determine the optimal solution. As the visual graphics performance ability and the strict mathematical basis of Petri net and it's powerful analytical technique and means, it is very suitable to describe and analyse the system. Meanwhile, the time Petri net, which is defined by adding the time factor to Petri net, can be used to build the dynamic model of the batch system. So a method based on Time Petri net was proposed to design water network in semi-continuaion batch chemical processes with a single contaminant in this paper. The water-using network with/without storage in batch processes is be studied. A common model of pinch analysis, which can be used to rapidly and accurately determine the water pinch point and the minimum amount of fresh water demanded in water-using process, was firstly established using water cascading analysis. Then a synthesis common model of water-using network was built according to the mechanism, logical expression ability, dynamic propagation characteristics of Petri net and principles of designing and matching to realize the optimal design of water-using network with single contaminant. The location、 number and capacity of storage was also determined directing at water-using network with storage. In the end, a literature case was studied, the water pinch location, fresh water dosage and the water-using network using the method presented in this paper are consistene with the literature. This demonstrates the validity and advantages of the proposed approach. The model of the approach, which not only can

  4. Development, validation and transfer of a near infrared method to determine in-line the end point of a fluidised drying process for commercial production batches of an approved oral solid dose pharmaceutical product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Antonio; Hammond, Jonathan; Scott, Andrew

    2011-01-05

    Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing the principles of Quality by Design with the main purpose of assurance and built-in quality throughout the whole manufacturing process. Within this framework, a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectra and humidity determinations, was built in order to determine in-line the drying end point of a fluidized bed process. The in-process method was successfully validated following the principles described within The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use - ICH Q2 (r1) - Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology. However, in some aspects, the cited guidelines were not appropriate to in-process methods developed and validated exclusively with in-line samples and implemented in dynamic systems, such as drying processes. In this work, a customized interpretation of guidelines has been adopted which provided the framework of evidence to support a validated application. The application has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The European Medicines Agency (EMA) during applications for grant of licences. Representatives from these Regulatory Authorities have specifically reviewed this novel application during on-site inspections, and have subsequently approved both the product and this application. Currently, the NIR method is implemented as a primary in-line method to control the drying end point in real-time (to below a control limit of not greater than 1.2% w/w) for commercial production batches of an approved, solid, oral-dose medicine. The implementation of this in-process method allows real-time control with benefits including a reduction in operation time and labour; sample handling and waste generation; and a reduced risk to product quality in further unit operations due to improved consistency of intermediate output at this stage. To date

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and greasy sludge from flotation process: batch versus CSTR experiments to investigate optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, R; Bridoux, G; Nauleau, F; Poullain, C; Buffet, J; Peu, P; Sadowski, A G; Béline, F

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sludge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determine the maximum ratio to be used in a CSTR configuration. Additionally, when the ratio of greasy sludge increased from 0% to 60% of the feed COD, CSTR methane production increased by more than 60%. When the greasy sludge ratio increased from 60% to 90% of the feed COD, the reactor yield decreased by 75%.

  6. 甲醇-丙酮体系的间歇萃取精馏研究%Study on batch extractive distillation for methanol-acetone system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益辉; 袁旭宏; 黄海明; 陈红; 叶余原; 尤玉静; 熊双喜

    2014-01-01

    The methanol-acetone azeotrope was separated by batch extractive distillation with distilled water as extracting agent. The effect of factors of extractant, total reflux time, azeotrope composition, volume ratio of sol-vent and compound, saline and alkaline on batch extractive distillation azeotrope system was investigated. The best extraction conditions were obtained.%在常规的间歇萃取精馏实验装置中,研究了以蒸馏水为萃取剂间歇萃取精馏分离甲醇-丙酮共沸物的过程。考察了萃取剂、全回流时间、共沸物组成、溶剂与混合物的体积比、加盐、加碱等因素对萃取精馏分离甲醇-丙酮共沸体系的影响,从而得出最佳的萃取条件。

  7. An anoxic-aerobic system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonia in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qifeng; Singh, Vijay P; Fu, Zhimin; Wang, Jing; Hu, La

    2017-03-24

    A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat artificial pretreated coal gasification wastewater that was mainly contained of ammonia and phenol. The efficiency of SBR fed with increasing phenol concentrations (from 150 to 300 mg l(-1)) and the relationship among phenol, nitrogen removal, and the microbial community structure were evaluated. When the phenol feeding concentration was increased to about 300 mg l(-1), the removal efficiency was above 99.0%, demonstrating the robustness of phenol removal capacity. The study showed that most phenol was degraded in anoxic stage. The average removal efficiencies of ammonia and total nitrogen were 98.4 and 81.9%, respectively, with average NH4(+)-N concentration of 107.5 mg l(-1) and COD/N 7.5. Low temperature caused sludge loss that led to the decreased performance. Increasing the temperature could not recover the performance effectively. The data from bacterial analysis revealed that Delftia, Hydrogenophaga, and unclassified Xanthomonadaceae played a significant role in phenol degradation before the temperature increase, while uncultured Syntrophococcus sp. and unclassified Rhodocyclaceae were responsible for phenol degradation after the temperature increase. These results imply that the SBR holds potential for the simultaneous removal of phenolic compounds and nitrogen through aerobic ammonia oxidation and anoxic denitrification with phenol as the co-organic carbon source.

  8. First passage processes in Queuing system MX/Gr/1 with service delay discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Abolnikov

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a general single-server bulk queueing system with a server waiting until the queue will reach level r before it starts processing customers. If at least r customers are available the server takes a batch of the fixed size r of units for service. The input stream is assumed to be a compound Poisson process modulated by a semi-Markov process and with a multilevel control of service time.

  9. Batch-oriented software appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Murri, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

  10. Effect of temperature and pH on the kinetics of methane production, organic nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the batch anaerobic digestion process of cattle manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E. [Consultores Ambientales (CONAM), Havanna (Cuba); Borja, R. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.)., Sevilla (Spain); Weiland, P. [Institute of Technology, Federal Research Center of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany); Travieso, L. [Departamento de Estudios sobre Contaminacion Ambiental (DECA-CNIC), Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas (CNIC), La Habana (Cuba); Martin, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    A study of the effect of temperature and pH on the kinetics of methane production and organic nitrogen and phosphorus degradation in the anaerobic digestion process of cattle manure was carried out. Two laboratory-scale batch completely mixed reactors, operating at 35 C (mesophilic temperature), and other two, operating at 60 C (thermophilic temperature) were used. For each temperature selected, the influent pH values were 7.6 (initial pH of the waste used) and 7.0. The apparent kinetic constants of the biomethanization process increased 2.3 times when the initial pH of the influent was increased from 7.0 to 7.6 at mesophilic temperature. The values found at thermophilic temperature were similar. The kinetic constants of methane production decreased 2.6 and 7.2 times when the operating temperature increased from 35 C to 60 C for the experiments carried out at initial pH of 7.0 and 7.6, respectively. The methane yield coefficient (l CH{sub 4} STP/g VS removed) also decreased when the temperature increased from 35 C to 60 C for the two initial pH values studied. This behaviour agreed with the major inhibition level observed at thermophilic temperature as a result of the higher organic nitrogen removal and ammonia nitrogen production observed at 60 C. Specifically, the specific rate constants for organic nitrogen removal and ammonia nitrogen production increased 3.6 and 12 times when the temperature was increased from 35 C to 60 C for the experiments carried out at initial pH values of 7.0 and 7.6, respectively. In the same way, the values of the kinetic constant for phosphorus removal were 44% and 80% higher than those obtained at 35 C for the two initial pH values above-mentioned, respectively. Finally, the experimental values of organic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were reproduced with deviations equal to or less than 10% and 15% in every case, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  12. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is an innovative method to produce useful building materials from Martian regolith. Acids and bases produced from the regolith...

  13. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  14. Process Optimization with Simulation Modeling in a Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbel Yildiz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation has become an important tool in modeling systems in the last ten years due to parallel improvement in computer technologies. Companies tend to computer based system modeling and simulation not to lose any extra income or time to their competitors but to make future investments while they both have the same labor force, resources and technology. This study is an implementation of a machine spare parts manufacturer factory located in city of Turkey. The purpose of the study depends on increasing the utilization rates and optimizing the manufacture process to decrease prouction costs via identifying the bottlenecks in manufacture system. Therefore, ProModel simulation software was used to model the production line of the factory. Production line consists of nineteen work stations and was modeled for the most manufactured two products. The manufacture in the factory is divided into two weeks of batch production time and simulation model was demonstrated and replicated for ten times to get results. Thus, statistics including existing capacity usages of work stations in the whole production line were found to identify the bottlenecks of the critical work stations and machines. With the use of the simulation model, creating scenarios while making changes of the system parameters, taking the cycle times of the work stations, total production quantity, batch sizes and the shifts of the factory in hand helped to make suggestions.

  15. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  16. Effect and mechanism of carbon sources on phosphorus uptake by microorganisms in sequencing batch reactors with the single-stage oxic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the chief reason for phosphorus uptake by microorganisms affected by substrates in sequencing batch reactors with the single-stage oxic process,two typical substrates,glucose (R1) and acetate (R2) were used as the sole carbon source,and the performances of phosphorus removal and the changes of intracellular storage were compared. The experimental results showed that the phenomenon of excess phosphorus uptake was observed in two reactors,but bacteria’s capability to take in phosphorus and its intracellular storage were obviously different under the same operational condition. After steady-state operation,total phosphorus (TP) removed per MLVSS in R1 and R2 was 6.7―7.4 and 2.7―3.2 mg/g,respectively. The energy storage of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was nearly constant in R1 during the whole period,and another aerobic storage of glycogen was accumulated (the max accumulation of glycogen was 3.21 mmol-C/g) when external substrate was consumed,and then was decreased to the initial level. However in R2,PHA and glycogen were both accumulated (2.1 and 0.55 mmol-C/g,respectively) when external substrate was consumed,but they showed different changes after the period of external consumption. Compared to rapid decrease of PHA to the initial level,glycogen continued accumulating to the peak (0.88 mmol-C/g) in 2 h of aeration before decreasing. During the aeration,the accumulations/transformations of internal carbon sources in R1 were higher than those in R2. In addition,obvious TP releases were both observed in R1 and R2 other than PHA and glycogen during the long-term idle period; moreover,the release content of phosphorus in R1 was also higher than that in R2. The researches indicated that different aerobic metabolism of substrate occurred in R1 and R2 due to the different carbon sources in influent,resulting in different types and contents of aerobic storage accumulated/translated in bacteria of R1 and R2. As a result,ATP content provided for

  17. Process Design and Commissioning Operation of Constant Water-Level Sequencing Batch Reactor (CWSBR) at low Temperature%低温环境下CWSBR工艺设计与调试运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海龙; 沙瑛; 陈永

    2012-01-01

    The process of constant water-level sequencing batch reactor (CWSBR) was used in Dongwuqi wastewater treatment plant in Inner Mongolia province. After commissioning operation, nutrient removal effect was realized in the system at low temperature (8 - 10 t). The result* showed that the effluent qualities were qualified to Standard I-A of "Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant" (CB 18918-2002) with CWSBR at low temperature.%内蒙古东乌珠旗污水处理厂采用恒水位SBR工艺处理城市污水,冬季运行的温度为8~10℃,通过调试运行,实现了系统低温条件下脱氮除磷的效果.结果表明:CWSBR工艺在低温条件下保证了出水水质符合GB18918-2002《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》的一级A标准.

  18. PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A BATCH POLYMERIZATION SYSTEM USING A FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORK WITH ONLINE ADAPTATION BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cancelier

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used a predictive controller based on an empirical nonlinear model comprising a three-layer feedforward neural network for temperature control of the suspension polymerization process. In addition to the offline training technique, an algorithm was also analyzed for online adaptation of its parameters. For the offline training, the network was statically trained and the genetic algorithm technique was used in combination with the least squares method. For online training, the network was trained on a recurring basis and only the technique of genetic algorithms was used. In this case, only the weights and bias of the output layer neuron were modified, starting from the parameters obtained from the offline training. From the experimental results obtained in a pilot plant, a good performance was observed for the proposed control system, with superior performance for the control algorithm with online adaptation of the model, particularly with respect to the presence of off-set for the case of the fixed parameters model.

  19. Batch Processing Application on the VMware Virtual Machine Internet%浅谈批处理在VMware虚拟机上网的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞

    2011-01-01

    VMware是我们平时学习、测试做视频教程常用的虚拟机软件.根据日常使用VMware遇到的情况,探讨批处理命令对VMware上网的配置方法。用实例介绍了利用批处理文件配置虚拟机与物理机共享上网的使用,使日常应用更加的便捷:%VMware is our usual study,the test used to do video tutorials virtual machine software,according to the situation encountered in daily use VMware to explore the Internet batch command for VMware configuration. Introduced with an example using a batch file to configure virtual machines and physical machines to share the use of the Internet to make everyday use more convenient.

  20. Real-time monitoring and control of the specific growth rate in yeast fed-batch cultures based on process analytical technology tools such as biocalorimetry or spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Moira Monika

    2012-01-01

    Key features of bioprocesses, such as product quantity and quality, but also cell physiology can be related to the growth characteristics of the organism under study. The specific growth rate, a key variable, cannot be measured directly, but might be estimated and inferred from other measurable variables such as biomass, substrate or product concentrations. The present thesis reviews techniques for real-time estimation and control of the specific growth rate in microbial fed-batch cultures by...

  1. Dynamic Job Assignment Heuristics For Multi-server Batch Operations : A Cost-based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Harten, A. van; Schuur, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In many industries production facilities are used which process products in a batch-wise manner. Guided by research in aircraft industry, where the process of hardening synthetic aircraft parts was studied, we evaluate a new control strategy for these type of systems. Given the availability of infor

  2. Transfer from high-shear batch to continuous twin screw wet granulation: a case study in understanding the relationship between process parameters and product quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Paul; Wilson, David; Huang, Zhenyu; De Matas, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    A twin screw to high-shear batch granulation technology switch was evaluated for a pharmaceutical development project. Differences in granule (particle size distribution and porosity) and tablet (dissolution) quality attributes were analysed for both continuous and batch technologies. Liquid to solid (L/S) ratio, screw configuration and screw speed parameters on the twin screw granulator were varied, with output granule and tablet properties characterised. L/S and screw configuration were found to influence the granule particle size distribution, porosity and tablet dissolution. At 0.15 L/S, the particle size distribution showed a significant proportion of ungranulated material in the output granule. As the L/S is increased, the level of ungranulated material decreased. An increase in L/S and the number of kneader elements caused a decrease in granule porosity and tablet dissolution. Twin screw and batch granulation technologies generated different granule properties (size and shape) at a constant L/S. A lower L/S in twin screw granulation was needed to achieve similar tablet attributes. It is concluded that differences in liquid addition and therefore initial granule nucleation caused differences in granule properties, which impacted tablet attributes and manufacturability.

  3. 多批次小批量生产过程能力指数的贝叶斯估计%The Bayesian estimation of process capability indices for multi-batch and low volume manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗瑞; 章欣已; 江志斌; 赵言正

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the estimation deviation of traditional approaches for calculating process capability indices(PCIs)during multi-batch and low volume manufacturing, the process mean and the process variance of multi-batch and low volume manufacturing are assumed to follow the conjugate normal distribution and the conjugate gamma distribution, respectively, and by utilizing the theory of conjugate Bayesian estimation, the method for estimation of distributed parameters and the general expression for calculation of PCIs for multi-batch and low volume manufacturing, are proposed. This Bayesian estimation method not only eliminates the deviation in estimation of process parameters when only using the current sample with the low sample volume, but also enables the weight of current sample increasing automatically in estimation of process parameters while the sample volume of the current batch is increasing. The effectiveness and practicability of the PCI calculation based on Bayesian estimation for multi-batch and low volume manufacturing were verified by an example.%针对过程能力指数(PCIs)的传统计算方法应用于多批次小批量生产过程出现的失真问题,以多批次小批量生产过程的总体均值和总体方差分别服从共轭正态分布和共轭逆伽马分布,利用共轭贝叶斯估计理论提出了多批次小批量生产过程分布参数估计方法、过程能力指数计算方法及其通用表达式,这种贝叶斯估计方法减小仅用当前批小样本容量估计过程参数的失真,且能够随着当前批样本容量的增大,会自动增加其在过程参数贝叶斯估计中的权重.实例验证了基于贝叶斯估计的过程能力指数计算方法的有效性和实用性.

  4. Removal of Acid Black 1 and Basic Red 2 from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation/Moringa oleifera seed adsorption coupling in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Ni, Jiaheng; Zhao, Meixia; Yang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The removal of Acid Black 1 (AB1) and Basic Red 2 (BR2) from aqueous solutions via an electrocoagulation (EC)/Moringa oleifera seeds (MOS) adsorption coupling process by using aluminum and stainless steel electrode in a batch reactor is described in this study. The influences of the operational parameters, i.e. current density, MOS dosage, and dye initial concentration, on degree of color removal were studied, and the unit energy demand, the unit electrode material demand, and the charge loading were calculated and discussed. The amounts of adsorbent and energy consumption were considered as main criteria of process evaluation, and ideal conditions were chosen. The addition of an appropriate MOS dosage (0.6 g/L for AB1 and 5 g/L for BR2) resulted in faster decolorization of dyes especially at lower current densities and was simultaneously accompanied by a significant reduction in contact time compared to the conventional simple EC process. The coupling process achieved degree of removals above 99.3% and 94% for AB1 and BR2, respectively. The EC/MOS coupling technique could be recommended to replace the conventional simple EC because of its high degree of removal, short contact time, and low energy consumption.

  5. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  6. In vitro growth of Curcuma longa L. in response to five mineral elements and plant density in fed-batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F; Bridges, William C; Adelberg, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments' macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes.

  7. Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...

  8. Enumeration Verification System (EVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — EVS is a batch application that processes for federal, state, local and foreign government agencies, private companies and internal SSA customers and systems. Each...

  9. Introducing the concept of critical Fo in batch heat processing Introduzindo o conceito de Fo crítico no processamento térmico em batelada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Ferracini Gumerato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the sterilization value for low acid foods in retorts includes a critical evaluation of the factory's facilities and utilities, validation of the heat processing equipment (by heat distribution assays, and finally heat penetration assays with the product. The intensity of the heat process applied to the food can be expressed by the Fo value (sterilization value, in minutes, at a reference temperature of 121.1 °C, and a thermal index, z, of 10 °C, for Clostridium botulinum spores. For safety reasons, the lowest value for Fo is frequently adopted, being obtained in heat penetration assays as indicative of the minimum process intensity applied. This lowest Fo value should always be higher than the minimum Fo recommended for the food in question. However, the use of the Fo value for the coldest can fail to statistically explain all the practical occurrences in food heat treatment processes. Thus, as a result of intense experimental work, we aimed to develop a new focus to determine the lowest Fo value, which we renamed the critical Fo. The critical Fo is based on a statistical model for the interpretation of the results of heat penetration assays in packages, and it depends not only on the Fo values found at the coldest point of the package and the coldest point of the equipment, but also on the size of the batch of packages processed in the retort, the total processing time in the retort, and the time between CIPs of the retort. In the present study, we tried to explore the results of physical measurements used in the validation of food heat processes. Three examples of calculations were prepared to illustrate the methodology developed and to introduce the concept of critical Fo for the processing of canned food.A determinação do valor de esterilização de alimentos de baixa acidez em autoclaves compreende uma minuciosa avaliação das instalações e utilidades da fábrica, uma validação do equipamento de processo t

  10. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  11. 考虑初始操作温度影响的间歇放热反应系统动态柔性分析%The Dynamic Flexibility of Batch Exothermic Reaction System: Take into Account the Effect of the Initial Operational Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is shown in this article that by changing the initial operation condition of the batch processes, the dynamic performance of the system can be varied largely, especially for the initial operational temperature of the exothermic reaction. The initial operation condition is often ignored in the designing batch processes for flexibility against disturbances or parameter variations. When the initial condition is not rigid as in the case of a batch reactor, where the initial reaction temperature is quite arbitrary, optimization can also be applied to determine the "best" initial condition to use. Problems for dynamic flexibility analysis of exothermic reaction including initial temperature and process operation can be formulated as dynamic optimization problems. Formulations are derived when the initial conditions are considered or not. When the initial conditions are considered, the initial condition can be transferred into control variables in the first optimal step. The solution of the dynamic optimization is on the basis of Rugge-Kutta integration algorithm and decomposition search algorithm. This method, as illustrated and tested with two highly nonlinear process problems, enables the determination of the optimal level. The dynamic performance is improved by the proposed method in the two exothermic reaction examples.

  12. Fuzzy logic feedback control for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chao; Voltan, Diego S; Keshwani, Deepak R; Meyer, George E; Kuhar, Pankaj S

    2016-06-01

    A fuzzy logic feedback control system was developed for process monitoring and feeding control in fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Digested glucose from hydrolysis reaction was assigned as input while doser feeding time and speed of pretreated biomass were responses from fuzzy logic control system. Membership functions for these three variables and rule-base were created based on batch hydrolysis data. The system response was first tested in LabVIEW environment then the performance was evaluated through real-time hydrolysis reaction. The feeding operations were determined timely by fuzzy logic control system and efficient responses were shown to plateau phases during hydrolysis. Feeding of proper amount of cellulose and maintaining solids content was well balanced. Fuzzy logic proved to be a robust and effective online feeding control tool for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.

  13. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    The Handbook is organized in four parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools; and the fourth part describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies.

  14. VLSI mixed signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  15. On the choice of batch mode in order to maximize throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of serial process configurations consisting of three processes and two machines shows interesting relations between the choice of batch mode (or batch structure), utilization of capacities and maximum throughput.

  16. Production of oleic acid ethyl ester catalyzed by crude rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase in a modified fed-batch system: problem and its solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indro Prastowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fed-batch system was modified for the enzymatic production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester (OAEE using rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase by retaining the substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid at 2.05: 1 during the reaction. It resulted in an increase in the ester conversion up to 76.8% in the first 6 h of the reaction, and then followed by a decrease from 76.8% to 22.9% in 6 h later. Meanwhile, the production of water in the reaction system also showed a similar trend to the trend of ester production. The water was hypothesized to lead lipase to reverse the reaction which resulted in a decrease in both (water and esters in the last 6 h of the reaction. In order to overcome the problem, zeolite powders (25 and 50 mg/ml were added into the reaction system at 5 h of the reaction. As the result, final ester conversions increased drastically up to 90 - 95.7% (1.17 – 1.24 times. The addition also proved a hypothesis that the water was involved in reducing the ester conversion in the last 6 h of the reaction. Thus, the combination was effective to produce the high final ester conversion.

  17. Real-time adaptive control of multi-server bulk service processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Peters, B.A.; Smith, J.S.; Rohrer, M.W.; Medeiros, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Batch processing systems often consist of multiple machines of different types for the range and volumes of products that ha

  18. Real-time adaptive control of multi-product multi-server bulk service processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Batch processing systems often consist of multiple machines of different types for the range and volumes of products that ha

  19. Comparison of semi-batch vs. continuously fed anaerobic bioreactors for the treatment of a high-strength, solids-rich pumpkin-processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Agua, Isabel; Usack, Joseph G; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare two different high-rate anaerobic bioreactor configurations--the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and the upflow anaerobic solid removal (UASR) reactor--for the treatment of a solid-rich organic wastewater with a high strength. The two, 4.5-L reactors were operated in parallel for close to 100 days under mesophilic conditions (37°C) with non-granular biomass by feeding a pumpkin wastewater with ∼4% solids. The organic loading rate of pumpkin wastewater was increased periodically to a maximum of 8 g COD L(-1) d(-1) by shortening the hydraulic retention time to 5.3 days. Compositional analysis of pumpkin wastewater revealed deficiencies in the trace metal cobalt and alkalinity. With supplementation, the ASBR outperformed the UASR reactor with total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 64% and 53%, respectively, achieving a methane yield of 0.27 and 0.20 L CH4 g(-1) COD fed to the ASBR and UASR, respectively. The better performance realized with the ASBR and this specific wastewater was attributed to its semi-batch, dynamic operating conditions rather than the continuous operating conditions of the UASR reactor.

  20. APPLICATION OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO BATCH POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a stable operational state in polymerization reactors that operates in batches is factor that determine the need of a special control system. In this study, advanced control methodology is implemented for controlling the operation of a batch polymerization reactor for polystyrene production utilizingmodel predictive control. By utilizing a model of the polymerization process, the necessary operational conditions were determined for producing the polymer within the desired characteristics. The maincontrol objective is to bring the reactor temperature to its target temperature as rapidly as possible with minimal temperature overshoot. Control performance for the proposed method is encouraging. It has been observed that temperature overshoot can be minimized by the proposed method with the use of both reactor and jacket energy balance for reactor temperature control.

  1. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative custom...

  2. Methodology of Supervision by Analysis of Thermal Flux for Thermal Conduction of a Batch Chemical Reactor Equipped with a Monofluid Heating/Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Henini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermal behavior of a batch reactor to jacket equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system. Heating and cooling are provided respectively by an electrical resistance and two plate heat exchangers. The control of the temperature of the reaction is based on the supervision system. This strategy of management of the thermal devices is based on the usage of the thermal flux as manipulated variable. The modulation of the monofluid temperature by acting on the heating power or on the opening degrees of an air-to-open valve that delivers the monofluid to heat exchanger. The study shows that the application of this method for the conduct of the pilot reactor gives good results in simulation and that taking into account the dynamics of the various apparatuses greatly improves ride quality of conduct. In addition thermal control of an exothermic reaction (mononitration shows that the consideration of heat generated in the model representation improve the results by elimination any overshooting of the set-point temperature.

  3. Viral and bacterial production in the North Water: in situ measurements, batch-culture experiments and characterization and distribution of a virus host system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Bjørnsen, Peter K.

    Growth and viral lysis of bacterioplankton at subzero temperatures were measured in the North Water polynya in July 1998. In situ measurements of bacterial carbon consumption in surface waters ranged from 15 to 63 μg C l -1 d -1 in the eastern and 6 to 7 μg C l -1 d -1 in the northern part of the polynya. Both bacterial abundance and activity appeared to increase in response to the decay of the phytoplankton bloom that developed in the North Water. Organic carbon was the limiting substrate for bacteria in the polynya since addition of glucose, but not inorganic nutrients, to batch cultures increased both the carrying capacity of the substrate and the growth rate of the bacteria. Bacterial growth rates ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 d -1, corresponding to bacterial generation times of 1.7-6.3 d. The in situ viral production rate was estimated both from the frequency of visibly infected cells and from the rate of viral production in batch cultures; it ranged from 0.04 to 0.52 d -1 and from 0.25 to 0.47 d -1, respectively. From 6% to 28% of bacterial production was found to be lost due to viral lysis. The average virus-bacteria ratio was 5.1±3.1, with the abundance of viruses being correlated positively with bacterial production. A Pseudoalteromonas sp. bacterial host and an infective virus were isolated from the polynya; characteristics and distribution of the virus-host system were examined. The Pseudoalteromonas sp. showed psychrotolerant growth and sustained significant production of viruses at 0°C. The virus-host system was found throughout the polynya. Overall the results suggested that a large amount of organic carbon released during the development and breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom was consumed by planktonic bacteria and that the microbial food web was an important and dynamic component of the planktonic food web in the North Water.

  4. Forward Osmosis System And Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-08-22

    A forward osmosis fluid purification system includes a cross-flow membrane module with a membrane, a channel on each side of the membrane which allows a feed solution and a draw solution to flow through separately, a feed side, a draw side including a draw solute, where the draw solute includes an aryl sulfonate salt. The system can be used in a process to extract water from impure water, such as wastewater or seawater. The purified water can be applied to arid land.

  5. Self-tuning GMV control of glucose concentration in fed-batch baker's yeast production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitit, Zeynep Yilmazer; Boyacioglu, Havva; Ozyurt, Baran; Ertunc, Suna; Hapoglu, Hale; Akay, Bulent

    2014-04-01

    A detailed system identification procedure and self-tuning generalized minimum variance (STGMV) control of glucose concentration during the aerobic fed-batch yeast growth were realized. In order to determine the best values of the forgetting factor (λ), initial value of the covariance matrix (α), and order of the Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous (ARMAX) model (n a, n b), transient response data obtained from the real process wereutilized. Glucose flow rate was adjusted according to the STGMV control algorithm coded in Visual Basic in an online computer connected to the system. Conventional PID algorithm was also implemented for the control of the glucose concentration in aerobic fed-batch yeast cultivation. Controller performances were examined by evaluating the integrals of squared errors (ISEs) at constant and random set point profiles. Also, batch cultivation was performed, and microorganism concentration at the end of the batch run was compared with the fed-batch cultivation case. From the system identification step, the best parameter estimation was accomplished with the values λ = 0.9, α = 1,000 and n a = 3, n b = 2. Theoretical control studies show that the STGMV control system was successful at both constant and random glucose concentration set profiles. In addition, random effects given to the set point, STGMV control algorithm were performed successfully in experimental study.

  6. Condensation Processes in Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. I.; Moore, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    We model condensation processes in geothermal systems to understand how this process changes fluid chemistry. We assume two processes operate in geothermal systems: 1) condensation of a vapor phase derived by boiling an aqueous geothermal fluid into a cool near surface water and 2) condensation of a magmatic vapor by a deep circulating meteoric thermal fluid. It is assumed that the condensation process has two stages. Initially the condensing fluid is under saturated in gaseous species. Condensation of the vapor phase continues until the pressure on the fluid equals the sum of the partial pressures of water and the dissolved gaseous species. At that time bubbles flux through the condensing fluid. In time the fluid and fluxing gas phase come to equilibrium. Calculation shows that during the second stage of the condensation process the liquid phase becomes enriched in more soluble gaseous species like CO2 and H2S, and depleted in less soluble species like CH4 and N2. Stage 2 condensation processes can therefore be monitored by ratios of more and less condensable species like CO2/N2. Condensation of vapor released by boiling geothermal fluids results in liquids with high concentrations of H2S and CO2 like is seen in geothermal system steam-heated waters. Condensation of a magmatic vapor into circulating meteoric water has been proposed, but not well demonstrated. We compare to our models the Cerro Prieto, Mexico gas analysis data set collected over twelve years time by USGS personnel. It was assumed for modeling that the Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids are circulating meteoritic fluids with N2/Ar ratios about 40 to which is added a magmatic vapor with N2/Ar ratio = 400. The Cerro Prieto analyses show a strong correlation between N2/Ar and CO2/N2 as predicted by calculation. Two dimensional image plots of well N2/Ar + CO2/N2 show a bull's-eye pattern on the geothermal field. Image plots of analyses collected over a year or less time show N2/Ar and CO2/N2 hot spots

  7. Inactivation of bacterial contaminants in drinking water using a novel batch-process TiO2-assisted solar photocatalytic disinfection (SPC-DIS) reactor for use in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuigan, K. G.; Duffy, E. F.; Al Touati, F.; Kehoe, S. C.; McLoughlin, O. A.; Gill, L. W.; Gernjak, W.; Oller, I.; Maldonado, M. I.; Malato, S.; Reed, R. H.

    2004-07-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings in batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) reactors to improve potability of drinking water in developing countries have been studied. Borosilicate glass and PET plastic SODIS reactor fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO2 powder were shown to be 20% and 25% more effective, respectively, than standard SODIS reactors for the inactivation of E. coli K12 . Approximately 550J is required per litre of water to produce each 1-long-unit reduction in bacterial population within SPC-DIS reactors of the design described in this study. (Author) 14 refs.

  8. Studies of Pb2+ adsorption by Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds from an aqueous medium in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Ana Paula; Gonçalves, Affonso Celso; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Stangarlin, José Renato; Rubio, Fernanda; Nacke, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seeds for removing lead ions (Pb(2+)) from water was evaluated. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was found to be 12.24 mg g(-1). In order to verify the effectiveness of this material, comparative studies were performed with activated carbon under the same optimal conditions for the construction of isotherms and the desorption process. Average desorption rate values led to the assumption that a strong interaction took place between the adsorbents and the metal ions. Thus, it has been concluded that the biosorbent studied herein can be considered very effective and feasible for remediating Pb(2+)-contaminated solutions, since this material is itself an untreated and low-cost byproduct.

  9. Bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of irrigation water contaminated with boron (B) using duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) in a batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl; Gür, Nurcan

    2017-02-15

    The present study assesses ability of Lemna gibba L. using a batch reactor approach to bioaccumulation boron (B) from irrigation waters which were collected from a stream in largest borax reserve all over the world. The important note that bioaccumulation of B from irrigation water was first analyzed for first time in a risk assessment study using a Lemna species exposed to various B concentrations. Boron toxicity was evaluated through plant growth and biomass production during phytoremediation process. The result from the present experiment indicated that L. gibba was capable of removing 19-63% B from irrigation water depending upon contaminated level or initial concentration. We also found that B was removed from aqueous solution following pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model better fitted equilibrium obtained for B phytoremediation. Maximum B accumulation in L. gibba was determined as 2088mgkg(-1) at average inflow B concentration 17.39mgL(-1) at the end of the experiment. Conversely, maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest inflow B concentrations were 232 for L. gibba. The present study suggested that L. gibba was very useful B accumulator, and thus L. gibba-based techniques could be a reasonable phytoremediation option to remove B directly from water sources contaminated with B.

  10. The Batch Extractive Distillation for Ethernol-water System%乙醇-水体系的间歇萃取精馏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭宏; 熊双喜

    2012-01-01

    In order to make the recyclation of the ethernol in discarded liquid come true, the text carried some experiment researches on the main processes of the batch extractive distillation for the solution in which the ethernol' s content is lower. Such as the temperature of the kettle,the salt' s content in salt-solution,the ratio of circum-fluence and so on. Some satisfactory results on the relations between the main parameteras and the prduct' s pure are got, which offeree the valuable experimentation accordance for the recyclation of the ethernol in discarded liquid.%为了实现对废液中的乙醇回收再利用,对乙醇含量较低的乙醇水溶液的间歇萃取精馏过程中的塔釜加热温度、混合溶液的浓度、回流比等进行了实验研究.得出了主要参数和产品纯度影响因素之间的—些关系.结果满意,为废液中乙醇的回收提供了有价值的实验依据.

  11. An Erlang Loss Queue with Time-Phased Batch Arrivals as a Model for Traffic Control in Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Ho Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiserver queueing model that does not have a buffer but has batch arrival of customers is considered. In contrast to the standard batch arrival, in which the entire batch arrives at the system during a single epoch, we assume that the customers of a batch (flow arrive individually in exponentially distributed times. The service time is exponentially distributed. Flows arrive according to a stationary Poisson arrival process. The flow size distribution is geometric. The number of flows that can be simultaneously admitted to the system is under control. The loss of any customer from an admitted flow, with a fixed probability, implies termination of the flow arrival. Analysis of the sojourn time and loss probability of an arbitrary flow is performed.

  12. 医院遂行城市维稳行动批量伤病员院内救治流程设计%Treatment Process Design for the Batches of Wounded in Terrorist Attacks in the Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭彦宏; 张琼; 曹金军; 缪绍武; 陶发胜

    2012-01-01

    针对城市维稳批量伤病员医疗救治特点和原则,基于军队平战时卫勤保障流程理论,利用运筹学原理,优化设计城市维稳批量伤病员在综合医院院内救治流程,明确流程设计的思路与目的.通过优化,将院内救治工作划分为:应急准备、分诊急救、专科救治和康复治疗等阶段.运用网络技术,对每个阶段各个工作节点和路线进行描述,从而确定了城市维稳批量伤病员院内救治工作的关键路线和关键活动;通过组织指挥和管理,保证关键路线和关键活动的如期实现,实施救治机构的标准化作业,确保伤病员救治效率和效益的最大化.要确保流程设计的合理性和有效性,医院还需建立救治流程管理制度体系,通过PDCA循环,在实践中不断校正和优化流程设计,以制度形式,保证团队对标准化流程掌握和运用,推动流程设计的持续改进,从而实现优化设计目的.%Based on the military medical support process theory and operations research theory, and combining with characteristics and principles of medical treatment of the sick and wounded at urban maintenance stability operations, the treatment process was redesigned for the batches of wounded in terrorist attacks in the hospital. In the new process, the treatment work was divided into the stages of emergency preparedness, triage emergency, special treatment and rehabilitation. With the network technology, each stage of work and route was described, and then the critical path and critical activities were determined of the treatment work. Then the measures were taken as the organization, command and management to ensure the critical path and activities to be carried out smoothly. Also the author proposed to schedule the standardized operation of the institutions, set up the process management system.

  13. XCPU2 process management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionkov, Latchesar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hensbergen, Eric [IBM AUSTIN RESEARCH LAB

    2009-01-01

    Xcpu2 is a new process management system that allows the users to specify custom file system for a running job. Most cluster management systems enforce single software distribution running on all nodes. Xcpu2 allows programs running on the cluster to work in environment identical to the user's desktop, using the same versions of the libraries and tools the user installed locally, and accessing the configuration file in the same places they are located on the desktop. Xcpu2 builds on our earlier work with the Xcpu system. Like Xcpu, Xcpu2's process management interface is represented as a set of files exported by a 9P file server. It supports heterogeneous clusters and multiple head nodes. Unlike Xcpu, it uses pull instead of push model. In this paper we describe the Xcpu2 clustering model, its operation and how the per-job filesystem configuration can be used to solve some of the common problems when running a cluster.

  14. Determining The Optimal Order Picking Batch Size In Single Aisle Warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Duc (Tho); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis work aims at investigating the influence of picking batch size to average time in system of orders in a one-aisle warehouse under the assumption that order arrivals follow a Poisson process and items are uniformly distributed over the aisle's length. We model this problem as an M

  15. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A generic multi-dimensional modeling framework for studying batch cooling crystallization processes under generated operational policies is presented. The generic nature of the modeling allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, t...

  16. NDMAS System and Process Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Hull

    2012-10-01

    Experimental data generated by the Very High Temperature Reactor Program need to be more available to users in the form of data tables on Web pages that can be downloaded to Excel or in delimited text formats that can be used directly for input to analysis and simulation codes, statistical packages, and graphics software. One solution that can provide current and future researchers with direct access to the data they need, while complying with records management requirements, is the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This report describes the NDMAS system and its components, defines roles and responsibilities, describes the functions the system performs, describes the internal processes the NDMAS team uses to carry out the mission, and describes the hardware and software used to meet Very High Temperature Reactor Program needs.

  17. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  18. Productivity and selective accumulation of carotenoids of the novel extremophile microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila grown with different carbon sources in batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaresma, María; Casal, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Vílchez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of extremophile microorganisms has attracted interest due to their ability to accumulate high-value compounds. Chlamydomonas acidophila is an acidophile green microalga isolated by our group from Tinto River, an acidic river that flows down from the mining area in Huelva, Spain. This microalga accumulates high concentrations of lutein, a very well-known natural antioxidant. The aim of this study is to assess use of different carbon sources (CO(2), glucose, glycerol, starch, urea, and glycine) for efficient growth of and carotenoid production by C. acidophila. Our results reveal that growth of the microalga on different carbon sources resulted in different algal biomass productivities, urea being as efficient as CO(2) when used as sole carbon source (~20 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1)). Mixotrophic growth on glucose was also efficient in terms of biomass production (~14 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1)). In terms of carotenoid accumulation, mixotrophic growth on urea resulted in even higher productivity of carotenoids (mainly lutein, probably via α-carotene) than obtained with photoautotrophic cultures (70% versus 65% relative abundance of lutein, respectively). The accumulated lutein concentrations of C. acidophila reported in this work (about 10 g/kg dry weight, produced in batch systems) are among the highest reported for a microalga. Glycerol and glycine seem to enhance β-carotene biosynthesis, and when glycine is used as carbon source, zeaxanthin becomes the most accumulated carotenoid in the microalga. Strategies for production of lutein and zeaxanthin are suggested based on the obtained results.

  19. Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling vs. Batch Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Vivien, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or on extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online, non-clairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with light...

  20. 一种批量抽取动态Web信息系%Batch Extraction Information System from Dynamic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙; 张春涛; 杨德仁

    2011-01-01

    针对从Web页面获取信息的广泛需求,分析了从中提取信息的关键技术如URL地址、HTML页面和HtmlParse解析库;以从Google Map中获取企业黄页信息为例,根据从中自动提取数据的技术和步骤,设计和实现了该系统原型,并指出的相关问题及其解决办法.%In order to respond some extensive requirements for getting information from Web pages, some key techniques such as URL, HTML page and HtmlParse API, were analyzed. Getting yellow page information from Google maps was taken as an example, and according to related techniques and steps of abstracting information from it, the system prototype was designed and implemented. Some related problems were presented, and its corresponding solution were discussed too.

  1. Dynamic security assessment processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei

    The architecture of dynamic security assessment processing system (DSAPS) is proposed to address online dynamic security assessment (DSA) with focus of the dissertation on low-probability, high-consequence events. DSAPS upgrades current online DSA functions and adds new functions to fit into the modern power grid. Trajectory sensitivity analysis is introduced and its applications in power system are reviewed. An index is presented to assess transient voltage dips quantitatively using trajectory sensitivities. Then the framework of anticipatory computing system (ACS) for cascading defense is presented as an important function of DSAPS. ACS addresses various security problems and the uncertainties in cascading outages. Corrective control design is automated to mitigate the system stress in cascading progressions. The corrective controls introduced in the dissertation include corrective security constrained optimal power flow, a two-stage load control for severe under-frequency conditions, and transient stability constrained optimal power flow for cascading outages. With state-of-the-art computing facilities to perform high-speed extended-term time-domain simulation and optimization for large-scale systems, DSAPS/ACS efficiently addresses online DSA for low-probability, high-consequence events, which are not addressed by today's industrial practice. Human interference is reduced in the computationally burdensome analysis.

  2. A systems process of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, K V

    1997-01-01

    Functional systems theory was used to consider the process of reinforcement of the actions on the body of reinforcing factors, i.e., the results of behavior satisfying the body's original needs. The systems process of reinforcement includes reverse afferentation entering the CNS from receptors acted upon by various parameters of the desired results, and mechanisms for comparing reverse afferentation with the apparatus which accepts the results of the action and the corresponding emotional component. A tight interaction between reinforcement and the dominant motivation is generated on the basis of the hologram principle. Reinforcement forms an apparatus for predicting a desired result, i.e. a result-of-action acceptor. Reinforcement procedures significant changes in the activities of individual neurons in the various brain structures involved in dominant motivation, transforming their spike activity for a burst pattern to regular discharges; there are also molecular changes in neuron properties. After preliminary reinforcement, the corresponding motivation induces the ribosomal system of neurons to start synthesizing special effector molecules, which organize molecular engrams of the acceptor of the action's result. Sensory mechanisms of reinforcement are considered, with particular reference to the information role of emotions.

  3. Batch and fed-batch fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis using starch industry wastewater as fermentation substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki biopesticide was produced in batch and fed-batch fermentation modes using starch industry wastewater as sole substrate. Fed-batch fermentation with two intermittent feeds (at 10 and 20 h) during the fermentation of 72 h gave the maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (1,672.6 mg/L) and entomotoxicity (Tx) (18.5 x 10(6) SBU/mL) in fermented broth which were significantly higher than maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (511.0 mg/L) and Tx (15.8 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in batch process. However, fed-batch fermentation with three intermittent feeds (at 10, 20 and 34 h) of the fermentation resulted in the formation of asporogenous variant (Spo-) from 36 h to the end of fermentation (72 h) which resulted in a significant decrease in spore and delta-endotoxin concentration and finally the Tx value. Tx of suspended pellets (27.4 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in fed-batch fermentation with two feeds was the highest value as compared to other cases.

  4. 基于BDI智能体的配电网监控信息批处理方法%A Method for Batch Processing of Distribution Network Monitoring Information Based on Belief-Desire-Intention Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈志坚; 刘明光; 刘靖; 王健; 杨罡; 王林

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to the long time-delay during the transmission of key information due to numerous measuring points in distribution network monitoring and quick variation of measured information, an intelligent belief-desire-intention (BDI) batch processing method is proposed. By means of establishing a quintuple model of BDI agents, the interactive analysis on the agents are performed and an agent alliance of common information is constructed; then synthetically applying the skills in model auto-mapping and message event trigger (MET), the prototype of the intelligent system is implemented in the viewpoint of business stream and information stream. Taking the monitoring system for 10kV distribution network as example, the interaction and performance tests are carried out, and test results show that the processing efficiency of the proposed method is potentiated by 70% than traditional 2s polling method.%针对配电网监控中量测点多、变化快,造成关键信息传输产生较大延迟的问题,提出了批量信息的信念-愿望-意图(belief-desire.intention,BDI)智能处理方法。通过建立BDI智能体的五元组模型,对多智能体进行交互分析,构建了公用信息的智能体联盟,综合运用模型自动映射和消息事件触发(message event trigger,MET)的技巧,从业务流和信息流角度进行智能化原型系统实现。利用10kV配电网监控的工程算例进行了交互与性能实验,结果表明:文中方法的处理效率比传统2S轮询方法提高了约70%。

  5. [The systems process of reinforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, K V

    1996-01-01

    The process of reinforcement is considered in the context of the general theory of functional systems as an important part of behavioural act organization closely interacting with the dominant motivation. It is shown that reinforcement substantially changes the activities of separate neurons in different brain structures involved in dominant motivation. After a preliminary reinforcement under the influence of corresponding motivation the ribosomal apparatus of neurons begins to synthesize special molecular engrams of the action acceptor. The sensory mechanisms of reinforcement and, especially, the role of emotions are considered in details in the paper.

  6. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2008-04-01

    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  7. 玉米秸秆分批补料获得高还原糖浓度酶解液的条件优化%Optimization of corn stover hydrolysis by fed-batch process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋安东; 任天宝; 张玲玲; 王风芹; 谢慧

    2011-01-01

    High-concentration sugars production from stover is an important perspective technology for the cellulosic ethanol industrialization.Fed-batch process is an effective way to achieve this goal in the fermentation industry.In this study, based on fed-batch process, high-concentration sugars were produced from pretreated corn stover by enzymatic hydrolysis.After being pretreated by the dilute sulphuric acid, the impacts of the ratio of solid raw material to liquid culture, the content of supplementary materials and the refilling time on the saccharification rate were investigated.Results showed that the initial ratio of solid raw material to liquid culture was 20% (W/V) and the initial concentrations of enzymes for xylanase, cellulose and pectinase were 220 U,6 FPU, and 50 U per gram of substrates, respectively.After 24 hours and 48 hours, 8% pretreated corn stovers were added respectively together with the additions of xylanase (20 U) and cellulose (2 FPU) per gram of substrates.After 72 hours, the final concentration of reducing sugar was increased to 138.5 g/L from 48.5 g/L of the non fed-batch process.The rate of enzyme hydrolysis of the raw material was 62.5% of the thoretieal value in the fed-batch process.This study demonstrated that the fed-batch process could significantly improve the concentration of reducing sugar.%木质纤维素高浓度还原糖水解液的获得是纤维乙醇产业化发展的方向.在发酵工业领域,分批补料法是实现这一目标的重要研究途径.本研究采用分批补料法对获得高浓度玉米秸秆酶解还原糖的条件进行了优化.以稀硫酸预处理的玉米秸秆为原料,考察了液固比、补加量与补加时间对分批补料糖化的影响.结果表明,秸秆高浓度酶解液条件的初始物料为20%(重量/体积),木聚糖酶220 U/g(底物),纤维素酶6 FPU/g(底物),果胶酶50 U/g(底物),在24 h、48 h后分批补加8%预处理后的物料,同时添加与

  8. A new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system for an operating system process scheduler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Arif; Akram, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We present a new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets for a process scheduler of a batch operating system. Our proposed intuitionistic fuzzy scheduling algorithm, inputs the nice value and burst time of all available processes in the ready queue, intuitionistically fuzzify the input values, triggers appropriate rules of our intuitionistic fuzzy inference engine and finally calculates the dynamic priority (dp) of all the processes in the ready queue. Once the dp of every process is calculated the ready queue is sorted in decreasing order of dp of every process. The process with maximum dp value is sent to the central processing unit for execution. Finally, we show complete working of our algorithm on two different data sets and give comparisons with some standard non-preemptive process schedulers.

  9. Mesophilic batch anaerobic co-digestion of fruit-juice industrial waste and municipal waste sludge: process and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Barrantes Leiva, M; Eskicioglu, C; Dutil, C

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of two juice-based beverage industrial wastes, screen cake (SC) and thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS), along with municipal sludge cake (MC) was investigated. Experiments were conducted in twenty mesophilic batch 160 ml serum bottles with no inhibition occurred. The statistical analysis proved that the substrate type had statistically significant effect on both ultimate biogas and methane yields (P=0.0003<0.05). The maximum and minimum ultimate cumulative methane yields were 890.90 and 308.34 mL/g-VSremoved from the digesters containing only TWAS and SC as substrate. First-order reaction model well described VS utilization in all digesters. The first 2-day and 10-day specific biodegradation rate constants were statistically higher in the digesters containing SC (P=0.004<0.05) and MC (P=0.0005<0.05), respectively. The cost-benefit analysis showed that the capital, operating and total costs can be decreased by 21.5%, 29.8% and 27.6%, respectively using a co-digester rather than two separate digesters.

  10. Successful treatment of high azo dye concentration wastewater using combined anaerobic/aerobic granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR): simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Hashemi, S H

    2013-01-01

    The application of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR) for treatment of wastewater containing 1,000 mg/L Acid Red 18 (AR18) was investigated in this research. The treatment system consisted of a sequencing batch reactor equipped with moving GAC as biofilm support. Each treatment cycle consisted of two successive anaerobic (14 h) and aerobic (8 h) reaction phases. Removal of more than 91% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 97% AR18 was achieved in this study. Investigation of dye decolorization kinetics showed that the dye removal was stimulated by the adsorption capacity of the GAC at the beginning of the anaerobic phase and then progressed following a first-order reaction. Based on COD analysis results, at least 77.8% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment system. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that more than 97% of 1-naphthyalamine-4-sulfonate as one of the main sulfonated aromatic constituents of AR18 was removed during the aerobic reaction phase. According to the scanning electron microscopic analysis, the microbial biofilms grew in most cavities and pores of the GAC, but not on the external surfaces of the GAC.

  11. Formation of Star-Like and Core-Shell AuAg Nanoparticles during Two- and Three-Step Preparation in Batch and in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Köhler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular dendrit-like metal nanoparticles and core-shell nanoparticles were formed by the reduction of mixtures of tetrachloroaurate and silver nitrate solutions with ascorbic acid at room temperature in two- and three-step procedures. The formation of these particles was found in batch experiments as well as in micro flow-through processes using static micromixers. The characteristic diameters of 4-branched star particles were in the range between 60 and 100 nm. The typical particles consist of four metal cores which are embedded in a common shell. Additionally, particles with five and more metallic cores were formed, to some extent, and aggregates of the 4-branched particles also were formed. Larger aggregates and network-like structures of connected star particles were formed after sedimentation. The properties of the formed particles are dependent on the educt concentrations as well as on the order of mixing steps and on the time interval between them. Obviously, the relation of nucleation and particle growth in relation to the concentrations of metal ions determines the composition and the properties of formed nanoparticles. So, star-like particles are observed in case of nucleation of Au in absence of silver ions but with silver deposition after short nucleation time. Spherical core shell particles are formed in case of silver salt addition after complete reduction of tetrachloroaurate in flow-through experiments with sufficient residence time between both mixing steps. Polymer layers are always found in the form of a second outer shell even if the polymer solutions are added in an early stage of particle formation.

  12. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  13. VB-based Hospital Storeroom Inventory Management System Data Batch Entry Design%基于VB的医院药库进销存管理系统数据批量录入方法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金兵

    2011-01-01

    在进销存管理系统中数据批量录入是经常要做的工作,如何减轻操作人员的工作量,是软件设计时必须要考虑的一个因素,本文以基于VB环境下的医院药库进销存管理系统设计为例,介绍了如何实现数据批量录入的方法。%In Invoicing management system data batch input is often the work to be done,how to reduce the workload of operators,is the software design must be considered a factor,based on the VB environment of hospital pharmacy Invoicing management system as an example,introduces how to realize the data batch input method.

  14. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  15. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  16. Process algebra for Hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, Chap. 4, 2002] and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra [Theoretical Computer

  17. Process algebra for hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg (Process Algebra with Timing, Springer,Berlin, 2002, Chapter 4), and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra(Theoret. Com

  18. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  19. An Microassembly System for Batch Bonding of MEMS Sensors%用于MEMS传感器批量制造的微装配系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣伟彬; 谢晖; 孙立宁

    2006-01-01

    Batch microassembly of MEMS sensors is limited by the manual manipulation required specially trained technicians. To reduce the production costs and simultaneously obtain high production quality, a flexible microassembly system for automated anodic bonding of MEMS sensors is developed. The system consists of a set of autonomous modules that can adapt their structures and functions to various sizes of MEMS sensors, including positioning stages, a microscopy imaging system, a flexible micromanipulator, a heater, a fixture, a supply station and auxiliary systems. Optomechatronic design is essential to the develo pment of integrated systems due to the basic importance of microscope optics to microassembly. Major methodology issues in optomechatronic design of this system are introduced. A wavelet-based microscopic focus measure and a control scheme with a modified Smith predicator to decrease the inherent time delay of vision system are presented. A smart force sensor with one dimension is employed to sense and control the interactive force. To perform manipulations automatically, a control system, including a task planning level and a real-time execution level, is developed. The productivity of the flexible microassembly system is validated by further experiment.%手工操作限制了MEMS传感器的批量生产.为了降低生产成本,同时提高传感器的产品质量,研制了柔性自动阳极键合系统.该系统包括一系列功能模块,包括精密定位系统、显微视觉子系统、柔性微操作手、加热系统、键合夹具、物流系统以及其它的附属系统.通过模块重构和调整,可实现不同尺寸规格传感器的键合.基于显微视觉以及微装配系统的特性,提出了基于小波变换的自动调焦清晰度评价函数,同时提出了基于改进史密斯预估器的用于克服视觉延迟的伺服控制结构.集成一维微力传感器的微操作手可实现高精度和无损操作.为了实现自动化操作,

  20. Study of an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process in a continuous flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, Kevin P.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2013-03-01

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO{sub 2} in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of a continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} simulated flue gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. During the semi-batch tests, the solution was cycled between absorption and regeneration steps to measure the carrying capacity of the solution at various initial ammonia concentrations and temperatures. Consequentially, a series of tests were conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied included absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH{sub 3} concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. From this testing and subsequent testing, ammonia losses from both the absorption and regeneration steps were quantified, and attempts were made to maintain steady state during operations. Implications of experimental results with respect to process design are discussed.

  1. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...... the necessary information, it was possible to locate the end destinations of the fish batches. The batch sizes and the number of companies involved clearly rose when batch joining occurred. Thus, a fault in a small batch can potentially have widespread implications. The study also underlines the importance...... of discovering a fault as early as possible in order to minimise the costs of a recall. The localisation of distributed products during a recall operation can be facilitated by a well-constructed traceability system....

  2. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  3. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  4. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    resolution. 2.2 CT Image Analysis An algorithm was developed in Matlab † that performed image analysis on each individual cross-sectional image of the...be obtained with a minimum number of descriptor parameters, effectively reducing † Matlab (matrix...single core of an Intel Xeon X5650 processor operating at 2.67 GHz. To batch process the (210) projectiles, a Matlab script was written to parallelize

  5. Isopropyl alcohol recovery by heteroazeotropic batch distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Baelen, Guy; Vreysen, Steven; Gerbaud, Vincent; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Geens, Jeroen; Janssens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Solvent recovery is becoming a major issue in the pharmaceutical and specialty chemical industries. Solvent recovery by conventional batch distillation is limited by the frequent presence of azeotropes in the used solvent mixtures. Most distillation processes for the separation of azeotropic or difficult zeotropic mixtures involve the addition of an entrainer (homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation or extractive distillation). In this study the recovery of IPA (isopropyl alc...

  6. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-07-27

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome.

  7. Applications of text processing using natural processing system in Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tadashi

    DAI NIPPON PRINTING CO., Ltd. developed a natural language processing system for the automatic indexing and assorting readable kana characters to kanji characters, which is called ruby. This system based on the automatic indexing system called INDEXER produced by NTT Communications and Information Processing Laboratories and NTT Data Communications Co., Ltd. This paper describes some applications using the system. This system creates kana characters for kanji characters which is useful for address books, name lists and books. Further we apply this system for an automatic indexing on CD-ROM.

  8. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  9. BATCHING PRINCIPLE OF RATING POINT ACCRUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Safontsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes characteristics of the postindustrial educational system, including the credit competence assessment, academic loads, and module-rating discipline structure. The employers’ judgments, reflected in the survey outcomes, make it possible to single out the most significant competencies for students to master. Such findings are regarded as a foundation for developing the assignment modules, integrating the problematic, testing and projecting tasks, designed to master necessary competences; their effectiveness is estimated by using the criteria of behavioral psychology. The paper demonstrates the sequences of monitoring assessment of students’ academic achievements, and recommends the batching principle of rating point accrual, based on criterion-oriented evaluation standards, reflecting students’ competence levels. The authors identify the basic competence indicators: interest in the subject, reflections on the test results, and inner motivation for project activities. The complex of batching equations is given for developing the training cards of academic disciplines, and guaranteeing the effectiveness of education system.

  10. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  11. From batch to continuous extractive distillation using thermodynamic insight: class 1.0-2 case B

    OpenAIRE

    Shen,Weifeng; Benyounes, Hassiba; Gerbaud, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    A systematic feasibility analysis is presented for the separation azeotropic mixtures by batch and continuous extractive distillation. Based on batch feasibility knowledge, batch and continuous separation feasibility is studied under reflux ratio and entrainer flow-rate for the ternary system chloroform-vinyl acetate-butyl acetate, which belongs to the class 1.0-2 separating maximum boiling temperature azeotropes using a heavy entrainer. How information on feasibility of batch mode could be e...

  12. Algorithms for On-line Order Batching in an Order-Picking Warehouse

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Henn

    2009-01-01

    In manual order picking systems, order pickers walk or ride through a distribution warehouse in order to collect items required by (internal or external) customers. Order batching consists of combining these – indivisible – customer orders into picking orders. With respect to order batching, two problem types can be distinguished: In off-line (static) batching all customer orders are known in advance. In on-line (dynamic) batching customer orders become available dynamically over time. This r...

  13. Optimization of the fed-batch fermentation process for raspberry wine by response surface methodology%响应面法优化树莓酒流加发酵工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马荣山; 王艳平; 穆晶

    2011-01-01

    以红树莓为原料,利用响应面法对树莓酒的流加发酵工艺条件进行优化,在单因素基础上,选取酵母接种量、流加糖时间、流加糖量为影响因子,以树莓酒酒精体积分数为响应值进行响应面分析.结果表明,经优化后树莓酒的最佳流加发酵工艺条件为酵母接种量1.0‰,分别在发酵5d、6d共流加糖30mL,发酵10d得到酒精度为10.5%vol的树莓酒.树莓酒酒色玫红,果香柔和,酒质柔顺,所得产品是一种符合现代人健康理念的低度发酵营养酒.%In this study, the process conditions of raspberry wine fed-batch fermentation were optimized using response surface methodology. Based on single factor experiment, the inoculum of yeast, feeding time and quantity of caramel were chosen as influencing factors, and the alcoholicity was selected as response value. It was found that the optimum fed-batch fermentation conditions were as followed: inoculum of active dry yeast 1.0%>, feeding 30ml caramel at 5d and 6d of the fermentation and fermentation time 10d. Under these conditions, alcohol concentration in obtained raspberry wine was 10.5%vol, and displayed a rose pink color, and had a fruity, soft and supple taste. This product is a low-alcohol nutritional wine that caters to modern people' s health concept

  14. Long-term dynamic and pseudo-state modeling of complete partial nitrification process at high nitrogen loading rates in a sequential batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moomen; Eldyasti, Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Recently, partial nitrification has been adopted widely either for the nitrite shunt process or intermediate nitrite generation step for the Anammox process. However, partial nitrification has been hindered by the complexity of maintaining stable nitrite accumulation at high nitrogen loading rates (NLR) which affect the feasibility of the process for high nitrogen content wastewater. Thus, the operational data of a lab scale SBR performing complete partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process at NLRs of 0.3-1.2kg/(m(3)d) have been used to calibrate and validate a process model developed using BioWin® in order to describe the long-term dynamic behavior of the SBR. Moreover, an identifiability analysis step has been introduced to the calibration protocol to eliminate the needs of the respirometric analysis for SBR models. The calibrated model was able to predict accurately the daily effluent ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity concentrations and pH during all different operational conditions.

  15. Minimizing and balancing setups in a serial production system

    OpenAIRE

    Detti, Paolo; Pranzo, Marco; Meloni, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper addresses a problem arising in the coordination between two consecutive manufacturing departments of a production system, in which parts are processed in batches, and each batch is characterized by two distinct attributes. Due to limited interstage buffering between the two stages, the two departments have to follow the same batch sequence. In the first department, a setup occurs every time the first attribute of the new batch is different f...

  16. Continuous-flow microchannel reactor for upgrading conventional batch process%微通道连续流反应器用于传统搅拌釜的工艺改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷杰; 王名贤; 陈文霆; 周玉; 俞立新; 马兵; 沈卫; 张沫; 姜毅

    2012-01-01

    Corning continuous-flow microchannel reactor Gl has been applied to upgrade a conventional HATP batch process. The effects of solvent,temperature,molar ratio,and retention time are investigated. The purity and the yield of targeted products obtained from optimized process are about 98% and 100% , respectively. The compact design of Gl reactor can be installed in normal fume hood of chemical synthesis lab, and deliver about 30 t/y HATP product capability. More importantly,it is a green chemistry process and can achieve "zero effluent" objectives.%采用康宁公司的G1微通道连续流反应器对传统的HATP搅拌釜工艺进行了改造和优化,考察了溶剂使用、反应温度、反应物摩尔当量、流速等对反应的影响,进一步优化了工艺条件.改进后的工艺产品质量分数可达98%,目标产物收率近100%,可实现年产30 t HATP,不再使用任何有机溶剂,实现了整个工艺过程的零排放连续操作.

  17. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  18. Social Practice Assessment Index System Construction of the Financial Professional Third-batch Students%金融专业三本学生社会实践考核指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾

    2015-01-01

    Perfecting the evaluation index system of social practice is the necessary condition to strengthen incentive con-straints and guarantee social practice smoothly. There exists many problems in the current evaluation index, such as excessive reliance on students' practice written materials, neglecting practice process, narrow evaluation object, evaluation index lack of operability and narrow, etc. Based on the existing defects of assessment index, we should aim at the third-batch students and professional characteristics to build the basic principles of evaluation index, design concrete evaluation index and evaluation criterion, and put forward reform measures from aspects of constructing the practice base, and increasing more practice money.%完善社会实践考核指标体系是强化激励约束、保障社会实践顺利进行的必要条件。现行的考核指标存在着过度依赖学生实习书面材料、忽视实习过程、评价对象狭隘、评价指标缺乏可操作性等诸多问题。基于现行考核指标的缺陷,应针对金融三本学生及其专业特点构建评价指标需要遵循的基本原则,设计具体的评价指标及其评价标准,提出从建设实习基地、增加实习经费等方面的改革措施。

  19. Process automatization in system administration

    OpenAIRE

    Petauer, Janja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to present automatization of user management in company Studio Moderna. The company has grown exponentially in recent years, that is why we needed to find faster, easier and cheaper way of man- aging user accounts. We automatized processes of creating, changing and removing user accounts within Active Directory. We prepared user interface inside of existing application, used Java Script for drop down menus, wrote script in scripting programming langu...

  20. Comparative Study between Programming Systems for Incremental Sheet Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayedfar Majid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF is a method developed to form a desired surface feature on sheet metals in batch production series. Due to a lack of dedicated programming system to execute, control and monitor the whole ISF, researchers tried to utilize programming systems designed for chip making process to suits for ISF. In this work, experiments were conducted to find suitability and quality of ISF parts produced by using manual CNC part programming. Therefore, ISF was carried out on stainless steel sheets using Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machines. Prior to running the experiments, a ball-point shaped tool made of bronze alloy was fabricated due to its superior ability to reduce the amount of friction and improve the surface quality of the stainless steel sheet metal. The experiments also employed the method of forming in negative direction with a blank mould and the tool which helped to shape the desired part quickly. The programming was generated using the MasterCAM software for the CNC milling machine and edited before transferring to the machine. However, the programming for the machine was written manually to show the differences of output date between software programming and manual programming. From the results, best method of programming was found and minimum amount of contact area between tool and sheet metal achieved.

  1. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  2. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemier, D.

    2014-01-01

    None of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to our favourite

  3. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  4. Applied signal processing concepts, circuits, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdy, Nadder

    2008-01-01

    Introduction What are Signals? Signal parameters Why Signal processing? Analog vs. Digital Signal processing Practical Signal processing Systems Analog Signal Processing Amplitude Shaping Frequency Spectrum Shaping Phase Errors Correction Waveform Generation Analog Filter Design Describing Equations Design Procedures Filter Specifications Approximations to the Ideal Response Realization Practical RC-Filters Design Switched Capacitor Filter Realization Design examples Data Converters Introduction A typical DSP System Specifications of Data Converters Sampling Samp

  5. Comparative study of four fed-batch propagation systems of beer yeast Estudio comparativo de cuatro sistemas de propagación de levadura cervecera por lote alimentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caicedo L.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Beer yeast was propagated using batch culture, and a mathematical model was fitted to the resulting data. Intermittent, continuousintermittent, and high-density fed-batch techniques were used. The highest cell yield was found using the high density technique. Simulation also unveiled an effect of the feeding technique on cellular growth rate and yield. The high density technique increased the stoichiometric factor Yx/s.Se realizó la propagación por lotes de levadura cervecera y con base en estos resultados se ajustó un modelo matemático. Se llevaron a cabo cuatro fermentaciones con diferentes técnicas de alimentación y se confrontaron los resultados mediante simulación. Las técnicas estudiadas fueron alimentación puntual, alimentación continua-puntual y de alta densidad. La mayor concentración celular y factor de propagación se presentó con el cultivo de alta densidad. La simulación demostró que la alimentación continua o puntual afecta el comportamiento celular, ya sea sobre la velocidad específica y/o el factor estequiométrico Yx/s . Se encontró que la técnica de alta densidad aumenta el factor estequiométrico Yx/s.

  6. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  7. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  8. Feasibility of Batch Reactive Distillation with Equilibrium-Limited Consecutive Reactions in Rectifier, Stripper, or Middle-Vessel Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lukács

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general overall feasibility methodology of batch reactive distillation of multireaction systems is developed to study all the possible configurations of batch reactive distillation. The general model equations are derived for multireaction system with any number of chemical equilibrium-limited reactions and for any number of components. The present methodology is demonstrated with the detailed study of the transesterification of dimethyl carbonate in two reversible cascade reactions in batch reactive distillation process. Pure methanol is produced as distillate, and pure diethyl carbonate is produced at the bottom simultaneously in middle-vessel column; in each section, continuous feeding of ethanol is necessary. The results of feasibility study are successfully validated by rigorous simulations.

  9. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  10. Universal Batch Steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    social networking sites (see the next subsection for details). We have used them as cover images and simulated ‘guilty’ actors and images using...are not easy to use, particularly not with social networking sites that re-compress uploaded images. If the assumption is incorrect, our results will...scripts to crawl images from social networking sites , were written by Ker. The experiments were performed on computer systems in both Prague and

  11. Weak Markov Processes as Linear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gohm, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A noncommutative Fornasini-Marchesini system (a multi-variable version of a linear system) can be realized within a weak Markov process (a model for quantum evolution). For a discrete time parameter this is worked out systematically as a theory of representations of structure maps of a system by a weak process. We introduce subprocesses and quotient processes which can be described naturally by a suitable category of weak processes. A corresponding notion of cascade for processes induces a represented cascade of systems. We study the control theoretic notion of observability which turns out to be particularly interesting in connection with a cascade structure. As an application we gain new insights into stationary Markov chains where observability for the system is closely related to asymptotic completeness in the scattering theory of the chain. This motivates a general definition of asymptotic completeness in the category of weak processes.

  12. Influence of air flow, temperature and agitation speed in the batch acetification process to obtain orange vinegar (Citrus sinensis var.W. Navel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ferreyra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of process variables to produce orange vinegar. Orange juice was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae until reach 14% v/v. The biooxidation was carried out with Acetobacter sp., in submerge culture using a laboratory scale fermentor. In order to avoid the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acetic acid bacteria, the orange wine was diluted to 6% v/v with a mineral solution. It was performed a factorial design 2k to study the influence of variables. It was studied air flow rate/agitation at levels of 0.3-0.6 vvm and 200-400 rpm and the effect of air flow rate/temperature at 0.4-0.6 vvm and 25- 30°C, respectively. Duplicate treatments were carried out and the results were evaluated in terms of productivity and fermentation yield. Statistical design (p-value<0.05 was analyzed using Statgraphics Centurion XV Corporate software. Treatments performed at 200 rpm and different air flow levels, did not show significant differences on acetification rate. At higher agitation speed and air flow rates, the productivity was high. The best yields were obtained at lower air flows levels and higher agitation speed. Temperature did not present statistically differences on studied variables. The best yield was obtained at 400 rpm and 0.3 vvm at 25°C. It can be concluded that agitation speed plays an important role for a better acetification rate however higher air flow rates causes less yields.

  13. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  14. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  15. Simulated annealing and joint manufacturing batch-sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Ruhul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We address an important problem of a manufacturing system. The system procures raw materials from outside suppliers in a lot and processes them to produce finished goods. It proposes an ordering policy for raw materials to meet the requirements of a production facility. In return, this facility has to deliver finished products demanded by external buyers at fixed time intervals. First, a general cost model is developed considering both raw materials and finished products. Then this model is used to develop a simulated annealing approach to determining an optimal ordering policy for procurement of raw materials and also for the manufacturing batch size to minimize the total cost for meeting customer demands in time. The solutions obtained were compared with those of traditional approaches. Numerical examples are presented. .

  16. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under arb...

  17. Gaussian process based recursive system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüher, Jakub; Šimandl, Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of recursive system identification using nonparametric Gaussian process model. Non-linear stochastic system in consideration is affine in control and given in the input-output form. The use of recursive Gaussian process algorithm for non-linear system identification is proposed to alleviate the computational burden of full Gaussian process. The problem of an online hyper-parameter estimation is handled using proposed ad-hoc procedure. The approach to system identification using recursive Gaussian process is compared with full Gaussian process in terms of model error and uncertainty as well as computational demands. Using Monte Carlo simulations it is shown, that the use of recursive Gaussian process with an ad-hoc learning procedure offers converging estimates of hyper-parameters and constant computational demands.

  18. About the performance of Sphaerotilus natans to reduce hexavalent chromium in batch and continuous reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravelli, Alejandro H., E-mail: alejandrocaravelli@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CCT - CONICET - La Plata. Fac., Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 116 La Plata (1900) (Argentina); Zaritzky, Noemi E., E-mail: zaritzky@ing.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CCT - CONICET - La Plata. Fac., Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 116 La Plata (1900) (Argentina); Fac. de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 48 y 115 La Plata (1900) (Argentina)

    2009-09-15

    The hexavalent chromium biological reduction constitutes a safe and economical detoxification procedure of wastewaters containing Cr(VI). However, little research has been done to evaluate Cr(VI) tolerance and reduction capacity of microbial cultures under different growth conditions. The aims of this work were (a) to evaluate the capacity of Sphaerotilus natans to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a continuous system limited in carbon and energy source or in nitrogen source, (b) to evaluate the toxic effect of Cr(VI) on this microorganism, (c) to carry out a complete analysis of Cr(VI) reduction by S. natans not only in continuous regime but also in batch system, and (d) to model the obtained results mathematically. S. natans exhibited great resistance to Cr(VI) (19-78 mg l{sup -1}) and optimal growth in continuous and batch systems using a mineral medium supplemented only with citric acid as organic substrate. In carbon- and energy-limited continuous systems, a maximum percentual decrease in Cr(VI) by 13% was reached for low influent Cr(VI) concentration (4.3-5.32 mgCr(VI) l{sup -1}); the efficiency of the process did not notoriously increase as the length of cellular residence time was increased from 4.16 to 50 h. A nitrogen-limited continuous operation with a cellular residence time of 28.5 h resulted in a Cr(VI) decrease of approximately 26-32%. In batch system, a mathematical model allowed to predict the Cr(VI) concentration as a function of time and the ratio between the initial Cr(VI) concentration and that of the biomass. High concentrations of initial Cr(VI) and biomass produced the highest performance of the process of Cr(VI) reduction reached in batch system, aspects which should be considered in detoxification strategies of wastewaters.

  19. Multidisciplinary systems engineering architecting the design process

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Demijohn, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering.  Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

  20. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  1. The Farm Processing System at CDF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JaroslayAntos; MarianBabik; 等

    2001-01-01

    At Fermilab's CDF farm a modular and highly scalable software and control system for processing,reprocessing,Monte Carlo generation and many other tasks has been created.The system is called FPS(Farm Processing System).This system consists of independent software components and allows modifications to suit other types of processing as well.FPS is accompanied with fully featured monitoring and control interfaces,including web statistics displays and a multiplatform Java control interface that allow easy management and control.The system also features automatic error recovery procedures with early warnings that allow smooth running.A general overview of the software desing along with a description of the features and limitations of the system and its components will be presented.Run 2 experience with the system will be giver as well.

  2. Proposta de utilização do sistema Period Batch Control para redução de lead time em uma empresa de bens de capital Lead time reduction in a capital goods company by means of the implementation of Period Batch Control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maico Roris Severino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar uma proposta para a utilização do sistema PBC (Period Batch Control, assim como de dois pré-requisitos, a saber: mudança na pol��tica de controle da qualidade e criação de uma célula virtual, para reduzir o lead time em uma empresa de bens de capital. O método de pesquisa utilizado é o estudo de caso. Resultados previstos de tal implantação indicam que a empresa estudada poderá obter vantagens significativas com a adoção do PBC como, por exemplo, redução de 46,42% no lead time do produto estudado, diminuição de custos de WIP (Work In Process em aproximadamente 50% e redução de 31% no tempo improdutivo. Esses resultados promissores podem ser alcançados também por empresas com características semelhantes que sigam a proposta apresentada neste artigo. Academicamente, o presente trabalho contribui para aumentar a divulgação do sistema PBC, assunto carente de pesquisas no Brasil.The goal of this work is to present a proposal for the use of the PBC (Period Batch Control, as well as two prerequisites, namely, to change the policy of quality control and creation of a virtual cell, to reduce the lead time in a company which produces capital goods. Case study research is the methodology used in this paper. Expected results of this implementation indicate that the company can obtain significant benefits by the adoption of PBC, such as 46.42% lead time reduction, reduction on WIP (Work In Process costs in approximately 51.56% and unproductive time in 31%. These promising results can be achieved by companies with similar characteristics. Academically, this work contribute to increase the dissemination of the PBC, a subject in need of research in Brazil.

  3. Image Processing in Intelligent Medical Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashev Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use of high-performance computing systems with the parallel-operation architecture in intelligent medical systems, such as medical robotic systems, based on a computer vision system, is an automatic control system with the strict requirements, such as high reliability, accuracy and speed of performance. It shows the basic block-diagram of an automatic control system based on a computer vision system. The author considers the possibility of using a reconfigurable computing environment in such systems. The design principles of the reconfigurable computing environment allows to improve a reliability, accuracy and performance of whole system many times. The article contains the brief overview and the theory of the research, demonstrates the use of reconfigurable computing environments for the image preprocessing, namely morphological image processing operations. Present results of the successful simulation of the reconfigurable computing environment and implementation of the morphological image processing operations on the test image in the MATLAB Simulink.

  4. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  5. Supply Chain Batching Problem with Identical Orders and Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanlin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, there are a large number of supply chains that involve the short lifespan products. In this paper, we consider an integrated production and distribution batch scheduling problem on a single machine for the orders with a short lifespan, because it may be cheaper or faster to process and distribute orders in a batch than to process and distribute them individually. Assume that the orders have the identical processing time and come from the same location, and the batch setup time is a constant. The problem is to choose the number of batches and batch sizes to minimize the total delivery time without violating the order lifespan. We first give a backward dynamic programming algorithm, but it is not an actually polynomial-time algorithm. Then we propose a constant time partial dynamic programming algorithm by doing further research into the recursion formula in the algorithm. Further, using the difference characteristics of the optimal value function, a specific calculating formula to solve the problem with the setup time being integer times of the processing time is obtained.

  6. The message processing and distribution system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, K. L.

    1981-06-01

    A historical approach is used in presenting the life cycle development of the Navy's message processing and distribution system beginning with the planning phase and ending with the integrated logistic support phase. Several maintenance problems which occurred after the system was accepted for fleet use were examined to determine if they resulted from errors in the acquisition process. The critical decision points of the acquisition process are examined and constructive recommendations are made for avoiding the problems which hindered the successful development of this system.

  7. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD.

  8. NDA Batch 2002-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  9. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  10. A dynamically reconfigurable data stream processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J.M.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a component-based framework for data stream processing that allows for configuration, tailoring, and runtime system reconfiguration. The system's architecture is based on a pipes and filters pattern, where data is passed through routes between components. A network of pipes and filters can be dynamically reconfigured in response to a preplanned sequence of processing steps, operator intervention, or a change in one or more data streams. This framework provides several mechanisms supporting dynamic reconfiguration and can be used to build static data stream processing applications such as monitoring or data acquisition systems, as well as self-adjusting systems that can adapt their processing algorithm, presentation layer, or data persistency layer in response to changes in input data streams.

  11. Human-Systems Integration Processes (HSIP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In FY12, this project removed the commercial-specific content from the Commercial Human-Systems Integration Design Processes (CHSIP), identified gaps in the...

  12. Optimization of the heterologous production of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase in Pichia pastoris system using mixed substrates on controlled fed-batch bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Carolina; Ramon, Ramon; Casas, Carles; Valero, Francisco

    2010-05-05

    In this work a systematic study of the influence of methanol set-point and sorbitol feeding rate in fed-batch operation with a Pichia pastoris Mut(s) strain producing Rhizopus oryzae lipase is presented. Different experiments were made at a constant methanol set-point of 0.5, 2 and 4gl(-1), controlled by a predictive algorithm at two different sorbitol feeding rates to assure a constant specific growth rate of 0.01 and 0.02h(-1), by means of a pre-programmed exponential feeding rate strategy. Lipolytic activity, yields, productivity and specific productivity, but also specific growth, consumption and production rates were analyzed showing that the best values were reached when the methanol set-point was 2gl(-1) with a low influence of the constant specific growth rate tested. The sorbitol addition as a co-substrate during the induction phase avoids the severe decrease of the specific production rate obtained when methanol was used as a sole carbon source and it permits to achieve higher ROL production.

  13. A plasma process monitor/control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.O.; Ward, P.P.; Smith, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Markle, R.J. [Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a system to monitor plasma processes for control of industrial applications. The system is designed to act as a fully automated, sand-alone process monitor during printed wiring board and semiconductor production runs. The monitor routinely performs data collection, analysis, process identification, and error detection/correction without the need for human intervention. The monitor can also be used in research mode to allow process engineers to gather additional information about plasma processes. The plasma monitor can perform real-time control of support systems known to influence plasma behavior. The monitor can also signal personnel to modify plasma parameters when the system is operating outside of desired specifications and requires human assistance. A notification protocol can be selected for conditions detected in the plasma process. The Plasma Process Monitor/Control System consists of a computer running software developed by Sandia National Laboratories, a commercially available spectrophotometer equipped with a charge-coupled device camera, an input/output device, and a fiber optic cable.

  14. Teaching Information Systems Development via Process Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kek; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring the knowledge to assemble an integrated Information System (IS) development process that is tailored to the specific needs of a project has become increasingly important. It is therefore necessary for educators to impart to students this crucial skill. However, Situational Method Engineering (SME) is an inherently complex process that…

  15. Interactive data-processing system for metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathz, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Equipment indicates that system can rapidly and accurately process metallurgical and materials-processing data for wide range of applications. Advantages include increase in contract between areas on image, ability to analyze images via operator-written programs, and space available for storing images.

  16. 多线程微机控制配料系统软件的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Software for Mircrocomputer Controlled Batching System Based on Multi-Threading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑家辉; 万东梅

    2011-01-01

    In the computer control ingredients system, working principle and computer control theory of the dual-scale batching system are discussed. A flow chart of software design and implementation of multi-threading control program code are given. This method is now applied to the feed production and played a crucial role in improving production speed and productivity.%讨论了在微机控制配料系统中,双秤配料系统的工作原理与计算机控制原理,并给出了软件设计流程图及实现多线程控制的程序代码.该方法目前已经应用到饲料加工生产中,对提高生产速度和生产率起到了至关重要的作用.

  17. Effect of DO on Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification via Nitrite and Its Process Control in Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor%DO对SBBR工艺亚硝酸型SND及过程控制的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣宏伟; 谢玉辉; 张可方; 凌忠勇; 张朝升

    2012-01-01

    在SBBR工艺亚硝酸型同步硝化反硝化过程中,DO是一个主要限制性因素,通过调节曝气量控制DO浓度在3.60~4.25 mg/L范围内可较好地实现亚硝酸型同步硝化反硝化.DO、pH值和ORP的变化规律与反应器内COD的降解和“三氮”的转化有良好的相关性.DO浓度的变化对DO、pH值和ORP曲线的变化规律影响较大,ORP曲线的特征点与COD的降解过程具有良好的相关性,可作为易降解有机物反应完毕的指示点.DO、pH值和ORP曲线的突跃特征点可以作为SBBR工艺亚硝酸型同步硝化反硝化反应结束的控制点.%The dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important restrictive factor on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification via nitrite in sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification via nitrite could be achieved by controlling the average DO range from 3.60 mg/L to 4.25 mg/L. The variation of DO, pH and ORP are related to COD degradation and conversion of nitrogens in SBBR. The change of DO has great influence on the variation of DO, pH and ORP. Feature point of the ORP curve is related to COD degradation and can be used to judge the end of organic degradation. Feature point of DO, pH and ORP curves can be used as process control parameters to end simultaneous nitrification and denitrification via nitrite.

  18. 微波法分批次提取柑橘皮中果胶的工艺研究%Study on Extraction Process of Pectin from Orange Peel in Batches with Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉; 蒋诚; 王威; 朱邻遐

    2015-01-01

    Using the concentration gradient can improve the efficiency of leaching.The pectin from orange peel was extracted in batches with microwave heating.The effects of different acid, solvent types, solid-liquid ratio, microwave power, microwave and pH value on the yield were studied through single factor test.The result showed that the optimum extraction process of pectin from orange peel was as follows:hydrochloride was taken as extractant, solid-liquid ratio was 1:15, microwave power was 700 W, microwave time was 5 min and pH value was 1.8, pectin yield was 22.9%.%利用浓度梯度能提高浸出效率,分批次采用微波加热提取柑橘皮果胶。通过单因素实验,研究了不同酸、料液比、微波功率、微波时间、 pH值等反应条件对产率的影响。结果表明:果胶的最佳提取条件为:盐酸为萃取剂,料液比为1砄15,微波功率700 W,微波辐射时间为5 min,提取液pH值为1.8,果胶得率22.9%。

  19. Construcción de un Simulador Dinámico para Procesos de Cristalización por Lotes a Vacío Dynamic Simulator Construction for Vacuum Batch Crystallization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un simulador dinámico para procesos de cristalización por lotes a vacío utilizando un modelo no lineal El modelo se basa en la ecuación de balance de población, balances de materia y energía para el interior del cristalizador, la ecuación de continuidad del vapor en la camisa de calentamiento y relaciones constitutivas. Utilizando la técnica de momentos de distribución de tamaño de cristal, la ecuación de balance de población se convierte en ecuaciones diferenciales. La construcción del simulador se realizó utilizando Visual Basic. Se propone un ejemplo y se comparan los resultados con otro simulador y con datos experimentales de un equipo piloto, obteniéndose resultados concordantes.A dynamic simulator for vacuum batch crystallization processes using a non-linear model is presented. The model is based on the equation of balance population, on mass and energy balances inside the crystallizer, on the steam continuity equation for the heating jacket and on constitutive relations. Using the technique of crystal size distribution moments, the equation of balance population is converted into a set of differential equations. The construction of simulator was done using Visual Basic. An example of its use is proposed comparing results with those of another simulator and with experimental information obtained in a pilot equipment pilot, obtaining similar results.

  20. Studies with an immobilized metal affinity chromatography cassette system involving binuclear triazacyclononane-derived ligands: automation of batch adsorption measurements with tagged recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Martin; Coghlan, Campbell J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-07-18

    This study describes the determination of the adsorption isotherms and binding kinetics of tagged recombinant proteins using a recently developed IMAC cassette system and employing automated robotic liquid handling procedures for IMAC resin screening. These results confirm that these new IMAC resins, generated from a variety of different metal-charged binuclear 1,4,7-triaza-cyclononane (tacn) ligands, interact with recombinant proteins containing a novel N-terminal metal binding tag, NT1A, with static binding capacities similar to those obtained with conventional hexa-His tagged proteins, but with significantly increased association constants. In addition, higher kinetic binding rates were observed with these new IMAC systems, an attribute that can be positively exploited to increase process productivity. The results from this investigation demonstrate that enhancements in binding capacities and affinities were achieved with these new IMAC resins and chosen NT1A tagged protein. Further, differences in the binding performances of the bis(tacn) xylenyl-bridged ligands were consistent with the distance between the metal binding centres of the two tacn moieties, the flexibility of the ligand and the potential contribution from the aromatic ring of the xylenyl group to undergo π/π stacking interactions with the tagged proteins.

  1. Agents-based distributed processes control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gligor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large industrial distributed systems have revealed a remarkable development in recent years. We may note an increase of their structural and functional complexity, at the same time with those on requirements side. These are some reasons why there are involvednumerous researches, energy and resources to solve problems related to these types of systems. The paper addresses the issue of industrial distributed systems with special attention being given to the distributed industrial processes control systems. A solution for a distributed process control system based on mobile intelligent agents is presented.The main objective of the proposed system is to provide an optimal solution in terms of costs, maintenance, reliability and flexibility. The paper focuses on requirements, architecture, functionality and advantages brought by the proposed solution.

  2. Process monitoring using ultrasonic sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Bernd; Rautenberg, Jens

    2006-12-22

    Continuous in-line measurement of substance concentration in liquid mixtures is valuable in improving industrial processes in terms of material properties, energy efficiency and process safety. Ultrasonic sensor systems meet the practical requirements of a chemical sensor quite well. Currently ultrasonic sensor systems are widely used as acoustic chemical sensors to measure concentration of selected substances or to monitor the course of polymerisation, crystallisation or fermentation processes. Useable acoustic properties for the characterisation of liquid mixtures are sound velocity, sound absorption and acoustic impedance. This contribution will give a short overview of the state of the art and several trends for the use of ultrasonic sensor systems in process applications. Novel investigations show the very promising possibility to analyse liquid multi-phase mixtures like suspensions, emulsions and dispersions.

  3. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  4. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  5. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  6. Enhancing toxic protein expression in Escherichia coli fed-batch culture using kinetic parameters: Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasa, Yogender Pal; Khushoo, Amardeep; Mukherjee, Krishna Jyoti

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) expression was studied under the strong T7 promoter in continuous culture of Escherichia coli using complex medium to design an optimum feeding strategy for high cell density cultivation. Continuous culture studies were done at different dilution rates and the growth and product formation profiles were monitored post-induction. Recombinant protein expression was in the form of inclusion bodies with a maximum specific product formation rate (q(p)) of 63.5 mg g(-1) DCW h(-1) at a dilution rate (D) of 0.3 h(-1). The maximum volumetric product concentration achieved at this dilution rate was 474 mg l(-1), which translated a ~1.4 and ~1.75 folds increase than the values obtained at dilution rates of 0.2 h(-1) and 0.4 h(-1) respectively. The specific product yield (Y(P/x)) peaked at 138 mg g(-1) DCW, demonstrating a ~1.6 folds increase in the values obtained at other dilution rates. A drop in q(p) was observed within 5-6 h of induction at all the dilution rates, possibly due to protein toxicity and metabolic stress associated with protein expression. The data from the continuous culture studies allowed us to design an optimal feeding strategy and induction time in fed-batch cultures which resulted in a maximum product concentration of 3.95 g l(-1) with a specific hGM-CSF yield (Y(P/x)) of 107 mg g(-1) DCW.

  7. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  8. New dynamic analysis and system identification of bio diesel production process from palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrehema, A.S.; Al-Salima, H.S. [UCSI Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Malaysia and Indonesia are developing biodiesel derived from vegetable oils using different sources for the oil. The use of biodiesel from vegetable oils has the potential to become an important renewable energy sources for transportation and household applications. This paper reported on a study that determined the types of input signals that are needed to identify the input/output behaviour of a system. A new mathematical model was developed to describe production processes by the most active input variables inside a batch reactor. The dynamic model was applied to the process of biodiesel production from vegetable oils. The model considered the presence of particles participating in the reaction with triglycerides conversion which depend on the methanol/triglyceride ratio and catalyst weight percentage. A new parameters average slope analysis (PASA) was also presented for the system dynamic behaviour under different operational conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  9. 生防枯草芽孢杆菌B579补料分批发酵工艺优化%OPTIMIZATION OF FED-BATCH FERMENTATION PROCESS OF BIOCONTROI BACILLUS SUBTILIS B579

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾钧辉; 郑宇; 杨青娟; 张艳春; 申雁冰; 王敏

    2013-01-01

    本论文对生防枯草芽孢杆菌B579补料分批发酵工艺进行了优化,提高了菌体浓度和最终芽孢浓度,为生防菌剂的大规模生产奠定了基础.为获得较高的最终芽孢浓度,分别优化了葡萄糖补加时机、浓度控制范围以及发酵过程pH.利用7L发酵罐,当葡萄糖浓度降至3.0g/L时开始连续补加葡萄糖至3.0-6.0 g/L,发酵过程控制pH为7.0,培养24h菌体浓度达到3.9×1010CFU/mL,继续培养至40h芽孢浓度达到2.8×1010 CFU/mL,分别是分批发酵的7.5倍和7倍.发酵过程葡萄糖浓度对菌体生长和芽孢形成有较大影响,过高的葡萄糖浓度会抑制芽孢的生成,发酵过程控制合适的葡萄糖浓度有利于菌体浓度和芽孢浓度的提高.%In this research, the cell concentration and the final spore concentration were improved by optimizing the fed - batch fermentation process of biocontrol Bacillus subtilis B579, and this study provide the basis for biopesticide production in large scale. For obtaining a higher concentration of spores, the glucose - feed time, controlled glucose concentration and pH of medium was optimized, respectively. In a 7 L fermenter, the glucose was supplemented when its concentration was below 3. 0 g/L and was controlled between 3.0 - 6.0 g/L. The fermentation pH was controlled as 7.0. In this condition, the cell concentration was 3.9 1010CFU/mL after 24 h cultivation and the spore concentration of 2. 8 1010CFU/mL was achieved after 40 h cultivation, respectively, which represent a 7.5 -fold and 7 —fold increasement compared with those of batch fermentation. Glucose concentration showed a significant effect on cell growth and sporulation. It is important to control glucose -concentration for improving cell growth and the final spore concentration, because high concentration of glucose will inhibit the sporulation B. subtilis.

  10. 鲜切蔬菜加工过程追溯的原料批次混合优化模型构建%Establishment of materials batch mixing optimization model for traceability of fresh-cuts fruits and vegetables processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢斌; 刘学馨; 钱建平; 王健; 吴晓明

    2015-01-01

    为了保障鲜切蔬菜加工企业的产品质量安全,提高鲜切蔬菜生产加工效率,减少加工过程中因原料批次而导致的召回正本增加等问题,提出了一种鲜切蔬菜加工过程追溯的批次混合优化问题的解决方案。该研究通过分析鲜切蔬菜加工的基本工艺流程,根据中小规模鲜切蔬菜加工企业的实际生产需求,研究适用于单原料仓库、单成品仓库的生产加工过程,构建基于企业生产订单和多原料批次的生产加工模型。在模型构建上,综合考虑了加工过程中单个订单不可拆分,以及原料批次选取时应优先选取最近未用完批次原则等企业生产加工管理的实际因素。在此基础上应用遗传算法对订单的加工次序和原料批次的选取次序进行优化。采用北京某鲜切蔬菜加工企业的实际生产数据对模型进行验证,采用平均召回规模及平均出成率作为鲜切蔬菜加工的目标函数。结果表明,通过算法优化后的目标函数值与初始值相比提高了10.5%,能够有效减少平均召回规模并提高产品加工的综合出成率,该模型为中小规模鲜切蔬菜加工企业的原料批次分配及生产流程的优化提供参考。%In order to protect the quality and safety of products of the fresh cut vegetable processing and improve fresh cut vegetable production and processing efficiency, a fresh cut vegetable processing batch mixing optimization model was put forward, which can reduce the recall cost resulted from the mixed batches during the manufacture. The batch-mixing phenomenon of raw materials often occurs during the production process of fresh-cut vegetables. On the other hand, different batches of materials have different properties which will exert some effects on the rate of the production yield. Proper allocation of the materials’ batches will reduce the recall cost of defective products. In order to enhance the ability of

  11. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  12. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  13. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  14. Architecture for Survivable System Processing (ASSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard J.

    1991-11-01

    The Architecture for Survivable System Processing (ASSP) Program is a multi-phase effort to implement Department of Defense (DOD) and commercially developed high-tech hardware, software, and architectures for reliable space avionics and ground based systems. System configuration options provide processing capabilities to address Time Dependent Processing (TDP), Object Dependent Processing (ODP), and Mission Dependent Processing (MDP) requirements through Open System Architecture (OSA) alternatives that allow for the enhancement, incorporation, and capitalization of a broad range of development assets. High technology developments in hardware, software, and networking models, address technology challenges of long processor life times, fault tolerance, reliability, throughput, memories, radiation hardening, size, weight, power (SWAP) and security. Hardware and software design, development, and implementation focus on the interconnectivity/interoperability of an open system architecture and is being developed to apply new technology into practical OSA components. To insure for widely acceptable architecture capable of interfacing with various commercial and military components, this program provides for regular interactions with standardization working groups (e.g.) the International Standards Organization (ISO), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Selection of a viable open architecture is based on the widely accepted standards that implement the ISO/OSI Reference Model.

  15. An innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic digestion-coupled system for in-situ ammonia recovery and biogas enhancement: process performance and microbial ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH4+/NH3) inhibition during anaerobic digestion process is one of the most frequent problems existing in biogas plants, resulting in unstable process and reduced biogas production. In this study, we developed a novel hybrid system, consisted of a submersed microbial resource recovery cell (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia c...

  16. Improving industrial process control systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Epting, U; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    System providers are today creating process control systems based on remote connectivity using internet technology, effectively exposing these systems to the same threats as corporate computers. It is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to patch/maintain the technical infrastructure monitoring and control systems to remove these vulnerabilities. A strategy including risk assessment, security policy issues, service level agreements between the IT department and the controls engineering groups must be defined. In addition an increased awareness of IT security in the controls system engineering domain is needed. As consequence of these new factors the control system architectures have to take into account security requirements, that often have an impact on both operational aspects as well as on the project and maintenance cost. Manufacturers of industrial control system equipment do however also propose progressively security related solutions that can be used for our active projects. The paper discusses ...

  17. Data processing system of GA and PPPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    Results of research in 1997 to General Atomics (GA) and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are reported. The author visited the computer system of fusion group in GA. He joined the tokamak experiment in DIII-D, especially on the demonstration of the remote experiment inside U.S., and investigated the data processing system of DIII-D and the computer network, etc. After the visit to GA, He visited PPPL and exchanged the information about the equipment of remote experiment between JAERI and PPPL based on the US-Japan fusion energy research cooperation. He also investigated the data processing system of TFTR tokamak, the computer network and so on. Results of research of the second visit to GA in 2000 are also reported, which describes a rapid progress of each data processing equipment by the advance on the computer technology in just three years. (author)

  18. Optimal Synthesis of Batch Distillation Systems Based on a General Disjunctive Dynamic Optimization Model%基于广义析取动态优化模型综合间歇精馏系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雄; 王兵; 张毅; 董宏光; 姚平经; 王金渠

    2015-01-01

    基于数学规划技术提出间歇精馏过程设计与操作同步优化方法.首先,在原状态空间超级结构基础上嵌入时间维度,形成状态-时-空间超级结构,扩大间歇精馏过程优化空间.其次,将广义析取规划的思想引入间歇精馏动态优化模型,增加模型的直观性和可扩展性,并通过逻辑与析取约束,对方程进行合理分类,有效降低冗余方程导致的计算复杂度.新的优化策略采用严格模型,去除了恒摩尔流等简化假设,通过综合权衡设备投资、公用工程费用和操作周期等因素,一步获得最佳的间歇精馏塔型配置、结构参数和决策变量的动态控制方案.最后,以不同条件下苯-甲苯二元物系的间歇精馏分离为例展示了其有效性.%A systematic method based on mathematical programming techniques was proposed to optimize the design and operation of batch distillation processes. State-Time-Space (STS) superstructure was constructed by adding a time component into the original State-Space superstructure, which extends the scope of batch distillation optimization. A batch distillation General Disjunctive Dynamic Optimization (GDDO) model was proposed with logic and disjunctive constraints, and the frame work was straightforward and extendable. All equations were reasonably classified by these constraints to reduce the computational complexity caused by redundant equations. Moreover, a rigorous model without constant molar overflow hypothesis was adopted. By considering the trade-offs between capital investments, utility costs and operating cycles, a simultaneous optimization strategy is developed to capture the optimal column configuration, design parameters and operation conditions in one step. A case study of benzene and toluene separation was presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this proposed approach.

  19. Batch extractive distillation for separation of ether-isopropanol-water azeotropic system%异丙醚-异丙醇-水三元共沸物的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶青; 黄路; 陆叶倩; 杜广耀

    2011-01-01

    以乙二醇为溶剂,对异丙醚-异丙醇-水三元共沸物采用间歇萃取精馏进行分离研究,考察了在溶剂不同进料速率、回流比、进料温度等条件下的分离情况,找到了实验条件下分离此三元共沸物的最佳条件。最佳条件为:溶剂进料位置为塔顶,回流比为2,溶剂进料速率在分离异丙醚和分离异丙醇两个阶段分别为11.4 g/min和8.08g/min,溶剂进料温度分别为70.0℃和100.0℃。在此条件下,异丙醚产品质量分数可达0.95,收率为0.985;异丙醇产品质量分数可达0.97,收率为0.968。%Batch extractive distillation for ether-isopropanol-water mixture was studied by using glycol as the extractant. The influence of solvent feeding rate, reflux ratio and solvent feeding temperature was investigated. Under the optimal operation conditions: solvent feeding location at the column top. Reflux ratio was 2, solvent feeding rate 11.4g/min in the step of isopropyl ether collection and 8.08 g/min in the step of isopropanol collection, solvent feeding temperature 70.0 ℃ in the step of isopropyl ether collection and 100.0 ℃ in the step of isopropanol collection, the mass fraction of isopropyl ether at the column top could reach 0.95 and its yield was 0.985, the mass fraction of isopropanol at the column top could reach 0.97 and its yield was 0.968.

  20. Performance evaluation of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor pilot plant system used in treating real wastewater from recycled paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Rakmi Abdul; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hasan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot scale granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor with a capacity of 2.2 m3 was operated for over three months to evaluate its performance treating real recycled paper industry wastewater under different operational conditions. In this study, dissolved air floatation (DAF) and clarifier effluents were used as influent sources of the pilot plant. During the course of the study, the reactor was able to biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming recycled paper mill wastewater in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), adsorbable organic halides (AOX; specifically 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP)) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal efficiencies at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1-3 days, aeration rates (ARs) of 2.1-3.4 m3/min and influent feed concentration of 40-950 mg COD/l. Percentages of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals increased with increasing HRT, resulting in more than 90% COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals at HRT values above two days. Degradation of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N were seriously affected by variation of ARs, which resulted in significant decrease of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals by decreasing ARs from 3.4 m3/min to 2.1 m3/min, varying in the ranges of 24-80%, 6-96% and 5-42%, respectively. In comparison to the clarifier effluent, the treatment performance of DAF effluent, containing high COD concentration, resulted in a higher COD removal of 82%. The use of diluted DAF effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal. Higher NH3-N removal efficiency of almost 100% was observed during operation after maintenance shutdown compared to normal operation, even at the same HRT of one day due to the higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (1-7 mg/l), while no significant difference in COD removal efficiency was observed.