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Sample records for batata solanum tuberosum

  1. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  2. Estresse hídrico e adubação silicatada em batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Bintje

    OpenAIRE

    Pulz, Adriano Luís [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho de pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da aplicação de silício na nutrição, tolerância ao déficit hídrico e nas características relacionadas à produtividade da cultura da batata (Solanum Tuberosun L.) cv Bintje. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da combinação da presença e ausência de aplicação de silício (0 e 283 Kg ha-1 de Si), por meio da coreeção do solo com calcário dolomítico e silicato de cálcio e magnésio, e presença e ausência de déficit hídrico (-0,02...

  3. Teor de açúcar em genótipos de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. Sugar content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. genotypes

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    Arione da Silva Pereira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor de açúcares redutores e totais, em tubérculos de batata de germoplasma selecionado do programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Dezoito cultivares e clones, e duas cultivares de indústria (Atlantic e Bintje, testemunhas foram avaliadas neste estudo. O experimento foi conduzido no outono de 1994, em Pelotas, RS. A concentração de açúcares redutores nos tubérculos dos 20 genótipos variou de 0,21% a 1,71%. O clone C-1582-25-90 e a cultivar Cerrito Alegre apresentaram teores mais baixos de açúcares redutores do que as testemunhas, sem, no entanto, diferirem significativamente destas. Os outros clones e cultivares testados também não diferiram da Atlantic. Estes resultados indicam que no germoplasma da Embrapa Clima Temperado existem genótipos com teor de açúcares redutores semelhante ao dos genótipos utilizados pelas indústrias brasileiras de processamento de batata. Entretanto, nenhum deles apresenta baixo teor de açúcares redutores. A concentração de açúcares totais foi mais baixa nos tubérculos das cultivares Cristal e Macaca, e do clone C-1582-25-90, sem diferir significativamente das testemunhas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the reducing and total sugar content in potato tubers of selected germplasm of the Embrapa Clima Temperado breeding program. Eighteen cultivars and clones and two processing cultivars (Atlantic e Bintje, checks were evaluated in this study. The experiment was carried out during de fall season of 1994, in Pelotas, RS. The reducing sugar concentration in the tubers of the 20 genotypes varied from 0,21% to 1,71%. The clone C-1582-25-90 and the cultivar Cerrito Alegre had lower reducing sugar content than the check cultivars, however, without, differing significantly from them. The other tested clones and cultivars also did not differ from ‘Atlantic’. These results indicate that in the Embrapa Clima Temperado germplasm there are

  4. Identification de quelques contraintes à la production de manioc Manihot utilissima, de patate douce Ipomoea batatas et de pomme de terre Solanum tuberosum à l'Est du Zaïre

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    Ngoy Kadiebwe, N.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification Of Some Constraints To The Production Of Tubers : Manihot utilissima, Ipomoea batatas and Solanum tuberosum In Eastern Zaire. An agricultural enquiry held to tubercular plants producers in radius of about 20 km to the Research Center has allowed to reveal some contraints related to the production of these speculations in order to pose certain investigations. The main contraints among them are utilization of too long cycle varieties with insufficient quality and quantity, ignorance of the selection production and conservation techniques without forgetting the difficultes of evacuating the production.

  5. Efeito da substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por farinha de casca de batata (Solanum Tuberosum Lineu Effect of the partial replacement of wheat flour for potato skin flour (Solanum Tuberosum L.

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    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento dos subprodutos da agroindústria de alimentos diminui os custos da produção, aumenta o aproveitamento total do alimento e reduz o impacto que esses subprodutos podem causar ao serem descartados no ambiente. Dessa forma, alguns subprodutos da batata são aproveitados e transformados em ingredientes alimentícios, como é o caso da casca. Neste estudo utilizou-se a casca de batata para produção de farinha visando a sua utilização em produtos de panificação, sendo utilizadas as seguintes porcentagens na composição da farinha mista: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50% e 12-38-50% de farinha de casca de batata, farinha de trigo branca e farinha de trigo integral, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas na farinha de casca de batata, análises físicas na farinha de casca, nas farinhas de trigo branca e integral e análises reológicas nas farinhas mistas. A farinha de casca de batata apresentou bons teores de fibras e minerais, e dentro deste último, destacam-se os teores de fósforo, cálcio e magnésio. Quanto à granulometria e à diferença de cor, as farinhas de casca de batata e a farinha de trigo integral apresentaram valores mais próximos uma da outra. À medida que se aumentou a substituição da farinha de trigo branca pela farinha de casca de batata, as análises reológicas indicaram uma queda na qualidade tecnológica das massas.Reusing some agro-industrial food by-products lower the production costs, increase efficient food utilization, and reduce the impact that these sub-products cause if discarded in the environment. Thus, some potato by-products are reused utilized and transformed into food ingredients, such as potato skin. In this study, potato skin was utilized for the production of flour to be used in bakery products. The following percentages were utilized in the composition of the mixed flour: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50%, and 12-38-50% of potato skin flour, white

  6. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  7. Efeito da fertilização fosfatada na culturada batata (solanum tuberosum l. no planalto do huambo (Angola Effects of phosphorus fertilization on potato (solanum tuberosum l. crop production, in huambo country (Angola

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    Imaculada da Conceição Henriques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se ensaios realizados, no ano agrícola 2004/5, em blocos completos casualizados, para estudo do efeito na produção de doses de fertilização fosfatada da cultivar de batata-semente importada ‘Romano’ e da cultivar regional ‘Tchigembo’, plantadas em duas datas (Outubro e Fevereiro da época das chuvas e numa terceira data (Junho, na época seca, praticada em regadio. Os ensaios foram repetidos em três locais da Província do Huambo - Bailundo, Chianga e Calenga - distanciados de cerca de 50 km. Avaliaram-se os efeitos, na produção total e comercial de tubérculos (diâmetro > 25 mm, de diferentes doses de fósforo, na forma de superfosfato simples (24% de P2O5, tendo-se aplicado uniformemente ureia (300 kg ha-1 de N, fraccionada em três aplicações. As doses de fósforo ensaiadas foram 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5, comparadas com uma testemunha sem qualquer aplicação de fertilizante, azotado ou fosfatado. As modalidades de fertilização azotada receberam, uniformemente 300 de azoto. A dose que maior benefício económico originou, sem desperdício de químicos para o meio ambiente, foi a de 200 kg ha-1 de P2O5.Several trials were carried out to compare total and commercial potato yield of the imported cultivar ‘Romano’ and the regional cultivar ‘Tchigembo’, planted in two dates on rain season (October and February and in a third date (June, in dry season, with irrigation. The trials were repeated in three locations of the Huambo country - Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga. The effects on total and commercial (tubers diameter > 25 mm potato yields of different amounts of phosphorus, applied with single superphosphate (24% of P2O5 were evaluated. Treatments were: control (any type of soil fertilization null, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5. Phosphorus treatments received also 300 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (urea applied uniformly, in three times. The greatest economic benefice for both potato

  8. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

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    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  9. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

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    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  10. Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Solanum tuberosum and wild Solanum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colon, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    Resistance to Phytophthora infestans , the causal agent of late blight, is present in the potato, Solanum tuberosum , and in many wild relatives of this crop. The resistance of S. tuberosum is partial and, though helpful in reducing the use of fungicides, is not sufficient to fully solve the problem

  11. Resistance to Erwina spp. in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allefs, J.J.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Blackleg is a disease of potato, Solanum tuberosum , which is caused by the bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ( Ecc ), E.c. subsp. atroseptica ( Eca ) or E . chrysanthemi (Ech). Incidence of blackleg negatively affects the quality of seed potatoes. Disease control relies on phytosanitary

  12. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

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    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  13. Determinação de glicoalcalóides em batatas in natura (Solanum Tuberosum L. comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo Determination of glycoalkaloides in potato tubers (Solanum Tuberosum L. marketed in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo

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    Rita Margarete D. Machado

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A batata é uma das principais hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil, constituindo-se em um dos mais importantes alimentos na dieta humana, em decorrência de sua disponibilidade e características nutricionais. Entretanto, membros da família Solanaceae produzem, durante crescimento e após colheita, compostos potencialmente tóxicos denominados glicoalcalóides, dos quais alfa-solanina e alfa-chaconina predominam. A concentração máxima desses compostos em batata in natura considerada segura para consumo humano é estimada em 200mg·kg-1, expressa como glicoalcalóides totais (GAT. No presente estudo, foram extraídos e quantificados os GAT em amostras de tubérculos de batata in natura comercializados na cidade de Campinas, SP. A técnica utilizada foi a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE com coluna C18 e detetor de arranjo de diodos. O valor médio de recuperação foi 102,6% para alfa-solanina e 100,2% para alfa-chaconina. Os limites de quantificação foram 2,5µg·mL-1 para alfa-solanina e 1,4µg·mL-1 para alfa-chaconina. As concentrações de GAT em amostras individuais de tubérculos inteiros das diferentes variedades e tipos estudados (Bintje, Monaliza, Asterix e Bolinha variaram de 22,4 a 246,9mg·kg-1. Das amostras analisadas, 82% apresentaram níveis de GAT inferiores a 100mg·kg-1, o que indica que as variedades de batatas estudadas podem ser consideradas seguras para consumo humano.Potato is included among the main horticultural crops in Brazil. Due to its broad availability and nutritional characteristics, it has been considered one of the most important components in the human diet. Nevertheless, members of the family Solanaceae produce potentially toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids during growth and post-harvest, amongst which alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine predominate. The recommended safety level for these compounds in unprocessed potato tubers for human consumption, expressed as total glycoalkaloids, is

  14. COMPETITION BETWEEN EIGHT GAUCHA AND GERMAN POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIETIES IN GOIÂNIA-GO, BRAZIL COMPETIÇÃO ENTRE OITO VARIEDADES, GAÚCHAS E ALEMÃS DE BATATA

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    Peter E. Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Eight potato varieties, Baronesa, Canguçu and Piratini, from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the German varieties Achat, Echo, Fátima, Jetta and Porta were tested in this trial, during the dry season, in Goiânia, state of Goiás. Baronesa resulted the best one in total yield and production of large tubers (over 60 grams followed next by Piratini. However, there are doubts wether their pink skinned tubers would be accepted by the consumer of this region, accustomed to yellow potatoes. Among the German varieties, Porta and Fátima ranked best and even they yielded less than Baronesa and Piratini, there was no significant difference between the two groups.

    As variedades de batata, Baronesa, Canguçu e Piratini, do Rio Grande do Sul e Achat, Echo, Fátima, Jetta e Porta, da Alemanha, foram comparadas quanto ao seu desenvolvimento e produção, no chamado plantio da seca, em Goiânia. Baronesa apresentou a maior produção total e de tubérculos grandes (acima de 60 g assim como maior número de tubérculos grandes, seguida pela Piratini. Ainda é necessário averiguar a aceitação dessas variedades na região porque seus tubérculos são de película rosada, enquanto o comércio local está acostumado a batatas amarelas. Das variedades alemãs, Porta e Fátima, embora apresentassem menor produção total e de tubérculos grandes, não diferiram estatisticamente das variedades gaúchas.

  15. OBSERVAÇÕES SOBRE DEGENERESCÊNCIA E COMPORTAMENTO EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE PLANTIO DE QUATRO VARIEDADES DE BATATA (Solanum Tuberosum L. COMMENTS ON DEGENERATION AND BEHAVIOR AT DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES OF FOUR POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIETIES

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    Peter E. Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As variedades de batata DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA foram plantadas em duas gerações, a primeira na seca e a segunda, nas águas de 1971, em Goiânia. Para o primeiro plantio, usaram-se batatas-sementes importadas, para o segundo, as filhas destas. HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA produziram mais na segunda geração do que na primeira, devido às melhores condições da época chuvosa. A produção da DELTA-A praticamente não variou nas duas épocas. HANSA foi significantemente superior às outras, em produção total, nas duas épocas e em produção de tubérculos comerciáveis (acima de 33 mm, na época chuvosa. Neste período, seus tubérculos grandes, (acima de 40 mm apresentaram-se com superdesenvolvimento de lenticelas e manchados internamente, ficando comercialmente desvalorizados. A variedade HYDRA destacou-se das demais pela produção de batatas grandes, principalmente na seca. Mostrou-se, porém, muito suscetível à sarna comum, cujo ataque inutilizou grande parte de seus tubérculos. TONDRA foi a variedade que melhor se adaptou ao período chuvoso. Produziu duas vezes mais tubérculos comerciáveis e quase três vezes mais tubérculos grandes, que na seca.

    The four potato varieties DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA and TONDRA were tested in the dry and in the rainy season of 1971, in Goiânia. Imported certified seed potatoes were used for the first planting and the harvested tubers, for the second. All varieties, except DELTA-A, yielded more in the rainy than in the dry season. This difference was found to be caused by the better water supply during the rainy season. There was no significant influence of the season on the production of DELTA-A. HANSA produced in both seasons significantly more in total weight than the other varieties and more marketable potatoes (over 33 mm in the rainy season. But the large

  16. Expressão eficiente do gene reporter beta-glucuronidase nos tecidos vasculares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizando de um promotor específico (BRA3 de Agrobacterium rhizogenes Efficient expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in vascular tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing a specific promoter (BRA3 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

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    Antonio Carlos Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotores tecido-específico controlam a transcrição de genes em diferentes tecidos vegetais bem como em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, levando à indução de distintos níveis de atividade transiente e/ou estável do gene. Tais promotores podem ser empregados para a expressão seletiva de genes de interesse. O promotor rol A de Agrobacterium rhizogenes, por exemplo, é floema-específico, sugerindo que possa ser empregado em estratégias de defesa de plantas que são infectadas por vírus com replicação restrita ao floema. A expressão do gene marcador da ß-glucuronidase (gus dirigido pelo promotor rol A (pBRA3 foi observada em plantas transgênicas de batata (cvs. Macaca e Baronesa. Entrenós e secções de folhas foram submetidos ao cocultivo com A. tumefaciens. A atividade do gene gus avaliada em brotações resistentes à canamicina não se restringiu ao floema (alto nível de expressão do gene, mas também se manifestou no xilema dos caules. As expressões transiente e estável são, no entanto, tecido-específicas, localizadas sobretudo no sistema vascular de entrenós e ausente em raízes e folhas. As plantas gus positivas foram micropropagadas, plantadas em casa de vegetação e avaliadas por PCR, utilizando-se 'primers' específicos para o gene npt II. Nenhuma alteração fenotípica foi observada em plantas transgênicas, em relação às não transformadas.Tissue-especific promoters allow the modulation of gene transcription in different tissue types as well as in different stages of plant development, leading different levels of transient and stable activity of the gene product. These promoters have been employed for selective gene expression. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol A gene promoter (BRA3 controls phloem-specific expression indicating that this promoter might have an important role in plant defense strategies against virus which replicated only in the phloem. The expression of

  17. Solanidine isolation from Solanum tuberosum by centrifugal partition chromatography.

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    Attoumbré, Jacques; Giordanengo, Philippe; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the preparative isolation of solanidine (aglycone of the two main potato glycoalkaloids: α-chaconine and α-solanine) from fresh Solanum tuberosum (cv. Pompadour) material by implementing a new preparation scheme using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). A setup for obtaining solanidine by hydrolysis of the glycoalkaloids found in the skin and sprouts of S. tuberosum was first developed. Then its isolation was carried out by the development of CPC conditions: the solvent system used for separation was ethyl acetate/butanol/water in the ratio 42.5:7.5:50 v/v/v, 0.6 g of crude extract were separated with a 8 mL/min flow rate of mobile phase while rotating at 2500 rpm. A run yielded 98 mg of solanidine (86.7% recovery from the crude extract) in a one-step separation. The purity of the isolated solanidine was over 98%. Thus, CPC has proven to be the method of choice to get solanidine of very high purity from S. tuberosum biomass in large quantities.

  18. Pollen viability and meiotic analysis of Solanum commersonii commersonii Dun., Solanum commersonii malmeanum Bitt. and Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Alexandre Alonso Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic abnormalities in potato hamper sexual recombination, due to their influence on pollen production andviability rate. In this study we evaluated pollen viability and meiosis of three clones of Solanum commersonii commersoniiDun. (SCC, two of Solanum commersonii malmeanum Bitt. (SCM and seven clones and four cultivars of Solanum tuberosumL., with the purpose of indicating promising genotypes for genetic breeding of potato. Early chromosome migration atmetaphases I and II and chromosome pairing anomalies were the main causes of pollen inviability in the evaluated genotypes.Clones SCC 07 and SCM 60 are the most suitable for sexual recombination, owing to the high percentage of viable pollengrains and low frequencies of meiotic abnormalities.

  19. SolDB: A Database of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum Primers

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    Hassan Tariq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SolDB is the Database of Solanaceae Family. It is an interactive, free online specialized database for Solanaceae family. Currently, it spans complete nucleotide sequences of expressed genes of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum along with their annotation. We have designed PCR oligonucleotide primer sequences for each gene, with their features and conditions given. This feature alone greatly facilitates researchers in PCR amplification of genes sequences, especially in cloning experiments. We also provided chloroplast genome section which gives access to fully sequenced plastid genomes and their annotations. Flexible database design, easy expandability, and easy retrieval of information are the main features of SolDB. The Database is publicly available at www.soldb.pakbiz.org.

  20. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  1. Glycoalkaloid profile in potato haploids derived from solanum tuberosum-S. bulbocastanum somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carputo, Domenico; Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Aversano, Riccardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GA) that may affect either human health or biotic stress resistance. Therefore, GA composition must be a major criterion in the evaluation of breeding products when species genomes are merged and/or manipulated. This work reports the results of GA analysis performed on unique haploid (2n=2x=24) plants obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum bulbocastanum-S. tuberosum hybrids through in vitro anther culture. Glycoalkaloids were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. Haploids generally showed the occurrence of parental GA. However, in several cases loss of parental GA and gain of new GA lacking in the parents was observed. It may be hypothesized that new GA profiles of our haploids is the result of either genetic recombination or combinatorial biochemistry events. To highlight differences between haploids and parents, soluble proteins and antioxidant activities were also determined. Both were always higher in haploids compared to their parents. The nature of the newly formed GAs will be further investigated, because they may represent new metabolites that can be used against pest and diseases, or are useful for human health.

  2. GENE-REGULATION IN INTERTYPIC HETEROKARYONS OF SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM AND NICOTIANA-TABACUM TISSUE PROTOPLASTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKESTEREN, WJP; BIJMOLT, EW; TEMPELAAR, MJ

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter enzyme were evaluated in transgenic plants, protoplasts, and intertypic heterokaryons of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana tabacum. With GUS under control of the promoter of the cauliflower-mosaicvirus 35S RNA gene (CaMV), activities of the enzyme we

  3. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  4. Local and systemic responses induced by aphids in Solanum tuberosum plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugravot, S.; Brunissen, L.; Létocart, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Vincent, C.; Giordanengo, Ph.; Cherqui, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) are serious pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (Solanaceae), notably in transmitting several plant viruses. Heterospecific interactions may occur between these two species as they are often seen at the

  5. Potato virus Y induced changes in the gene expression of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe-Novak, M.; Gruden, K.; Baebler, P.; Krecic-Stress, H.; Kovac, M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Ravnikar, M.

    2005-01-01

    The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease in sensitive potato cultivars. Gene expression in the disease response of the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Igor was investigated at different times after infection, using subtract

  6. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Carvallo, Marcela A.; Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknić, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Doherty, Colleen J.; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H. H.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of ...

  7. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  8. Population Dynamics of Soil Pseudomonads in the Rhizosphere of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce E Loper; Haack, Caryn; Schroth, Milton N.

    1985-01-01

    Rhizosphere population dynamics of seven Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains isolated from rhizospheres of various agricultural plants were studied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in field soil under controlled environmental conditions. Rhizosphere populations of two strains (B10 and B4) were quantitatively related to initial seed piece inoculum levels when plants were grown at −0.3 bar matric potential. At a given inoculum level, rhizosphere populations of strain B4 were ...

  9. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  10. Anti-Ulcer Activity of Tuber Extracts of Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohd Fasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae is a plant species widespread throughout India and world. S. tuberosum contains starch, sugar (glucose, sucrose and fructose, cellulose (10-20%, crude fibre, pectin substances (0.7-1.5% of dry weight, hemicelluloses (1%, fat (1.1% and vitamin C. The proteins of S. tuberosum tuber comprised of about 60-70% globulin and 20-40% glutelin with no albumin. For external use, the grated raw S. tuberosum is applied locally in cases of arthritis, itching, neuralgia and mild burns. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the potential of S. tuberosum for the treatment of ulcers. Ranitidine is used as a standard referenceto evaluate anti-ulcer activity in models such as pylorus ligation model and stress-induced ulcers by cold water immersion. When alcoholic extract of tubers of S. tuberosum (AETST and aqueous extract of tubers of S. tuberosum (AQETST were subjected for LD50 study at the dose level of 2,000 mg/kg body weight. Preliminary phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, sterols, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids and triterpenes in both the extracts. The dose was selected as low (100 mg/kg, medium (200 mg/kg and high (400 mg/kg, and the doses of both the extracts significantly reduced the ulcer (P < 0.05*, 0.01** and 0.001***. The present study revealed that both the AETST and AQETST possessed anti-ulcer activity. Phytochemical constituents such as tannins, flavonoids and triterpenes have already been reported for their anti-ulcer activity. These phytochemical constituents were present in both the extracts and, hence, responsible for the observed activity.

  11. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  12. Inheritance of morphological characters and glycoalkaloids in potatoes of somatic hybrids between dihaploid Solanum acauleand tetraploid Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozukue, N; Misoo, S; Yamada, T; Kamijima, O; Friedman, M

    1999-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids occur in potatoes and are reported to impart resistance to phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, and insects. Because glycoalkaloids can be passed to progenies during breeding programs designed to develop improved potatoes, it is of importance to determine the quality of desired characteristics and the composition of glycoalkaloids of new somatic hybrids. The objective of this study was to determine the appearance, size, and shape (morphological characters) as well as the glycoalkaloid content of potato tubers of somatic hybrids between tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cv. Dejima (2n = 4x = 48 chromosomes) and the dihaploid clone ATDH-1 (2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes) induced by anther culture from Solanum acuale-T (acl-T, 2n = 4x = 48 chromosomes). Tuber size and shape in somatic hybrids were in accord with those of cv. Dejima, whereas the tuber skin color resembled that of ATDH-1. Thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry studies showed that the two steroidal glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine) were present in the tubers of S. tuberosum, whereas acl-T and ATDH-1 tubers were found to contain alpha-tomatine and demissine. The concentrations of total glycoalkaloids in both acl-T and ATDH-1 was >100 mg/100 g of fresh weight tuber cortex, much higher than in S. tuberosum. All somatic hybrids, except one clone, contained four glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, alpha-tomatine, and demissine) derived from the fusion parents. The lack of alpha-tomatine in the remaining clone may be due to somaclonal variation. The results show that character expression is influenced by ploidy level and that total glycoalkaloid levels in most somatic hybrids were intermediate between those of the fusion parents. The possible significance of these findings for plant breeding and food safety is discussed.

  13. Bioinformatic identification of microRNAs and their target genes from Solanum tuberosum expressed sequence tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene post-transcriptional expression in plants and animals. Low levels of some miRNAs and time- and tissue-specific expression patterns lead to the difficulty for experimental identification of miRNAs. Here we present a bioinformatic approach for expressed sequence tags (ESTs) prediction of novel miRNAs as well as their targets in Solanum tuberosum. We blasted the databases of S. Tuberosum ESTs to search for potential miRNAs, using previously known miRNA sequences from Arabidopsis, rice and other plant species. By analyzing parameters of plant precursors, including secondary structure, stem length and conservation of miRNAs, and following a variety of filtering criteria, a total of 22 potential miRNAs were detected. Using the newly identified miRNA sequences, we were able to further blast the S. Tuberosum mRNA database and detected 75 potential targets of miRNAs in S. Tuberosum. According to the mRNA annotations provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), most of the miRNA target genes were predicted to encode transcription factors that regulate cell growth and development, signaling, and metabolism.

  14. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Solanum tuberosum L. Leaves under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Su; Ping Yu; Xiaogan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The research of molecular mechanism with anti-drought in Solanum tuberosum L.is important for breed improvement in potato to avoid yield loss caused by water deficit.Differential proteomics analysis of potato (anti-drought cultivar) leaves under drought stress were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.42 differential expression protein spots were analyzed through gel map and identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS.The main function of these proteins were stimulation response,cell development,metabolic and transport adjustment.The experiment can supply theory evidence to explain the anti-drought mechanism of anti-drought potato cultivar with multi-pathways.

  15. PRODUCCIÓN DE METANO Y DIGESTIBILIDAD DEMEZCLAS KIKUYO (Pennisetum clandestinum) - PAPA (Solanum tuberosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Luc\\u00EDa Posada-Ochoa; John Fredy Ram\\u00EDrez-Agudelo; Ricardo Rosero-Noguera

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes proporciones kikuyo ( Pennisetum clandesti - num ) - papa ( Solanum tuberosum ) sobre la producción in vitro de metano. Durante el segundo semestre del año 2012 en la Sede de Investigación Universitaria (Medellín, Colombia), se evaluaron diferentes proporciones kikuyo (K) – papa (P) K/P de 100/0 (T1), 75/25 (T2) y 50/50% (T3). Los resultados obtenidos fueron procesados a través de análisis de medidas repetidas en el tiempo y...

  16. Partial root zone drying (PRD) sustains yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) at reduced water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2008-01-01

    Partial root zone drying (PRD) is a new water-saving irrigation strategy being tested in many crop species. Until now it has not been investigated in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). A field experiment on sandy soil in Denmark was conducted under a mobile rainout shelter to study effects of two...... irrigation. The reasons for a better tuber size distribution caused by PRD, however, remain elusive. For optimizing PRD irrigation, the crop physiological reactions to shifting intervals and level of irrigation reduction should be further studied at different growth stages....

  17. Híbridos somáticos obtenidos por fusión de protoplastos entre Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum y la especie silvestre Solanum circaeifolium Bitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Espejo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de obtener híbridos somáticos interespecíficos, se fusionaron protoplastos de la especie tetraploide Solanum tuberosum y de la especie silvestre diploide Solanum circaeifolium utilizando polietilenglicol. Los productos de fusión fueron cultivados en el medio V-KM suplementado con albúmina de suero bovino. Las primeras divisiones celulares ocurrieron a los 3 a 4 días de cultivo. Después de la formación de colonias se observó una rápida proliferación de callos, a partir de los cuales se regeneraron 19 plantas. El análisis molecular usando RAPD, confirmó que los regenerantes presentaban segmentos de ADN de ambos parentales, sugiriendo su posible naturaleza de híbridos somáticos. Las observaciones del número de cromosomas indicaron que todos los híbridos fueron aneuploides. En condiciones de invernadero, los regenerantes derivados de la fusión de protoplastos, mostraron características morfológicas intermedias entre las líneas parentales. Este estudio muestra la producción de híbridos somáticos de papa con el método de fusión presentado.

  18. Characterization and Transcriptional Profile of Genes Involved in Glycoalkaloid Biosynthesis in New Varieties of Solanum tuberosum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; Oliveira, De Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, R.C.B.; Dijk, Van J.P.; Kok, E.J.; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2016-01-01

    Before commercial release, new potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties must be evaluated for content of toxic compounds such as glycoalkaloids (GAs), which are potent poisons. GA biosynthesis proceeds via the cholesterol pathway to α-chaconine and α-solanine. The goal of this study was to evaluate t

  19. Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis of its value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Irish potato, food security, stakeholder analysis, sustainability indicators, Cool Farm Tool-Potato, yield gap, resource use efficiency, LINTUL-POTATO model, Zimbabwe. Oniward Svubure (2015). Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis

  20. Spontaneous and induced loss of chromosomes in slow-growing somatic hybrid calli of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, MJ; Drenth - Diephuis, L.J.; SAAT, TAWM; Jacobsen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Rate and extent of spontaneous and induced chromosome loss have been determined at the callus level of somatic hybrids of mutants of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. AEC (amino ethyl cystein) resistance in potato and Nitrate-Reductase deficiency in N. plumbaginifolia have been used a

  1. Genetic transformation of Slovak cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): efficiency and the behavior of the transgene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravcikova, J.; Libantova, J.; Matusikova, I.; Libiakova, G.; Nap, J.P.H.; Mlynarova, L.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) of selected Slovak cultivars (cvs.) and one breeding line were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In vitro-grown plants of cvs. Albina, Eta, Malvina, Vila and line 116/86 were tested for their ability to regenerate transgenic plants. In

  2. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Marcela A; Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknic, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Doherty, Colleen J; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H H; Thomashow, Michael F

    2011-07-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of S. commersonii and S. tuberosum were therefore compared to determine whether there might be differences that contribute to their differences in ability to cold acclimate. The results indicated that both plants alter gene expression in response to low temperature to similar degrees with similar kinetics and that both plants have CBF regulons composed of hundreds of genes. However, there were considerable differences in the sets of genes that comprised the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of the two species. Thus differences in cold regulatory programmes may contribute to the differences in freezing tolerance of these two species. However, 53 groups of putative orthologous genes that are cold-regulated in S. commersonii, S. tuberosum, and A. thaliana were identified. Given that the evolutionary distance between the two Solanum species and A. thaliana is 112-156 million years, it seems likely that these conserved cold-regulated genes-many of which encode transcription factors and proteins of unknown function-have fundamental roles in plant growth and development at low temperature.

  3. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknić, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H. H.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of S. commersonii and S. tuberosum were therefore compared to determine whether there might be differences that contribute to their differences in ability to cold acclimate. The results indicated that both plants alter gene expression in response to low temperature to similar degrees with similar kinetics and that both plants have CBF regulons composed of hundreds of genes. However, there were considerable differences in the sets of genes that comprised the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of the two species. Thus differences in cold regulatory programmes may contribute to the differences in freezing tolerance of these two species. However, 53 groups of putative orthologous genes that are cold-regulated in S. commersonii, S. tuberosum, and A. thaliana were identified. Given that the evolutionary distance between the two Solanum species and A. thaliana is 112–156 million years, it seems likely that these conserved cold-regulated genes—many of which encode transcription factors and proteins of unknown function—have fundamental roles in plant growth and development at low temperature. PMID:21511909

  4. Analysis of plastome and chondriome genome types in potato somatic hybrids from Solanum tuberosum × Solanum etuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Jagesh K; Chandel, Poonam; Singh, Bir Pal; Bhardwaj, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasm types of the potato somatic hybrids from Solanum tuberosum × Solanum etuberosum were analysed using chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) organelle genomes-specific markers. Of the 29 markers (15 cpDNA and 14 mtDNA) amplified in the 26 genotypes, 5 cpDNA (H3, NTCP4, NTCP8, NTCP9, and ALC1/ALC3) and 13 mtDNA markers showed polymorphism. The cluster analysis based on the mtDNA markers detected higher diversity compared with the cpDNA markers. Presence of new mtDNA fragments of the markers, namely, T11-2, Nsm1, pumD, Nsm3, and Nsm4, were observed, while monomorphic loci revealed highly conserved genomic regions in the somatic hybrids. The study revealed that the somatic hybrids had diverse cytoplasm types consisting predominantly of T-, W-, and C-, with a few A- and S-type cp genomes; and α-, β-, and γ-type mt genomes. Somatic hybridization has unique potential to widen the cytoplasm types of the cultivated gene pools from wild species through introgression by breeding methods.

  5. Uptake and transformation of phenol and chlorophenols by hairy root cultures of Daucus carota, Ipomoea batatas and Solanum aviculare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Brancilene Santos; Dec, Jerzy; Bollag, Jean Marc; Pletsch, Marcia

    2006-04-01

    Hairy root cultures of Daucus carota L., Ipomoea batatas L. and Solanum aviculare Forst were investigated for their susceptibility to the highly toxic pollutants phenol and chlorophenols and for the involvement of inherent peroxidases in the removal of phenols from liquid media. Roots of D. carota grew normally in medium containing 1000 micromol l(-1) of phenol, whilst normal growth of roots of I. batatas and S. aviculare was only possible at levels up to 500 micromol l(-1). In the presence of chlorophenols, normal root growth was possible only in concentrations not exceeding 50 micromol l(-1), except for I. batatas which was severely affected at all concentrations. Despite the reduction in biomass, the growth of S. aviculare cultures was sustained in medium containing up to 2000 micromol l(-1) of phenol or 2-chlorophenol, and up to 500 micromol l(-1) of 2,6-dichlorophenol. The amounts of phenol removed by the roots within 72 h of treatment were 72.7%, 90.7% and 98.6% of the initial concentration for D. carota, I. batatas and S. aviculare, respectively. For the removal of 2,6-dichlorophenol the values were, respectively, 83.0%, 57.7% and 73.1%. Phenols labelled with 14C were absorbed by the root tissues and condensed with highly polar cellular substances as well as being incorporated into the cell walls or membranes. The results suggest that S. aviculare, an ornamental plant, would be best suited for remediation trials under field conditions.

  6. Clinostation influence on regeneration of cell wall in Solanum Tuberosum L. protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, Elena M.; Sidorov, V. A.; Samoylov, V. M.

    1994-08-01

    Regeneration of cell walls in protoplasts was investigated using light- and electronmicroscopic methods. The protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll of Solanum tuberosum leaves and were cultivated on the horizontal low rotating clinostat (2 rpm) and in control for 10 days. Using a fluorescent method (with Calcofluor white) it was demonstrated that changes in vector gravity results in an regeneration inhibition of cell wall. With electron-microscopical and electro-cytochemical methods (staining with alcianum blue) dynamics of the regeneration of cell walls in protoplasts was studied; carbohydrate matrix of cell walls is deposited at the earliest stages of this process. The influence of microgravity on the cell wall regeneration is discussed in higher plants.

  7. Análisis de crecimiento en siete variedades de papa (solanum tuberosum l.

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    Fernando Borrego

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de crecimiento en siete variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.. Se evaluaron siete variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Norteña, Gigant, Mondial, Snowden, Alpha, Atlantic y Russett Burbank, bajo criterios de eficiencia y productividad del análisis de crecimiento (seis muestreos, cada 18 días en promedio, como la tasa de crecimiento del cultivo (TCC, tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR, tasa de crecimiento relativo foliar (TCRF, relación de área foliar (RAF, índice de area foliar (IAF y tasa de asimilación neta (TAN. Se encontraron diferencias (p≤0,01 para las variables en estudio (a excepción de la TAN, para las fuentes de variación de muestreos (seis a lo largo del ciclo siendo mayor la TCC en el cuarto muestreo con las variedades Norteña y Russett Burbank. La TCR fue mayor en Norteña, Russett Burbank y Alpha, habiendo un incremento considerable del quinto al sexto muestreo. En la RAF, los mejores genotipos fueron Atlantic y Snowden, mostrando Russett Burbank un pronunciado declive del quinto al sexto muestreo, por la senescencia del follaje. Por lo que respecta al IAF, los mejores genotipos fueron Norteña y Gigant, estableciéndose el máximo del cuarto al sexto muestreo, sin senescencia hasta ese muestreo. En la TAN, no se encontraron diferencias entre genotipos, mostrando superioridad la Norteña, siguiendo las otras cinco un patrón de comportamiento muy semejante

  8. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

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    Rabia Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as qm=1.075 mg/g, 1.173 mg/g ΔG°=-3.397, and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP and Psidium guajava leaves (GL, respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green.

  9. Comportamiento del consumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. fresca en México Behavior of comsumption of fresh potato (Solanum tuberosum L. in Mexico

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    Adriana Sabbagh-Sánchez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los productores mexicanos de papa fresca (Solanum tuberosum L. sostienen actualmente, que un aumento en el consumo per capita sería la solución a los problemas relacionados con el mercado del tubérculo. El objetivo del presente estudio es conocer el comportamiento del consumo de papa fresca, en el largo plazo; por lo tanto, se formuló y estimó un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto de dos ecuaciones de oferta, una de demanda, cuatro ecuaciones de precios y dos identidades. El modelo fue estimado por el método de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, en dos etapas usando datos nacionales anuales en el periodo 1960-2006. Los resultados indicaron que de periodo 2000-2007 el consumo per capita anual de papa fresca fue de 16 kg por habitante, y que los factores que explican el comportamiento de esta variable fueron: el precio al consumidor de la papa (PCPR, el precio de la tortilla (PTR, el precio al consumidor del huevo (PCHR, el precio al consumidor del arroz (PCAR, el precio al consumidor de la carne de cerdo (PCCCR, el precio al consumidor de la carne de pollo (PCCPR, el presupuesto para el consumo real per capita (PCRP y la cantidad demandada de papa con un año de retraso (QDPt-1, con elasticidades de -0.2, 0.2, -0.1, -0.2, -0.004, -0.3, 0.2 y 0.13, respectivamente. La tendencia de los factores que afectan el consumo de papa fresca indicó que, en el largo plazo, el consumo per capita anual será de 20 kg por habitante, cifra muy inferior a más de 80 kg por habitante consumidos en la actualidad por los europeos; por lo tanto, los productores nacionales deben buscar dar valor agregado a la papa fresca, a través del procesamiento del producto.The mexican producers of fresh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L., currently say that an increase in consumption per capita, would solve the problems related to the tuber-market. The aim of this paper is to understand the behavior of fresh potato consumption in long term; therefore, it was formulated

  10. Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy Applied for Studying Compatible Interaction in the Pathosystem Phytophtora infestans-Solanum tuberosum

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmoumen TAOUTAOU; Socaciu, Carmen; Doru PAMFIL; Florinela FETEA; Erika BALAZS; Constantin BOTEZ; Adina CHIS; Daniela BRICIU; Alexandru BRICIU

    2010-01-01

    In this study we used the Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FT-IR) technique to examine the compatible reaction of potato (Solanum tuberosum) to infection by the late blight agent Phytophthora infestans. Three virulent isolates have been used, different by their level of pathogenicity on R2 potato. The response was dependent on the pathogenicity of the isolate. The Infrared spectra in the middle infrared region (MIR) of infested versus healthy (control) leaves showed that controls absorb (intensi...

  11. Expresión diferencial durante la interacción Solanum tuberosum - Phytophthora infestans

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    Zulma Isabel Monsalve-Fonnegra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Differential expression during Solanum tuberosum- Phytophthora infestans interactionResumen: La papa (Solanum tuberosum L. es el cuarto cultivo más importante a nivel mundial y es el producto agrícola con mayor demanda de fungicidas, insecticidas y fertilizantes químicos. Las pérdidas mundiales ocasionadas por Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary en este cultivo, ascienden a 6,7 billones de dólares al año y su control químico genera un aumento en los costos, perjudica la salud humana y el ambiente. Todo esto justifica la búsqueda constante de mecanismos alternativos para el control de la enfermedad, entre ellos la obtención de variedades resistentes mediante cisgenesis usando genotipos silvestres. Como un aporte en este sentido, y dada la falta de conocimiento de lo que controla y constituye la diferencia entre una respuesta compatible e incompatible, en el presente estudio se compararon los perfiles de expresión génica obtenidos mediante Despliegue Diferencial de variedades resistentes y susceptibles durante su interacción con P. infestans. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias en la expresión génica, tanto a distintos tiempos post-inoculación como en el tipo de cambio de expresión, incluyendo la presencia y ausencia de bandas diferenciales y el aumento o disminución en su intensidad. Al analizar las secuencias de fragmentos diferencialmente expresados, se encontró que algunos fragmentos sobre-expresados en las variedades susceptibles, tenían homología con secuencias que codifican para una serina-acetiltranferasa y para la subunidad β de la RNA polimerasa. Por su parte, fragmentos sobre-expresados en la variedad resistente, tenían homología con una secuencia codificante para un dominio transmembranal. Palabras claves: pastusa suprema;  diacol-capiro; parda pastusa; despliegue diferencial Abstract: Potato (Solanum tuberosum

  12. Interspecific somatic hybrids Solanum villosum (+) S. tuberosum, resistant to Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarwacka, Justyna; Polkowska-Kowalczyk, Lidia; Kolano, Bożena; Śliwka, Jadwiga; Wielgat, Bernard

    2013-11-15

    The interspecific somatic hybrids 4x S. villosum (+) 2x S. tuberosum clone DG 81-68 (VT hybrids) were obtained and characterized molecularly and cytogenetically. The morphology of fusion-derived plants was intermediate in relation to the parental species. The expected ploidy level of the regenerants was 6x for the VT hybrids, but the real ploidy of the hybrids varied, with some of them being euploids, and others - aneuploids. The hybridity of the regenerants was verified by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Despite the variation in ploidy, the RAPD patterns of the hybrids were mostly uniform, suggesting similarity of the genotypes of the VT clones. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis discriminated between the chromosomes of both parental genomes in VT somatic hybrids and also confirmed their hybridity. The resistance of VT somatic hybrids to Phytophthora infestans was evaluated and all of the hybrids proved to be highly resistant. In search of the mechanisms involved in resistance of the Solanum species to P. infestans, the biochemical reactions occurring early after elicitor treatment were studied. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as one of the earliest reactions induced by pathogens or their elicitors, was examined in the resistant wild species S. villosum, susceptible S. tuberosum clone DG 81-68 and in the VT hybrid, resistant to P. infestans. After treatment of the leaves with elicitor, the relative increase in ROS production was higher in leaves of the susceptible potato clone than in the resistant plants of S. villosum and the somatic hybrid.

  13. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

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    Ana Lazar

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  14. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  15. Effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) on in vitro bovine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Panter, K E; Gaffield, W; Evans, R C; Bunch, T D

    2005-02-01

    alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine are two naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and solanidine-N-oxide is a corresponding steroidal aglycone. The objective of this research was to screen potential cyto-toxicity of these potato glycoalkaloids using bovine oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization techniques and subsequent embryonic development as the in vitro model. A randomized complete block design with four in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) treatments (Experiment 1) and four in vitro embryo culture (IVC) treatments (Experiment 2) was used. In Experiment 1, bovine oocytes (n=2506) were matured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVM medium only. The in vitro matured oocytes were then subject to routine IVF and IVC procedures. Results indicated that exposure of bovine oocytes to the steroidal glycoalkaloids during in vitro maturation inhibited subsequent pre-implantation embryo development. Potency of the embryo-toxicity varied between these steroidal glycoalkaloids. In Experiment 2, IVM/IVF derived bovine embryos (n=2370) were cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVC medium only. The results showed that the pre-implantation embryo development is inhibited by exposure to these glycoalkaloids. This effect is significant during the later pre-implantation embryo development period as indicated by fewer numbers of expanded and hatched blastocysts produced in the media containing these alkaloids. Therefore, we conclude that in vitro exposure of oocytes and fertilized ova to the steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes inhibits pre-implantation embryo development. Furthermore, we suggest that ingestion of Solanum species containing toxic amounts of glycoalkaloids may have negative effects on pre-implantation embryonic survival.

  16. Infra-red thermography for high throughput field phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum.

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    Ankush Prashar

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions.

  17. Infra-red Thermography for High Throughput Field Phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Ankush; Yildiz, Jane; McNicol, James W.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Jones, Hamlyn G.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions. PMID:23762433

  18. Tetraploid somatic hybrids of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) obtained from diploid breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przetakiewicz, Jarosław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna; Kuć, Dominik; Orczyk, Wacław

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecific somatic hybrids between 16 different diploid breeding lines of Solanum tuberosum L. were produced by PEG-induced fusion. Manually selected heterokaryons were cultured in a Millicells-CM using a post-fusion protoplast mixture. Plants were regenerated from calli derived from heterokaryons obtained from 10 out of 38 combinations of diploid lines. Of the tested putative somatic hybrids, 14.2% were diploid, 72.8% were tetraploid and 13% pentaploid. The DNA amplification pattern obtained with RAPD or semi-random primers confirmed that 6 fusion combinations were hybrids. In most cases, the morphological traits were intermediate to those of the diploid fusion partners. About 23.0% of the tested somatic hybrids showed variation in their morphology. Of the tested somatic hybrids, 78.0% flowered and 86.0% tuberized. The cytoplasm of 9 diploid lines and 6 somatic hybrid combinations was analysed. Two of the diploid lines had W/S chloroplasts and alpha or epsilon mitochondria; the remainder contained T chloroplasts and beta mitochondria. All the analysed somatic hybrids carried T chloroplasts and beta mitochondria.

  19. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition of Solanum bulbocastanum (+) S. tuberosum somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovene, Marina; Savarese, Salvatore; Cardi, Teodoro; Frusciante, Luigi; Scotti, Nunzia; Simon, Philipp W; Carputo, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    Somatic hybrids between the wild incongruent species Solanum bulbocastanum (2n = 2x = 24) and S. tuberosum haploids (2n = 2x = 24) have been characterized for their nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition. Cytologic observations revealed the recovery of 8 (near-)tetraploid and 3 hexaploid somatic hybrids. Multicolor genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis was carried out to study the genomic dosage of the parental species in 5 somatic hybrids with different ploidy. The GISH procedure used was effective in discriminating parental genomes in the hybrids; most chromosomes were unambiguously colored. Two (near-)tetraploid somatic hybrids showed the expected 2:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage; 2 hexaploids revealed a 4:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage, and 1 hexaploid had a 2:4 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage. Characterization of hybrid cytoplasmic genomes was performed using gene-specific primers that detected polymorphisms between the fusion parents in the intergenic regions. The analysis showed that most of the somatic hybrids inherited the plastidial and mitochondrial DNA of the cultivated parent. A few hybrids, with a rearranged mitochondrial genome (showing fragments derived from both parents), were also identified. These results confirmed the potential of somatic hybridization in producing new variability for genetic studies and breeding.

  20. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health.

  1. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets to gradient saline stress

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    Hui-Juan eGao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. ‘Longshu No. 3’ plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl with two consequent observations (two and six weeks, respectively. The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1 the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2 cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3 mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4 leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5 leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD increased significantly, and (6 leaf malondialdehyde (MDA content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  2. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  3. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ivanesa G M; Silva, Edvane B; Amaral, Ademir J; Machado, Erilane C L; Silva, Josenilda M

    2016-06-07

    This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L.), including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2) and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  4. Tubérisation sous stress salin de vitroplants de pomme de terre (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Tijani Mehouachi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberisation under salt stress of potato vitroplants (Solanum tuberosum L.. In Chott-Mariem (Tunisia, potato plants of Claustar variety, regenerated in vitro from a salt-adapted cal (3 g.l-1 of NaCl and cultivated in presence of NaCl concentration of 4 g.l-1 have tuberised. These adapted plants were as outstanding as plants regenerated from a control cal and irrigated with NaCl-free water, relating to the number of tubers per plant and the average fresh weight of tuber. However, tubers of NaCladapted plants have shown a reduction in diameter and bud number, and they were affected by a deep fissuring when grown under irrigation with saline water. These results suggest that increasing the level of organic matter above 1 % in soil can be recommended in order to overcome such abnormalities, caused by salinity and saline water use (3 to 4 g.l-1 of NaCl in the Sahel region (Mahdia, Monastir and Sousse.

  5. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy.

  6. Metabolic Biosynthesis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) Antioxidants and Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Christie; Nassar, Atef M K; Kubow, Stan; Li, Xiu-Qing; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2016-10-25

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is common, affordable, readily stored, easily prepared for consumption, and nutritious. For these reasons, potato has become one of the top five crops consumed worldwide. Consequently, it is important to understand its contribution to both our daily and long-term health. Potato is one of the most important sources of antioxidants in the human diet. As such, it supports the antioxidant defense network in our bodies that reduces cellular and tissue toxicities that result from free radical-induced protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and DNA damage. In this way, potato antioxidants may reduce the risk for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even radiation damage. A better understanding of these components of potato is needed by the food industry, health professionals, and consumers. This review provides referenced summaries of all of the antioxidant groups present in potato tubers and updated schematics including genetic regulation for the major antioxidant biosynthesis pathways. This review complements current knowledge on the role of potato in human health. We hope it will provide impetus toward breeding efforts to develop cultivars with increased antioxidant capacity as 'functional foods' and encourage potato consumers and processors to work toward preservation of antioxidant capacity in cooked potato and potato products.

  7. An Improved Method of Optimizing the Extraction of Polyphenol Oxidase from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Peel

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    Suprabhat MUKHERJEE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study has an objective to optimize the extraction of Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. peel. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to design experiments and study the effect of six influential extraction parameters: extraction buffer concentration (100-500 mM, pH of extraction buffer (4.5-8.5, time (1-12 hours, temperature (4-40�C, concentration of PMSF (1-5 mM and volume of extraction buffer (200-1000 ml on the extraction of PPO. The dependent variable was considered as response function which was specific activity (SA of extracted PPO. ANOVA was performed to obtain the regression equation that could predict the responses within given range. From RSM generated model, the optimum conditions for the maximum extraction of PPO were phosphate buffer concentration of 100 mm, buffer pH of 4.5, extraction time of 1 hour, 40�C temperature, PMSF concentration of 5 mM and buffer volume of 200 ml. Finally, this study illustrates a cost effective and less time consuming method to maximize the extraction of PPO from a vegetable waste.

  8. Genome-wide identification and mapping of NBS-encoding resistance genes in Solanum tuberosum group phureja.

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    Roberto Lozano

    Full Text Available The majority of disease resistance (R genes identified to date in plants encode a nucleotide-binding site (NBS and leucine-rich repeat (LRR domain containing protein. Additional domains such as coiled-coil (CC and TOLL/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domains can also be present. In the recently sequenced Solanum tuberosum group phureja genome we used HMM models and manual curation to annotate 435 NBS-encoding R gene homologs and 142 NBS-derived genes that lack the NBS domain. Highly similar homologs for most previously documented Solanaceae R genes were identified. A surprising ∼41% (179 of the 435 NBS-encoding genes are pseudogenes primarily caused by premature stop codons or frameshift mutations. Alignment of 81.80% of the 577 homologs to S. tuberosum group phureja pseudomolecules revealed non-random distribution of the R-genes; 362 of 470 genes were found in high density clusters on 11 chromosomes.

  9. Novel somatic hybrids (Solanum tuberosum L.+Solanum tarnii) and their fertile BC1 progenies express extreme resistance to potato virus Y and late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Antonova, Olga; Schubert, Jörg; Nachtigall, Marion; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Solanum tarnii, a wild diploid, tuber-bearing Mexican species belonging to the series Pinnatisecta is highly resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY) and Colorado potato beetle and shows a strong hypersensitive reaction to Phytophthora infestans. Therefore, it could be a potential source of resistance to pathogens for potato breeders. S. tarnii (2n=2x=24) is reproductively isolated from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum and hence difficult to include in potato breeding programmes. In this study, interspecific somatic hybrids were produced for the first time by protoplast electrofusion of the cells of potato cv. Delikat (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Solanum tarnii. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and by morphological analysis and flow cytometry. Selected somatic hybrids were successfully backcrossed with cv. Delikat. Parental lines, primary somatic hybrids and BC1 progeny were assessed for resistance to PVY by mechanical inoculation, grafting and exposure to viruliferous aphid vectors in the field, and resistance to late blight (P. infestans) by detached leaflet and whole tuber tests. The somatic hybrids showed no symptoms of viral infection and most of them displayed high levels of resistance to foliage blight. The BC1 progenies were highly resistant to PVY and a few were resistant to foliage blight. Selected hybrids and BC1 clones were evaluated in the field for tuber quality and tuber yield. Some BC1 clones produced yields of good quality tubers. The results confirm that both the resistance to PVY and to late blight of S. tarnii is expressed in somatic hybrids, and PVY resistance is transferred to BC1 progeny, whereas blight resistance is harder to transfer. Somatic hybridization again proved to be a valuable tool for producing pre-breeding material with increased genetic diversity.

  10. Riesgo agroambiental por metales pesados en suelos con Cultivares de Oryza sativa L y Solanum tuberosum L

    OpenAIRE

    Welbry Delince; Ramiro Valdés Carmenate; Olivia López Morgado; Fernando Guridi Izquierdo; María I. Balbín Arias

    2015-01-01

    Los procesos tecnológicos productivos donde se destacan el uso no controlado de agroquímicos contribuyen a que exista alto riesgo y vulnerabilidad en los agroecosistemas. Frente a esta problemática se establece como objetivo determinar los contenidos de Cu, Ni, Cd y Pb en el cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) en condiciones de producción y de Cu, Zn y Pb en arroz (Oryza sativa L.) en condiciones semicontroladas; así como algunos indicadores bioquímicos-fisiológicos y la evaluación agroeco...

  11. Comparison of single cell culture derived Solanum tuberosum L. plants and a model for their application in breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, G; Schieder, O; Przewozny, T; Sopory, S K; Melchers, G

    1979-03-01

    The techniques of microspore and protoplast regeneration starting from dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants has been improved to such an extent that the production of more than 2000 microspore derived A1 plant lines and of several hundred protoplast derived plantlets has become possible. Further, from the dihaploid Solanum species S. phureja the regeneration of microspores to plants, and from the species S. infundibuliforme, S. sparsipilum and S. tarijense the regeneration of protoplasts to calluses, has been achieved. The plants descending from the two single cell culture systems are compared with reference to phenotypic markers and economic qualities. Some principles characteristic for either microspore or protoplast derived plants are examined and their significance is discussed. The results are compiled into an extended analytical synthetic breeding scheme based on a stepwise reduction of the autotetraploid to the monohaploid level and a subsequent controlled combination to a new synthetic completely heterozygous tetraploid potato.

  12. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  13. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.

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    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three species of potatoes used in the study, Patiska was found most resistant followed by Mai Bawondoya, while Nicola was the least resistant. Increase in substrate (i.e. soluble starch or CMC concentration enhanced a proportional increase in mycelial growth and in the amount of extracellular enzymes produced. Some of these test pathogens were found to produce cell wall degrading enzymes (i.e. amylase and cellulase. Preferential utilization of carbohydrate sources was established in this study based on the growth of test pathogens. Growth on potato broth medium was highest followed by growth on Cocoyam and Sweet potato broth media and least on Cassava broth medium. Growth of the test pathogens on carbohydrate sources was found at variant. The use of hot water treatment at different temperatures was found to significantly reduce post-harvest fungal populations on the surface of root-tubers. The efficacy of blanching in hot water at 60˚C was significantly higher than that of blanching in hot water at other temperatures. The control method adopted in this study showed that the problems of potatoes’ rot disease in storage (especially by the peasant farmers can be eradicated by thermal treatments without reducing the quality of the Irish tuber.

  14. Effect of selenate supplementation on glycoalkaloid content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turakainen, Marja; Väänänen, Tiina; Anttila, Katja; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Hartikainen, Helinä; Seppänen, Mervi

    2004-11-17

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) supplemented with increasing amounts of sodium selenate were analyzed for glycoalkaloid (GA) content. GAs were extracted with 5% acetic acid from freeze-dried tubers of two potato cultivars, Satu and Sini, harvested 10 weeks after planting as immature. The GAs alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine were quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with diode array detection. Two independent experiments were performed. In the first experiment, the total GA concentration +/- standard error of the tubers ranged between 105 +/- 9 and 124 +/- 10 mg kg(-1) fresh weight in Satu and between 194 +/- 26 and 228 +/- 10 mg kg(-1) fresh weight in Sini. The ratio of alpha-solanine to alpha-chaconine was 0.2 in Satu and 0.5-0.6 in Sini. In the second experiment, the total GA concentration +/- standard error was 75 +/- 4 to 96 +/- 11 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, and the ratio of alpha-solanine to alpha-chaconine was 0.3-0.4 in Satu. A high sodium selenate supplementation (0.9 mg of Se kg(-1) quartz sand) slightly decreased the GA content in Satu, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Furthermore, at this addition level the Se concentration increased to a very high level of 20 microg g(-1) dry weight, which cannot be recommended for human consumption. In both experiments, the Se concentration in tubers increased with increasing sodium selenate application levels. Our results show that acceptable application levels of selenate did not have an effect on the GA concentration in immature potato tubers.

  15. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars.

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    Rinse Jaarsma

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+ shoot distribution index (SDI for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+ points to a role of stem Na(+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1 gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+ transport to the leaves.

  16. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S M; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+) homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+) levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+) concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+) shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+) accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+) points to a role of stem Na(+) accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+) accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+) transport to the leaves.

  17. Heredabilidad del contenido de proteína total en papa diploide Solanum tuberosum grupo Phureja

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    Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha puesto de manifiesto la importancia de realizar estudios genéticos que permitan llevar a cabo el mejoramiento de la papa a nivel de su valor nutricional. Solanum tuberosum Grupo Phureja es una especie que además de tener un alto potencial para la exportación posee características nutricionales superiores a las de especies provenientes de los otros grupos. En el presente trabajo se realizó la estimación de heredabilidad del contenido de proteína en papa criolla mediante cuatro métodos: componentes de varianza mediante ANOVA de una vía, regresión padre-progenie, máxima verosimilitud restricta y estimación bayesiana. El contenido de proteína total fue evaluado en 103 familias de hermanos medios maternos. Para ello se determinó el nitrógeno total por el método de Kjeldahl y se empleó el factor de conversión a proteína. Para los cuatro métodos de estimación de heredabilidad se obtuvieron estimativos de 0.35, 0.28, 0.40 y 0.41 respectivamente. De acuerdo a las estimaciones de heredabilidad obtenidas, con una presión de selección moderada (20% sería posible obtener incrementos en porcentaje de proteína entre 0.55% y 0.78% por ciclo de selección.

  18. PRODUCCIÓN DE METANO Y DIGESTIBILIDAD DEMEZCLAS KIKUYO (Pennisetum clandestinum - PAPA (Solanum tuberosum

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    Sandra Luc\\u00EDa Posada-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes proporciones kikuyo ( Pennisetum clandesti - num - papa ( Solanum tuberosum sobre la producción in vitro de metano. Durante el segundo semestre del año 2012 en la Sede de Investigación Universitaria (Medellín, Colombia, se evaluaron diferentes proporciones kikuyo (K – papa (P K/P de 100/0 (T1, 75/25 (T2 y 50/50% (T3. Los resultados obtenidos fueron procesados a través de análisis de medidas repetidas en el tiempo y de regresión no lineal. Al finalizar el período de incubación (entre 0 y 48 horas, la producción acumulada de gas (ml/g MS i , de metano (ml/g MS i y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (% presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas (p0,05 entre todos los trata - mientos evaluados. El volumen final de gas y de metano ( V f y su tasa de producción durante todo el proceso fermentativo ( k , estimados a partir del modelo Gompertz, también fueron mayores (p<0,05 para los tratamientos incluyendo papa. La mayor producción de metano es resultado de la superior diges - tibilidad de la materia seca conforme se incrementó el nivel de carbohidratos no estructurales (CNE en la mezcla. Bajo el modelo in vitro y a diferencia de los reportes de la literatura, la mayor inclusión de CNE no redujo la producción de metano.

  19. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-01-01

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with herbicides (cloransulam, dicamba, glyphosate, imazapyr, primsulfuron, sulfometuron, or tribenuron) at simulated drift levels [

  20. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Economically Important Traits in Cultivated Tetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Coombs, Joseph J; Zarka, Daniel G; Boone, Anne E; Kirk, William W; Hackett, Christine A; Bryan, Glenn J; Douches, David S

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this study was to construct a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map at the cultivated tetraploid level to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to economically important traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The 156 F1 progeny and parents of a cross (MSL603) between "Jacqueline Lee" and "MSG227-2" were genotyped using the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. Furthermore, the progeny and parents were evaluated for foliar late blight reaction to isolates of the US-8 genotype of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and vine maturity. Linkage analyses and QTL mapping were performed using a novel approach that incorporates allele dosage information. The resulting genetic maps contained 1972 SNP markers with an average density of 1.36 marker per cM. QTL mapping identified the major source of late blight resistance in "Jacqueline Lee." The best SNP marker mapped ~0.54 Mb from a resistance hotspot on the long arm of chromosome 9. For vine maturity, the major-effect QTL was located on chromosome 5 with allelic effects from both parents. A candidate SNP marker for this trait mapped ~0.25 Mb from the StCDF1 gene, which is a candidate gene for the maturity trait. The identification of markers for P. infestans resistance will enable the introgression of multiple sources of resistance through marker-assisted selection. Moreover, the discovery of a QTL for late blight resistance not linked to the QTL for vine maturity provides the opportunity to use marker-assisted selection for resistance independent of the selection for vine maturity classifications.

  1. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  2. Profiles of the biosynthesis and metabolism of pyridine nucleotides in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Riko; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    As part of a research program on nucleotide metabolism in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.), profiles of pyridine (nicotinamide) metabolism were examined based on the in situ metabolic fate of radio-labelled precursors and the in vitro activities of enzymes. In potato tubers, [(3)H]quinolinic acid, which is an intermediate of de novo pyridine nucleotide synthesis, and [(14)C]nicotinamide, a catabolite of NAD, were utilised for pyridine nucleotide synthesis. The in situ tracer experiments and in vitro enzyme assays suggest the operation of multiple pyridine nucleotide cycles. In addition to the previously proposed cycle consisting of seven metabolites, we found a new cycle that includes newly discovered nicotinamide riboside deaminase which is also functional in potato tubers. This cycle bypasses nicotinamide and nicotinic acid; it is NAD --> nicotinamide mononucleotide --> nicotinamide riboside --> nicotinic acid riboside --> nicotinic acid mononucleotide --> nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide --> NAD. Degradation of the pyridine ring was extremely low in potato tubers. Nicotinic acid glucoside is formed from nicotinic acid in potato tubers. Comparative studies of [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid metabolism indicate that nicotinic acid is converted to nicotinic acid glucoside in all organs of potato plants. Trigonelline synthesis from [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid was also found. Conversion was greater in green parts of plants, such as leaves and stem, than in underground parts of potato plants. Nicotinic acid utilised for the biosynthesis of these conjugates seems to be derived not only from the pyridine nucleotide cycle, but also from the de novo synthesis of nicotinic acid mononucleotide.

  3. Induction of terata in hamsters by solanidane alkaloids derived from Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffield, W; Keeler, R F

    1996-03-01

    The potential induction of terata by solanidanes has been of public health concern since a report in 1972 hypothesized that certain birth defects in humans could be attributed to ingestion of blighted potatoes. The potential teratogenicity of solanidane alkaloids from potatoes and tomatoes in domestic livestock had been considered even earlier. In the present report, oral administration of the steroidal alkaloid glycosides alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine and their aglycone solanidine is shown to induce craniofacial malformations (exencephaly, encephalocele, and anophthalmia) in Syrian hamsters. All three alkaloids, that were either isolated or obtained by hydrolysis from Solanum tuberosum (var. Kennebec) sprouts, possessed the 22-(R),25(S)-configuration in the indolizidine moiety with no other isomers present. Toxicity constraints precluded administration of dosages high enough to induce statistically significant levels of terata in litters dosed with alpha-chaconine and permitted the attainment of only marginal statistical significance for alpha-solanine. However, malformation induction at p toxicity nor is the oligosaccharide portion of steroidal alkaloid glycosides required to facilitate passage of the teratogen to the fetus. The teratogenicity of solanidine N-oxide, a putative metabolite, suggests that N-oxidation is not an effective mammalian detoxification pathway. Relative teratogenic potencies (RTP) were assigned to solanidanes by conversion of literature data to equimolar doses compared to the powerful Veratrum teratogen jervine and the nonteratogenic spirosolane tomatidine. RTP values are as follows: jervine (100), 22(S),-25(R)-solanidanes (50), alpha-chaconine (43), alpha-solanine (32), 22(R),25(S)-solanidine (32), solanidine N-oxide (32), 5 alpha,6-dihydrosolanidine (9), and tomatidine (0).

  4. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors.

  5. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  6. First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ subgroup 16SrI-A associated with a disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of little leaf, witches’-broom, and abnormally small and deformed potatoes, suggestive of possible phytoplasmal infection, were observed in diseased potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Hannibal arba Kestrel) in the Vilnius region of Lithuania. DNA extracted from symptomatic leaves and shoots we...

  7. A CYTOGENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOMATIC HYBRID PLANTS OBTAINED AFTER FUSION OF 2 DIFFERENT DIHAPLOID CLONES OF POTATO (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAARA, S; PIJNACKER, L; FERWERDA, MA; WALLIN, A; ERIKSSON, T

    1992-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants of various ploidy levels obtained after chemical fusion between two dihaploid clones of potato Solanum tuberosum L. have been analysed by cytological, morphological and molecular methods. The hybrid nature of tetraploid and hexaploid plants and the genome dosage in hexaploid hy

  8. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  9. Decreased sucrose content triggers starch breakdown and respiration in stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Börnke, Frederik; Peisker, Martin; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Lerchl, Jens; Kirakosyan, Ara; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    To change the hexose-to-sucrose ratio within phloem cells, yeast-derived cytosolic invertase was expressed in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée) plants under control of the rolC promoter. Vascular tissue specific expression of the transgene was verified by histochemical detection of invertase activity in tuber cross-sections. Vegetative growth and tuber yield of transgenic plants was unaltered as compared to wild-type plants. However, the sprout growth of stored tubers was much delayed, indicating impaired phloem-transport of sucrose towards the developing bud. Biochemical analysis of growing tubers revealed that, in contrast to sucrose levels, which rapidly declined in growing invertase-expressing tubers, hexose and starch levels remained unchanged as compared to wild-type controls. During storage, sucrose and starch content declined in wild-type tubers, whereas glucose and fructose levels remained unchanged. A similar response was found in transgenic tubers with the exception that starch degradation was accelerated and fructose levels increased slightly. Furthermore, changes in carbohydrate metabolism were accompanied by an elevated level of phosphorylated intermediates, and a stimulated rate of respiration. Considering that sucrose breakdown was restricted to phloem cells it is concluded that, in response to phloem-associated sucrose depletion or hexose elevation, starch degradation and respiration is triggered in parenchyma cells. To study further whether elevated hexose and/or hexose-phosphates or decreased sucrose levels are responsible for the metabolic changes observed, sucrose content was decreased by tuber-specific expression of a bacterial sucrose isomerase. Sucrose isomerase catalyses the reversible conversion of sucrose into palatinose, which is not further metabolizable by plant cells. Tubers harvested from these plants were found to accumulate high levels of palatinose at the expense of sucrose. In addition, starch content decreased

  10. [Effects of hydroxyapatite on growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Cd polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; He, Tan; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han

    2010-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a glasshouse to study effects of hydroxyapatite amending Cd polluted soil on growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In the experiment, 3 levels of Cd pollution (0, 5, and 10 mg x kg(-1)) and 6 levels of hydroxyapatite application (0, 4, 8, 10, 16, and 30 g x kg(-1)) in soil were prepared to plant 2 potato varieties (Zhongshusanhao and Daxiyang in Chinese system). The results showed that Cd pollution in soil resulted in decrease in yield per plant of potato; for example, in the soils with 5 and 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd, the yield per plant decreased 24%-31% and 41%-45%, respectively. Applying hydroxyapatite to Cd pollution could greatly increase yield per plant of potato. Compared to the soil without hydroxyapatite, 10 or 30 g x kg(-1) hydroxyapatite added to the soil with 5 or 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd increased 17%-9% or 45%-58% in yield per plant. Due to hydroxyapatite amending Cd polluted soil, chlorophyll contents in leaves and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in tubers enhanced and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in tubers declined apparently. Meanwhile, quality of potato tubers was obviously improved, such as increase in vitamin C contents, starch contents, and protein contents in potato tubers. With hydroxyapatite applying from 0 to 30 g x kg(-1), Cd contents in potato tubers deceased from 0.87-0.95 mg x kg(-1) to 0.13-0.21 mg x kg(-1) by 78%-85% in the soils with 5 mg x kg(-1) of Cd, and from 1.86-1.93 mg x kg(-1) to 0.52-0.65 mg x kg(-1) by 66%-72% in the soils with 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd. The experiment indicated that the mechanism of hydroxyapatite alleviating soil Cd toxicity main included rising soil pH values, reducing effective Cd contents in soil, and Ca from hydroxyapatite blocking soil Cd moving to potato. However, ability of hydroxyapatite alleviating soil Cd toxicity was limited, and excessive hydroxyapatite to soil exhibited stress effects on growth and quality of potato. In the Cd polluted soils with

  11. Measurement and modelling of ABA signalling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during partial root-zone drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Song, Ri; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a simple mechanistic model to predict the magnitude of ABA signalling ([X-ABA]) of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) exposed to partial root-zone drying (PRD). Potatoes were grown in pots in a glasshouse with the roots split equally between two soil columns...... declined exponentially with declining soil water potential (Psi(soil-dry)); however, after shifting of irrigation, the previously dried roots immediately recovered the full capacity of water uptake. During the first PRD drying cycle, FI plants had the highest stomatal conductance (g(s)), and followed...... model predicting [X-ABA] in the PRD plants ([X-ABA](PRD)) was developed. Assuming that a constant [X-ABA] of 115 nM (similar to that found in the FI plants) originated from the wet roots; the simulation results indicated that irrigation should be shifted between the two sides when Psi(soil-dry) had...

  12. Comparative effects of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on nitrogen uptake in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huiqun; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann;

    2009-01-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) as compared with deficit irrigation (DI) and full irrigation (FI) on nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated. Potato plants were grown in split-root pots and were exposed to FI, PRD, and DI treatments...... and N content were determined. The results showed that although the plant dry mass was not affected by the irrigation treatments, due to a reduced water use by the plant, both the PRD and DI treatments significantly increased crop water use efficiency. Compared with the FI and DI plants, PRD plants had...... significantly higher N contents in the leaves, stems and tubers; whereas, the 15N content in the plant organs was similar for the FI, PRD, and DI plants. It is suggested that not the root N uptake efficiency but the soil N availability was enhanced by the PRD treatment....

  13. Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J

    1997-03-01

    Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species.

  14. Somatic hybrids of Solanum tuberosum and species of the Solanum nigrum-complex and their backcross progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsman, K.

    2001-01-01

    The species of the Solanum nigrum-complex are wild relatives of the cultivated potato and potentially interesting sources of genetic variation. The traditional method of introgressing a specific trait from a related species is sexual hybridisation followed by recurrent backcrossing but often one or

  15. Retrospective view of North American potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding in the 20th and 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Candice N; Hirsch, Cory D; Felcher, Kimberly; Coombs, Joseph; Zarka, Dan; Van Deynze, Allen; De Jong, Walter; Veilleux, Richard E; Jansky, Shelley; Bethke, Paul; Douches, David S; Buell, C Robin

    2013-06-21

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, has been bred for distinct market classes, including fresh market, pigmented, and processing varieties. Breeding efforts have relied on phenotypic selection of populations developed from intra- and intermarket class crosses and introgressions of wild and cultivated Solanum relatives. To retrospectively explore the effects of potato breeding at the genome level, we used 8303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to genotype a 250-line diversity panel composed of wild species, genetic stocks, and cultivated potato lines with release dates ranging from 1857 to 2011. Population structure analysis revealed four subpopulations within the panel, with cultivated potato lines grouping together and separate from wild species and genetic stocks. With pairwise kinship estimates clear separation between potato market classes was observed. Modern breeding efforts have scarcely changed the percentage of heterozygous loci or the frequency of homozygous, single-dose, and duplex loci on a genome level, despite concerted efforts by breeders. In contrast, clear selection in less than 50 years of breeding was observed for alleles in biosynthetic pathways important for market class-specific traits such as pigmentation and carbohydrate composition. Although improvement and diversification for distinct market classes was observed through whole-genome analysis of historic and current potato lines, an increased rate of gain from selection will be required to meet growing global food demands and challenges due to climate change. Understanding the genetic basis of diversification and trait improvement will allow for more rapid genome-guided improvement of potato in future breeding efforts.

  16. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  17. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  18. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum x S. sparsipilum located on chromosome I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Christiansen, Jørgen

    2008-06-01

    New potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties are required to contain low levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids and a potential approach to obtain this is through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Before applying MAS it is necessary to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers and identify markers that link tightly to this trait. In this study, tubers of a dihaploid BC(1) population, originating from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (S. tuberosum(1)) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum(2) x S. sparsipilum), were evaluated for content of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine (total glycoalkaloid, TGA) after field trials. In addition, tubers were assayed for TGA content after exposure to light. A detailed analysis of segregation patterns indicated that a major QTL is responsible for the TGA content in tubers of this potato population. One highly significant QTL was mapped to chromosome I of the HAG and the HAF parent. Quantitative trait loci for glycoalkaloid production in foliage of different Solanum species have previously been mapped to this chromosome. In the present research, QTLs for alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine content were mapped to the same location as for TGA content. Similar results were observed for tubers exposed to light. The simple sequence repeat marker STM5136 was closely linked to the identified QTL.

  19. Four potato (Solanum tuberosum) ABCG transporters and their expression in response to abiotic factors and Phytophthora infestans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Michelina; Ambrosino, Patrizia; Lanzuise, Stefania; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Lorito, Matteo; Scala, Felice

    2011-12-15

    Pleiotropic drug resistant (PDR/ABCG) genes are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, we cloned, from Solanum tuberosum, four PDR/ABCG transporter genes named StPDR1, StPDR2, StPDR3 and StPDR4, which were differentially expressed in plant tissues and cell cultures. A number of different chemically unrelated compounds were found to regulate the transcript levels of the four genes in cultured cells. In particular, StPDR2 was highly up-regulated in the presence of Botrytis cinerea cell walls, NaCl, 2,4-dichlorophenol, sclareol and α-solanin and biological compounds. The expression of the genes was also investigated by real time RT-PCR during infection by Phytophthora infestans. StPDR1 and StPDR2 were up-regulated about 13- and 37-fold at 48 h post-infection (hpi), StPDR3 was expressed (4-5-fold) at 24 and 48 hpi and then rapidly decreased, while StPDR4 RNA accumulation was stimulated (about 4-fold) at 12 and 24 hpi, decreased at 48 hpi and increased again at 96 hpi. We discuss the role of StPDR1-4 genes in response to pathogens and abiotic stresses.

  20. Isolation and Purification of a Novel Deca-Antifungal Peptide from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Jopung Against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, an antifungal protein, AFP-J, was purified from tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. L Jopung and by gel filtration and HPLC. In this study, the functional peptide was characterized by partial acid digestion using HCl and HPLC. We obtained three peaks from the AFP-J, the first and third peaks were not active in the tested fungal strain. However, the second peak, which was named Potide-J, was active (MIC; 6.25 μg/mL against Candida albicans. The amino acid sequences were analyzed by automated Edman degradation, and the amino acid sequence of Potide-J was determined to be Ala-Val-Cys-Glu-Asn-Asp-Leu-Asn-Cys-Cys. Mass spectrometry showed that its molecular mass was 1083.1 Da. Finally, we confirmed that a disulfide bond was present between Cys3 and Cys9 or Cys10. Using this structure, Potide-J was synthesized via solid-phase methods. In these experiments, only the linear sequence was shown to display strong activity against Candida albicans. These results suggest that Potide-J may be an excellent candidate compound for the development of commercially applicable antibiotic agents.

  1. Solanum tuberosum lectin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for nose-to-brain delivery: in vivo and in vitro evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Qingfeng; Shao, Xiayan; Feng, Chengcheng; Shen, Yehong; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2012-02-01

    Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL) conjugated poly (DL-lactic-co- glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle (STL-NP) was constructed in this paper as a novel biodegradable nose-to-brain drug delivery system. The in vitro uptake study showed markedly enhanced endocytosis of STL-NP compared to unmodified PLGA nanoparticles (NP) in Calu-3 cells and significant inhibition of uptake in the presence of inhibitor sugar (chitin hydrolysate). Following intranasal administration, coumarin-6 carried by STL-NP was rapidly absorbed into blood and brain. The AUC((0→12 h)) of coumarin-6 in blood, olfactory bulb, cerebrum and cerebellum were about 0.77-, 1.48-, 1.89- and 1.45-fold of those of NP, respectively (p brain targeting efficiency in different brain tissues than unmodified NP. Enhanced accumulation of STL-NP in the brain was also observed by near infrared fluorescence probe image following intranasal administration. The fluorescence signal of STL-NP appeared in olfactory bulb, cerebrum and brainstem early at 0.25 h. The signal in olfactory bulb decreased gradually after 2 h, while the obvious signal in brainstem, cerebrum and cerebellum lasted for more than 8 h. The STL-NP safety experiments showed mild cytotoxicity and negligible cilia irritation. These intriguing in vitro and in vivo results suggest that STL-NP might serve as a promising brain drug delivery system.

  2. Growth biostimulation of quorum-quenching bacteria by gammagamma-heptalactone treatment in the hydroponic rhizosphere of Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannieres, M; Beury-Cirou, A; Faure, D

    2012-01-01

    Several bacterial plant pathogens, including Pectobacterium, use a cell-to-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS) to synchronize and regulate expression of the virulence factors. In this study, the biomolecule gamma-heptalactone (GHL) was introduced in hydroponic culture of Solanum tuberosum to stimulate growth of the native rhizospheric bacteria which are able to degrade the QS signal, hence potentially quench the QS-regulated virulence of Pectobacterium. During two annual campaigns, GHL-treatment efficiently stimulated the growth of QS-degrading bacterial population of Rhodococcus erythropolis in the rhizosphere of potato plants. Analytical chemistry showed that GHL rapidly disappeared because it could be assimilated as a carbon source by R. erythropolis. Moreover, pyrosequencing of the rrs-amplicons revealed a strong modification of the structure and diversity of bacterial populations, when GHL-treated and untreated conditions were compared. This work highlighted a potential innovative strategy for stimulating the growth and root colonization of QS-degrading bacteria, which would act as biocontrol agents against plant QS-pathogens.

  3. The expression of a recombinant glycolate dehydrogenase polyprotein in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plastids strongly enhances photosynthesis and tuber yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölke, Greta; Houdelet, Marcel; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    We have increased the productivity and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by developing a novel method to enhance photosynthetic carbon fixation based on expression of a polyprotein (DEFp) comprising all three subunits (D, E and F) of Escherichia coli glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH). The engineered polyprotein retained the functionality of the native GlcDH complex when expressed in E. coli and was able to complement mutants deficient for the D, E and F subunits. Transgenic plants accumulated DEFp in the plastids, and the recombinant protein was active in planta, reducing photorespiration and improving CO2 uptake with a significant impact on carbon metabolism. Transgenic lines with the highest DEFp levels and GlcDH activity produced significantly higher levels of glucose (5.8-fold), fructose (3.8-fold), sucrose (1.6-fold) and transitory starch (threefold), resulting in a substantial increase in shoot and leaf biomass. The higher carbohydrate levels produced in potato leaves were utilized by the sink capacity of the tubers, increasing the tuber yield by 2.3-fold. This novel approach therefore has the potential to increase the biomass and yield of diverse crops.

  4. Glucose 1-phosphate is efficiently taken up by potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber parenchyma cells and converted to reserve starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettke, Joerg; Albrecht, Tanja; Hejazi, Mahdi; Mahlow, Sebastian; Nakamura, Yasunori; Steup, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Reserve starch is an important plant product but the actual biosynthetic process is not yet fully understood. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber discs from various transgenic plants were used to analyse the conversion of external sugars or sugar derivatives to starch. By using in vitro assays, a direct glucosyl transfer from glucose 1-phosphate to native starch granules as mediated by recombinant plastidial phosphorylase was analysed. Compared with labelled glucose, glucose 6-phosphate or sucrose, tuber discs converted externally supplied [(14)C]glucose 1-phosphate into starch at a much higher rate. Likewise, tuber discs from transgenic lines with a strongly reduced expression of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase, phosphorylase or transglucosidase converted glucose 1-phosphate to starch with the same or even an increased rate compared with the wild-type. Similar results were obtained with transgenic potato lines possessing a strongly reduced activity of both the cytosolic and the plastidial phosphoglucomutase. Starch labelling was, however, significantly diminished in transgenic lines, with a reduced concentration of the plastidial phosphorylase isozymes. Two distinct paths of reserve starch biosynthesis are proposed that explain, at a biochemical level, the phenotype of several transgenic plant lines.

  5. Life-history parameters of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on seven commercial cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Seyed Ali Asghar; Fakhr-Taha, Zoha; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an important pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), crops in the Ardabil region of Iran. In this research, the life-history parameters of L. decemlineata were investigated on seven potato cultivars, namely Agria, Aozonia, Diamant, Cosmus, Kondor, Morene, and Savalan, in a greenhouse at 23 ± 1° C and 55 ± 5% RH under a natural photoperiod. The results indicated that the development time of larvae was longest on Savalan (18.3 days) among the tested potato cultivars. The survival rates (egg to adult) on Savalan and Morene were significantly lower than on the other studied cultivars. L. decemlineata reared on Savalan had the lowest fecundity (286.3 eggs/female) among the tested potato cultivars. The oviposition period of females was significantly shorter on Savalan and Diamant than on Kondor, Aozonia, Morene, Agria, and Cosmus. The values of intrinsic rate of natural increase and population growth rate were lowest on Savalan (0.055 and 1.056, respectively). The generation time and doubling time were significantly longest on Savalan (69.5 and 12.7 days, respectively). Based on these results, it can be concluded that Savalan is the least suitable cultivar for L. decemlineata among the ones tested. These results can be useful in integrated management of L. decemlineata in potato fields.

  6. The transcriptome of the reference potato genome Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N; Childs, Kevin L; Lin, Haining; Bryan, Glenn J; Giuliano, Giovanni; Buell, C Robin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular breeding in potato have been limited by its complex biological system, which includes vegetative propagation, autotetraploidy, and extreme heterozygosity. The availability of the potato genome and accompanying gene complement with corresponding gene structure, location, and functional annotation are powerful resources for understanding this complex plant and advancing molecular breeding efforts. Here, we report a reference for the potato transcriptome using 32 tissues and growth conditions from the doubled monoploid Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44 for which a genome sequence is available. Analysis of greater than 550 million RNA-Seq reads permitted the detection and quantification of expression levels of over 22,000 genes. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses captured the biological variability that accounts for gene expression differences among tissues suggesting tissue-specific gene expression, and genes with tissue or condition restricted expression. Using gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 18 gene modules that represent tissue-specific transcriptional networks of major potato organs and developmental stages. This information provides a powerful resource for potato research as well as studies on other members of the Solanaceae family.

  7. A purine nucleoside phosphorylase in Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) with specificity for cytokinins contributes to the duration of tuber endodormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Jennifer R; Warnes, Barbara J; Newell, Christine A; Thomson, Jamie C P; James, Celia M; Turnbull, Colin G N; Hanke, David E

    2014-03-01

    StCKP1 (Solanum tuberosum cytokinin riboside phosphorylase) catalyses the interconversion of the N9-riboside form of the plant hormone CK (cytokinin), a subset of purines, with its most active free base form. StCKP1 prefers CK to unsubstituted aminopurines. The protein was discovered as a CK-binding activity in extracts of tuberizing potato stolon tips, from which it was isolated by affinity chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence matched the translation product of a set of ESTs, enabling a complete mRNA sequence to be obtained by RACE-PCR. The predicted polypeptide includes a cleavable signal peptide and motifs for purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity. The expressed protein was assayed for purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity against CKs and adenine/adenosine. Isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin, dihydrozeatin and adenine were converted into ribosides in the presence of ribose 1-phosphate. In the opposite direction, isopentenyladenosine, trans-zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside and adenosine were converted into their free bases in the presence of Pi. StCKP1 had no detectable ribohydrolase activity. Evidence is presented that StCKP1 is active in tubers as a negative regulator of CKs, prolonging endodormancy by a chill-reversible mechanism.

  8. Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongyu; Chen, Zhifan; Sun, Ke; Yan, Dong; Kang, Mingjie; Zhao, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem worldwide. The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was used to investigate how different concentrations of Cd (1, 5, and 25mgkg(-1)) affected the physiological parameters and the subcellular distribution of Cd in the potato. The analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The results suggest that the leaf is the organ with the highest accumulation of Cd. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and the chlorophyll content decreased in response to high level of Cd. The SEM-EDX microanalysis revealed that Cd was primarily deposited in the spongy and palisade tissues of the leaf. Furthermore, Cd was also detected in the cortex and the adjacent phloem and was observed inside the intercellular space, the interior surface of the plasma membrane, and on the surface of the elliptical starch granules in the tubers of the potato. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to the tuber, the accumulation of Cd in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be seriously evaluated because Cd-containing potatoes might present high health risk to humans.

  9. Characterization and Transcriptional Profile of Genes Involved in Glycoalkaloid Biosynthesis in New Varieties of Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther J; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2016-02-03

    Before commercial release, new potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties must be evaluated for content of toxic compounds such as glycoalkaloids (GAs), which are potent poisons. GA biosynthesis proceeds via the cholesterol pathway to α-chaconine and α-solanine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total glycoalkaloid (TGA) content and the expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes in potato tubers. TGA content was measured by HPLC-MS, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to determine the relative expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes. We searched for cis-elements of the transcription start site using the PlantPAN database. There was a relationship between TGA content and the relative expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes in potato tubers. Putative promoter regions showed the presence of several cis-elements related to biotic and abiotic stresses and light. These findings provide an important step toward understanding TGA regulation and variation in potato tubers.

  10. [Application of somatic hybrids between dihaploids of potato Solanum tuberosum L. and wild diploid species from Mexico in breeding: generation and backcrossing of dihaploids of somatic hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermishin, A P; Makhan'ko, O V; Voronkova, E V

    2006-12-01

    The efficiency of an original approach to involvement of the valuable genetic pool of wild diploid potato species from Mexico is estimated. The essence of this method is in generation of dihaploids (2n = 2x = 24) of tetraploid somatic hybrids (2n = 4x = 48) followed by backcrossing with dihaploids of Solanum tuberosum. A haploid producer, S. phureja IvP35, was used to generate ten dihaploids of S. tuberosum + S. pinnatisectum, all of which crossed with fertile S. tuberosum dihaploids and developed plump viable seeds. This gives the possibility of an efficient introgression of the genes valuable for breeding from wild species to the bred plants at a diploid level, which has several advantages compared with the corresponding procedure at a tetraploid level. A part of the dihaploids produced was compatible (the pollen tubes reached the ovary) with diploid and tetraploid forms of S. pinnatisectum; however, no viable seeds were developed. The attempt to generate the dihaploids of S. tuberosum + S. bulbocastanum somatic hydrides using the haploid producer S. phureja IvP35 was unsuccessful.

  11. Distribución Diferencial de Bacterias con Potencial Biocontrolador de Spongospora subterranea en Plantas de Papa (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro Differential Distrubution of Candidadate Biocontrol Bacteria against Spongospora subterranea in Potato Plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soler Arango

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La búsqueda de microorganismos promisorios para biocontrol de patógenos de plantas en el suelo con frecuencia se ha orientado a la detección de productores de hormonas y enzimas líticas, condiciones asociadas a su capacidad para promover crecimiento vegetal. Sin embargo, el suelo es altamente variable en escalas pequeñas y se conoce poco sobre la distribución espacial de microorganismos que expresan esas funciones. Este estudio determinó la capacidad de producción de indoles totales y quitinasas en bacterias cultivables aisladas del interior de la raíz, la rizósfera, la superficie de los tubérculos o suelo de un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol Capiro. Las muestras se obtuvieron en un campo comercial en el municipio de la Unión en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, en plantas que presentaban síntomas de infección por Spongospora subterranea. Se encontró una producción diferencial de indoles o quitinasas según el sitio de aislamiento de las bacterias. No se encontró una alta producción de ambas actividades en un sólo aislamiento, la mayor producción de indoles totales y quitinasas se encontró en bacterias aisladas a partir de raíz y rizósfera, comparada con las aisladas de tubérculos y suelo. Estos resultados sugieren que en el suelo no es aleatoria la distribución de funciones deseables en controladores biológicos. Con estos resultados es posible orientar su búsqueda para optimizar el uso de recursos y el desarrollo de nuevos bioproductos.Abstract. Searching for promising microorganisms to biocontrol soil-borne plant pathogens has been often focused on producers of hormone and lytic enzymes, since these traits are linked to plant growth promotion. However, the environment from inner roots to bulk soil is quite variable, and little is known about the spatial distribution of microorganisms expressing these desirable traits. Using potato plants (Solanum tuberosum var. Diacol Capiro from a

  12. Generation and Inheritance of Targeted Mutations in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Using the CRISPR/Cas System.

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    Nathaniel M Butler

    Full Text Available Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs offers an alternative approach to conventional genetic engineering and an opportunity to extend the benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture. Currently available SSN platforms, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas have been used in a range of plant species for targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ are just beginning to be explored in crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum L.. In this study, CRISPR/Cas reagents expressing one of two single-guide RNA (sgRNA targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (StALS1 gene were tested for inducing targeted mutations in callus and stable events of diploid and tetraploid potato using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with either a conventional T-DNA or a modified geminivirus T-DNA. The percentage of primary events with targeted mutations ranged from 3-60% per transformation and from 0-29% above an expected threshold based on the number of ALS alleles. Primary events with targeted mutation frequencies above the expected threshold were used for mutation cloning and inheritance studies using clonal propagation and crosses or selfing. Four of the nine primary events used for mutation cloning had more than one mutation type, and eight primary events contained targeted mutations that were maintained across clonal generations. Somatic mutations were most evident in the diploid background with three of the four primary events having more than two mutation types at a single ALS locus. Conversely, in the tetraploid background, four of the five candidates carried only one mutation type. Single targeted mutations were inherited through the germline of both diploid and tetraploid primary events with transmission percentages ranging from 87-100%. This

  13. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) en el Valle de Toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez; Jesús Ricardo Sánchez Pale; Antonio Laguna Cerda; José Francisco Ramírez Dávila; Artemio Balbuena Melgarejo; Omar Guadalupe Alvarado Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC) o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP) o enfermed...

  14. Gamma-caprolactone stimulates growth of quorum-quenching Rhodococcus populations in a large-scale hydroponic system for culturing Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirou, Amélie; Raffoux, Aurélie; Diallo, Stéphanie; Latour, Xavier; Dessaux, Yves; Faure, Denis

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria degrading quorum sensing (QS) signals have been proposed as biocontrol agents able to quench QS-dependent expression of virulence symptoms caused by Pectobacterium on potato plants. We report here that gamma-caprolactone (GCL) treatment stimulated growth of the native QS-degrading bacterial community in an industrial plant hydroponic system for culturing Solanum tuberosum. Post-GCL treatment, QS-degrading bacteria were mainly identified as Rhodococcus isolates, while Agrobacterium isolates dominated under similar untreated conditions. Most of the assayed Rhodococcus isolates exhibited efficient biocontrol activity for protecting potato tubers. Analytical chemistry approach revealed the rapid degradation of GCL introduced in the plant cultures.

  15. Diversidad de abejas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) en cultivos de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) y su efecto en la polinización

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Cano, Paula Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: La papa (Solanum tuberosum) es uno de los cultivos más importantes en los países que la producen. Debido a la gran cantidad de problemas fitosanitarios que se presentan en el cultivo, algunas instituciones están trabajando en el desarrollo de líneas de plantas genéticamente modificadas, introduciendo genes de Bt en la planta para conferirle resistencia a T. solanivora. Con el desarrollo de esta tecnología siempre vienen interrogantes y preocupaciones desde el punto de vista ético y b...

  16. Gene expression changes in phosphorus deficient potato (Solanum tuberosum L. leaves and the potential for diagnostic gene expression markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Hammond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are compelling economic and environmental reasons to reduce our reliance on inorganic phosphate (Pi fertilisers. Better management of Pi fertiliser applications is one option to improve the efficiency of Pi fertiliser use, whilst maintaining crop yields. Application rates of Pi fertilisers are traditionally determined from analyses of soil or plant tissues. Alternatively, diagnostic genes with altered expression under Pi limiting conditions that suggest a physiological requirement for Pi fertilisation, could be used to manage Pifertiliser applications, and might be more precise than indirect measurements of soil or tissue samples. RESULTS: We grew potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plants hydroponically, under glasshouse conditions, to control their nutrient status accurately. Samples of total leaf RNA taken periodically after Pi was removed from the nutrient solution were labelled and hybridised to potato oligonucleotide arrays. A total of 1,659 genes were significantly differentially expressed following Pi withdrawal. These included genes that encode proteins involved in lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism, characteristic of Pi deficient leaves and included potential novel roles for genes encoding patatin like proteins in potatoes. The array data were analysed using a support vector machine algorithm to identify groups of genes that could predict the Pi status of the crop. These groups of diagnostic genes were tested using field grown potatoes that had either been fertilised or unfertilised. A group of 200 genes could correctly predict the Pi status of field grown potatoes. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides a proof-of-concept demonstration for using microarrays and class prediction tools to predict the Pi status of a field grown potato crop. There is potential to develop this technology for other biotic and abiotic stresses in field grown crops. Ultimately, a better understanding of crop stresses may improve our management

  17. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-François; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H P; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-François; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.

  18. MOLECULAR VARIABILITY OF THREE GENES OF POTATO VEIN YELLOW VIRUS INFECTING Solanum tuberosum, USING SINGLE STRAND CONFORMATIONAL POLYMORPHISM

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    Karen Andrea CUBILLOS-ABELLO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato yellow vein virus o virus del amarillamiento de venas de la hoja de la papa (PYVV es un virus RNA tripartito (ss+ de la familia Closteroviridae género Crinivirus que causa la enfermedad de amarillamiento de nervaduras de la hoja de papa (PYVD reduciendo la productividad, entre el 25 % y 50 %. La técnica de polimorfismo conformacional de cadena sencilla (SSCP ha sido usada para estimar la variabilidad en diferentes especies de virus. En el presente trabajo se analizó la variabilidad molecular de 60 aislados de PYVV a partir de la comparación de tres genes: el gen de la proteína mayor de la cápside (CP, proteína menor de la cápside (CPm y la proteína de choque térmico (Hsp70. Los aislados se obtuvieron de dos grupos de Solanum tuberosum : 30 del Grupo Phureja (GPh y 30 del Grupo Andígena (GA, provenientes del departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Los genes se amplificaron por RT-PCR y los productos purificados se emplearon para SSCP en geles de poliacrilamida. Se detectaron tres perfiles de SSCP para el gen CP, 12 para el CPm y 12 para el Hsp70. Para el GA el perfil más frecuente del gen Hsp70 fue el perfil C (66,6 % y para el gen CPm fue el IV (33,3 %. Para el gen CP, el patrón uno se encontró en el 93,3 % de los aislados, indicando menor variabilidad. Esta es la primera estimación de variabilidad de PYVV en diferentes genes y a través de una técnica molecular simple.

  19. Wounding, insect chewing and phloem sap feeding differentially alter the leaf proteome of potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Duceppe Marc-Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors shape the response of plants to herbivorous insects, including wounding patterns, specific chemical effectors and feeding habits of the attacking herbivore. Here we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the plant's response to wounding and herbivory, using as a model potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. subjected to mechanical wounding, defoliation by the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, or phloem sap feeding by the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas. Results Out of ~500 leaf proteins monitored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, 31 were up- or downregulated by at least one stress treatment compared to healthy control plants. Of these proteins, 29 were regulated by beetle chewing, 8 by wounding and 8 by aphid feeding. Some proteins were up- or downregulated by two different treatments, while others showed diverging expression patterns in response to different treatments. A number of modulated proteins identified by mass spectrometry were typical defense proteins, including wound-inducible protease inhibitors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins involved in photosynthesis were also modulated, notably by potato beetle feeding inducing a strong decrease of some photosystem I proteins. Quantitative RT PCR assays were performed with nucleotide primers for photosynthesis-related proteins to assess the impact of wounding and herbivory at the gene level. Whereas different, sometimes divergent, responses were observed at the proteome level in response to wounding and potato beetle feeding, downregulating effects were systematically observed for both treatments at the transcriptional level. Conclusions These observations illustrate the differential impacts of wounding and insect herbivory on defense- and photosynthesis-related components of the potato leaf proteome, likely associated with the perception of distinct physical and chemical cues in planta.

  20. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26172952

  2. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Szalonek

    Full Text Available Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin than wild type (WT. Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII, as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Effects of Different Organic Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality Traits of Seed Potato Cultivars (Solanum Tuberosum L.

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    Hasan Eleroğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of use organo-mineral fertilizers and poultry manure on yield and quality of seed tubers different potatoes varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.. The study was designed in three replicated completely randomized block factorial design with eight potato cultivars (Madaline, Provento, Marfona, Agata, Arizona, Mustang, Rumba and Saviola and including three different fertilizer as Hexaferm organo-mineral (%20 organics, 8-21-0+Zn, compost (1 t da-1 and fermented poultry manure (1 t da-1. In order to determine the effect of fertilizer forms on the yield and quality characteristics of different varieties of potatoes were examined features like output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill, tuber yield per hill, total tuber yield, cracks tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity. Used fertilizers have no significant effect on output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill, total tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity of varieties. The difference observed in terms of output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill between the varieties was insignificant. The difference between the average tuber yield per hill, total tuber yield, cracks tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity of varieties were significant. Similarly, the fertilizers had a significant effect on the average tuber yield per hill of varieties . The significant interactions were found on traits average tuber yield per hill and average specific gravity between Fertilizer x Varieties. As a result, considered economically the fermented and compost poultry manure can be used instead of organo-mineral fertilizers in the production of seed potatoes.

  4. The transcriptome of compatible and incompatible interactions of potato (Solanum tuberosum with Phytophthora infestans revealed by DeepSAGE analysis.

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    Gabor Gyetvai

    Full Text Available Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum. Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker-assissted selection or by transgenic approaches. Specific P. infestans races having the Avr1 effector gene trigger a hypersensitive resistance response in potato plants carrying the R1 resistance gene (incompatible interaction and cause disease in plants lacking R1 (compatible interaction. The transcriptomes of the compatible and incompatible interaction were captured by DeepSAGE analysis of 44 biological samples comprising five genotypes, differing only by the presence or absence of the R1 transgene, three infection time points and three biological replicates. 30,859 unique 21 base pair sequence tags were obtained, one third of which did not match any known potato transcript sequence. Two third of the tags were expressed at low frequency (<10 tag counts/million. 20,470 unitags matched to approximately twelve thousand potato transcribed genes. Tag frequencies were compared between compatible and incompatible interactions over the infection time course and between compatible and incompatible genotypes. Transcriptional changes were more numerous in compatible than in incompatible interactions. In contrast to incompatible interactions, transcriptional changes in the compatible interaction were observed predominantly for multigene families encoding defense response genes and genes functional in photosynthesis and CO(2 fixation. Numerous transcriptional differences were also observed between near isogenic genotypes prior to infection with P. infestans. Our DeepSAGE transcriptome analysis uncovered novel candidate genes for plant host pathogen interactions, examples of which are discussed with respect to possible function.

  5. Avaliação da resistência de clones e cultivares de batata à murcha bacteriana (Ralstonia solanacearum)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Neto, Artur Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Cultivares e clones de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) foram avaliados de 2002 a 2004 na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília-DF, para resistência à murcha bacteriana em campo naturalmente infestado com a raça 1, biovar 1 de Ralstonia solanacearum. Os testes de avaliação foram conduzidos com as cultivares atualmente mais plantadas no Brasil e com conjuntos de clones relatados como resistentes no Brasil e em outras partes do mundo. Em todos os experimentos, a doença foi avaliada pela incidência de plant...

  6. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum × S. sparsipilum located at chromosome I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    New potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties are required to contain low levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids and a potential approach to obtain this is through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Before applying MAS it is necessary to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for glycoalkaloid content in potato...... tubers and identify markers that link tightly to this trait. In this study, tubers of a dihaploid BC1 population, originating from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (S. tuberosum 1) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum 2 × S. sparsipilum), were evaluated for content of α-solanine and α-chaconine (total glycoalkaloid, TGA...... and the HAF parent. Quantitative trait loci for glycoalkaloid production in foliage of different Solanum species have previously been mapped to this chromosome. In the present research, QTLs for α-solanine and α-chaconine content were mapped to the same location as for TGA content. Similar results were...

  7. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores.

  8. Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

    2012-06-01

    Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop technology in the world (James 2010). However, the complexity of the Agrobacterium patent landscape remains a challenge for non-patent holders who wish to generate novel varieties for a commercial purpose. The potential of non-Agrobacterium strains (Transbacter(™)) to modify a plant genome has previously been described. However, they are unlikely to be widely used without significant adjustments in transformation protocols in order to improve their gene transfer efficiencies. In this study we set out to identify alternative bacteria species that could (a) utilize vir genes for genetic transformation and (b) substitute for A. tumefaciens in existing transformation protocols, without a prerequisite for protocol modifications. To this end we isolated a collection (n=751) of plant-associated bacteria from the rhizosphere of commercially grown crops. Based on various screens, including plant transformation with the open-source vector pCAMBIA5105, we identified a strain of the bacterium Ensifer adhaerens with the capacity to transform both Arabidopsis thaliana (0.12%) and potato (mean transformation frequency 35.1%). Thereafter, Ensifer adhaerens was used to generate blight- (causative organism Phytophthora infestans) resistant potato using the Solanum bulbocastanum 'resistance to blight' (RB) gene. Resistant genotypes were confirmed by associated molecular analysis and resistant phenotypes demonstrated by the development of hypersensitive lesions on inoculated leaf tissue post-pathogen inoculation. These data confirm the potential of Ensifer-mediated transformation (EMT) as a novel platform for the high frequency generation of transgenic potato.

  9. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (psystem was highly effective in minimizing soil loss and runoff. Enrichment ratio was on average greater than unity for all soil elements analyzed indicating that erosion process was selective. Concentrations of soil organic matter in the eroded sediment were higher in the stable fraction; mineral organic carbon (18.43-19.30 g kg-1), mineral nitrogen (1.67-1.93 g kg-1) than in the labile fraction; particulate organic carbon (7.72-9.39 g kg-1), particulate nitrogen (0.62-0.84 g kg-1) indicating that much of the eroded soil organic matter was in stable form. The study shows that there is need to incorporate suitable indeterminate legume cover crops such as Dolichos lablab in potato cropping systems so as to minimize soil and nutrient losses due to erosion. Acknowledgement This study was part of the CIP-Sub Saharan Africa

  10. MICORRIZACIÓN In Vitro E In Vivo DE PLÁNTULAS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum var. Alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanne Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones artificiales en las que se desarrollan las plantas obtenidas por micropropagación hacen que sean más susceptibles a la sequía durante el transplante. Los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares contribuyen a la supervivencia y el crecimiento de las plantas al reducir el estrés asociado con la nutrición, las relaciones con el agua, la estructura del suelo, el pH, las sales, los metales tóxicos y los patógenos, por lo que son considerados de extrema utilidad como inoculantes durante las diferentes fases de micropropagación de los cultivos. Teniendo en cuenta estos aspectos se realizó este trabajo, con el objetivo de evaluar la factibilidad de la inoculación micorrízica durante los estadios in vitro e in vivo del proceso de micropropagación del cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L var. Alfa. Para dar respuesta al trabajo, se estudió la inoculación micorrízica sobre plantas de papa en condiciones de crecimiento in vitro, empleando diferentes medios de cultivo (MS, M y un nuevo medio N, bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado (DCA y la inoculación de plantas de papa durante el transplante a fase adaptativa empleando tres especies del género Glomus y dos concentrados de especies de HMA (selva y desierto sobre dos sustratos diferentes, utilizando un DCA bajo arreglo bifactorial. En el estudio in vitro se obtuvieron efectos positivos sobre las plantas inoculadas en el medio M, aun cuando quedó clara la necesidad de encontrar nuevos medios, nutricionalmente balanceados, que garanticen tanto el crecimiento de las plántulas como el establecimiento eficiente de la micorrización. Además, en la fase adaptativa se encontró una respuesta altamente positiva a la inoculación de las cepas, mostrando un comportamiento diferenciado en función de los sustratos, apreciable en todas las variables estudiadas (nutricionales, fúngicas y fisiológicas, lo cual demostró la factibilidad del uso de dichos microorganismos en este

  11. Riesgo agroambiental por metales pesados en suelos con Cultivares de Oryza sativa L y Solanum tuberosum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welbry Delince

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos tecnológicos productivos donde se destacan el uso no controlado de agroquímicos contribuyen a que exista alto riesgo y vulnerabilidad en los agroecosistemas. Frente a esta problemática se establece como objetivo determinar los contenidos de Cu, Ni, Cd y Pb en el cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en condiciones de producción y de Cu, Zn y Pb en arroz (Oryza sativa L. en condiciones semicontroladas; así como algunos indicadores bioquímicos-fisiológicos y la evaluación agroecológica del área con el cultivo de papa en la comunidad de Güines. Se determinaron los pigmentos fotosintéticos totales clorofila (a+b y carotenoides (μg·g-1, a los 40 días después de la siembra (DDS, el contenido de metales pesados (MP y la actividad de la enzima catalasa (EC 1.11.1.6 a los 60 DDS para el cultivar de arroz, mientras se evaluaron el contenido de MP en los diferentes órganos de la papa (tubérculos, hojas, tallos y en el suelo a los 95 DDP. Para el diagnóstico de los campos de producción de papa se utilizó metodología para el diagnóstico de áreas agrícolas con riesgo de contaminación por metales pesados. Se detectaron que poseen altos niveles de MP en sus órganos sin síntomas visibles de fitotoxicidad, así como en los suelos después de la cosecha, se consideran como cifras alertadores, por eso se han realizado talleres con participación de todos los actores sociales involucrados, implementándose un grupo de medidas (fitotécnicas, recuperativas, ambientales y capacitación que contribuyen a minimizar el riesgo de afectación.

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2014-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxia; Gan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yuchao; Nie, Fengjie; Shi, Lei; Li, Miao; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Guohui; Song, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT) and re-watering treatment (RWT) at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG) examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT) plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1), auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2), GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6), Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19), abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO) and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  14. Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katongole, C B; Bareeba, F B; Sabiiti, E N; Ledin, I

    2009-12-01

    Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed basal diets of market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) (SEP) were examined in two experiments. In experiment I, the effect of presentation method (chopping, hanging or adding molasses) on the intake of SEP and SPV was evaluated. Presentation method did not influence the intake of SPV while hanging resulted in the highest (P goats were supplemented with a concentrate (25% cottonseed cake +75% maize bran) in four dietary groups: SEPD, SPVD, SEP+SPV and Control where elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was offered as the roughage. SEP were offered by hanging, while SPV were chopped. The goats were slaughtered after 12 weeks of feeding. Goats in the SEPD group constantly lost weight, hence were not followed to the end. Average daily gain and hot carcass weight were highest (P goat meat production where standard feed resources are scarce when fed with an energy-protein concentrate. SEP are poorly consumed by goats, hence cannot be used as their sole basal feed.

  15. Efecto de la consistencia del medio de cultivo y del nitrato de plata en la micropropagación de dos cultivares de papa (Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alva Ticona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Effect of culture medium consistence and silver nitrate on micropropagation of two potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars Short title: Micropropagation of two potato cultivarsAbstract: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the main crops of the Andes region in Venezuela where some S. tuberosum ssp. andigena cultivars are used, including Arbolona negra. Since 1946, the Andean cultivars have been slowly substituted with foreign potato seeds, for example cv. Granola from Germany. Potato micropropagation is an excellent alternative for the conservation of native cultivars, for the massive production of potato seeds and for the production of plantlets with adequate growth parameters that allow the study of potato-pathogen interactions. However, potato’s vitroplants frequently show symptoms caused by ethylene accumulation in the culture flasks. In this work, we compare the in vitro response of Granola and Arbolona negra cultivars using MS semi-solid or liquid medium supplemented or not with AgNO3. These potato cultivars did not show epinasty or hyperhidricity symptoms caused by ethylene when were cultivated on MS (1962 semi-solid medium supplemented with AgNO3 2 mg l-1. Under these conditions, leaf area shows the highest values for both cultivars, but there were no differences in other growth parameters such as stem length or leaf number in comparison with plantlets cultivated on medium without AgNO3. These results allowed us to recommend the use of semi-solid medium supplemented with AgNO3 for the micropropagation of these two cultivars.Key words: native potato, ethylene, vitroplantlets.Resumen: La papa (Solanum tuberosum L. es uno de los principales cultivos de la región de los Andes de Venezuela, donde algunos cultivares de S. tuberosum ssp. andigena se utilizan, entre ellos, Arbolona negra. Desde 1946, los cultivares andinos han sido poco a poco sustituidos por cultivares comerciales, por ejemplo Granola de Alemania. La

  16. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a more important throughout the world between field crops. As potato is such a potassium demanding crop, it is particularly important that the potassium fertilizers used should be correctly balanced. Applying the adequate quantity of balanced K- fertilizer is the first requirement for achieving optimum yield and doing so will result in potatoes of acceptable quality. Potato potassium nutrition has been studied at the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (RISSAC-HAS)- Experiment Station, Nagyhörcsök (chernozem soil) in a long term field experiment designed to determine NPK- nutrient requirements. The method of the experiment was 43 mixed factorial design with 64 treatments in 2 repetitions with 128 plots. The residual effects of K- levels brought about by build- up fertilization were studied. Potato were planted in 1978. The experimental dates were estimated by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). On the basis of foliar analysis at early flowering about 4.5 to 5.0% K in dry matter proved to be satisfactory for obtaining maximum yield (32.6 t/ha). The yields increased by 22%, 34%, and 38% at 124-140, 141-168 and 169-208 ppm soil AL- K2O rates, respectively. The tubers concentrated much N 19% and less P 81% than potassium. Results for tuber maximum uptake of potassium reached a maximum about 130 days after planting. The improvement of the K supply of the soil increased yield and induced low concentrations of numerous microelements on leaves considered to be important. Key words: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chernozem soil, potassium, yield Introduction Potato is an important food crop, more particularly in the temperate zone, especially in Europe and Asia. Between 1981 and 1995, in spite of an 18% decrease in cultivated area production increased by 13% because the average yield increased from 11.0 to 15.1 t/ha. Potato is a soil nutrients demanding crop

  17. Gas-exchange, water use efficiency and yield responses of elite potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the agricultural importance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), most plant physiology studies have not accounted for the effect of the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and other consequences of climate change on WUE. In 2010, a first controlled environment...... photosynthetic water use efficiency (pWUE) by stimulation in net photosynthesis rate (62 and 43% increase of An) with coincident decline in both stomatal conductance (21 and 43% decrease of gs) and leaf transpiration rate (19 and 40% decrease of E) resulting in pWUE increments of 89 and 147%. Furthermore...... stomatal conductance (25%) with a simultaneous drop in transpiration rate although not significant. The ratio Ci/Ca was in contrast to the first experiment significantly higher in plants grown at elevated [CO2]. Despite this photosynthetic acclimation, concurrent stimulation of aboveground and belowground...

  18. Infección mixta Phytophthora infestans-Virus x de la papa (PVX) y mecanismos de defensa en papa (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Lozoya Saldaña; Ma. Teresa Colinas León; Ma. Guadalupe Almanza Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Para identificar algunos mecanismos enzimáticos de resistencia en papa (Solanum tuberosum L.), se estudió la interacción de la infección mixta tizón tardío (Phytophthora infestans Mont., de Bary)-virus X de la papa (Potexvirus), sobre la actividad enzimática en las variedades Alpha y Zafiro, susceptible y resistente al tizón tardío, con o sin virus, y con o sin protección química (rotación semanal de dimetomorf-mancozeb, clorotalonilmetalaxil, y cymoxanil) en el Valle de Toluca, México. Al pr...

  19. Effect of cooking on the anthocyanins, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, and resistant starch content in two pigmented cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinacci, Nadia; Ieri, Francesca; Giaccherini, Catia; Innocenti, Marzia; Andrenelli, Luisa; Canova, Giulia; Saracchi, Marco; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2008-12-24

    HPLC/DAD/MS analysis of the phenolic acids and anthocyanin content of three cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. (Vitelotte Noire, Highland Burgundy Red, with pigmented flesh, and Kennebec with white pulp) was performed. The analyses were carried out both on fresh tubers and after cooking treatments (boiling and microwaves). Starch digestibility and the % of resistant starch were also determined on cooked tubers by in vitro methods. For the pigmented potatoes, the heating treatment did not cause any changes in the phenolic acids content, while anthocyanins showed only a small decrement (16-29%). The cv. Highland Burgundy Red showed anthocyanins and phenolic acid concentrations close to 1 g/kg and more than 1.1 g/kg, respectively. Vitellotte Noire showed the highest amounts of resistant starch. Potato starch digestibility and % of resistant starch, considered as a component of dietary fiber, were affected both by cultivar and by heating/cooling treatments.

  20. Méthodes de mesure de l’âge physiologique des tubercules semences de pomme de terre (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Jardin P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment methods of physiological age of potato seed tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.. The study of potato tuber ageing possesses both fundamental and applied interests. Because of potential economical impacts, numerous attempts have been made to develop reliable biophysical, physiological or biochemical markers of physiological age of seed tubers intended for vegetative multiplication. At the present time, biophysical markers do not meet this objective, the obtained results being contradictory or not very transposable. Some physiological markers seem well-suited but they are not predictive. The biochemical studies often focus on potato tuber developmental process or are undertaken without accurate physiological reference frame. After defining the main concepts, this study synthesizes and critically evaluates the different methods used to assess physiological age. An integrated research strategy based on existing data is finally proposed to study potato tuber ageing.

  1. EMPLEO DE DOS ANÁLOGOS DE BRASINOESTEROIDES EN LA FORMACIÓN DE CALLOS EMBRIOGÉNICOS EN PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L)

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Moré; María M. Hernández; Miriam Núñez; Ana Estévez; María E. González

    2001-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad biológica de los análogos de brasinoesteroides MH5 y Biobras-6 (BB-6), con el objetivo de determinar sus efectos y establecer dosis adecuadas como posibles sustitutos o complementos hormonales en el proce- so de formación de callos embriogénicos en papa (Solanum tuberosum, L. var. Desirée). Se utilizaron dosis de 0.0001 hasta 0.25 mg.L-1 de ambos análogos y dos medios controles, los cuales contenían: 3 mg.L-1 de 2,4D y 0.84 mg.L-1 de kinetina (medio I) y 0.5 mg.L...

  2. Freqüência de biovares de Ralstonia solanacearum em diferentes cultivares e épocas de cultivo de batata no Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Joao Leodato Nunes; Duarte, Valmir; Silveira,José Ricardo Pfeifer; Van der Sand, Sueli Terezinha

    2001-01-01

    A presença das biovares I e/ou II de Ralstonia solanacearum em uma lavoura de batatas (Solanum tuberosum) tem influência direta no sucesso das medidas adotadas para controlar a murcha bacteriana. As biovares diferem entre si em relação à agressividade, latência e sobrevivência. Assim, um experimento de campo foi conduzido em uma área naturalmente infestada em duas épocas de cultivo com os objetivos de verificar (1) a incidência de biovares I e/ou II, (2) a relação entre biovar e época de plan...

  3. Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    formation, yield quantity of potato depended decisively on the time of year when they were experienced and the period for which they lasted. Droughts in the winter or summer half-year had much the same effect on yield. Precipitation deficiency in the winter could not be counterbalanced by average rainfall during the vegetation period, and its effect on the yield was similar to that of summer drought. It was also concluded that economic yields could not be achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 0-150 kg ha-1 nitrogen and NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg combinations. Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5). And with the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of N: Y'=380.18-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NP: Y'=387.19-3.04x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96, NK: Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NPK: Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96 and NPKMg: Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96 nutrition systems. The optimum yields ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. Acknowledgement: This study were supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (RISSAC-HAS), Budapest. References Johnston, A. E., 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139, 8. Kádár, I., Márton, L., Horváth, S., 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49, 291-306. Kádár, I., Szemes, I., 1994. A nyírlugosi tartamkísérlet 30 éve. MTA TAKI, Budapest, 248 p. Láng, I., 1973. Műtrágyázási tartamkísérletek homoktalajon. MTA Doktori értekezés. MTA TMB. Budapest

  4. Nematofauna asociada a la rizosfera de papas (Solanum tuberosum cultivadas en la zona productora del Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México Nematode fauna associated with the rhizosphere of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum grown in the region of Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Desgarennes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron y clasificaron en grupos tróficos las especies de nematodos asociados a la rizosfera de Solanum tuberosum en suelos altamente infectados por el nematodo dorado de la papa (Globodera rostochiensis en un ciclo de cultivo, en la zona productora del Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México. Se identificaron 7 géneros (Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus, Crassolabium, Mesodorylaimus, Plectus y Steinernema y 8 especies (Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Ecumenicus monohystera, Acrobeles mariannae, Acrobeles singulus, Acrobeloides nanus, Cruznema tripartitum, Eucephalobus oxyuroides, y Globodera rostochiensis en asociación con la rizosfera de papas cultivadas. Crassolabium sp. y E. monohystera se registran por primera vez para México.Nematode species associated with the rhizosphere of Solanum tuberosum were identified and classified into trophic groups from soils highly infected by the golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis in a single crop cycle in the producing zone on the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. Seven genera (Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus, Crassolabium, Mesodorylaimus, Plectus and Steinernema and 8 species (Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Ecumenicus monohystera, Acrobeles mariannae, Acrobeles singulus, Acrobeloides nanus, Cruznema tripartitum, Eucephalobus oxyuroides, and Globodera rostochiensis were found in association with the rhizosphere of cultivated potatoes. Crassolabium sp. and E. monohystera are recorded for the first time in México.

  5. Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L. Evaluación de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso en comparación a la fertilización convencional para la producción de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Avaliação da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola em comparação à adubação convencional para produção de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Jobim Vieira

    2010-04-01

    best results of yield of potato tubers and better classification. The application of gypsum was important to reduce the incidence of common scab independent of the formulation and application of NPK without addition of gypsum predisposes the crop to a higher incidence of scabies.

    Diferentes formas de manejo da adubação são empregadas pelos bataticultores, sendo que, de tempos em tempos, surge uma fórmula para adubar a cultura. Porém, deve-se dar especial atenção à adubação e nutrição da cultura da batata, pois a demanda relativa de fertilizantes por unidade de área na cultura é elevada. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola comparado a adubação NPK 4-14-8 (tratamento padrão regional na produção da cultura da Batata. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade de Pesquisa em Produção de Batata e Microclima para a Agricultura, no Campus CEDETEG da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste – UNICENTRO em Guarapuava – PR. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: T1 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8; T2 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T3 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20; T4 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T5 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de gesso para suprir a diferença entre os fertilizantes. O plantio da cultura da batata foi realizado no dia 23 de dezembro de 2008 e a cultivar utilizada foi a Ágata. A semente utilizada foi de Geração 01 e tubérculos de classe II. A densidade de plantio utilizada foi de 50.000 tubérculos por hectare. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se a produtividade e a classificação dos tubérculos de acordo com o tamanho e incidência e severidade da Sarna Comum (Streptomyces spp. e Sarna

  6. Caracterización de la respuesta fisiológica de tres variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) bajo condiciones de estrés por déficit hídrico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Pérez, Loyla

    2015-01-01

    En esta tesis se evalúo la respuesta fisiológica, bioquímica y de fenología de tres variedades colombianas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) sometidas a déficit hídrico y rehidratación. La hipótesis planteada fue que con base en el comportamiento de las variedades en las zonas de producción, las tres variedades de Solanum tuberosum L. presentarían respuesta diferencial a un período de déficit hídrico por suspensión del riego. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportam...

  7. Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a NOA Gene in Solanum tuberosum%马铃薯NOA基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 王海庆; 沈裕虎; 王建武; 张怀刚

    2009-01-01

    The NOA (nitric oxide associated factor) gene encodes a NOA which participates in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) dependent NO synthesis.In this study,the cDNA of StNOA1 was cloned by in silico cloning and combination with RACE from potato (Solanum tuberosum).The full length of StNOA1 cDNA had 1 929 bp with an open reading frame of 1 632 bp.Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the StNOA1 amino acid sequence shared high identity (89.44%~63.56%) with the NOA from Nicotiana benthamiana,Vitis vinifera,Ricinus communis,Oryza sativa,Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana.The StNOA1 bears a centrally positioned GTPase-binding domain as well as AtNOA1.Its sequence conservation and structure similarity with AtNOA1 implied the functional correlation between StNOA1 and AtNOA1 in plant growth,development,and responses to stresses and pathologies by regulating endogenous NO production.%以马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)为实验材料,利用电子克隆和RACE技术,从马铃薯中克隆出NOA(nitric oxide associated factor)基因,命名为StNOA1,测序结果表明,其cDNA序列长度为1 929 bp,此片段包含一个长为1 632 bp的完整编码框.氨基酸序列比对分析表明,StNOA1与烟草(Nicotiana benthamiana),葡萄(Vitis vinifera),蓖麻(Ricinus communis),水稻(Oryza sativa),玉米(Zea mays)以及拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)均有很高的同源性 (89.44%~63.56%).同AtNOA1一样,StNOA1也具有保守的GTP结合区.从结构分析结果推测,StNOA1和AtNOA1在功能上有一定的相关性,其也可能通过调节内源NO的释放参与到植物生长、发育、抗逆等过程中.

  8. Cinética de Inactivación de la Enzima Peroxidasa, Color y Textura en Papa Criolla (Solanum tuberosum Grupo phureja) sometida a tres Condiciones de Escaldado Kinetics of Peroxidase Enzyme Inactivation, Color and Texture in Golden Potato (Solanum tuberosum phureja group) under three Blanching Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la cinética de inactivación de la enzima peroxidasa y la cinética del color y textura en tubérculos de papa criolla (Solanum tuberosum grupo phureja) sometidos a escaldado mediante agua a 80°C, 90°C y vapor saturado a 93°C. Los coeficientes de transferencia de calor para el escaldado en agua oscilaron entre 214 y 230 W °C-1 m-2 mientras que para vapor saturado fueron en promedio 84.5 W °C-1 m-2. A diferentes tiempos de precocción el tubérculo de papa...

  9. Introduction of the carrot HSP17.7 into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) enhances cellular membrane stability and tuberization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Zimmerman, J Lynn

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the ability of a carrot (Daucus carota L.) heat shock protein gene encoding HSP17.7 (DcHSP17.7) to confer enhanced heat tolerance to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a cool-season crop. The DcHSP17.7 gene was fused to a 6XHistidine (His) tag to distinguish the engineered protein from endogenous potato proteins and was introduced into the potato cultivar 'Désirée' under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Western analysis showed that engineered DcHSP17.7 was constitutively, but not abundantly, expressed in transgenic potato lines before heat stress. Leaves from multiple regenerated potato lines that contain the transgene exhibited significantly improved cellular membrane stability at high temperatures, compared with wild-type and vector control plants. Transgenic potato lines also exhibited enhanced tuberization in vitro: under a condition of constant heat stress, at 29 degrees C, nodal sections of the transgenic lines produced larger and heavier microtubers at higher rates, compared to the wild type and vector controls. The dry weight and percentages of microtubers that were longer than 5 mm were up to three times higher in the transgenic lines. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of carrot HSP17.7 can enhance thermotolerance in transgenic potato plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that the thermotolerance of potato can be enhanced through gene transfer.

  10. Unexpected effects of chitinases on the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) when delivered via transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum Linné) and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguez, Julien; Hainez, Romaric; Cherqui, Anas; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Jeanpierre, Haude; Lebon, Gaël; Noiraud, Nathalie; Beaujean, Antony; Jouanin, Lise; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    With the aim of producing insect-resistant potato plants, internode explants of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée were transformed with an Agrobacterium strain C58pMP90 containing an insect (Phaedon cochleariae: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) chitinase gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as selectable marker, both under the control of the viral CaMV 35S promoter. Three transformed potato lines (CH3, CH5 and CH25) exhibiting the highest chitinolytic activities were selected for feeding experiments with the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions. Aphids fed on transgenic potato plants showed a reduced pre-reproductive period and an enhanced daily fecundity. Transgenic potato lines did not affect nymphal mortality, but improved several biological parameters related to aphid population's growth. Artificial diets were used to provide active (1, 10, 100 and 500 microg ml(-1)) and inactive (500 microg ml(-1)) bacterial (Serratia marcescens) chitinase to M. persicae. These compounds increased nymph survival at all active chitinase doses when compared to the control diet, while inactive chitinase did not. Although the pre-reproductive period was slightly shortened and the daily fecundity slightly higher, active and inactive chitinase provided as food led a reduction from 1 to 1.5 day population's doubling time. Therefore chitinase activity was responsible for the probiotic effects on aphids. Our results question the relevance of a chitinase-based strategy in the context of potato culture protection.

  11. The effect of in vitro mycorrhization on growth characteristics, changes in endogenous hormones and performance of microplants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro PARVIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets were inoculated in vitro with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices and their growth response, performance and endogenous hormonal status evaluated. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design consisting of two potato cultivars (Agria and Sante and four culture media was conducted with four replications. The culture media included non-inoculated Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (control, inoculated MS medium, inoculated half-strength MS medium and inoculated MS medium without vitamins and sugar. To do inoculation, germinated spores of fungus were transferred to the root zone of plantlets. Colonization percentage, total chlorophyll content, internodes and stolon length, shoot diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and the level of three endogenous hormones (total auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins were determined. In addition, mini-tuber production was assayed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results demonstrated that the effect of two factors on all characteristics including mini-tuber production was different significantly. Interaction between cultivar and inoculation systems was significantly associated with endogen auxins as well as all range of mini-tuber production. The inoculated MS medium showed the better results, but it did not have significant difference to half-strength MS in terms of plantlet performance and growing parameters. Responses of both cultivars to inoculation were very conspicuous in the production of endogen hormones. Higher endogen hormone levels were associated with elevated growth parameters, greater biomass production and better plantlet performance.

  12. A Medicago truncatula H+-pyrophosphatase gene, MtVP1, improves sucrose accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wang, H Q; Xiang, W W; Chai, T Y

    2014-05-09

    We recently cloned MtVP1, a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Medicago truncatula. In the present study, we investigated the cellular location and the function of this H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). An MtVP1::enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion was constructed, which localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing MtVP1 had more robust root systems and redder shoots than wild-type (WT) plants under conditions of cold stress. Furthermore, overexpression of MtVP1 in potato accelerated the formation and growth of vegetative organs. The tuber buds and stem base of transgenic potatoes became redder than those of WT plants, but flowering was delayed by approximately half a month. Interestingly, anthocyanin biosynthesis was promoted in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and potato tuber buds. The sucrose concentration of transgenic potato tubers and tuber buds was enhanced compared with that of WT plants. Furthermore, sucrose concentration in tubers was higher than that in tuber buds. Although there was no direct evidence to support Fuglsang's hypothetical model regarding the effects of H(+)-PPase on sucrose phloem loading, we speculated that sucrose concentration was increased in tuber buds owing to the increased concentration in tubers. Therefore, overexpressed MtVP1 enhanced sucrose accumulation of source organs, which might enhance sucrose transport to sink organs, thus affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  13. The sub-cellular localisation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes, CrtRb2 and PSY2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasare, Stefania; Wright, Kathryn; Campbell, Raymond; Morris, Wayne; Ducreux, Laurence; Chapman, Sean; Bramley, Peter; Fraser, Paul; Roberts, Alison; Taylor, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoids with important biological roles both for plants and animals. The yellow flesh colour of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers is a quality trait dependent on the types and levels of carotenoids that accumulate. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is well characterised, facilitating the successful engineering of carotenoid content in numerous crops including potato. However, a clear understanding concerning the factors regulating carotenoid accumulation and localisation in plant storage organs, such as tubers, is lacking. In the present study, the localisation of key carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes was investigated, as one of the unexplored factors that could influence the accumulation of carotenoids in potato tubers. Stable transgenic potato plants were generated by over-expressing β-CAROTENE HYDROXYLASE 2 (CrtRb2) and PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 2 (PSY2) genes, fused to red fluorescent protein (RFP). Gene expression and carotenoid levels were both significantly increased, confirming functionality of the fluorescently tagged proteins. Confocal microscopy studies revealed different sub-organellar localisations of CrtRb2-RFP and PSY2-RFP within amyloplasts. CrtRb2 was detected in small vesicular structures, inside amyloplasts, whereas PSY2 was localised in the stroma of amyloplasts. We conclude that it is important to consider the location of biosynthetic enzymes when engineering the carotenoid metabolic pathway in storage organs such as tubers.

  14. Infestation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) alters cellular redox status and is influenced by ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) is a major pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) but the molecular characterization of this interaction particularly with regard to oxidants and antioxidants remains to be undertaken. Aphid colonies reared on potato leaves containing high ascorbate were twice the size of those grown on leaves with low ascorbate. Infestation-dependent decreases in the abundance of key transcripts such as chloroplastic FeSOD, peroxisomal catalase 2, PR1 and JAZ1 preceded detectable leaf H(2)O(2) or polyphenol accumulation. The leaf glutathione pool was increased 48 h after infestation, but the amount of ascorbate was unchanged. The ascorbate/dehydroacorbate (DHA) ratio was lower at 48 h but the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was unchanged. While DHA reductase and GSSG reductase activities were unaffected by aphid feeding, non-specific peroxidase activities were enhanced 48 h following aphid infestation. Brown ethanol-insoluble deposits were observed close to leaf veins following aphid infestation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that high ascorbate favours aphid colony expansion and that perturbations in the leaf antioxidant system are intrinsic to the potato leaf response to aphids. Moreover, these changes together with the induction of hormone-related transcripts precede the deposition of defence-associated oxidized polyphenols along the stylet track.

  15. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  16. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lydia J R; Brockington, Samuel F; Murphy, Alex M; Pate, Adrienne E; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P

    2016-03-16

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7.

  17. Purification of a novel chitin-binding lectin with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities from a bangladeshi cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kabir, Syed Rashel

    2014-04-01

    A new chitin-binding lectin was purified from a Bangladeshi cultivar 'Deshi' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies using a chitin column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the molecular mass of the lectin as 20,000 Daltons. This molecular mass was almost half of the molecular masses of chitin-binding lectins derived from other potatoes. The lectin showed both bactericidal and growth-inhibiting activities against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella boydii) pathogenic bacteria. It also showed antifungal activity against Rhizopus spp., Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger. Biofilm produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was dose-dependently reduced by 5-20% in 24 h after administration of the lectin, which was attributed to the glycan-binding property of the lectin having affinity to GlcNAc polymers. It was the first observation that any potato lectin prevented biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa and, therefore, could have possible applications in clinical microbiology and biomedical science.

  18. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  19. Reduction of the plastidial phosphorylase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals impact on storage starch structure during growth at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawetz, Tom; Malinova, Irina; Orzechowski, Slawomir; Fettke, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), one of the most important crops, are a prominent example for an efficient production of storage starch. Nevertheless, the synthesis of this storage starch is not completely understood. The plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1; EC 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the reversible transfer of glucosyl residues from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of α-glucans with the release of orthophosphate. Thus, the enzyme is in principle able to act during starch synthesis. However, so far under normal growth conditions no alterations in tuber starch metabolism were observed. Based on analyses of other species and also from in vitro experiments with potato tuber slices it was supposed, that Pho1 has a stronger impact on starch metabolism, when plants grow under low temperature conditions. Therefore, we analyzed the starch content, granule size, as well as the internal structure of starch granules isolated from potato plants grown under low temperatures. Besides wild type, transgenic potato plants with a strong reduction in the Pho1 activity were analyzed. No significant alterations in starch content and granule size were detected. In contrast, when plants were cultivated at low temperatures the chain length distributions of the starch granules were altered. Thus, the granules contained more short glucan chains. That was not observed in the transgenic plants, revealing that Pho1 in wild type is involved in the formation of the short glucan chains, at least at low temperatures.

  20. PG-2, a Potent AMP against Pathogenic Microbial Strains, from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley Tubers Not Cytotoxic against Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, we isolated potamin-1 (PT-1, a 5.6-kDa trypsin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor, from the tubers of a potato strain (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley. We established that PT-1 strongly inhibits pathogenic microbial strains, but not human bacterial strains, and that its sequence shows 62% homology with a serine protease inhibitor. In the present study, we isolated an antifungal and antibacterial peptide with no cytotoxicity from tubers of the same potato strain. The peptide (peptide-G2, PG-2 was isolated using salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS showed the protein to have a molecular mass of 3228.5 Da, while automated Edman degradation showed the N-terminal sequence of PG-2 to be LVKDNPLDISPKQVQALCTDLVIRCMCCC-. PG-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, a human pathogenic yeast strain, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, a plant late blight strain. PG-2 also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but did not lyse human red blood cells and was thermostable. Overall, these results suggest PG-2 may be a good candidate to serve as a natural antimicrobial agent, agricultural pesticide and/or food additive.

  1. Estudio de libertad de operación para una línea genéticamente modificada de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Study of freedom to operate for a genetically modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L. lineTítulo corto: Libertad de operación para papa GMResumen: Durante el desarrollo de los productos biotecnológicos son utilizados materiales y procesos, que pueden estar protegidos por derechos de propiedad intelectual. Para evitar problemas legales en su comercialización, se deben realizar estudios de libertad de operación. Este estudio se realizó sobre una línea genéticamente modificada (GM de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. derivada de la variedad Pastusa Suprema, que expresa el gene Cry1Ac de Bacillus thuringiensis, desarrollada por la Corporación de Ciencias Biológicas y la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín. El punto de partida, fue la deconstrucción del producto, cuyo resultado fue la lista de materiales y procesos usados en el desarrollo del producto. Se buscaron en bases de datos nacionales e internacionales de acceso público, las solicitudes de patentes y patentes relacionadas. En el nivel internacional, se encontraron cuatro solicitudes de patentes y dieciocho patentes relacionadas, la mayoría de las cuales, no han sido solicitadas en Colombia. En el nivel nacional, se encontraron 13 solicitudes de patentes, que han caducado, han sido negadas, abandonadas, desistidas, o están en requerimiento. Se encontró que la variedad tiene registro comercial, pero no título de obtentor. También se examinaron documentos de las instituciones participantes, que contuvieran cláusulas sobre propiedad intelectual, y otros documentos de interés, como los acuerdos de transferencia de materiales (ATM. Se concluye que la libertad de operación puede estar afectada más por problemas detectados en los ATM y en la complejidad de los acuerdos interinstitucionales suscritos, que por los derechos de propiedad intelectual.Palabras clave: Derechos de propiedad intelectual, biotecnología, cultivos transgénicos.Abstract:  During the

  2. Detección serológica y molecular del Potato virus X (PVX en tubérculos-semilla de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. y Solanum phureja Juz. & Bukasov en Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela García Ruíz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato virus X (PVX is one of the most important virus affecting potato crops worldwide. The virus is only transmitted mechanically and through tuber-seeds. Control of PVX is based on the usage of certified tubers, which in turn depends on the availability of sensitive diagnostic tests that allow its direct detection on seeds. In this work, the prevalence of PVX in four different tuber tissues of Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena var. Diacol-Capiro and S. phureja var. Criolla was evaluated using DAS-ELISA (128 subsamples and RT-qPCR (4 subsamples per group. DAS-ELISA revealed the presence of PVX in 6.25 and 50% of Diacol-Capiro and Criolla Colombia subsamples; in contrast, RT-qPCR detected PVX in 93.75% of the samples independent of the potato variety or type of tissue. Ct values were in the 18.02 to 34.49 range with a mean value of 25.6. Melting curve analysis allowed the identification of two virus variants with Tm values of 79.5±1°C and 83.7±1°C. Sanger sequencing of the positive controls and two of the samples confirmed RT-qPCR amplicons to be PVX. These results reveal a high level of prevalence of PVX in potato tuber seeds used in Antioquia and the need to strengthen seed certification programs in Colombia through RT-qPCR detection assays.

  3. Respuesta agroeconómica del cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. bajo diferentes fuentes de fósforo, en Villapinzón, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helber Manuel Hernández

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L. es una de las actividades agrícolas más importantes de las zonas de clima frío de Colombia; pero, en su mayoría, estas zonas presentan suelos derivados de ceniza volcánica, que fijan el fósforo y causan deficiencia de este elemento en las plantas; por tanto, se evaluó la respuesta agroeconómica de diferentes fuentes de fósforo sobre la variedad Parda Pastusa en un suelo alofánico de Villapinzón, Cundinamarca. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar, donde se distribuyeron cinco tratamientos: tres de ellos correspondientes a diferentes fuentes de fósforo (roca fosfórica, fertilizante complejo granulado grado 13-26-6, y mezcla de 50% de DAP {fosfato diamónico 46% de P2O5} + 50 % de roca fosfórica, en dosis de 400 de P2O5; los otros dos: un testigo comercial y un testigo absoluto; se midió el rendimiento por calidades comerciales y se hizo un análisis económico. El mayor rendimiento de papa, en las categorías primera, pareja y total, se encontró con la aplicación de 13-26-6; la mayor rentabilidad y uno de los ingresos netos más altos se logró con la roca fosfórica; el testigo absoluto presentó el menor rendimiento y menor ingreso neto; mientras que la menor rentabilidad y relación ingreso/costo fueron obtenidas con la mezcla de roca fosfórica + DAP.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a β-propeller gene containing phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 for growth promotion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif eHanif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655 was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 µg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 µg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 µg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 µg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 x 10-10 kat mg-1 protein than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 x 10-10 kat mg-1protein. B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic potential. Phytase-encoding gene β-propeller (BPP showed 92% amino acid similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no.WP_014114128.1 and 83% structural similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no 3AMR_A. Potato inoculation with B. subtilis strain KPS-11 increased the root/shoot length and root/shoot weight of potato as compared to non-inoculated control plants. Moreover, rifampicin-resistant derivative of KPS-11 were able to survive in the rhizosphere and on the roots of potato up to sixty days showing its colonization potential. The study indicates that B. subtilis strain KPS-11 can be a potential candidate for development of potato inoculum in P-deficient soils.

  5. EMPLEO DE DOS ANÁLOGOS DE BRASINOESTEROIDES EN LA FORMACIÓN DE CALLOS EMBRIOGÉNICOS EN PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L

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    Olivia Moré

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad biológica de los análogos de brasinoesteroides MH5 y Biobras-6 (BB-6, con el objetivo de determinar sus efectos y establecer dosis adecuadas como posibles sustitutos o complementos hormonales en el proce- so de formación de callos embriogénicos en papa (Solanum tuberosum, L. var. Desirée. Se utilizaron dosis de 0.0001 hasta 0.25 mg.L-1 de ambos análogos y dos medios controles, los cuales contenían: 3 mg.L-1 de 2,4D y 0.84 mg.L-1 de kinetina (medio I y 0.5 mg.L-1 de 2,4D y 2 mg.L-1 de kinetina (medio II. Se realizaron evaluaciones atendiendo a los cambios cualita- tivos y cuantitativos de la evolución del callo y con las mejo- res variantes se elaboraron las curvas de crecimiento callogénico. Los resultados indicaron una actividad tipo citoquinina de estos compuestos y un favorecimiento en la obtención de un callo embriogénico de mejor calidad a las concentraciones de 0.1 mg.L-1 de MH5 y 0.01 mg.L-1 de Biobras-6 para el medio I y 0.001 mg.L-1 de MH5 y 0.01 mg.L-1 de Biobras-6 para el medio II. No se encontró respuesta callogénica al ser utilizados estos análogos como sustitutos del 2,4D. Se pudo apreciar un mejor comportamiento en la dinámica de crecimien- to de los callos, en aquellos tratamientos donde se emplearon los productos como sustitutos de la kinetina para los medios I y II.

  6. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers results in increased levels of starch, ADPglucose and UDPglucose and total yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Montero, Manuel; Etxeberria, Ed; Sesma, María Teresa; Ovecka, Miroslav; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Ezquer, Ignacio; Li, Jun; Prat, Salomé; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2009-09-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. To determine the impact of SuSy activity in starch metabolism and yield in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers we measured sugar levels and enzyme activities in tubers of SuSy-overexpressing potato plants grown in greenhouse and open field conditions. We also transcriptionally characterized tubers of SuSy-overexpressing and -antisensed potato plants. SuSy-overexpressing tubers exhibited a substantial increase in starch, UDPglucose and ADPglucose content when compared with controls. Tuber dry weight, starch content per plant and total yield of SuSy-overexpressing tubers increased significantly over those of control plants. In contrast, activities of enzymes directly involved in starch metabolism in SuSy-overexpressing tubers were normal when compared with controls. Transcriptomic analyses using POCI arrays and the MapMan software revealed that changes in SuSy activity affect the expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes, but not that of genes directly involved in starch metabolism. These analyses also revealed a reverse correlation between the expressions of acid invertase and SuSy-encoding genes, indicating that the balance between SuSy- and acid invertase-mediated sucrolytic pathways is a major determinant of starch accumulation in potato tubers. Results presented in this work show that SuSy strongly determines the intracellular levels of UDPglucose, ADPglucose and starch, and total yield in potato tubers. We also show that enhancement of SuSy activity represents a useful strategy for increasing starch accumulation and yield in potato tubers.

  7. Evaluación financiera del sistema de producción de papa (Solanum tuberosum L en Oicatá, Boyacá

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    Elmer Avendaño-Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La factibilidad financiera es fundamental para tomar decisiones en un sistema productivo; en consecuencia, toda actividad agropecuaria debe hacer uso de dicha herramienta, a fin de obtener mayor comprensión de su ejercicio financiero y, a la vez, tener un soporte objetivo para determinar, entre otras cosas, si continuar con la actividad, diversificarla, combinarla o arrendar el espacio físico donde se realiza (1. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una evaluación financiera en el sistema de producción de la papa Solanum tuberosum, variedad Diacol capiro, de manera participativa y con la inclusión de indicadores históricos, en función de horizontes de tiempo y tasa de oportunidad. La población objeto del estudio correspondió a 32 agricultores de papa inscritos en la Empresa Prestadora de Servicios Técnicos Agropecuarios (Epsagro del municipio de Oicatá, departamento de Boyacá, para el año 2014, de los cuales se seleccionaron tres productores (grande, mediano y pequeño para realizar la investigación. Los resultados indican que el diagnóstico rural participativo fue una herramienta de investigación adecuada para la compilación de la información, además de la existencia de diferencias en la estructura de costos de producción en los diferentes agricultores. En el municipio de Oicatá se encontró que existen fallas relevantes a nivel operativo y contable que deben ser corregidas.

  8. Two carbon fluxes to reserve starch in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber cells are closely interconnected but differently modulated by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettke, Joerg; Leifels, Lydia; Brust, Henrike; Herbst, Karoline; Steup, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Parenchyma cells from tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. convert several externally supplied sugars to starch but the rates vary largely. Conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to starch is exceptionally efficient. In this communication, tuber slices were incubated with either of four solutions containing equimolar [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate, [U-¹⁴C]sucrose, [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate plus unlabelled equimolar sucrose or [U-¹⁴C]sucrose plus unlabelled equimolar glucose 1-phosphate. C¹⁴-incorporation into starch was monitored. In slices from freshly harvested tubers each unlabelled compound strongly enhanced ¹⁴C incorporation into starch indicating closely interacting paths of starch biosynthesis. However, enhancement disappeared when the tubers were stored. The two paths (and, consequently, the mutual enhancement effect) differ in temperature dependence. At lower temperatures, the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is functional, reaching maximal activity at approximately 20 °C but the flux of the sucrose-dependent route strongly increases above 20 °C. Results are confirmed by in vitro experiments using [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate or adenosine-[U-¹⁴C]glucose and by quantitative zymograms of starch synthase or phosphorylase activity. In mutants almost completely lacking the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme(s), the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is largely impeded. Irrespective of the size of the granules, glucose 1-phosphate-dependent incorporation per granule surface area is essentially equal. Furthermore, within the granules no preference of distinct glucosyl acceptor sites was detectable. Thus, the path is integrated into the entire granule biosynthesis. In vitro C¹⁴C-incorporation into starch granules mediated by the recombinant plastidial phosphorylase isozyme clearly differed from the in situ results. Taken together, the data clearly demonstrate that two closely but flexibly interacting general paths of starch biosynthesis are functional

  9. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown.

  10. Curdlan β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides induce the defense responses against Phytophthora infestans infection of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1) leaf cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Lu, Guangxing; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system before the invasion of pathogens is a promising way to improve the resistance of plant against infection while reducing the use of agricultural chemicals. Although several elicitors were used to induce the resistance of potato plant to microbial pathogen infection, the role of curdlan oligosaccharide (CurdO) has not been established. In the current study, the defense responses were investigated at biochemical and proteomic levels to elucidate the elicitation effect of CurdOs in foliar tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1). The results indicate that the CurdOs exhibit activation effect on the early- and late-defense responses in potato leaves. In addition, glucopentaose was proved to be the shortest active curdlan molecule based on the accumulation of H₂O₂ and salicylic acid and the activities of phenylalanine amino-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase. The 2D-PAGE analysis reveals that CurdOs activate the integrated response reactions in potato cells, as a number of proteins with various functions are up-regulated including disease/defense, metabolism, transcription, and cell structure. The pathogenesis assay shows that the ratio of lesion area of potato leaf decreased from 15.82%±5.44% to 7.79%±3.03% when the plants were treated with CurdOs 1 day before the infection of Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, the results on potato yield and induction reactions indicate that the defense responses induced by CurdOs lasted for short period of time but disappeared gradually.

  11. COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA ACUMULACIÓN Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE MASA SECA EN TRES VARIEDADES DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Eduardo Jerez Mompié

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en áreas experimentales del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA durante plantaciones realizadas en el mes de enero de los años 2010, 2011 y 2012, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento de la acumulación y distribución de masa seca entre los diferentes órganos de la planta. Se utilizaron tubérculos semillas importados de tres variedades de papa ( Solanum tuberosum L. Call White, Santana y Spunta, plantadas en tres parcelas (una por cada variedad siguiendo un diseño muestral. A los 40 y 70 días después de la plantación y en la cosecha, se muestrearon 10 plantas al azar por cada variedad, para conocer mediante secado en estufa la cantidad de masa seca en los diferentes órganos. Durante el ciclo del cultivo se registraron las temperaturas medias, máximas y mínimas ocurridas en ese periodo. Se detectaron diferencias intervarietales en la magnitud de los valores alcanzados en la acumulación de masa seca, aun cuando las tres siguen un mismo patrón de crecimiento. Se destaca que al inicio de la plantación la demanda por masa seca es mucho mayor en el follaje, lo cual se invierte hacia los tubérculos al final del mismo. Se discute la influencia de las temperaturas en el crecimiento en general, lo cual se reflejó en la producción de masa seca.

  12. Cinética de Inactivación de la Enzima Peroxidasa, Color y Textura en Papa Criolla (Solanum tuberosum Grupo phureja sometida a tres Condiciones de Escaldado Kinetics of Peroxidase Enzyme Inactivation, Color and Texture in Golden Potato (Solanum tuberosum phureja group under three Blanching Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la cinética de inactivación de la enzima peroxidasa y la cinética del color y textura en tubérculos de papa criolla (Solanum tuberosum grupo phureja sometidos a escaldado mediante agua a 80°C, 90°C y vapor saturado a 93°C. Los coeficientes de transferencia de calor para el escaldado en agua oscilaron entre 214 y 230 W °C-1 m-2 mientras que para vapor saturado fueron en promedio 84.5 W °C-1 m-2. A diferentes tiempos de precocción el tubérculo de papa criolla presentó una zona en donde ocurrió pardeamiento enzimático, hecho que fue modelado según la cinética de Michaelis-Menten y otra zona en donde el cambio de color disminuyó debido a la inactivación enzimática que correspondió a una cinética de primer orden, de manera similar al comportamiento de la textura. La inactivación de la enzima peroxidasa obedeció al mecanismo de Lumry-Eyring.The objective of this work was to determine the inactivation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme and the change in color and texture in golden potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum phureja group exposed to blanching with water at 80°C, 90°C and to saturated steam at 93°C. The heat transfer coefficients for the blanch water ranged between 214 and 230 W °C-1 m-2 while for saturated steam they showed an average of 84.5 W °C-1 m-2. At different pre-cooking times the golden potato tuber showed an area that developed enzymatic browning, which was fitted to the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model and another area where the color change decreased due to enzyme inactivation, which corresponded to first order kinetics, in a similar way as the texture behavior. The inactivation of peroxidase enzyme followed the Lumry-Eyring mechanism.

  13. Agro-transformation and evaluation of resistance to Phytophthora infestansin Solanum tuberosumL. variety Désirée

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    Jeanette Orbegozo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of the disease known as late blight, is primarily responsible for the decreased in production performance and potato crops worldwide. The integration of the complete Rgenes sequences in the potato genome using Agro-transformation appears an alternative to be considered in the fight against this pathogen. The Rpi-blb2 gene (Rgene from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanumDunal shows a broad resistance to isolates ofP. infestans,making it an important candidate for plant breeding studies. This paper reports the integration of the Rpi-blb2gene into potato var. Désirée genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation system, the molecular characterization of 29 events transformed and whole plant infection with isolate POX67 of P. infestansfrom Peru. Désirée events [Rpi-blb2] 4 and Désirée [Rpi-blb2] 30, showed a substantial resistance to P. infestansinfection confirming complete transfer of the Rpi-blb2gene from a wild species to a cultivated species by genetic transformation.

  14. Effect of different growth media on number of minitubers and concentration of elements in potato (Solanum tuberosum L shoot and root

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    M. Hajiaghaei Kmrani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the most important economical vegetable. Minitubers are small seed tubers without pathogens that are produced from invitro plantlets after translocation to greenhouse and create healthy and high quality seed tubers. Hydroponic systems increase the production of virus-free potato minitubers. This research was carried out to study the effect of different growth media on number of minitubers and concentration of elements in potato shoot and root and also to compare the hydroponic culture and soil containing media in a randomized complete blocks design with 8 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of: 1 perlite, 2 perlite + vermiculite (1:1 v/v, 3 perlite + peat moss (1:1 v/v, 4 perlite + soil (1:1 v/v, 5 perlite + soil + compost (40:30:30, 6 perlite + soil + vermicompost (40:30:30, 7 soil, and 8 perlite + peat moss (control. At the end of growth period, the number of tuber per plant and concentration of elements (N, P, K, Na, and Ca in roots and shoots were measured. Results of analysis of variance showed that bulk density, particle density, porosity, EC and pH of different growth media were significantly different (P<0.01. The soil medium had the highest bulk density (1.23 g/cm3, the highest particle density (2.44 g/cm3, the highest EC and pH and the lowest porosity (50%. Therefore, this treatment produced the lowest number of tubers per pot. The maximum concentration of N, P and K in potato shoot and root were in perlite + soil + vermicompost and soil + compost + perlite media. The maximum concentration of Ca in potato shoot was in perlite + soil medium (1.68 mg/g dw. The maximum concentration of Na in potato shoot was in soil + compost + perlite medium (0.35 mg/g dw. Number of minitubers and plantlets’ growth in soilless media (hydroponics were higher than soil media. There were significant correlations between the concentration of elements in root and shoot with the properties of

  15. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method to quantify sucrose, glucose, and fructose in tubers of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Delgado, Diana; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Kushalappa, Ajjamada; Mosquera-Vásquez, Teresa

    2015-01-15

    A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to quantify sucrose (non-reducing sugar), glucose, and fructose (reducing sugars) in raw tubers of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja. Chromatographic analysis was performed using an AMINEX HPX 87H column, at 18 °C, linked to a refraction index detector, at 35 °C. The eluent was 10mM sulfuric acid. The conditions established for the method provided an optimum separation of sugars, citric acid, and malic acid, with resolution values higher or equal to one. Among the four sugar extraction methods tested, the double 50% (v/v) aqueous methanol extraction gave the highest level of analytes. Recovery of this extraction method ranged between 94.14 and 99.77%. The HPLC method was validated for repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, and limits of detection, and quantification. Relative standard deviation was found to be lower than five, when testing repeatability and reproducibility, which is suitable considering a range of acceptability from 5.3 to 7.3. Additionally, the regression analyses supported the method linearity in a range of quantification from 3 to 100 mg/L with regression coefficients values greater than 0.998 for the three analytes. Limits of detection were 3.0 mg/L for the three sugars and limits of quantification were 2.0 mg/L for sucrose and 3.0 mg/L for glucose and fructose. Four Colombian commercial cultivars (Criolla Guaneña, Criolla Paisa, Criolla Galeras, and Criolla Colombia) and five landrace accessions from the Colombian Core Collection of Group Phureja were grown in the district of Usme (Bogotá) fields to analyze their sugar contents. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents were found ranging from 0.93 to 3.11 g/100 g tuber dried weight (DW), from 0.25 to 4.53 g/100 g tuber DW, and from 0.10 to 1.49 g/100 g tuber DW, respectively. Therefore, a high range in the variability of sugar contents was found among genotypes. However, the variability was low among

  16. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future.

  17. Modeling the influence of raindrop size on the wash-off losses of copper-based fungicides sprayed on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Paradelo, Marcos; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Fernández-Calviño, David; López-Periago, José Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the pesticide wash-off by raindrops is important for predicting pesticide losses and the subsequent transport of pesticides to soil and in soil run-off. Three foliar-applied copper-based fungicide formulations, specifically the Bordeaux mixture (BM), copper oxychloride (CO), and a mixture of copper oxychloride and propylene glycol (CO-PG), were tested on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves using a laboratory raindrop simulator. The losses in the wash-off were quantified as both copper in-solution loss and copper as particles detached by the raindrops. The efficiency of the raindrop impact on the wash-off was modeled using a stochastic model based on the pesticide release by raindrops. In addition, the influence of the raindrop size, drop falling height, and fungicide dose was analyzed using a full factorial experimental design. The average losses per dose after 14 mm of dripped water for a crop with a leaf area index equal to 1 were 0.08 kg Cu ha(-1) (BM), 0.3 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO) and 0.47 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO-PG). The stochastic model was able to simulate the time course of the wash-off losses and to estimate the losses of both Cu in solution and as particles by the raindrop impacts. For the Cu-oxychloride fungicides, the majority of the Cu was lost as particles that detached from the potato leaves. The percentage of Cu lost increased with the decreasing raindrop size in the three fungicides for the same amount of dripped water. This result suggested that the impact energy is not a limiting factor in the particle detachment rate of high doses. The dosage of the fungicide was the most influential factor in the losses of Cu for the three formulations studied. The results allowed us to quantify the factors that should be considered when estimating the losses by the wash-off of copper-based fungicides and the inputs of copper to the soil by raindrop wash-off.

  18. Comparación de dos kits de RT-PCR en la detección de ARNm de dos genes endógenos de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andígena

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    Milet Zabaleta Vanegas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RT-PCR es una técnica en la que usando ARN mensajero como molde, se obtiene complementario o cADN por transcripción inversa, y luego se amplifica uno de los cADN por PCR, mediante el uso de primers específicos. Esta técnica permite realizar estudios de expresión, a nivel de ARN mensajero. Con el propósito de implementar la técnica en papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andígena, se utilizaron plántulas cultivadas in vitro de la variedad Pastusa Suprema. Inicialmente se establecieron las condiciones para la extracción de ARN total usando el kit TRizol® Reagent de InvitrogenTM, con el que se obtuvieron excelentes resultados. Este ARN se usó como molde para evaluar dos kits: “ONE Step superScriptTM” y “SuperScriptâ„¢ First Strand Syntesis For RT-PCR SSâ„¢ II RT”, de InvitrogenTM. Se usaron primers específicos para dos genes endógenos: cox y actina. El primero es un gen mi­tocondrial y el segundo es un gen nuclear. Se observaron señales claras y diferenciables de amplificación para cox, utilizando el kit “ONE Step superScriptTM”, con un tamaño esperado de 96 pb. Para actina, se observó una señal clara de amplificación de 300 pb, con el kit “SuperScriptâ„¢ First Strand Syntesis For RT-PCR SSâ„¢ II RT”.  Palabras clave: Solanum tuberosum; cox, actina; RT-PCR; papa; Solanum tuberosum; cox; actin; RT-PCR; potato.

  19. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 150 kg ha-1 potassium combinations (NK, NPK, NPKMg). Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5 and 6). With the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of NK (Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95), NPK (Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96) and NPKMg (Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96) nutrition systems. The optimum yield ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. From 1962 to 1979 the weather was highly variable, with particularly frequent droughts and over rainfall resulting in yield losses of 13 to 32 percentin in this period. Thus it is important to analyse the consequences of possible future climate change on crop in Hungary. REFERENCES A.E. Johnston. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. Kádár, I-Márton, L.-Horváth, S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. László, M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László, M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László, M. 2001b. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M.-Imre, K.-Jose, E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99

  20. Aplicación de dos productos análogos de brasinoesteroides ante condiciones climáticas adversas en el cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledaleys Góngora Cuenca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el efecto de dos productos análogos de los brasinoesteroides (BB-16 y MI-1 en el cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L., sembrado en la Granja Estatal ¨ Luis Marcano Álvarez¨ del poblado de Velasco, Municipio Gibara, provincia Holguín en el período de diciembre a marzo del año 2004. Se analizaron 6 variables agro productivas efectuándose 3 aplicaciones de forma foliar con mochila Matabi con una dosis de 10ml/ha, en un área producción de 0.03ha. El Diseño empleado fue de Bloque al azar. Las plantas tratadas fueron menos perjudicadas que el testigo por las condiciones climáticas adversas del período.

  1. Obtención de plantas sanas de papa, Solanum tuberosum L. Variedad salentuna. A través de las técnicas de termoterapia y cultivo de meristemas in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulanda Aguirre Adriana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron plantas Super Elite de papa (Solanum tuberosum L., de la variedad regional Salentuna, catalogada como papa filia, implementando las técnicas de termoterapia, cultivo in vitro de meristemas y multiplicación acelerada. Se limpió esta variedad del complejo de enfermedades que la afectaban, para entregarle a los productores un material sano que los motive a regresar al campo con una alternativa de producción de mayor calidad y rentabilidad. La falta de semilla sana es una necesidad sentida por los agricultores del departamento de Caldas, pues hace más de treinta años que no se renueva el material vegetal y no existen programas de producción de semilla certificad de esta variedad en el país.

  2. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en el Valle de Toluca

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    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP o enfermedad del “amarillamiento por psilidos” la cual es asociada con la presencia de “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”. El objetivo de esta investigación fue detectar la presencia de esta bacteria y de fitoplasmas en plantas de papa que presentaban la coloración purpura de los foliolos. Durante el ciclo primavera – verano 2011 y 2012 se hizo un muestreo en los municipios de Tenango del Valle, Zinacantepec, Villa de Allende y San José del Rincón, del Estado de México. La detección de ambos patógenos se realizó mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con los iniciadores específicos para fitoplasmas: P1/P7, R16mF2/R16mR1 y para Ca Liberibacter solanacearum: OA2/Oi2c, resultando el 35,8% de las plantas positivas para fitoplasmas y el 11,6% para la bacteria. Los resultados indican  que en algunas regiones productoras de papa del Estado de México,  los dos presuntos agentes causales del síndrome de  PMP, fitoplasmas y Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum, pueden estar asociados. Palabras clave: Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum; Fitoplasma; punta morada. Abstract In Mexico and Central America have been detected stained potato tubers with internal browning; recently in Texas, USA, this disease has been called "Zebra Chip" (ZC or striped potato, foliar symptoms resemble the syndrome called "Potato Purple Top" (PPT or "psyllid yellows" disease which is associated with the presence of "Candidatus liberibacter solanacearum

  3. Incidencia de potyvirus y caracterización molecular de PVY en regiones productoras de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. de Colombia

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    José Miguel Cotes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of potyvirus and molecular characterization of PVY in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. growing regions of ColombiaTítulo corto: Incidencia de potyvirus en cultivos de papa de Colombia ResumenLos problemas virales reducen los rendimientos y la calidad del tubérculo semilla en cultivos de papa de todo el mundo. Esta investigación se planteó con el fin de evaluar los niveles de incidencia de potyvirus en diez de las principales regiones cultivadoras de papa de los departamentos de Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca y Nariño (Colombia, y las características genotípicas del virus Y de la papa (Potato virus Y, PVY, seleccionado por ser el potyvirus más limitante de este cultivo. Para la evaluación de la incidencia se utilizaron pruebas de Elisa con anticuerpos que reconocen epítopes comunes a los potyvirus, mientras que las pruebas moleculares incluyeron el análisis filogenético de secuencias parciales del gen de la cápside viral de 33 aislamientos, así como la secuenciación de una porción de los extremos 5´ y 3´del genoma de dos cepas colombianas de este virus. Los resultados confirmaron la presencia de potyvirus en los cultivos de los cuatro departamentos evaluados, con una incidencia promedio del 72%, siendo este nivel superior al 56% en todas las zonas evaluadas. Los análisis moleculares del PVY, permitieron asociar las cepas colombianas estudiadas con las razas PVYN y la variante PVYNTN, esta última responsable de la enfermedad conocida en el mundo como PTNRD (Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease. Palabras clave: cápside, Elisa, RT-PCR, secuenciación.  AbstractPotato viruses are responsible for significant reductions in seed quality and crop yields around the world. In this study, we evaluate the levels of incidence of potyvirus in ten potato growing regions of Colombia from the provinces of Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Nariño. As PVY is the most limiting potyvirus in potato farming, a molecular

  4. Variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L.. I - Comportamento de 12 variedades procedentes da Holanda, Alemanha e Suécia Behavior of twelve potato varieties from European sources

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    O. J. Boock

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatadas experiências com 12 variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., recebidas da Holanda (Prinslander, Irene, Froma e Barima, Alemanha (Merkur, Sabina, Linda e Concordia e Suécia Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran e Jätte-Bintje. Essas experiências, em número de seis, das quais três no chamado período "da sêca" (março-julho e três no "das águas" (setembro-janeiro, foram executadas nas localidades de Campinas, Louveira o Capão Bonito, no Estado de São Paulo. Ficou evidenciado o seguinte: a dado o bom estado de brotação dos tubérculos, as porcentagens de falhas no plantio "da sêca" foram baixas; já no plantio "das águas", as variedades de brotação lenta, como "Voran" e "Sabina", falharam muito; b "Prinslander" e "Konsuragis" resistiram bem à sêca prolongada, e "Barima" o "Linda" mostraram ser muito sensíveis; c "Linda", "Voran" e "Merkur", principalmente a primeira destas, apresentaram boa resistência a Phytophthora infestans, e "Jätte-Bintje" foi muito suscetível; "Voran", "Irene", "Prinslander" e "Barima" não ofereceram resistência a Alternaria solani; d "Merkur" e "Konsuragis" foram as mais produtivas para as duas épocas de plantio, sendo que "nas águas", "Eigenheimer", "Barima", "Concordia" e Jätte-Bintje", também produziram bem. Outros aspectos relacionados com variedades foram estudados.Twelve potato varieties imported from Holland (Prinslander, Irene, Froma, and Barima, Germany (Merkur, Sabina, Linda, and Concordia, and Sweden (Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran, and Jätte-Bintje were compared in six experiments carried out at three different localities in the state of São Paulo (Campinas, Louveira, and Capão Bonito. The experiments were planted twice a year, once during the so-called dry season (March lo July, and another time during the rainy season (September to March. The following results were obtained: a plantings made in the dry season had a good stand, whereas this was

  5. Evaluación de dos tipos de esquejes para producción de tubérculo-semilla élite en cuatro variedades de papa Solanum phureja juz et buk y Solanum tuberosum

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    Caro Muñoz Marina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales del Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (IBUN y en los invernaderos de la Facultad de Agronomía, Sede Bogotá. El propósito fue evaluar una metodología para propagación
    de plántulas y producción de tubérculo semilla élite en cuatro variedades de papa: Solanum tuberosum L. ssp andígena (Diacol-Capiro, ICA-Puracé y Parda Pastusa y Solanum phureja Juz et Buk. (“Yema de huevo”-Clon 1, a partir de esquejes obtenidos de plantas provenientes de cultivos
    in vitro libres de virus, indexadas mediante prueba de ELISA. Una vez que las plantas eran adaptadas a condiciones ex vitro y alcanzaron una longitud de más de 25 cm, se cortaron esquejes que portaban una yema apical con dos nudos y el esqueje axilar siguiente con la yema y su
    hoja. La base de éstos se sumergió en soluciones de ácido naftalenacético (ANA en concentraciones de 0 (control, 5, 10 y 15 mg/l durante una hora, después fueron colocados en bandejas de enraizamiento que contenían turba como soporte. También se utilizó un producto comercial (Hormonagro No.1 cuyo ingrediente activo es ANA al 0,04% para la inducción de raíces en ambos tipos de esqueje como un ensayo adicional comparándolo con un control (sin aplicación de enraizador; los esquejes se impregnaron con el polvo en su base e inmediatamente se pusieron en las bandejas de enraizamiento. Se hicieron ensayos independientes con cada variedad para evaluar los efectos de las dosis de ANA y Hormonagro sobre los dos tipos de esqueje
    (axilar y apical. Se evaluaron las siguientes variables respuesta: porcentaje de supervivencia de esquejes a la tercera semana, longitud y número de hojas de esquejes durante tres semanas, área foliar y peso seco de esquejes a la cuarta semana. Después de esto los esquejes se sembraron en bolsas plásticas de 10 x 14 pulgadas calibre seis y se llevaron a

  6. Pólen 2n e mecanismos meióticos de formação em Solanum commersonii ssp 2n pollen and meiotic mechanisms of Formation in Solanum commersonii ssp

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    Lívia Gracielle Oliveira Tomé

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. e Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 - 1EBN não podem ser diretamente cruzadas com a batata cultivada de S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 -4 EBN em razão da barreira da ploidia e do número de equilíbrio do endosperma (EBN. No entanto, a produção de pólen não reduzido por S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 - 1EBN, permite o cruzamento desta com dihaplóides de batata e com as espécies diplóides S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. e S. chacoense Bitt., que possuem 2 EBN. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar o mecanismo meiótico e a freqüência dos grãos de pólen não reduzidos em cinco clones de Solanum commersonii ssp. Foram avaliados três clones de S. commersonii subsp. commersonii (SCC e dois de S. commersonii subsp. malmeanum (SCM. Nas avaliações, duzentos grãos de pólen viáveis foram corados (carmim acético 2% e mensurados, sendo considerados não reduzidos aqueles com o diâmetro igual ou superior a 25 µm. O clone Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC 100 produz 26.1% de polen não reduzido, por fusos fundidos e fusos paralelos, o qual pode ser utilizado em programas de melhoramento.Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. and Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 -1EBN cannot be directly crossed with the cultivated Solanum tuberosum subsp. Tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 - 4EBN species due to ploidy barriers and endosperm balance number (EBN. However, non-reduced pollen production by the wild species S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 -1EBN, allows the crossing of these species with dihaploids of potato and with the diploids species, S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. and S. chacoense Bitt., all with 2EBN. The aim of this work was to determine the meiotic mechanism and frequency of non-reduced pollen production of five clones of S. commersonii ssp. Three different clones of S. commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC and two of S

  7. Use of unreduced gametes of diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) for true potato seed production through 4x-2x crosses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu Dongyu,

    1996-01-01

    The thesis describes the genetic bases of 2n-pollen formation. A comparison was made of the frequencies of 2n-pollen production in a different environment using the progeny of diallel crosses between five well-known diploid clones and three clones of Solanum phureja. It was evident that this charact

  8. Características da planta, teores de nitrogênio na folha e produtividade de tubérculos de cultivares de batata em função de doses de nitrogênio

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio (N) sobre a produtividade de tubérculos e sobre as seguintes variáveis determinadas na quarta folha de cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum): intensidade do verde (medida pelo índice SPAD e por tabela de cor), índices fisiológicos (área, comprimento, largura, número de folíolos e massa das matérias fresca e seca) e índices de N (teores de NO3 na seiva do pecíolo e de N na matéria seca). Foram realizados quatro experimentos,...

  9. 13C pulse-labeling assessment of the community structure of active fungi in the rhizosphere of a genetically starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, S E; Boschker, H T S; de Boer, W; van Veen, J A

    2012-05-01

    • The aim of this study was to gain understanding of the carbon flow from the roots of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline to the soil fungal community using stable isotope probing (SIP). • The microbes receiving (13)C from the plant were assessed through RNA/phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) at three time-points (1, 5 and 12 d after the start of labeling). The communities of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were analysed separately with RT-qPCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). • Ascomycetes and glomeromycetes received carbon from the plant as early as 1 and 5 d after labeling, while basidiomycetes were slower in accumulating the labeled carbon. The rate of carbon allocation in the GM variety differed from that in its parental variety, thereby affecting soil fungal communities. • We conclude that both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi rapidly metabolize organic substrates flowing from the root into the rhizosphere, that there are large differences in utilization of root-derived compounds at a lower phylogenetic level within investigated fungal phyla, and that active communities in the rhizosphere differ between the GM plant and its parental cultivar through effects of differential carbon flow from the plant.

  10. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  11. Plasma membrane localization of Solanum tuberosum remorin from group 1, homolog 3 is mediated by conformational changes in a novel C-terminal anchor and required for the restriction of potato virus X movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraki, Artemis; Cacas, Jean-Luc; Crowet, Jean-Marc; Lins, Laurence; Castroviejo, Michel; German-Retana, Sylvie; Mongrand, Sébastien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-10-01

    The formation of plasma membrane (PM) microdomains plays a crucial role in the regulation of membrane signaling and trafficking. Remorins are a plant-specific family of proteins organized in six phylogenetic groups, and Remorins of group 1 are among the few plant proteins known to specifically associate with membrane rafts. As such, they are valuable to understand the molecular bases for PM lateral organization in plants. However, little is known about the structural determinants underlying the specific association of group 1 Remorins with membrane rafts. We used a structure-function approach to identify a short C-terminal anchor (RemCA) indispensable and sufficient for tight direct binding of potato (Solanum tuberosum) REMORIN 1.3 (StREM1.3) to the PM. RemCA switches from unordered to α-helical structure in a nonpolar environment. Protein structure modeling indicates that RemCA folds into a tight hairpin of amphipathic helices. Consistently, mutations reducing RemCA amphipathy abolished StREM1.3 PM localization. Furthermore, RemCA directly binds to biological membranes in vitro, shows higher affinity for Detergent-Insoluble Membranes lipids, and targets yellow fluorescent protein to Detergent-Insoluble Membranes in vivo. Mutations in RemCA resulting in cytoplasmic StREM1.3 localization abolish StREM1.3 function in restricting potato virus X movement. The mechanisms described here provide new insights on the control and function of lateral segregation of plant PM.

  12. CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 characterized from Solanum tuberosum oxidize fatty acids in vitro and partially restore the wild phenotype in an Arabidopsis thaliana cutin mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausem, B; Widemann, E; Verdier, G; Nosbüsch, D; Aubert, Y; Beisson, F; Schreiber, L; Franke, R; Pinot, F

    2014-09-01

    Cutin and suberin represent lipophilic polymers forming plant/environment interfaces in leaves and roots. Despite recent progress in Arabidopsis, there is still a lack on information concerning cutin and suberin synthesis, especially in crops. Based on sequence homology, we isolated two cDNA clones of new cytochrome P450s, CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). Both enzymes hydroxylated lauric acid (C12:0) on position ω-1 to ω-5. They oxidized fatty acids with chain length ranging from C12 to C18 and catalysed hydroxylation of 16-hydroxypalmitic acid leading to dihydroxypalmitic (DHP) acids, the major C16 cutin and suberin monomers. CYP77A19 also produced epoxides from linoleic acid (C18:2). Exploration of expression pattern in potato by RT-qPCR revealed the presence of transcripts in all tissues tested with the highest expression in the seed compared with leaves. Water stress enhanced their expression level in roots but not in leaves. Application of methyl jasmonate specifically induced CYP77A19 expression. Expression of either gene in the Arabidopsis null mutant cyp77a6-1 defective in flower cutin restored petal cuticular impermeability. Nanoridges were also observed in CYP77A20-expressing lines. However, only very low levels of the major flower cutin monomer 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate and no C18 epoxy monomers were found in the cutin of the complemented lines.

  13. A study of the genetic toxicological action of germinated Solanum tuberosum using micronuclei in Vicia faba root-tip test technique%用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术研究发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋梅兰

    2001-01-01

    To explore the genetic toxicological action in germinated Solanum tuberosum, an experiment on the micronucleus frequence of maceration extract of germinated Solanum tuberosum had been carried out with the micronucleus test technique of Vicia faba root-tip cell. The results showed that when the concentrations of maceration extract are 25 g/L, 50 g/L, 100 g/L and 200 g/L, the micronucleus frequence of Vicia faba root-tip cell was 17.21‰, 23.53‰, 29.55‰, 39.40‰ separately. There existed significant differences when compared with negative control, but didn′t cause significant differences as for the non-germinated Solanum tuberosum′s maceration extract with the corresponding concentration to the formation of the micronucleus frequence of Vicia faba root-tip cell when compared with the negative control. Thus,the experiment showed that the formation of micronucleus might be induced greatly by the maceration extract in germination Solanum tuberosum. This technique can be used to test the genetic toxicological action of germinated Solanum tuberosum.%为探讨发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用,用蚕豆根尖细胞微核监测技术对发芽马铃薯浸渍液的微核率进行了测定,结果表明:发芽马铃薯浸渍液的质量浓度为25 g/L、50 g/L、100 g/L、200 g/L时,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率分别为17.21‰、23.53‰、29.55‰、39.40‰,与阴性对照组相比存在显著性差异;相应浓度的未发芽马铃薯浸渍液对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率的形成与阴性对照组相比无显著性差异.实验结果提示发芽马铃薯浸渍液能显著诱发蚕豆根尖细胞微核的形成,利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术可以监测发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用.

  14. EXPRESIÓN DE LA PROTEÍNA Cry1Ac EN TEJIDOS DE LÍNEAS TRANSGÉNICAS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum spp. ANDÍGENA VAR. DIACOL CAPIRO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ANDRÉS VANEGAS ARAUJO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La papa (Solanum sp. es el cuarto producto alimenticio más importante en el mundo. En Colombia anualmente se producen alrededor de 2,8 millones de toneladas, sirviendo como sustento económico a 90.000 familias. En el país, Tecia solanivora genera el mayor impacto económico en el cultivo con pérdidas de hasta el 100% en la producción de tubérculos. El fitomejoramiento vía introducción de genes Cry, que codifican para cristales proteicos insecticidas, constituye una alternativa para reducir el ataque de insectos en cultivos de interés comercial. En este trabajo se caracterizó la inserción, transcripción y expresión del gen Cry1Ac en diferentes tejidos y en tres etapas del desarrollo para dos líneas transgénicas de Solanum tuberosum spp. andígena variedad Diacol Capiro generadas previamente por transformación con Agrobacterium tumefaciens. La caracterización se realizó a través de técnicas de PCR, RT-PCR y ELISA. Se corroboró la inserción y transcripción del gen utilizando primers que amplificaron una banda específica de 766pb para Cry1Ac. Los niveles de expresión de la proteína llegaron a ser mayores a 45μg/g y no mostraron diferencias significativas entre las líneas analizadas, ni entre las tres etapas del desarrollo. No se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre las líneas transgénicas con respecto al control al hacer un análisis de algunas características fenotípicas relevantes. Los resultados encontrados sugieren la realización de seguimientos y ensayos de bioseguridad sobre este material, ya que los altos niveles de expresión en todos los tejidos analizados, pueden afectar a organismos no blanco.

  15. The futile cycling of hexose phosphates could account for the fact that hexokinase exerts a high control on glucose phosphorylation but not on glycolytic rate in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Claeyssen

    Full Text Available The metabolism of potato (Solanum tuberosum roots constitutively over- and underexpressing hexokinase (HK, EC 2.7.1.1 was examined. An 11-fold variation in HK activity resulted in altered root growth, with antisense roots growing better than sense roots. Quantification of sugars, organic acids and amino acids in transgenic roots demonstrated that the manipulation of HK activity had very little effect on the intracellular pools of these metabolites. However, adenylate and free Pi levels were negatively affected by an increase in HK activity. The flux control coefficient of HK over the phosphorylation of glucose was measured for the first time in plants. Its value varied with HK level. It reached 1.71 at or below normal HK activity value and was much lower (0.32 at very high HK levels. Measurements of glycolytic flux and O(2 uptake rates demonstrated that the differences in glucose phosphorylation did not affect significantly glycolytic and respiratory metabolism. We hypothesized that these results could be explained by the existence of a futile cycle between the pools of hexose-Ps and carbohydrates. This view is supported by several lines of evidence. Firstly, activities of enzymes capable of catalyzing these reactions were detected in roots, including a hexose-P phosphatase. Secondly, metabolic tracer experiments using (14C-glucose as precursor showed the formation of (14C-fructose and (14C-sucrose. We conclude that futile cycling of hexose-P could be partially responsible for the differences in energetic status in roots with high and low HK activity and possibly cause the observed alterations in growth in transgenic roots. The involvement of HK and futile cycles in the control of glucose-6P metabolism is discussed.

  16. The futile cycling of hexose phosphates could account for the fact that hexokinase exerts a high control on glucose phosphorylation but not on glycolytic rate in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeyssen, Eric; Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; He, Jiang Zhou; Wally, Owen; Chen, Jingkui; Auslender, Evgenia L; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Jolicoeur, Mario; Rivoal, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots constitutively over- and underexpressing hexokinase (HK, EC 2.7.1.1) was examined. An 11-fold variation in HK activity resulted in altered root growth, with antisense roots growing better than sense roots. Quantification of sugars, organic acids and amino acids in transgenic roots demonstrated that the manipulation of HK activity had very little effect on the intracellular pools of these metabolites. However, adenylate and free Pi levels were negatively affected by an increase in HK activity. The flux control coefficient of HK over the phosphorylation of glucose was measured for the first time in plants. Its value varied with HK level. It reached 1.71 at or below normal HK activity value and was much lower (0.32) at very high HK levels. Measurements of glycolytic flux and O(2) uptake rates demonstrated that the differences in glucose phosphorylation did not affect significantly glycolytic and respiratory metabolism. We hypothesized that these results could be explained by the existence of a futile cycle between the pools of hexose-Ps and carbohydrates. This view is supported by several lines of evidence. Firstly, activities of enzymes capable of catalyzing these reactions were detected in roots, including a hexose-P phosphatase. Secondly, metabolic tracer experiments using (14)C-glucose as precursor showed the formation of (14)C-fructose and (14)C-sucrose. We conclude that futile cycling of hexose-P could be partially responsible for the differences in energetic status in roots with high and low HK activity and possibly cause the observed alterations in growth in transgenic roots. The involvement of HK and futile cycles in the control of glucose-6P metabolism is discussed.

  17. Detección del virus del amarillamiento de las nervaduras de la hoja de la papa en diferentes órganos de Solanum tuberosum grupo Phureja cv Criolla Colombia utilizando RT-PCR convencional y en tiempo real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anngie Katherine Hernández-Guzmán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Potato yellow vein virus detection in different organs of Solanum tuberosum Phureja group cv Criolla Colombia by conventional and real time qRT-PCRTitulo corto: Detección del virus PYVVV en diferentes órganos de Solanum tuberosum grupo Phureja Resumen: La producción del cultivo de papa en Colombia se puede afectar por infección con diferentes patógenos virales, entre ellos, el Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV que puede reducir la producción entre el 30 % y 50%. PYVV se ha diagnosticado molecularmente usando RT-PCR convencional en hojas sintomáticas y no sintomáticas. Sin embargo, no hay reportes sobre la detección y distribución viral en diferentes órganos infectados por PYVV en las plantas que expresan síntomas y sin síntomas. El objetivo de esta investigación, fue detectar a PYVV por RT-PCR convencional con cebadores específicos y por qRT-PCR (tiempo real utilizando Sondas TaqMan® y analizar la distribución viral en plantas de S. tuberosum grupo Phureja cv. Criolla Colombia (papa criolla. Se logró la detección del virus en todos los órganos analizados (foliolo, peciolo, tallo aéreo y subterráneo, pedúnculo floral, pétalo y antera mediante ambas técnicas, sin embargo, qRT-PCR fue 100 veces más sensible que la técnica convencional. Adicionalmente, se realizó la cuantificación absoluta del gen de la proteína mayor de la cápside de PYVV (CP. Los resultados indican que cuando la planta no expresa síntomas (NS, hay una distribución homogénea del virus, con un promedio del número de copias del gen CP de 4.09107±2.35107; mientras que en plantas sintomáticas el título viral es mayor (6.82108±1.74108 y la distribución heterogénea en los órganos, con mayor acumulación en órganos de la zona aérea. Este es el primer informe sobre la  detección de PYVV en diferentes órganos de papa por medio de tiempo real,  incluyendo las anteras y pedúnculo floral. La información debe ser de utilidad

  18. Asociaciones de marcadores moleculares con la resistencia a enfermedades, caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos en familias diploides de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fefteen families of potato (840 genotypes originated from inter-specific crosses among Solanum stenotomum, S. goniocalyx and S. phureja were genotyped in order to associate six molecular markers (GP94, HC, Nl25, Gro 1-4, RYSC3 y CP60. These molecular markers are linked to major genes for resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans, wart (Synchytrium endobioticum, root cyst nematode (Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis and viruses PVY and PVX. Results showed that five of six molecular markers were polymorphic and primers amplified in more than 80 % of the families. Molecular marker RYSC3 that is linked to Ryadg gene did not amplify in any family. All individuals in Family 8 scored positive for three markers (CP60, GP94, and NL25. χ2 test was used to determine the significance of the segregation ratios of each marker in every single family; so to the possible genotype of its parents was inferred. Nine morphological and agronomical characters were assessed during the harvest. Cluster analysis classified and selected 107 genotypes by putative resistance to PVX, P. infestans, G. rostochiensis and S. endobioticum, high yield, tuber volume and tuber number and shallow eyes. According to our results, practical aspects of efficient use of marker assisted selection in potato are discussed in this paper.

  19. Técnica para o estudo da anatomia da epiderme foliar de batata A technique for the anatomical study of potato leaf epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bastos Segatto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Embora a batata (Solanum tuberosum seja uma espécie de grande valor econômico, são poucas as informações disponíveis sobre a anatomia foliar, principalmente de características estruturais da epiderme. O estudo da anatomia foliar assume grande importância básica, para a ecologia e fisiologia, e aplicada para a fitopatologia e o melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar uma técnica histológica que permite a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes para avaliar a epiderme foliar, em vista frontal, de um grande número de plantas de batata em um curto período de tempo. O corte paradérmico a mão livre, o método de Jeffrey e as técnicas de hidróxido de potássio e de impressão da epiderme foram avaliados. Lâminas semipermanentes foram confeccionadas da secção frontal da epiderme de folíolos principais do terço médio de plantas de batata. A impressão da epiderme em lâmina foi a única técnica que possibilitou a avaliação adequada de todos os clones de batata utilizados. A impressão da epiderme é uma técnica muito rápida, de baixo custo e de fácil execução, que atende os requisitos necessários para a identificação e seleção de características anatômicas de um grande número de plantas em um programa de melhoramento genético de batata.Even though potato (Solanum tuberosum is an economically important crop, information about leaf characteristics of anatomical structure has not been well studied. Studies of leaf epidermis have significance for basic fields as ecology and physiology and for applied fields as plant pathology and breeding. The objective of this research was to identify a fast and easy technique to prepare semi-permanent slides for studying the anatomy of potato leaf epidermis. Para dermal free hand cut, Jeffrey method, potassium hydroxide and epidermal fingerprint on glass slide techniques were evaluated. Semi-permanent slides were prepared from the longitudinal section of

  20. Expresión de la proteína Cry1Ac en tejidos de líneas transgénicas de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andígena Var. Diacol capiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Martinez Jennifer Teresa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    La papa (Solanum sp. es el cuarto producto alimenticio más importante en el mundo. En Colombia anualmente se producen alrededor de 2,8 millones de toneladas, sirviendo como sustento económico a 90.000 familias. En el país, Tecia solanivora genera el mayor impacto económico en el cultivo con pérdidas de hasta el 100% en la producción de tubérculos. El fitomejoramiento vía introducción de genes Cry, que codifican para cristales proteicos insecticidas, constituye una alternativa para reducir el ataque de insectos en cultivos de interés comercial. En este trabajo se caracterizó la inserción, transcripción y expresión del gen Cry1Ac en diferentes tejidos y en tres etapas del desarrollo para dos líneas transgénicas de Solanum tuberosum spp. andígena variedad Diacol Capiro. La caracterización se realizó a través de técnicas de PCR, RT-PCR y ELISA. Se corroboró la inserción y transcripción del gen utilizando primers que amplificaron una banda específica de 766pb para Cry1Ac. Los niveles de expresión de la proteína llegaron a ser mayores a 45μg/g

  1. Content of Solanine in Tuber Peel of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Under Different Storage Conditions%不同贮藏条件下马铃薯块茎皮中龙葵素含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 邱成; 高荣; 熊兴耀

    2013-01-01

      马铃薯块茎在不同温度和光照条件下贮藏6~18 d,用乙醇-乙酸法提取块茎皮中的α-茄碱,用高效液相色谱法测定其含量,研究块茎皮中龙葵素含量的变化。结果表明,在有光照、贮藏温度为8,15,25℃条件下贮藏6 d,样品中α-茄碱的含量分别为1.35%,4.96%和9.67%;在有光照、贮藏温度15℃的条件下,贮藏时间为6,12,18 d,样品中α-茄碱的含量分别为4.96%,8.78%和12.76%;在25℃、贮藏时间6 d 条件下,有光照和无光照处理的样品中α-茄碱含量分别为9.67%和7.61%。块茎皮中的α-茄碱含量随贮藏温度和时间的增加而增加,光照条件下块茎皮中的α-茄碱含量明显增加。%Changes in solanine content in the tuber peel of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were studied under different temperature and light conditions and storage periods. Solanine was extracted by ethanol-acetic acid, and measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The contents of solanine in peel of tuber under the store temperature of 8, 15 and 25 ℃ for 6 days combined with light il umination were, respectively, 1.35%, 4.96% and 9.67%. The contents of solanine in skin of tuber under the storage period of 6, 12 and 18 d at 15℃ with light were, respectively, 4.96%, 8.78%, and 12.76%. The contents of solanne in skin of tuber stored at 25℃ for 6 d with and without light were, respectively, 9.67% and 7.61%. The contents of solanne in skin of tuber increased with storage temperature and period, and noticeably increased under light.

  2. Transfer of U, Al and Mn in the water-soil-plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) system near a former uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal) and implications to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.O., E-mail: orquidia.neves@ist.utl.pt [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Figueiredo, V.R., E-mail: vera.figueiredo@ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M.M., E-mail: manuelaabreu@isa.utl.pt [Unidade de Investigacao de Quimica Ambiental, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge about metals in crops, grown in contaminated soils around mine sites, is limited and concerns about exposure to hazardous elements through the consumption of contaminated foodstuff, are high. In this study a field experiment was carried out in two agricultural soils located near a former uranium mine area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water quality on soil-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop system and to evaluate if the consumption of the crop represents health risk to the local villagers. The soils were divided in two plots: one irrigated with contaminated water (U: 1.03-1.04 mg/L; Al: 7.5-8.00 mg/L; Mn: 4.52 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (U: 14-10 {mu}g/L; Al: 17-23 {mu}g/L; Mn: 2.4-5.7 {mu}g/L). After irrigation and potato growth, only soil characteristics, as salinity and total U and Mn concentrations were significantly different from those measured at the beginning of the experiment. Within the potato plants, elements were mostly translocated and concentrated in the aerial part: stems and leaves (U: 73-87%; Al: 85-96%; Mn: 85-94%), which minimize the risk of contamination of the edible tissue. In potato tubers, the highest average concentrations (121-590 {mu}g U/kg; 25-64 mg Al/kg; 12-13 mg Mn/kg dry weight) were registered at soil plots irrigated with contaminated water. Uranium and Al were mostly concentrated in the potato peel (88-96 and 76-85%, respectively), and Mn (67-78%) in the pulp, which reinforces the importance of removing peel to minimize human exposure. The risk analysis calculated for non-cancer health effects (hazard quotient), related only to the exposure through the consumption of this basic foodstuff, revealed safety for Cunha Baixa village residents (adults and children) even when potato crop was grown on U enriched soils and irrigated with contaminated water. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Field experiment with potato in agricultural soils near

  3. AFLP analysis reveals a lack of phylogenetic structure within Solanum section Petota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.M.J.; Berg, van den R.G.; Vleeshouwers, V.; Visser, M.E.; Mank, R.; Sengers, M.; Hoekstra, R.; Vosman, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background The secondary genepool of our modern cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) consists of a large number of tuber-bearing wild Solanum species under Solanum section Petota. One of the major taxonomic problems in section Petota is that the series classification (as put forward by Hawkes) i

  4. Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of the Water Requirements of Potato( Solanum tuberosum )in Ningxia%宁夏马铃薯需水量的时空特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑萍; 耿秀华; 韩颖娟; 孟丹; 王连喜; 袁海燕

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨宁夏马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)需水量的时空特征.[方法]采用联合国粮农组织(FAO)推荐的Penman-Monteith公式,计算宁夏1981 ~2007年21个站点参考作物蒸散量,进而得到西吉、同心等典型站点的马铃薯全生育期内的需水量,统计分析其时空变化特征和生育期需水量的变化规律.最后,分析了气候变化背景下宁夏马铃薯需水量变化状况.[结果]马铃薯需水量高值区对应宁夏的中部干旱地区;宁夏马铃薯需水量在近27年内呈现上升的趋势,并且南部山区上升趋势明显大于中部地区;从播种-分枝期,马铃薯日需水量逐渐增大,花序-盛花期这一作物生长旺盛阶段为需水高峰期,块茎成熟-收获期日需水量迅速下降.此外,分析表明,缺水幅度将进一步加大,未来马铃薯生长将要面临更加严峻的水分问题.[结论]该研究可以为宁夏的实际灌溉、水资源合理利用和农田水利工程规划等农业生产工作提供科学依据.%[Objective] The research aimed to discuss the temporal and spatial characteristics of the water requirements of potato in Ningxia. [ Method] Penman - Monteith formulae,recommended by the FAO of the United Nation,were adopted to calculate the reference crop evapotrans piration of 21 weather stations in Ningxia from 1981 to 2007 in order to getting the water requirements of potato throughout the whole growth period in typically stations as Xiji. Then the temporal and spatial changes and the change regulations of the potato water requirements throughout the whole growth period were statistically analyzed. Finally, the change of potato water requirements in Ningxia under the climate change background were analyzed. [ Result] The results showed that the area with high water requirements values matched with the central arid regions of Ningxia. The water requirements of potato in Ningxia had the trend to ascend in the last 27 years and the upward tendency

  5. Treated wastewater reuse on potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A.; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... increased by 635 and 765 euro ha-1y-1 with FTS and MBR, respectively. Tubers were not contaminated by E. coli found in treated wastewater used for irrigation. The frequency of heavy metal and nitrate detection in tubers were comparable among water sources, as well as for the average contents. Only for boron...

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Rate on the Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)%氮肥水平对马铃薯光合及叶绿素荧光特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑顺林; 杨世民; 李世林; 袁继超

    2013-01-01

    以3个品种为材料,采用随机区组设计,在田间试验条件下,研究了施氮水平对春、秋马铃薯Solanum Tuberosum L.光合和叶绿素荧光特性的影响,以期为合理氮肥运筹,提高马铃薯光能利用提供理论依据.结果表明:①增施氮肥因提高了功能叶的叶绿素质量分数而显著影响春、秋马铃薯的净光合速率及其对光照强度和CO2体积分数的响应,但影响的程度和趋势在春、秋马铃薯之间有一定差异.在试验的处理范围内,春马铃薯功能叶的最大净光合速率(Am)、表观量子效率(ψ)随施氮水平的增加而提高,而秋马铃薯的Am和ψ则随氮肥用量的增加先增后减,春薯光合作用的光饱和点和补偿点均大于秋薯,表明马铃薯光合作用的氮肥效应受栽培季节的影响;②氮肥水平对马铃薯功能叶片叶绿素的荧光特性也有一定影响,适量的氮肥可以提高最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、实际光化学效率(ΦpsⅡ)和电子传递速率(ETR),降低光化学猝灭系数(qP)和非光化学猝灭系数(qN),从而增加PsⅡ天线色素对光能的捕获效率,降低光能的热耗散,提高PsⅡ的光化学效率;③不同马铃薯品种的光合与叶绿素荧光特性及其对氮肥的响应存在一定差异,在秋播和中高氮水平下,川芋117的Am、羧化效率(CE)、Fv/Fm、ΦpsⅡ、ETR和qP等光合和叶绿素荧光参数均高于青薯2号.%Two field experiments were conducted with three potato varieties in spring and autumn in Ya'an, Sichuan province to study the effects of nitrogen rate on the characteristics of photosynthesis and chloro-phyll fluorescence of the plants. The main results were as follows: 1) The increase in nitrogen rate increased the chlorophyll content of the functional leaves and thus significantly improved the net photosyn-thetic rate (Pn) and its response to light intensity and CO2 concentration of both spring and autumn potato. However, some differences between

  7. Évaluation de la productivité de la pomme de terre (Solanum Tuberosum L., sous l’effet de l’irrigation avec une eau traitée magnétiquement, dans la région de Chaouia (Maroc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda TAIMOURYA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature reports that there are some beneficial effects of irrigation water treatment by a static magnetic field. Magnetic field improved the production and the growth characteristics of the plants and make water less limiting to production conditions. To quantify the effect of the application of this new technology on crop production in Moroccan production conditions, an experiment was conducted in situ on a farm situated in the region of Chaouia-Ouardigha. A randomized complete design, with three replicates, was used in the experiment for each treatment of irrigation water (magnetized and ordinary. Potatoes plants (Solanum tuberosum L.,were controlled through regular measurements of growth and production parameters. Magnetic treatments of irrigation water gave the best results. We noted a significantly increase in plant height; branch number; fresh weight of aerial part; dry matter and root fresh weight in the order of 13,9%; 50%; 110%; 91,6% and 40,1%, respectively and an increase in the yield of 35,7%. Finally, we emphasized that the technique of magnetic field in agricultural fields could be a promising technique for agricultural production improvement but extensive research is still required.

  8. EXPRESIÓN DE LA PROTEÍNA Cry1Ac EN TEJIDOS DE LÍNEAS TRANSGÉNICAS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum spp. ANDÍGENA) VAR. DIACOL CAPIRO.

    OpenAIRE

    PABLO ANDRÉS VANEGAS ARAUJO; JENNIFER TERESA BLANCO MARTÍNEZ; ALEJANDRO CHAPARRO-GIRALDO

    2010-01-01

    La papa (Solanum sp.) es el cuarto producto alimenticio más importante en el mundo. En Colombia anualmente se producen alrededor de 2,8 millones de toneladas, sirviendo como sustento económico a 90.000 familias. En el país, Tecia solanivora genera el mayor impacto económico en el cultivo con pérdidas de hasta el 100% en la producción de tubérculos. El fitomejoramiento vía introducción de genes Cry, que codifican para cristales proteicos insecticidas, constituye una alternativa para reducir el...

  9. Produtividade simulada de tubérculos de batata em cenários de mudanças climáticas Potato tuber simulated yield in climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to simulate potato (Solanum tuberosum tuber yield in different climate change scenarios of increased carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] and air temperature, considering symmetric and asymmetric increases in minimum and maximum daily air temperatures. Spitters model was used to simulate Asterix cultivar tuber yield considering two growing seasons (spring and fall recommended for Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each growing season, five planting dates were evaluated in climate scenarios of a hundred years with no increase in [CO2] and temperature (current scenario, and in scenarios with doubling [CO2] and temperature increases of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6ºC. A symmetric increase of 4ºC and an asymmetric increase of 5ºC in air temperature offset the yield beneficial effect of increasing [CO2] during spring, whereas increase in air temperature does not affect potato tuber yield during fall. Anticipating planting date in spring and delaying it in fall decrease the negative impact of the increasing air temperature on potato tuber yield.O objetivo deste trabalho foi simular a produtividade de tubérculos de batata (Solanum tuberosum em diferentes cenários climáticos de aumento da concentração de dióxido de carbono [CO2] e da temperatura do ar, considerando aumentos simétricos e assimétricos nas temperaturas mínimas e máximas diárias do ar. Utilizou-se o modelo de Spitters para simular a produtividade de tubérculos da cultivar Asterix, em duas épocas de cultivo (primavera e outono, recomendadas para a região de Santa Maria, RS. Em cada época, cinco datas de plantio foram avaliadas, em cenários climáticos de cem anos sem aumentos na [CO2] e na temperatura (cenário atual, e em cenários com o dobro da [CO2] atual e aumentos de 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6ºC na temperatura. No cultivo de primavera, o aumento simétrico de 4ºC, nas temperaturas mínimas e máximas diárias do ar, e assim

  10. Stock indexing and Potato virus Y elimination from potato plants cultivated in vitro Indexação de matrizes e eliminação do Potato virus Y em plantas de batata cultivadas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cordeiro Nascimento

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. have shown degeneration or run out caused by viruses after several cycles of propagation using seed tubers from commercial fields. This work reports the occurrence of single and mixed infections of four potato viruses in Paraíba-Brazil and presents a method for Potato virus Y (PVY elimination, by using thermo-and chemotherapies. Plants of potato cv. Baraka were tested by direct antigen coating ELISA. Antisera against PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV were used. Materials with positive reaction to PVY were treated for virus elimination. Single node cuttings (1.0 cm length were excised and inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (MS medium, supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 of kinetin, 0.001 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 0.1 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid (GA3. The thermotherapy at approximately 37ºC, during 30 and 40 days, resulted in 20.0 and 37.5% PVY elimination, respectively. Chemotherapy was undertaken with Ribavirin (RBV, 5-Azacytidine (AZA, and 3-Deazauridine (DZD. The RBV showed the highest rate of virus eradication, with 55.5% virus-free plants. Simultaneous thermo and chemotherapy had higher efficiency for the elimination of PVY, reaching rates of healthy plants of 83.3% with RBV, 70.0% with AZA, and 50.0% with DZD.Cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. têm mostrado degenerescência causada por vírus após ciclos sucessivos do uso de tubérculos de campos comerciais como material propagativo. Este trabalho verifica a ocorrência de infecção simples e mista de quatro vírus da batata na Paraíba e apresenta adequação da técnica de cultivo in vitro para obtenção de material livre de Potato virus Y (PVY, incluindo uso de microestacas, termo e quimioterapia. Plantas de batata do cv. Baraka foram submetidas à indexação sorológica pelo teste "direct antigen coating" ELISA. Utilizaram-se antissoros contra o PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus

  11. Produtividade e principais problemas fitossanitários de cultivares de batata em Sergipe Yield and phytosanitary problems of potato cultivars in Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Urbana Corrêa Nunes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Sete cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. foram avaliadas durante três anos em Itabaiana-SE, com o objetivo de verificar a potencialidade de produção à altitude de 180 m e identificar os problemas fitossanitários que afetam a produtividade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos nos meses de junho a setembro, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Após a colheita foram avaliadas a produção total, comercial (tubérculos sadios e com peso mínimo de 40 g e perdas de produção decorrentes de sarna, podridão-mole, nematóide e insetos do solo. A análise conjunta das produções totais e comerciais de tubérculos revelou que as cultivares mais produtivas foram Baronesa (33,7 t/ha, Monalisa (32,7 t/ha e Elvira (31,4 t/ha. A produção comercial variou de 3,4 t/ha a 22,5 t/ha, destacando-se as cvs. Elvira e Monalisa, com rendimentos de 22,5 t/ha e 20,5 t/ha respectivamente, com apenas três pulverizações com defensivos. Os problemas fitossanitários que mais afetaram a cv. Elvira foram sarna (13,1% e nematóide das galhas (7,2%, enquanto a 'Monalisa' teve sua produção prejudicada mais pela incidência de insetos (15,1%, sarna (12,0% e nematóide (9,7%. A cv. Monalisa apresentou tubérculos com melhores características para comercialização e está sendo cultivada a nível comercial em substituição às variedades Bintje e Baraka anteriormente cultivadas na região. Os resultados indicam a potencialidade da região de Itabaiana para a produção de batata.The yield potential and main diseases affecting productivity of seven potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. were evaluated during a three years period in experiments carried out at low altitude conditions of Sergipe State, Brazil. The experimental plots were located at 180 m of sea level in a Red-Yellow Podzolic sandy-clay texture soil. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with five replications. Tubers were sown yearly

  12. Levantamento da entomofauna associada a cultivares de batata em duas épocas de cultivo Survey of the entomofauna associated with potato varieties during two crop seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON DIONEI GRÜTZMACHER

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento da população de artrópodes num agroecossistema de batata, Solanum tuberosum L., em Santa Maria, RS, durante o ano agrícola 1989/90. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar a entomofauna em diferentes cultivares de batata durante a época tradicional do seu crescimento e na safrinha. O experimento consistiu de nove cultivares durante a época tradicional, e de dez cultivares durante a safrinha. Amostras de insetos foram coletadas semanalmente com a rede de varredura (15 redadas por amostra. Os coleópteros foram predominantes durante a época tradicional do crescimento da cultura, e os dípteros, na safrinha. As espécies fitófagas mais freqüentes foram: Epitrix sp., na época tradicional, e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, na safrinha, seguidas da Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore, em ambos os períodos de crescimento dessa cultura. Foi coletado um número maior de insetos no período tradicional de crescimento da cultura do que na safrinha. Os insetos mostraram preferência pela cultivar Bintje durante o período tradicional, e pela Pomina, na safrinha. A cultivar Sahael foi a menos procurada, nos dois períodos. As espécies de predadores Eriopis connexa (Germar e Geocoris sp. foram as mais numerosas no período tradicional de crescimento da cultura. Durante a safrinha, a Cycloneda sanguinea (L. predominou em todas as cultivares.A survey of arthropods present in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L. agroecossystem was conducted in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, during 1989/90 field season. The objective of this research was to compare the entomofauna in different potato cultivars during the traditional and off-season time for potato growing. The experiment consisted of nine cultivars during the traditional season and ten cultivars during the off-season time. Insect samples were taken weekly with a sweep net (15 nets per sample. Coleoptera was the predominant insect order during the traditional potato growing season, and Diptera

  13. Application of Grey Incidence Matrix and Situation Decision Method in Introduction and Evaluation of Potato(Solanum tuberosum L.)%灰色关联矩阵及局势决策在马铃薯引种评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永忠; 王峰; 温学飞; 杜建明; 左忠

    2012-01-01

    利用马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum L.)的抗病性、农艺性状、高产稳产性和商品性等指标对引进的马铃薯品种采用灰色关联矩阵和灰色局势决策法进行综合分析评价.结果表明:商品薯产量达到19 641.6 kg/hm2,且综合排序位于前4和前2的中晚熟及晚熟品种青薯168、948-K、晋薯7号、虎头和中熟品种同薯23号、冀张薯3号都可在当地进行推广种植.为提早上市,在保护地种植可选择商品薯产量达到11 662.2 kg/hm2的中薯3号.%The introduced potato cultivars were comprehensively evaluated from their disease resistance, agronomic traits, high yield and commodity and other indicators by using the grey incidence matrix and grey situation decision. The results showed that the commodity potato yield reached 19 641.6 kg/hm2, the late - maturing varieties of green potato 168, 948 - K, Jin potato 7, tiger, and the middle - maturing varieties of Tong potato 23, Jizhang potato 3, which ranked in the first four and two orders, can cultivate locally. For the early marketing, medium potato 3, which had the yield of 11 662.2 kg/hm , can be commodity selected in the protection of production land.

  14. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  15. Evaluación preliminar del efecto que sobre algunas enzimas del suelo tienen diferentes mecanismos de control del hongo (Phytophthora infestans en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum bajo dos tipos de manejo agrícola (orgánico y convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardiola Marta Lucía

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó comparativamente el posible efecto diferencial que, sobre la actividad de las enzimas proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina y celulasa, además del pH y la materia orgánica del suelo, tuvieron los métodos de control de Phytophthora infestans tanto en la agricultura orgánica (purín de Chipaca Bidens pilosum como en la convencional (diversos fungicidas comerciales en plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum. Igualmente, en los parámetros antes mencionados, se evaluó el efecto de un promotor fúngico utilizado como control del mismo hongo en ambas agriculturas. La investigación se dividió en una fase de campo y una de laboratorio. En la fase de campo, realizada durante siete meses de 1999, se acompañó la siembra, el desarrollo del cultivo y evolución de la enfermedad a través de la determinación de la incidencia y su severidad. En el laboratorio se determinó la actividad enzimática proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina, celulasa, así como también el pH y porcentaje de materia orgánica. Se encontró que en el manejo agrícola orgánico la actividad de la fosfatasa ácida, la fosfatasa alcalina y la proteasa así como también el pH fueron más influenciados por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas que por efecto del los tratamientos utilizados en el control del hongo. En el manejo agrícola convencional la actividad enzimática de las celulasas fue inhibida significativamente por los fungicidas. La actividad de las proteasas y fosfatasas ácidas fueron estimuladas por efecto de los fungicidas comerciales y por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas. Las actividades enzimáticas fosfatasa ácida, proteasa y celulasa presentaron comportamientos significativamente diferentes entre los cultivos convencional y orgánico. Para el control de la enfermedad, el uso de los fungicidas fue el tratamiento que mejores resultados presentó con una mayor producción de papa pero con mayores gastos de producción, mientras

  16. Efecto de la edad al trasplante y de la concentración de azúcar in vitro sobre la adaptación y el crecimiento de vitroplantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. vars. atlantic y 1625 frito lay en invernadero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Orozco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La aclimatización y posterior crecimiento y desarrollo in vivo de plantas propagadas in vitro constituye una de las etapas culminantes del proceso de micropropagación de una especie. Esta investigación se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de diferentes edades al trasplante (15, 20 y 25 días de cultivo y el preacondicionamiento in vitro con tres niveles de azúcar comercial (15, 30 y 45 g L-1 sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo en invernadero de vitroplantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. vars. Atlantic y 1625 Frito Lay. En el primer caso se usó el medio de cultivo MS (1962 suministrado por laboratorios Gibco, a razón de 17 g L-1 y suplementado con vitaminas y aminoácidos del mismo medio. En el segundo caso se usó el medio Hyponex a razón de 2.25 g L-1 suplementado con las vitaminas y aminoácidos del medio MS. Los resultados indican que es posible trasplantar a suelo plantas de ambas variedades en cualquiera de las tres edades, sin afectar el rendimiento de minitubérculos. Sin embargo, la tasa de fotosíntesis aparente (TFA se vio favorecida al incrementarse la edad. Respecto a la influencia del preacondicionamiento in vitro con diferentes concentraciones de azúcar, las plantas de la variedad Atlantic ganaron altura, peso seco de raíz y peso fresco y seco de minitubérculos con 15 g L-1 de azúcar, mientras que en plantas de la variedad 1625, este efecto se dio en la concentración de 30 g L-1; el número de minitubérculos no fue favorecido con las concentraciones de azúcar empleadas en el medio Hyponex, pero sí en el medio MS (1962. En este último caso, la TFA sufrió una ganancia gradual al aumentar la concentración de azúcar.

  17. EXPRESIÓN DE LA PROTEÍNA Cry1Ac EN TEJIDOS DE LÍNEASTRANSGÉNICAS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum spp. ANDÍGENAVAR. DIACOL CAPIRO. Cry1Ac Protein Expression in Tissues of Potato (Solanumtuberosum spp. Andígena Transgenic Lines Var. Diacol Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ANDRÉS VANEGAS ARAUJO

    genetic plant breeding related to the introduction of Cry genes which codify insecticidal crystal proteins is an alternative for reducing the insect attack in commercial crops. In this work, the insertion, transcription and expression of Cry1Ac gen was characterized in different tissues and three development stages of two transgenic lines of Solanum tuberosum variety Diacol Capiro that were previously transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens method. The characterization was realized by PCR, RT-PCR and ELISA techniques. The gen insertion and transcription was confirmed using primers for Cry1Ac gen that amplified a specific band of 766 bp. The protein expression levels were higher than 45 µg/g and were not significantly different between the analyzed lines nor the three development stages. Furthermore, taking into account some relevant phenotypic features, no significant differences were found between transgenic lines and controls. The results suggest that monitoring and biosecurity assays are necessary with this vegetal material because their high level expression inside all the tissues analyzed that could affect non-targeted insects.

  18. Badania kariologiczne niektórych mieszańców międzygatunkowych z rodzaju Solanum [Cytological studies of some interspecies hybrids of the genus Solanum

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    K. Bijok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Karyological analysis of interspecies hybrids of tetraploid (2n=48 varieties of Solanum tuberosum (Flisak, Fortuna, Sagitta and Spekula and di-haploid form of S. tuberosum (2n=24 with semicultivated species S. phureja (2n=24, wild diploid species S. chacoense (2n=24, S. simplicifolium (2n=24, S. vernei (2n=24 and tetraploid species S. stoloniferum (2n=48 was carried out.

  19. Badania kariologiczne niektórych mieszańców międzygatunkowych z rodzaju Solanum [Cytological studies of some interspecies hybrids of the genus Solanum

    OpenAIRE

    K. Bijok; J. Lipińska; E. Adamkiewicz; L. Grygorczyk

    2015-01-01

    Karyological analysis of interspecies hybrids of tetraploid (2n=48) varieties of Solanum tuberosum (Flisak, Fortuna, Sagitta and Spekula) and di-haploid form of S. tuberosum (2n=24) with semicultivated species S. phureja (2n=24), wild diploid species S. chacoense (2n=24), S. simplicifolium (2n=24), S. vernei (2n=24) and tetraploid species S. stoloniferum (2n=48) was carried out.

  20. Diversity and evolution of resistance genes in tuber-bearing Solanum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.

    2007-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a crop with a large secondary gene pool, which contains many important traits that can be exploited in breeding programs. As late blight is one of the biggest problems in potato growing areas, the crop needs a large number of applications of fungicides to be able to

  1. 马铃薯黑痣病菌AG2-1和AG3融合群分析%Analysis on Anastomosis Groups of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-1 and AG3 from Potato(Solanum tuberosum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 杨志辉; 秦宇轩; 朱杰华

    2013-01-01

    Current classification within Rhizoctonia solani is largely based on grouping of the population into anastomosis groups (AG), but does not always appear to accurately reflect the genetic variability among population. Hyphal anastomosis reactions and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were integrated to evaluate the genetic diversity of isolates Rhizoctonia solani AG2-1 and AG3 from potato (Solanum tuberosum). Anastomosis reactions indicated that the complete fusion reaction occurred among the different isolates of AG3. Either the complete fusion reaction or incomplete one occurred among the traditionally defined isolates of AG2-1. Therefore, AG2-1 was grouped into two sub-groups by incomplete fusion reaction. Phylogenetic tree constructed by ITS sequences showed that the AG3 formed only one separated clade, whereas AG2-1 clustered into the two different sub-clades. The horizontal lengths of the branches indicated that AG2-1 has been appearing obvious genetic differentiation because the relative genetic diversity of AG2-1 or the two subgroup AG2-1-1 and AG2-1-2 were higher than that of AG3. Based on ITS sequences, the two sub-clades within AG2-1 were consistent with the two sub-groups based on the incomplete anastomosis reaction. So the incomplete fusion reaction can be used as a referent character for genetic differentiation within an anastomosis group of Rhizoctonia solani.%采用菌丝融合分类法对立枯丝核菌进行融合群的划分,有时不能准确地反映该菌群体间的遗传变异.本研究通过菌丝融合反应、ITS序列分析对马铃薯黑痣病菌(Rhizoctonia solani)AG2-1和AG3两个融合群进行了遗传变异研究.对马铃薯黑痣病菌AG2-1和AG3融合反应测定表明,AG3融合群菌株间为完全融合,而AG2-1菌株间存在完全融合和不完全融合现象,根据不完全融合现象可将AG2-1划分为两组.通过ITS序列构建的系统发育树表明,AG3形成单一的分支,而AG2-1可分为

  2. Effects of Sowing Time, Planting Density and Cultivation Methods on Growth and Yield of Winter Potato(Solanum tuberosum ) in Hainan%播种期·种植密度·栽培方式对海南冬种马铃薯生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍壮生; 廖道龙; 肖日新; 符坚

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索海南冬种马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)的适应性及其栽培技术措施.[方法]以马铃薯品种费乌瑞它为试验材料,分别就播种期、种植密度和栽培方式进行试验,研究不同播种期、种植密度和栽培方式对海南冬种马铃薯生长及产量的影响.[结果]随着播种期的推迟,出苗期有所提前,生育期和全生育期则相应缩短.播种期的早晚对产量影响较大,其中以11月14日播种的产量最高,小区平均产量为35.16 kg,折合产量为19330.20 kg/hm2,商品薯率为92.75%.种植密度以7.5万株/hm2最好,小区平均产量20.53 kg,折合产量23108.10 kg/hm2,商品薯率为97.08%.栽培方式以黑色地膜覆盖栽培最佳,能提早出苗,提高出苗率,促进苗齐苗壮,小区平均产量20.31 kg,折合产量为22333.50 kg/hm2,商品著率达到94.43%.[结论]马铃薯品种费乌瑞它适合海南冬季种植,其最佳播种期、种植密度和栽培方式分别为11月14日、7.5万株/hm2和黑色地膜覆盖栽培.%[ Objective] The research aimed to study the adaptability of winter potato and its cultivation technology. [ Method] Winter potato variety Favorita was used as the trial material to study the effects of different sowing time, planting density and cultivation methods on growth and yield of winter potato in Hainan Province.[ Result] The results showed that the emergence date was early and its growth period was shorted, with the delay of seeding date. Different seeding dates had significant effect on the yield. The yield was the highest which was grown in November 14th, with the average yield per plot 35. 16 kg (19 330. 20 kg/hm ) and marketable percentage 92.75% . 7.5×104 plants per ha, the optimum planting density , produced average yield per plot 20, 53 kg (23 108. 10 kg/hm ) and marketable percentage 97. 08%, Black plastic film mulching advanced emergence and improved emergence rate, with the average yield per plot 20.31 kg (22 333. 50 kg/hm ) and

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE GLYCOALKALOIDS CONTENT FROM POTATO TUBERCULES (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORGIA WIDMANN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinations concerning the glycoalkaloids content were made over four potato varieties (Hansa, Sieglinde, Nicola and Linda obtained from a private German source, country in which potatoes are cultivated and consumed frequently. Potatoes have been cultivated in classic conditions, as well as in biodynamic conditions.The glycoalkaloids complex and their aglycones had been obtained through a sequence of operations, like extractions with several specific solvents at reflux and in backward flow, hydrolysis, lyophilisation etc.The determinations concerning the glycoalcaloids content of the four studied potato varieties were accomplished comparatively for both culture modes, in classic and biodynamic conditions.

  4. MARUCA: UNA NUEVA VARIEDAD CUBANA DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Estévez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, desde 1985 se inició un programa de mejoramiento genético, con el objetivo de obtener variedades cubanas de papa con resistencia a enfermedades, altos rendimientos y calidad de los tubérculos; producto de ese programa se han obtenido seis variedades. Maruca es una nueva variedad obtenida por el método clásico de hibridación, que posee altos rendimientos, calidad para consumo fresco y es medianamente susceptible a A. solani. Posee su registro comercial de nueva variedad cubana, otorgado por el Centro Nacional de Sanidad Vegetal del Ministerio de Agricultura de Cuba. En este trabajo se presentan las principales características de esta variedad así como su pedigrí.

  5. Comparación de métodos de extracción de RNA para la detección por RT-PCR del Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV en diferentes órganos de Solanum tuberosum Grupo Phureja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anngie Katherine Hernández Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Comparison of RNA isolation methods for Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV detection by RT-PCR in different organs of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja Título corto: comparación de métodos de extracción de RNAResumen Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, Crinivirus/Closteroviridae, contiene genoma tripartita de ssRNA(+, se limita al floema y causa pérdidas en la producción. Es un virus re-emergente y cuarentenario en Europa y Estados Unidos. La detección se ha basado en RT-PCR, NASH y RT-PCR en tiempo real (RT-qPCR en muestras de foliolo y tubérculo. Se desconoce como es la distribución del virus en plantas infectadas lo que hace necesario establecer un método de extracción de RNA, que sea eficiente en la obtención de material a partir de diferentes órganos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar tres métodos de extracción de RNA: uno basado en Tioisocianato de guanidina (Trizol® (Invitrogen, uno que utiliza bromuro de hexadecil trimetil amonio (CTAB y el método fenol/cloroformo seguido por purificación con columnas de Sephadex; para detectar el virus por RT-PCR en: foliolo, peciolo, pedúnculo floral, pétalos, tallo aéreo y subterráneo, antera y brotes de tubérculo; de plantas infectadas. Los métodos de extracción fueron evaluados en términos de la integridad (relación de la intensidad de las bandas de las subunidades ribosomales 28S/18S, calidad (relación de las lecturas espectrofométricas 260/280nm y rendimiento de los extractos. PYVV se detectó por RT-PCR en todos los órganos analizados por los tres métodos de extracción. No se presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tres métodos de extracción; sin embargo, Trizol® (Invitrogen presentó mayor rendimiento, calidad e integridad; además, permitió la detección del virus por RT-PCR en todos los órganos evaluados. Palabras claves: crinivirus; PYVV; extracción; Trizol®;  CTAB; Sephadex. Abstract Potato yellow vein virus

  6. Preservação in vitro da batata com ácido acetilsalicílico e duas fontes de carboidrato In vitro storage of potato under acetyl salicylic acid and two carbohydrate sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Renan de Luces Fortes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de carboidratos e do ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS na preservação in vitro da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Brotações de 1,5 a 2,0 cm de comprimento foram transferidas para meio de MS, acrescido de mio-inositol (100 mg L-1 e ágar (6 g L-1. Testaram-se duas fontes de carboidrato, sacarose e manitol (87,6 mM, e cinco concentrações de AAS (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 mg L-1. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições por tratamento e cada repetição formada por oito tubos de ensaio com uma brotação. O material foi mantido à temperatura de 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e radiação de 19 miE m-2 s-1. O crescimento e o número de gemas nas hastes foram avaliados por três meses. Passados nove meses, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos também foram avaliados. O uso de manitol, associado às concentrações a partir de 30 mg L-1 de AAS, proporcionou menor crescimento e formação de gemas nas hastes. No meio suplementado com sacarose, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos foram maiores, independentemente das concentrações de AAS utilizadas, após nove meses de cultivo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA during the in vitro storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Stems derived from in vitro cultures were cut into 1.5 to 2.0 cm segments and inoculated in a MS medium supplemented with myo-inositol (100 mg L-1 and agar (6 g L-1. Sucrose and mannitol 87.6 mM and five ASA concentrations (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L-1 were tested. The stems were cultured on 10 mL medium in test tubes (20 x 150 mm and incubated in a growth chamber at 25±2ºC, 16 hour photoperiod and 19 muE m-2 s-1 radiation. The growth and the bud number formed in the stems for a period of three months were evaluated. Nine months later the survival percentage and the number of microtubers formed

  7. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient for potato in organic farming Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo da batata em sistema agroecológico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the water consumption and the crop coefficients (Kc for the potato (Solanum tuberosum L., in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil, under organic management, and to simulate the crop evapotranspiration (ETc using the Kc obtained in the field and the ones recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The water consumption was obtained through soil water balance, using TDR probes installed at 0.15m and 0.30m deep. At the different stages of development, the Kc was determined by the ratio of ETc and reference evapotranspiration, obtained by Penman-Monteith FAO 56. The crop coefficients obtained were 0.35, 0.45, 1.29 and 0.63. The accumulated ETc obtained in the field was 109.6 mm, while the ETc accumulated from FAO's Kc were 142.2 and 138mm, respectively, considering the classical values and the values adjusted to the local climatic conditions. The simulation of water consumption based on meteorological data of historical series from 1961 to 2007 provided higher value of ETc when compared with the one obtained in the field. From the meteorological data of historical series, it was observed that the use of Kc recommended by FAO may overestimate the amount of irrigation water by 9%, over the same growing season.O trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a quantificar, sob manejo agroecológico, o consumo hídrico e os kcs para a cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., em Seropédica (RJ, e a simular a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc, utilizando os kcs obtidos e os kcs preconizados pela FAO. O consumo hídrico foi obtido por meio do balanço hídrico do solo, utilizando sondas de TDR instaladas a 0,15 e 0,30 m de profundidade. Nas diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, o kc foi determinado pela razão entre a ETc e a evapotranspiração de referência, obtida por Penman-Monteith FAO 56. Os kcs obtidos foram 0,35; 0,45; 1,29 e 0,63. A ETc acumulada obtida em campo foi de 109,6 mm, enquanto as ETcs

  8. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. c...

  9. Late blight and early blight resistance from Solanum hougasii introgressed into Solanum tuberosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, and early blight, incited by Alternaria solani,are the two most widely occurring foliar diseases of potato in the U.S. Resistance to both diseases is necessary if growers are to reduce fungicide applications. Field resistance to late blight has previous...

  10. Resistance of wild Solanum accessions to aphids and other potato pests in Quebec field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, B; Bejan, M; Lucas, E; Giordanengo, P; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae.

  11. Qualidade para processamento de clones de batata cultivados durante a primavera e outono no Rio Grande do Sul Processing quality of potato clones during spring and autumn grown conditions of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A industrialização da batata (Solanum tuberosum L. tem sido limitada no Brasil, quase que exclusivamente, pela falta de matéria-prima adequada. Alta qualidade do produto processado é dependente de altos teores de matéria seca, que reduz a absorção de óleo durante a fritura e confere crocância, e baixos teores de açúcares redutores, que mantêm a coloração clara das fritas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar clones de batata de alta qualidade para processamento a partir da avaliação de tubérculos produzidos durante os cultivos de primavera de 2003 e outono de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. O experimento foi conduzido em um fatorial (15 clones e duas épocas de cultivo no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados os clones Dakota Rose, SMINIAIporã, SMIJ461-1, SMIJ319-1, SMIJ456-4Y, SMID040-4RY, SMIE040-6RY, SMIC148-A, SMIF165-6RY, SMIH095-1, SMINIA90244-1, SMINIA793101-3, SMINIA95043-11, Macaca e Asterix nos cultivos de primavera de 2003 e outono de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. As condições ambientais, durante o período de produção, influenciaram a qualidade pós-colheita dos tubérculos. Os clones SMIJ461-1, SMIJ319-1, SMIJ456-4Y, SMIC148-A, SMIDO40-4RY e SMIH095-1 foram os que apresentaram o melhor desempenho nas características desejáveis para processamento, sendo superiores a Asterix, cultivada para consumo de mesa ou para processamento na forma de chips nas diferentes regiões produtoras de batata. Dentre esses clones, SMIDO40-4RY e SMIH095-1 foram os menos influenciados pelas diferenças de temperatura e insolação típicas das épocas de cultivo de outono e primavera no RS. Os clones SMIJ461-1 e SMIJ456-4Y apresentaram maior teor de matéria seca e coloração mais clara do chips no cultivo da primavera.The development of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. processing industry has been limited in Brazil, because of the low availability of tubers with adequate quality. High dry matter

  12. Isoenzymatic variability in wild potatoes Variabilidade isoenzimática em batata silvestre

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    Beatriz Helena Gomes Rocha

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Two species of wild potato Solanum commersonii, subspecies commersonii and malmeanum, and S. chacoense, subspecies muelleri occur in southern Brazil. Their rusticity and easy adaptation to extreme climatic conditions make them valuable for breeding programs. The objective of this work was to analyze the isoenzymatic variability of 113 clones of wild potato subspecies. They were collected and maintained at Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, at Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Enzymes involved in energetic (group I or in peripherical (group II metabolism constituted the material used. Polyacrylamide horizontal gel electrophoresis was used to analyze peroxidase, aspartate transaminase, phosphoglucomutase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes. Solanum spp. has considerable genetic variability for isoenzymatic patterns. Cluster analysis classified the clones into 51 subgroups, based on electrophoretic variants of group I enzymes, and into 89, when group II enzyme variants were added. Genotypic differentiation of S. chacoense muelleri in relation to S. commersonii commersonii and S. commersonii malmeanum is evident when expressed through similarity and cluster analysis.No sul do Brasil ocorrem apenas duas espécies silvestres de batata, Solanum commersonii, com as subespécies commersonii e malmeanum, e S. chacoense, com a subespécie muelleri, de interesse aos programas de melhoramento, pela rusticidade e fácil adaptação a condições climáticas extremas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a variabilidade isoenzimática de 113 clones de batata silvestre. O material foi coletado e mantido na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, em Pelotas, RS. Foram usadas enzimas envolvidas nos metabolismos energético (grupo I e periférico (grupo II. Eletroforese horizontal em gel de poliacrilamida foi empregada para análise de isoenzimas de peroxidase, aspartato transaminase, fosfoglucomutase e isocitrato

  13. Solanum (Solanaceae in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the 41 species, subspecies and cultivar groups in the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae that occur in Uganda, about 30 are indigenous. In Uganda several members of the genus are utilised as food crops while others are put to medicinal and ornamental use. Some members are notorious weeds. A key to the species and descriptions of all Solanum species occurring in Uganda are provided.

  14. Glycoalkaloids of wild and cultivated Solanum: effects on specialist and generalist insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altesor, Paula; García, Álvaro; Font, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Haralambides, Alejandra; Vilaró, Francisco; Oesterheld, Martín; Soler, Roxina; González, Andrés

    2014-06-01

    Plant domestication by selective breeding may reduce plant chemical defense in favor of growth. However, few studies have simultaneously studied the defensive chemistry of cultivated plants and their wild congeners in connection to herbivore susceptibility. We compared the constitutive glycoalkaloids (GAs) of cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, and a wild congener, S. commersonii, by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. We also determined the major herbivores present on the two species in field plots, and tested their preference for the plants and their isolated GAs in two-choice bioassays. Solanum commersonii had a different GA profile and higher concentrations than S. tuberosum. In the field, S. tuberosum was mostly attacked by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and by the specialist flea beetle Epitrix argentinensis. In contrast, the most common herbivore on S. commersonii was the specialist sawfly Tequus sp. Defoliation levels were higher on the wild species, probably due to the chewing feeding behavior of Tequus sp. As seen in the field, M. persicae and E. argentinensis preferred leaf disks of the cultivated plant, while Tequus sp. preferred those of the wild one. Congruently, GAs from S. commersonii were avoided by M. persicae and preferred by Tequus sp. The potato aphid performed well on both species and was not deterred by S. commersonii GAs. These observations suggest that different GA profiles explain the feeding preferences of the different herbivores, and that domestication has altered the defensive capacity of S. tuberosum. However, the wild relative is still subject to severe defoliation by a specialist herbivore that may cue on the GAs.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  16. Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Bai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    After its introduction in Europe the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has gone a long way. Dedicated breeding has resulted in numerous cultivars grown all over the world, differing in all kind of aspects such as yield, shape, resistance, taste and quality. Modern cultivars are sold as hybrids with a ve

  17. In vitro development of buds from tubers of (Solanum tuberosum L.); Desarrollo in vitro de yemas procedentes de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) tratados por radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the in vitro development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. Ths effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradiation is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (Author) 17 refs.

  18. Processing quality of potato tubers produced during autumn and spring and stored at different temperatures Qualidade de processamento de tubérculos de batata produzidos no outono e na primavera e armazenados em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio T de Freitas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to access processing quality of potato clones (Solanum tuberosum Asterix, SMINIA793101-3, and Missaukee cultivated during spring and autumn growing seasons and stored at 4, 8, 12, or 25ºC. Clones grown in spring had shorter dormancy than clones grown in autumn. Potato tubers grown in spring and autumn and stored at 4ºC, as well as tubers grown in autumn and stored at 8ºC had no sprouting for six months. Among clones grown in autumn, the longest dormancy period during storage at 12ºC was observed in the clone SMINIA793101-3, and at 25ºC was in the clone Asterix. In potato tubers grown in spring, the longest dormancy period during storage at 8ºC was observed in the clones SMINIA793101-3 and Missaukee, at 12ºC was in the clone SMINIA793101-3, and at 25ºC was in the clones Asterix and Missaukee. Potato tubers grown in spring had higher dry matter, starch content, and respiration rates, and lower reducing sugar, and total polyphenol content. The only exception was the Missaukee that had similar dry matter content in both growing seasons. In general, storage at 4ºC and 8ºC were more effective in reducing respiration rates and maintaining higher dry mater content of potato tubers. Chip darkening, reducing sugars, and total polyphenol content increased during storage of potato tubers. Darker chip color, higher reducing sugars and polyphenol content were obtained during storage at temperatures of 4ºC and 8ºC. These results suggest that the best storage temperature depends on genotype, tuber physiological age, and growing conditions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade de processamento dos clones de batata (Solanum tuberosum Asterix, SMINIA793101-3, e Missaukee cultivados durante outono e primavera e armazenados a 4, 8, 12, ou 25ºC. Clones produzidos na primavera tiveram menor período de dormência que clones produzidos no outono. Tubérculos produzidos na primavera e outono e armazenados a 4º

  19. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  20. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Heider, B.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Miller, R.E.; Scotland, R.W.; Wood, J.R.I.; Rossel, G.; Eserman, L.A.; Jarret, R.L.; Yencho, G.C.; Bernau, V.; Juarez, H.; Sotelo, S.; Haan, de S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which t

  1. Anti-ulcer activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Panda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcers occur in that part of the gastrointestinal tract which is exposed to gastric acid and pepsin, i.e., the stomach and duodenum. Gastric and duodenal ulcers are common pathologies that may be induced by a variety of factors such as stress, smoking and noxious agents including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato contain ample amounts of antioxidants. It has been proven already by many scientific studies that antioxidants have ulcer healing properties. In reference to this, we tried assessing the ulcer healing effect of Ipomoea batatas tubers. Methods: The anti-ulcer activity of the tubers of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato was studied in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Methanolic extracts of Ipomoea batatas tubers (TE at two doses, viz., 400 and 800 mg /kg were evaluated in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models using cimetidine and omeprazole respectively as standards. The standard drugs and the test drugs were administered orally for 7 days in the cold stressmodel and for 1 day in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model. Gastroprotective potential, status of the antioxidant enzymes {superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase(GR} along with GSH, and lipid peroxidation were studied in both models. Results: The results of the present study showed that TE possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition of mean ulcer score and ulcer index and a marked increase in GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner.Conclusion: The present experimental findings suggest that tubers of Ipomoea batatas may be useful for treating peptic ulcers.

  2. Biochemical investigations of yield-limitations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ) under warm tropical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohabir, G.

    1988-01-01

    An important factor that limits potato yields in the lowland tropics is the continuously high soil temperatures. The biochemical basis of this limitation has been investigated. A sharp temperature optimum is observed in Arrhenius plots at 21.5/degrees/C when the incorporation of (/sup 14/C) sucrose into starch is measured with discs cut from developing tubers of potato. Over the same temperature range evolution of (/sup 14/C) CO/sub 2/ and apoplastic uptake show positive linearity while ethanol-soluble uptake displays a broad optimum above 25/degrees/C. By comparison starch synthesis in discs from corms of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott.) is increased linearly by raising the temperature from 15/degrees/C to 35/degrees/C. The significance of a relatively low temperature optimum for starch synthesis in potato is discussed in relation to the yield limitation imposed by continuously high soil temperatures.

  3. Transport van X-virus in de aardappel (Solanum tuberosum L.) bij primaire infectie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemster, A.B.R.

    1958-01-01

    The time needed for potato virus X to reach the tubers from the inoculated leaf depended closely on the age of the potato plant. In young plants the virus could be detected in the tubers after about five days. However in the period of maximum tuber formation, virus translocation occurred only incide

  4. Erwinia endophytica sp. nov., isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Salazar, Sergio; Cuesta, Maria José; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, Jose Mariano; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Peix, Alvaro

    2015-12-04

    We analysed through a polyphasic taxonomy approach two bacterial strains coded BSTT30T and BSTT40, isolated in the course of a study of endophytic bacteria occurring in stems and roots of potato growing in a soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was identical in both strains and had 98.4% identity with respect to the closest relatives Erwinia tasmaniensis Et1/99T and E. rhapontici ATCC29283T and the following closest related species with 98.2 % similarity were E. billingiae E63T and E. toletana A37T, for which the strains were classified within genus Erwinia. The analysis of housekeeping genes gpd, gyrB and rpoD confirmed their phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 90% in all cases with respect to the mentioned closest relatives. The respiratory quinone is Q8. The major fatty acids are C16:0, C16:1 7c/ 16:1 6c in summed feature 3 and C18:1 7c/ 18:2 6,9c in summed feature 8. Oxidase negative and catalase positive. Glucose is fermented without gas production. Arginine dihydrolase, urease and indole production are negative. It can grow at 35ºC and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 50.1 mol %. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 29% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four closest related species. Therefore, the combined results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strains BSTT30T and BSTT40 into a novel species of Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSTT30T (=LMG 28457T, CECT 8692T).

  5. Agronomical indicators for determination of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Morales Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately, water shortage has caused 50% losses in potato yields in several Central American countries. Knowledge and use of more tolerant potato varieties are a critical element to increase production and yields under stressing conditions. The experiments were developed at the Center for Tropical Crops Research (INIVIT, between December 2014, and March 2015. Ten plots were planted, including different varieties. Half of them (5 were not irrigated for 20 days, starting on the 50th day after plantation (drought stress period. Irrigation was resumed on the 70th day. The Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI, Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Tolerance Index (TOL, Mean Productivity (MP, and Yield Stability Index (YSI. The Atlas and Maranca varieties had the lowest values for SSI (0.67 and 0.61, respectively, and the highest values for STI (0.79 and 0.81, respectively. The highest MP (19.92 t/ha was achieved by Atlas. The highest YSI values were observed in Maranca and Atlas (81.07 and 79.29, respectively.

  6. [Quality evaluation of a dehydrated product based on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) and eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorio Paulet, P; Reynoso Zárate, Z

    1993-03-01

    After a mathematical evaluation of 20 mixtures containing different proportions of potato (P), lupin (L) and whole egg (E) on dry basis and kept the latter component in a constant amount of 6 per cent, a mixture of 60:34:6 (P:L:E) was chosen for a further experimental work at a lab level because of his better nutritional value for the pre-school children feeding. When an eighteen percent suspension of the mixture mentioned above was dehydrated in a drum drier an adecuate yield of flakes was obtained with an appropriate water absorption. The sensory evaluation test of the dehydrated product as a sauce indicated a higher acceptance than purées. On the other hand, during a 90 days period storage test of the product as flakes, it did not show microbiological problems, although after 45 days rancidity appeared in the dehydrated product.

  7. Mechanisms of self-incompatibility and unilateral incompatibility in diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijlander, R.

    1998-01-01

    In chapter 1 an overview is given of the major mechanisms operating in Angiosperms that prevent or limit the degree of inbreeding. The two major systems that function on the basis of interaction between pollen and stigma/style, are the sporophytic and the gametophytic self-incompatibility systems (S

  8. Diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) as a model crop to study transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna; Pietrusinska, Aleksandra; Binka-Wyrwa, Agnieszka; Kuc, Dominik; Orczyk, Wacław

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for two diploid breeding lines of potato, and gives a detailed analysis of reporter gene expression. In our lab, these lines were also used to obtain tetraploid somatic hybrids. We tested four newly prepared constructs based on the pGreen vector system containing the selection gene nptII or bar under the 35S or nos promoter. All these vectors carried gus under 35S. We also tested the pDM805 vector, with the bar and gus genes respectively under the Ubi1 and Act1 promoters, which are strong for monocots. The selection efficiency (about 17%) was highest in the stem and leaf explants after transformation with pGreen where nptII was under 35S. About half of the selected plants were confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis to be transgenic and, depending on the combination, 0 to 100% showed GUS expression. GUS expression was strongest in multi-copy transgenic plants where gus was under Act1. The same potato lines carrying multi-copy bar under Ubi1 were also highly resistant to the herbicide Basta. The suggestion of using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of diploid lines of potato as a model crop is discussed herein.

  9. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic variation for yield, leaf area index, period of maximum soil cover, sensitivity for N-shortage and nitrogen efficiency under low input circumstances was found. However, in these experiments varietie...

  10. Expression of human dopamine receptor in potato (Solanum tuberosum results in altered tuber carbon metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świędrych Anna

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine have been detected in plants their role is poorly documented. Correlations between norepinephrine, soluble sugars and starch concentration have been recently reported for potato plants over-expressing tyrosine decarboxylase, the enzyme mediating the first step of catecholamine synthesis. More recently norepinephrine level was shown to significantly increase after osmotic stress, abscisic acid treatment and wounding. Therefore, it is possible that catecholamines might play a role in plant stress responses by modulating primary carbon metabolism, possibly by a mechanism similar to that in animal cells. Since to date no catecholamine receptor has been identified in plants we transformed potato plants with a cDNA encoding human dopamine receptor (HD1. Results Tuber analysis of transgenic plants revealed changes in the activities of key enzymes mediating sucrose to starch conversion (ADP-glucose phosphorylase and sucrose synthase and sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase leading to altered content of both soluble sugars and starch. Surprisingly the catecholamine level measured in transgenic plants was significantly increased; the reason for this is as yet unknown. However the presence of the receptor affected a broader range of enzyme activities than those affected by the massive accumulation of norepinephrine reported for plants over-expressing tyrosine decarboxylase. Therefore, it is suggested that the presence of the exogenous receptor activates catecholamine cAMP signalling in plants. Conclusions Our data support the possible involvement of catecholamines in regulating plant carbon metabolism via cAMP signalling pathway.

  11. Regeneración de Solanum tuberosum L. variedad pastusa suprema a partir de explantes internodales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las vías posibles para aumentar la eficacia de los métodos de transformación genética mediante Agrobacterium tumefaciens es la optimización de la capacidad de regeneración de las plantas de interés. En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, el grupo de Ingeniería Genética de Plantas (IGP, ha venido trabajando en la obtención de plantas transgénicas a partir de la variedad de papa Diacol Capiro. Es de interés llevar a cabo este tipo de procedimientos en otras variedades de papa colombiana. La variedad Pastusa Suprema
    es un cultivar obtenido mediante mejoramiento genético convencional, que presenta cualidades superiores a otros cultivares. Es importante desarrollar un sistema eficiente de regeneración en esta variedad, como soporte para ulteriores estudios de transferencia de genes que permitan optimizar aún más su rendimiento. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de diferentes combinaciones hormonales adicionadas a un medio básico compuesto de sales Murashige y Skogg (1962, sobre el comportamiento callogénico y regenerativo de la variedad
    de Pastusa Suprema. Se realizó un diseño experimental factorial, en arreglo completamente al azar. Los factores corresponden a las hormonas ácido naftalénacetico (ANA, ácido giberélico (AG3 y ZR (Zeatina Ribósido, y los niveles son las concentraciones por factor ZR: 2,0 mg/L y 3,0 mg/L; ANA 0,0 mg/L, 0,02 mg/L, y 0,2 mg/L; y AG3: 0,02 mg/L, 1,0 mg/L. Los tratamientos probados corresponden a todas las combinaciones posibles entre los niveles de hormona evaluados, dando lugar a un total de doce tratamientos. La eficiencia del medio de cultivo se evaluó con base en las variables: porcentaje de inducción de callos, porcentaje de regeneración, y número de regenerantes por explante. El análisis de los datos se realizó con el software estadístico
    SAS versión 8.0. La presencia de ANA demostró ser esencial en la respuesta callogénica y regenerativa de los explantes. Los tratamientos carentes de esta hormona mostraron porcentajes de inducción de callo y regeneración muy bajos (16% +/- 11,3 y 15% +/- 11,7 respectivamente. Los tratamientos con una concentración elevada de ANA (0,2 mg/L, formaron callo en un 100%, pero no alcanzaron un porcentaje de regeneración
    adecuado (26% +/- 16. Los tratamientos en los que se utilizó una concentración baja de ANA (0,02 mg/L, fueron eficientes tanto en la formación de callo, como en la regeneración (86,0 +/- 13 y 70 +/- 22%. El nivel de zeatina ribósido y ácido giberélico utilizados en el medio, demostraron también ser estadísticamente significativos en el comportamiento callogénico y regenerativo. Los ensayos realizados demuestran la importancia de la combinación de los tres tipos hormonales en la inducción de callo, y subsecuente regeneración; probablemente, su interacción a nivel fisiológico crea las condiciones necesarias para que el tejido se desdiferencie y exprese su totipotencialidad. Comparando los resultados obtenidos en los 12 tratamientos para cada una de las variables estudiadas se puede concluir que la adición de 3 mg/L de zeatina ribósido, 0,02 mg/L de ácido naftalénacetico y 1,0 mg/L de ácido gibérelico en el medio de cultivo, constituye una formulación hormonal adecuada para inducir el proceso de organogénesis indirecta sobre la variedad de papa Pastusa Suprema, obteniendo porcentajes de regeneración de 92,9 % +/- 4,9 y un número medio de regenerantes por explante de 6,37 +/- 1,03 en un tiempo total de ocho semanas.

  12. Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

    2012-01-01

    wish to generate novel varieties for a commercial purpose. The potential of non-Agrobacterium strains (Transbacter™) to modify a plant genome has previously been described. However, they are unlikely to be widely used without significant adjustments in transformation protocols in order to improve...... their gene transfer efficiencies. In this study we set out to identify alternative bacteria species that could (a) utilize vir genes for genetic transformation and (b) substitute for A. tumefaciens in existing transformation protocols, without a prerequisite for protocol modifications. To this end we...

  13. Genetic Diversity and Yield Stability of Potato(Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biswas M K; Hossain M; Islam R

    2008-01-01

    The present study was under taken to investigate the genetic distance and the performance of thirty one potato genotypes in diverse environments. Multivariate and canonical analysis were used to study genetic diversity among the genotypes and stability parameters were estimated according to Eberhart and Russell, Parkinge and Jinks and Freeman and Perkins models for plant height, branch number per plant, tuber number and tuber weight. Thirty one genotypes were grouped in to six clusters with the help of Mahalonobis distance and canonical analysis. The stability analysis revealed that yield was greatly influenced by the environments. Most of the studied genotypes were sensitive for yield with the environ-ment. For over-all performance 'Hera','Chamak','Patnai','Lala pekri','TPS-7', 'TPS-364', 'Somerset' and 'Superi-or' were the best genotypes for tuber yield and breeding material for potato breeding.

  14. Association genetics of sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents with SNP markers in Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Delgado, Diana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    El alto contenido de sacarosa (azúcar no reductor), glucosa y fructosa (azúcares reductores) en los tubérculos de papa representa un rasgo indeseable en la industria del procesamiento en frito, pues lo azúcares reductores conducen al ennegrecimiento de la papa frita y a la producción de compuestos tóxicos como la acrilamida que reducen la aceptación por los consumidores y ocasionan riesgos para la salud humana. El análisis de asociación genética es una estrategia para estudiar las bases molec...

  15. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Bałcyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘Ślęza’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  16. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plant to moderately elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Robert D; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Usman, Muhammad; Verrall, Susan R; Fuller, John; Simpson, Craig G; Zhang, Runxuan; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Although significant work has been undertaken regarding the response of model and crop plants to heat shock during the acclimatory phase, few studies have examined the steady-state response to the mild heat stress encountered in temperate agriculture. In the present work, we therefore exposed tuberizing potato plants to mildly elevated temperatures (30/20 °C, day/night) for up to 5 weeks and compared tuber yield, physiological and biochemical responses, and leaf and tuber metabolomes and transcriptomes with plants grown under optimal conditions (22/16 °C). Growth at elevated temperature reduced tuber yield despite an increase in net foliar photosynthesis. This was associated with major shifts in leaf and tuber metabolite profiles, a significant decrease in leaf glutathione redox state and decreased starch synthesis in tubers. Furthermore, growth at elevated temperature had a profound impact on leaf and tuber transcript expression with large numbers of transcripts displaying a rhythmic oscillation at the higher growth temperature. RT-PCR revealed perturbation in the expression of circadian clock transcripts including StSP6A, previously identified as a tuberization signal. Our data indicate that potato plants grown at moderately elevated temperatures do not exhibit classic symptoms of abiotic stress but that tuber development responds via a diversity of biochemical and molecular signals.

  17. Symplastic connection is required for bud outgrowth following dormancy in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Roberto; Pelloux, Jérôme; van der Ploeg, Anke; Gillespie, Trudi; Marquis, Nicola; Roberts, Alison G; Hancock, Robert D

    2007-08-01

    To gain greater insight into the mechanism of dormancy release in the potato tuber, an investigation into physiological and biochemical changes in tuber and bud tissues during the transition from bud dormancy (immediately after harvest) to active bud growth was undertaken. Within the tuber, a rapid shift from storage metabolism (starch synthesis) to reserve mobilization within days of detachment from the mother plant suggested transition from sink to source. Over the same period, a shift in the pattern of [U-(14)C]sucrose uptake by tuber discs from diffuse to punctate accumulation was consistent with a transition from phloem unloading to phloem loading within the tuber parenchyma. There were no gross differences in metabolic capacity between resting and actively growing tuber buds as determined by [U-(14)C]glucose labelling. However, marked differences in metabolite pools were observed with large increases in starch and sucrose, and the accumulation of several organic acids in growing buds. Carboxyfluorescein labelling of tubers clearly demonstrated strong symplastic connection in actively growing buds and symplastic isolation in resting buds. It is proposed that potato tubers rapidly undergo metabolic transitions consistent with bud outgrowth; however, growth is initially prevented by substrate limitation mediated via symplastic isolation.

  18. Hydroxycinnamic acid functional ingredients and their biosynthetic genes in tubers of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyao Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato is an ideal candidate for the delivery of functional ingredients due to its high worldwide consumption. The metabolites in cooked tubers of eight diploid potato genotypes from Colombia were explored. Potato tubers were harvested, cooked,lyophilized, and then stored at −80°C. Metabolites were extracted from flesh samples and analyzed using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 294 metabolites were putatively identified, of which 87 metabolites were associated with health-benefiting roles for humans, such as anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Two metabolites, chlorogenic acid and N-Feruloyltyramine were detected in high abundance and were mapped on to the potato metabolic pathways to predict the related biosynthetic enzymes: hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate transferase (HQT and tyramine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT, respectively. The coding genes of these enzymes identified nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs in AC09, AC64, and Russet Burbank, with the highest enzyme stability found in AC09. This is consistent with the highest presence of hydroxycinnamic acids in the AC09 genotype. The metabolites detected at high fold change, their functional ingredient properties, and their enhancement through breeding to improve health of the indigenous communities’ of Colombia are discussed.

  19. Effect of preservative agents on the respiration rate of minimally processed potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Monalisa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, E; Arroqui, C; Angós, I; Vírseda, P

    2008-04-01

    The shelf life of minimally processed potatoes (MPP) is limited by enzyme-catalyzed browning reactions, with the increase in respiration being another factor that affects quality retention of this product. Sulfites are commonly used as effective preservative agents in minimally processing potatoes, but ascorbic acid and citric acid are considered natural sulfite substitutes and more accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to study the effect of combinations of the preservative agents cited above (sodium metabisulfite 0.1% and 0.5%; citric acid 0.1% and 0.5%; ascorbic acid 0.5%) on the respiration rate of MPP (cv. Monalisa) processed at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. The results have revealed that there is a significant effect of dipping treatment and temperature on respiration rate of MPP. Sodium metabisulfite (SM) reduces respiratory activity up to 0.8 mL/kg/h. The addition of either citric or ascorbic acid enhanced the effect of SM on the reduction of the respiration rate of MPP. The strongest effect (up to 3.3 mL/kg/h) was observed when a combination of all 3 agents at the higher concentrations was employed at a temperature of 18 degrees C.

  20. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to th

  1. [Incidence and altitudinal distribution of 13 virus cultures in Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae) from Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Viviana; Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Rivera, Carmen

    2006-12-01

    A survey was conducted in 30 fields located at three different altitudes in Cartago, Costa Rica's main potato producing area. Twenty plants were sampled per farm, for a total of 600 samples with 200 samples per altitude. ELISA was used with commercial reagents to independently test for PVX, PVY, PVM, PVA, PVS, PLRV, PMTV, PAMV, PVV, PVT, APLV, APMoV and TRSV. The presence of the following viruses was determined: PVX (77 %), PAMV (62 %), PLRV (42 %), TRSV (42 %), PVT (39 %), PVV (37 %), PMTV (31%), PVY (30 %), PVS (19 %), PVM (13 %), PVA (8 %), and APMoV (8%). APLV was not detected in any sample. This is the first report in Costa Rica of the presence of the viruses PMTV, PAMV, PVV, PVT and APMoV. A high viral incidence in the tuber seed production area as well as a high rate of mixed infections is reported.

  2. Pyramiding rice cystatin genes (OCI and OCII) in potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Jelica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major advances being used in current biotechnology to improve disease and pest control is the introduction of more than one beneficial gene into transgenic plants. Proteinase inhibitors oryzacystatins I and II (OCI and OCII) show potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine prote...

  3. Geminivirus-Mediated Genome Editing in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Sequence-Specific Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Nathaniel M; Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F; Douches, David S

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) is rapidly being developed for genetic engineering in crop species. The utilization of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated systems (CRISPR/Cas) for inducing double-strand breaks facilitates targeting of virtually any sequence for modification. Targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) has been demonstrated extensively as being the preferred DNA repair pathway in plants. However, gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) remains more elusive but could be a powerful tool for directed DNA repair. To overcome barriers associated with gene targeting, a geminivirus replicon (GVR) was used to deliver SSNs targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (ALS1) gene and repair templates designed to incorporate herbicide-inhibiting point mutations within the ALS1 locus. Transformed events modified with GVRs held point mutations that were capable of supporting a reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype, while events transformed with conventional T-DNAs held no detectable mutations and were similar to wild-type. Regeneration of transformed events improved detection of point mutations that supported a stronger reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype. These results demonstrate the use of geminiviruses for delivering genome editing reagents in plant species, and a novel approach to gene targeting in a vegetatively propagated species.

  4. Geminivirus-mediated genome editing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. using sequence-specific nucleases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel M Butler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs is rapidly being developed for genetic engineering in crop species. The utilization of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas for inducing double-strand breaks facilitates targeting of virtually any sequence for modification. Targeted mutagenesis via nonhomologous end-joining has been demonstrated extensively as being the preferred DNA repair pathway in plants. However, gene targeting via homologous recombination remains more elusive but could be a powerful tool for directed DNA repair. To overcome barriers associated with gene targeting, a geminivirus replicon (GVR was used to deliver SSNs targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (ALS1 gene and repair templates designed to incorporate herbicide-inhibiting point mutations within the ALS1 locus. Transformed events modified with GVRs held both point mutations that were capable of supporting a reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype, while events transformed with conventional T-DNAs held no detectable mutations and were similar to wild-type. Regeneration of transformed events improved detection of point mutations that supported a stronger reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype. These results demonstrate the use of geminiviruses for delivering genome editing reagents in plant species, and an approach to gene targeting in a vegetatively propagated species.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted three-phase partitioning of polyphenol oxidase from potato peel (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niphadkar, Sonali S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-01-01

    Conventional three phase partitioning (TPP) and ultrasound assisted three phase partitioning (UATPP) were optimized for achieving the maximum extraction and purification of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from waste potato peels. Different process parameters such as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 concentration, crude extract to t-butanol ratio, time, temperature and pH were studied for conventional TPP. Except agitation speed, the similar parameters were also optimized for UATPP. Further additional parameters were also studied for UATPP viz. irradiation time at different frequencies, duty cycle and, rated power in order to obtain the maximum purification factor and recovery of PPO. The optimized conditions for conventional TPP were (NH4)2SO4 0-40% (w/v), extract to t-butanol ratio 1:1 (v/v), time 40 min and pH 7 at 30°C. These conditions provided 6.3 purification factor and 70% recovery of PPO from bottom phase. On the other hand, UATPP gives maximum purification fold of 19.7 with 98.3% recovery under optimized parameters which includes (NH4)2SO4 0-40% (w/v), crude extract to t-butanol ratio 1: 1 (v/v) pH 7, irradiation time 5 min with 25 kHz, duty cycle 40% and rated power 150W at 30°C. UATPP delivers higher purification factor and % recovery of PPO along with reduced operation time from 40 min to 5 min when compared with TPP. SDS PAGE showed partial purification of PPO enzyme with UATPP with molecular weight in the range of 26-36 kDa. Results reveal that UATPP would be an attractive option for the isolation and purification of PPO without need of multiple steps.

  6. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under different soil Cd levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Lei; Wang, Shuifeng; Li, Yongliang; Dong, Fangli

    2014-06-01

    Phytoavailability and uptake mechanism of Cd in edible plant tissues grown on metal polluted agricultural soils has become a growing concern worldwide. Uptake, transport, accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato organs under different soil Cd levels were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results indicated that Cd contents in potato organs increased with increasing soil Cd concentrations, and the order of Cd contents in different organs was leaves > stems/roots > tubers. Root-to-stem Cd translocation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.81. Cd localization in potato tissues suggested that leaves and stems should be the main compartment of Cd storage and uptake. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to tuber, Cd accumulation in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be closely evaluated due to its potential to present health risks.

  7. Genotype by environment interaction effects on starch content and digestibility in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Stephanie; Yada, Rickey Y; Bizimungu, Benoit; Fan, Ming; Sullivan, J Alan

    2013-04-24

    Biochemically, starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin but can also be defined by its digestibility rates within the human intestinal tract, i.e., rapidly digested (RDS), slowly digested (SDS), or resistant (RS). The relative ratio of these starch components is the main contributor to differences in the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate sources. This study evaluated the digestible starch profile of 12 potato genotypes comprising elite breeding lines and commercial varieties in six environments, with the optimal profile defined as low RDS and high SDS. Genotype by environment interaction (GEI) analysis found significant (p = 0.05) genotypic and environmental effects for all digestibility rate components; however, interaction effects were only significant for SDS. Optimal starch profiles were identified for two genotypes, CV96044-3 and Goldrush. The desirable starch profile in these potato cultivars can be exploited in breeding programs for the improvement of starch profile and other important characteristics such as high yields and disease resistance.

  8. Beneficial ‘unintended effects’ of a cereal cystatin in transgenic lines of potato, Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munger Aurélie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies reported unintended pleiotropic effects for a number of pesticidal proteins ectopically expressed in transgenic crops, but the nature and significance of such effects in planta remain poorly understood. Here we assessed the effects of corn cystatin II (CCII, a potent inhibitor of C1A cysteine (Cys proteases considered for insect and pathogen control, on the leaf proteome and pathogen resistance status of potato lines constitutively expressing this protein. Results The leaf proteome of lines accumulating CCII at different levels was resolved by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and compared with the leaf proteome of a control (parental line. Out of ca. 700 proteins monitored on 2-D gels, 23 were significantly up- or downregulated in CCII-expressing leaves, including 14 proteins detected de novo or up-regulated by more than five-fold compared to the control. Most up-regulated proteins were abiotic or biotic stress-responsive proteins, including different secretory peroxidases, wound inducible protease inhibitors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Accordingly, infection of leaf tissues by the fungal necrotroph Botryris cinerea was prevented in CCII-expressing plants, despite a null impact of CCII on growth of this pathogen and the absence of extracellular Cys protease targets for the inhibitor. Conclusions These data point to the onset of pleiotropic effects altering the leaf proteome in transgenic plants expressing recombinant protease inhibitors. They also show the potential of these proteins as ectopic modulators of stress responses in planta, useful to engineer biotic or abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic significance.

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Giberelin Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Pada Beberapa Varietas Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Kentang merupakan sumber karbohidrat, mineral dan vitamin.Selain itu dapat dijadikan alternatif bahan pangan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian giberelin terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi beberapa varietas kentang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di lahan pertanian di Desa Gurusinga Kecamatan Berastagi, Kabupaten Karo, Sumatera Utara yang berada ±1.340 m dpl dari bulan Desember 2010 sampai Maret 2011 menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan 2 faktor. Faktor perta...

  10. Dickeya solani sp. nov., a pectinolytic plant pathogenic bacterium isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Kowalewska, M.J.; Saddler, G.S.; Parkinson, N.; Elphinstone, J.G.; Pritchard, L.; Toth, I.K.; Lojkowska, E.; Potrykus, M.; Waleron, M.; Vos, de P.; Cleenwerck, I.; Pirhonen, M.; Garlant, L.; Hélias, V.; Pothier, J.F.; Pflüger, V.; Duffy, B.; Tsror, L.; Manulis, S.

    2014-01-01

    Pectinolytic bacteria were recently isolated from diseased potato plants exhibiting blackleg and slow wilt symptoms found in a number of European countries and Israel. These Gram-negative, motile, rods were identified as belonging to the genus Dickeya, previously the Pectobacterium chrysanthemi comp

  11. Effect of Thiourea on Yield and Quality of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani, F.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of five concentrations (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mM of thiourea application on mother tubers on yield and quality attributes of harvested potato, variety Spunta in the region of Chott-Mariem in Tunisia. Treated tubers (Ш = 50 mm were planted in field after breaking dormancy at a spacing of 80 cm x 30 cm according to completely randomized design (CRD in three replications. Quality attributes of potato tubers especially fresh matter and dry matter of plant, total reducing sugars in leaves, tuber yield, number and diameter of tubers per plant and number of sprouts per tuber was measured. Soluble proteins and starch content in potato tubers were also quantified.In general we noted that application of thiourea showed significant influence on yield and on quality of tubers comparing to control. Maximum tuber yield per plant, maximum number of tubers per plant and maximum starch content was recorded with 250 mM of thiourea. Moreover, highest dry matter of potato plant was found also at this concentration. While increasing dose of thiourea thereafter it showed slight significant improvement and do not affect significantly the diameter of tubers comparing to control.

  12. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic v

  13. Pseudomonas endophytica sp. nov., isolated from stem tissue of Solanum tuberosum L. in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    A bacterial strain named BSTT44(T) was isolated in the course of a study of endophytic bacteria occurring in stems and roots of potato growing in a soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.7% identity with respect to that of its closest relative, Pseudomonas psychrophila E-3T, and the next most closely related type strains were those of Pseudomonas fragi, with 99.6% similarity, Pseudomonas deceptionensis, with 99.2% similarity, and Pseudomonas lundensis, with 99.0% similarity; these results indicate that BSTT44(T) should be classified within the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 92% in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Cells of the strain bore one polar-subpolar flagellum. The respiratory quinone was Q-9.The major fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive and the arginine dihydrolase system was present, but tests for nitrate reduction, β-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. It could grow at 35 °C and at pH 5-9.The DNA G+C content was 60.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed less than 48% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the combined results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain BSTT44 into a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSTT44(T) ( = LMG 28456(T) = CECT 8691(T)).

  14. Effect of drought stress factor on glycoalkaloid contents in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Matoušková, Vendula

    2016-01-01

    Potatoes are an important and irreplaceable crop. This kind of crop is very important not only for it is use but also for a nutrition composition. There are also a prominent source of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Outside substances beneficial to health and potatoes contain harmful substances. These substances are foreign or naturally occurring, which include toxic glycoalkaloids. Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites of plants. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes have protective function it...

  15. Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2014-12-15

    This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products.

  16. Identification of epistatic interaction affecting glycoalkalid content in tubers of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.; Levin, I.; Struik, P.C.; Levy, D.

    2003-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites characterised by an undesirable taste, and known to be toxic when consumed in large quantities. Their content in potato tubers should therefore be selected against and DNA markers can significantly facilitate such a process. This study was designed to describ

  17. Solanum diploconos fruits: profile of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of different parts of the fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-05-18

    Solanum diploconos is an unexploited Brazilian native fruit that belongs to the same genus of important food crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In this study, we determined, for the first time, the profile of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols) of the freeze-dried pulp and peel of Solanum diploconos fruits, as well as of an extract obtained from the whole fruit. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the whole fruit extract was evaluated in vitro, against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in the peel and pulp and 6 compounds were found in the whole fruit extract. Coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were revealed to be the major phenolic constituents. All-trans-β-carotene was the major carotenoid (17-38 μg g(-1), dry basis), but all-trans-lutein and 9-cis-β-carotene were also identified. The peel and pulp presented bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential against the most physiologically relevant ROS and RNS.

  18. Effect of Hydrocolloides On Fat Absorption on Batata Wada

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    SarangTajne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Batatawada is popular Indian vegetarian fast food in Maharashtra, India. It is literally means potato fritters. It consists of a potato mash patty coated with besan, then deep-fried and served hot with chutney. While preparing batter of besanhydrocolloids were added in the concentration range of 0.5%, 1.0% & 1.5%.Among all the hydrocolloids studied at different levels for preparation of Batata Wada, it can be concluded that Batata Wada formulated with 1.0% MC were found statistically significant over all other hydrocolloids in oil uptake with optimum sensory quality characteristics. It becomes quiet stable at level of 1.0% formulation in remaining hydrocolloids i.e. CMC, HPMC. Thus, Batata Wada with low fat and low calorie content with better acceptance can be prepared in order to meet the demand of low fatty foods, of health cautious consumers. In Texture analysis profile, hardness and stickiness values found at the level of formulation of 1.0% of MC, CMC, HPMC is quiet stable as compared to other level of formulation.

  19. VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA PARA TEOR DE AÇÚCARES REDUTORES EM BATATAS SILVESTRES QUE OCORREM NO SUL DO BRASIL GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR REDUCING SUGAR CONTENT IN WILD POTATOES THAT OCURR IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Carla Simone de Almeida Chalá

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Açúcares redutores e matéria seca são características muito importantes em batata para processamento. Duas espécies de batata silvestre, Solanum commersonii, subespécies commersonii e malmeanum, e S. chacoense, subespécie muelleri, ocorrem no Sul do Brasil. Essas espécies são importantes para programas de melhoramento, pois apresentam variabilidade para diversas características importantes, tais como, tolerância à seca e geada, resistências a doenças e insetos e teor de matéria seca. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a variabilidade genética e estimar a herdabilidade para teor de açúcares redutores em clones de batata silvestre, que ocorrem no Sul do Brasil. Cinqüenta clones de batata silvestre, tomados ao acaso, da coleção mantida na EMBRAPA - Clima Temperado foram cultivados, sob telado, no outono e na primavera de 1996. No outono, 30 e, na primavera, 40 clones produziram tubérculos para análise de açúcares redutores. Os teores de açúcares redutores dos tubérculos foram determinados pelo método de Lane Enyon e identificados pelo método de Somogyi, modificado por NELSON (1944. Os resultados indicaram que as espécies estudadas apresentam variabilidade para teor de açúcares redutores, com alta herdabilidade, principalmente no outono.Reducing sugar and dry matter are very important traits in potatoes for processing. Two wild potato species, Solanum commersonii, subspecies commersonii and malmeanum, and S. chacoense, subspecie mu, occur in the South of Brazil. These species are important for breeding programs, since they have variability for several important traits, such as drought and frost resistance, disease and insect resistance, and dry matter content.. The objectives of this research were to verify the genetic variability for reducing sugar content in wild potato clones of species that occur in this region and to estimate its heritability. Fifty wild potato clones, aleatorily chosen, of Embrapa

  20. Pneumonia intersticial em bovinos associada à ingestão de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas mofada Interstitial pneumonia in cattle fed moldy sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Fighera

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma doença respiratória foi diagnosticada em cinco dentre 23 bovinos (21,7% após terem sido alimentados com batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas mofada em uma pequena propriedade rural em São Vicente do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Três dos cinco bovinos afetados morreram espontaneamente, e o quarto foi sacrificado para necropsia quando mostrava sinais clínicos respiratórios avançados. A manifestação clínica iniciara cerca de 24 horas após a ingestão das batatas-doces e a evolução clínica foi de 1 a 4 dias. Os sinais clínicos incluíam dispnéia (respiração laboriosa e abdominal, taquipnéia, pescoço estendido com cabeça baixa e dilatação ritmada das narinas. Dois bovinos foram necropsiados. Os achados de necropsia incluíam pulmões distendidos, pálidos e de consistência borrachenta, que não colapsavam quando o tórax era aberto; enfisema e edema acentuados eram evidentes no pulmão. Os linfonodos e o baço apresentavam alterações características de hiperplasia linfóide. Histologica-mente, as lesões eram típicas de pneumonia intersticial. Os septos alveolares estavam espessados por fibroblastos e células inflamatórias, havia hipertrofia e hiperplasia de pneumócitos tipo II; os septos interlobulares estavam distendidos por edema e enfisema. A cultura de amostras das batatas-doces mofadas produziu Fusarium solani e F. oxysporum.Cases of respiratory disease were diagnosed in five out of 23 cattle (21.7% after they were fed moldy damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas on a small farm in the county of São Vicente do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Of those five cattle, three died spontaneously and another one was euthanatized for necropsy while showing advanced respiratory clinical signs. The disease manifested itself approximately 24 hours after the ingestion of the sweet potatoes and lasted from 1 to 4 days. Clinical signs included dyspnea (labored breathing and abdominal respiration, tachypnea, extended

  1. Solanum nigrum Linn.- A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Mohamed Saleem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum nigrum Linn. (Solanaceae commonly known as ′Black nightshade′ that have been extensively used in traditional medicine in India and other parts of world to cure liver disorders, chronic skin ailments (psoriasis and ringworm, inflammatory conditions, painful periods, fevers, diarrhoea , eye diseases, hydrophobia, etc. It has been found that Solanum nigrum contains the substances, such as total alkaloid, steroid alkaloid, steroidal saponins and glycoprotein, exhibiting anti-tumor activity. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used as a hepatoprotective agent. In this review, we have explored the phyto-pharmacological properties of the Solanum nigrum plant and compiled its vast pharmacological applications to comprehend and synthesize the subject of its potential image of multipurpose medicinal agent.

  2. Influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of potato and wild Solanum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakosy-Tican, Lenuta; Aurori, C M; Morariu, V V

    2005-10-01

    The influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of different cultures of potato and related Solanum species was investigated for various exposure times and dates. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) in vitro cultures of shoot tips or nodal segments were used. Three different exposure periods revealed either stimulation or inhibition of root, stem, or leaf in vitro growth after 14 or 28 days of exposure. In one experiment the significant stimulation of leaf growth was also demonstrated at biochemical level, the quantity of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids increasing more than two-fold. For the wild species Solanum chacoense, S. microdontum, and S. verrucosum, standardized in vitro cultures of nodal stem segments were used. Root and stem growth was either stimulated or slightly inhibited after 9 days exposure to near null magnetic field. Callus cultures obtained from potato dihaploid line 120/19 were maintained in near null magnetic field in 2 different months. For these experiments as well as for Solanum verrucosum, callus cultures recorded either slight inhibition or no effect on fresh weight. For all experiments significant growth variation was brought about only when geomagnetic activity (AP index) showed variations at the beginning of in vitro growth and when the explant had at least one meristematic tissue. Moreover longer maintenance in near null magnetic field, 28 days as compared to 14 days or the controls, can also make a difference in plant growth in response to geomagnetic field variations when static component was reduced to zero value. These results of in vitro plant growth stimulation by variable component of geomagnetic field also sustain the so-called seasonal "window" effect.

  3. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  4. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF IPOMOEA BATATAS (L. LAM. DURING DROUGHT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in the world is desertification so we must to know physiological responses and morphological adaptations from species with tolerance to drought stress. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. is one of the most important crops of the world, especially because of its great tolerance to drought stress. Hence, we decided to know what morphophysiological and metabolic responses has I. batatas under drought stress. So, we got cuttings of variety INA-100, from INIA Huaral, and were planted in 22 recipients of 4 L with substrate consisting in a mixing of sand and humus (3:1. Half of them were irrigated monthly and other half only receives water to establish plants and no more after that. We measured transpiration, histological changes in leaves and metabolic changes at protein and starch level. We confirmed transpiration is not affected for air humidity or substrate humidity. But, the effect of drought can be better observed in foliage growth, therefore in histological changes in leaves. No significance in concentration of proteins but significance in carbohydrates concentration shows an osmotic regulation in order to maintain stomata open and also an increase in photosynthetic activity in stressed plants.

  5. Influence of incorporated wild Solanum genomes on potato properties in terms of starch nanostructure and glycoalkaloid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Tiina; Ikonen, Teemu; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Kuronen, Pirjo; Serimaa, Ritva; Ollilainen, Velimatti

    2005-06-29

    Interspecific somatic hybrids produced by protoplast fusion between two wild Solanum species (S. acaule, acl; S. brevidens, brd) and cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum (tbr) were analyzed in terms of the starch nanometer-range structure and glycoalkaloid (GA) contents. The crystallinity of starch granules, the average size of starch crystallites, and the lamellar distances were obtained from tuber samples using wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering methods. These measurements showed that incorporation of wild genomes from either nontuberous (brd) or tuberous (acl) Solanum species caused no significant modifications of the nanostructure of potato starch. In contrast, the GA profiles of the hybrids, which were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS in both tuber and foliage samples, differed considerably from those of cultivated potato. Regardless of the low total tuber GA concentrations (approximately 9 mg/100 g of fresh weight), the somatic hybrids contained GAs not detected in the parental species. A high proportion of spirotype GAs consisting of 5,6-dihydrogenated aglycons, for example, alpha-tomatine and tomatidine bound with solatriose, and chacotriose were found in the hybrids. In conclusion, the foliage of interspecific hybrids contained a higher variation in the structures of GAs than did the tubers.

  6. Note rétrospective sur l'histoire de la pomme de terre Solarium tuberosum dans l'Est du Zaïre

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    Ngoy Kadiebwe, N.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective note on history of the potato Solanum tuberosum in Eastern Zaire. Potato is after cassava and sweet potato, the third culture practished in Ituri area. In this respect, it highly contributes to the feeding of the population and at the same time is a source of their income. There is no indication as when potato culture has been broughtin Ituri. However, research works on this speculation have well begun in 1941 but were suspended in 1959 due to political crisis is... preceded our independance. They have effectively started again in the beginning of 1989, yet no result is given. Despite favorable ecological conditions its expansion is slow nowadays owing to difficulties such as insufficience of selected seeds as well as ignorance of conservation techniques.

  7. Lâminas de irrigação para produção de batata-semente em plântulas propagadas in vitro Water depths for production of potatos seed by seedlings propagated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela P. Nogales

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, neste trabalho, três lâminas de irrigação (75, 100 e 125% da ETc, correspondentes aos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente para produção de semente básica de batata (Solanum ssp sob condições de estufa, a partir de plantas propagadas in vitro. O estudo se realizou na localidade de Viacha, próximo à cidade de La Paz, Bolívia. Os teores de água no solo foram elevados nos três tratamentos, mas se mantiveram com valores adequados para o desenvolvimento de plântulas de batata propagadas in vitro, sendo que o rendimento dos tubérculos não variou significativamente nos três tratamentos, alcançando-se 1,07, 1,03 e 0,92 kg m-2 para T3, T2 e T1, respectivamente. Por outro lado, houve diferenças significativas nas eficiências de uso da água, obtendo-se para T2, o maior índice.The objective of this work was to evaluate three irrigation water depths (75, 100 and 125% of ETc, corresponding to treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively for potato seed (Solanum spp production under greenhouse conditions. The study was conducted at Viacha locality, near La Paz, in Bolivia. Soil water content was high for all the treatments but adequate for the development of plants propagated in vitro. Tuber productivity did not vary significantly and was 1.07, 1.03 and 0.92 kg m-2 for T3, T2 and T1 treatments respectively. On the other hand the water use efficiency varied significantly and was the highest for T2 treatment.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) fruit to identify putative allergens and their epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Kumar Ramagoni; Hemalatha, R; Vijayendra, Chary Anchoju; Arshi, Uz Zaman Syed; Dushyant, Singh Baghel; Dinesh, Kumar Bharadwaj

    2016-01-15

    Eggplant is the third most important Solanaceae crop after tomato and potato, particularly in India and China. A transcriptome analysis of eggplant's fruit was performed to study genes involved in medicinal importance and allergies. Illumina HiSeq 2000 system generated 89,763,638 raw reads (~18 Gb) from eggplant. High quality reads (59,039,694) obtained after trimming process, were assembled into a total of 149,224 non redundant set of transcripts. Out of 80,482 annotated sequences of eggplant fruit (BLASTx results against nr-green plant database), 40,752 transcripts showed significant similarity with predicted proteins of Solanum tuberosum (51%) followed by Solanum lycopersicum (34%) and other sequenced plant genomes. With BLASTx top hit analysis against existing allergens, a total of 1986 homologous allergen sequences were found, which had >37% similarity with 48 different allergens existing in the database. From the 48 putative allergens, 526 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. Transcript sequences generated from this study can be used to map epitopes of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera from patients. With the support of this whole transcriptome catalogue of eggplant fruit, complete list of genes can be predicted based on which secondary structures of proteins may be modeled.

  9. [Chemical constituents from Solanum rostratum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Juan; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wei, Shou-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the aerial part of Solanum rostratum by means of various chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as dioscin (1), hypoglaucin H (2), hyperin (3), isoquercitrin (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (6), smilaxchinoside A (7), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3beta, 20alpha,26-triol-25 (R) -delta5,22-dienofurostan-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2) -[ alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] -beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), beta-sitosterol (9), and daucosterol (10), on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Among them ,compounds 7 and 8 were isolated from the genus Solanum for the first time, and the remaining compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  10. The Phytogeography of New Guinea Solanum (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Solanaceae, of which Solanum is the type species, comprise a southern hemisphere family. A general biogeographical introduction is given, with an account of plate tectonics and a discussion of Wallace’s Line and the geographic history of New Guinea. The widely accepted sections of Solanum are di

  11. Associação entre isoenzimas e matéria seca em batata silvestre Isoenzymes and dry matter content in wild potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ HELENA GOMES ROCHA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Clones de batata silvestre (Solanum spp. foram analisados quanto aos teores de matéria seca em tubérculos e isoenzimas de aspartato transaminase e isocitrato desidrogenase em folhas, com o objetivo de identificar associação entre estas características. Os resultados obtidos em uma amostra de 50 clones indicam grande variabilidade do teor de matéria seca. Clones de S. commersonii malmeanum apresentaram maior teor que os de S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri e de outros cuja espécie não foi identificada. Os padrões isoenzimáticos de folhas de 38 clones da amostra mostraram 15 variantes eletroforéticas de aspartato transaminase e sete de isocitrato desidrogenase. Comparações efetuadas através de tabelas de contingência 2 x 2, usando o teste de chi², com correção para continuidade, permitiram concluir que existe associação significativa entre o teor de matéria seca e as bandas de mobilidade relativa 1,00 de aspartato transaminase e de isocitrato desidrogenase.Wild potato clones (Solanum spp. were analysed for tuber dry matter content, leaf aspartate transaminase and leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in order to identify association between these characteristics. The results indicate that there is great variability for dry matter content among 50 clones analysed. S. commersonii malmeanum clones had higher dry matter levels than S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri and the clones whose species were not identified. Fifteen aspartate transaminase and seven isocitrate dehydrogenase bands were observed in the gels of 38 clones. Tests of chi², using 2 x 2 contingency table, revealed a significant association between dry matter content and the bands of relative mobility 1.00 of both aspartate transaminase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

  12. Molecular characterisation of resistance against potato wart races 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid population of potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Jennifer; Song, Yesu; Kellermann, Adolf; Schwarzfischer, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Potato wart is caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Synchytrium endobioticum, which is subject to quarantine regulations due to the production of long persisting spores in the soil and the lack of effective fungicides. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against potato wart races (R) 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid potato population developed by crossing cv. Saturna (resistant to R1) with cv. Panda (resistant to R1, R2, R6, R18). A total of 92 progenies were used for phenotyping and genotyping. Resistance tests were performed for races 1 and 18 in 2 years and for races 2 and 6 in 1 year on 10 to 20 eyepieces per genotype. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, linkage maps were established for the female and male parent, respectively. Single marker analysis followed by a multiple regression analysis revealed initial marker-trait associations. The interval mapping routine of TetraploidMap was applied for QTL analysis. A major QTL for resistance against race 1 explaining between 46 % and 56 % of the phenotypic variation was identified near Sen1, a known resistance locus for potato wart race 1 on chromosome XI. Other resistance QTL were detected on chromosomes I (to R2), II (to R6, 18), VI (to R1, 2, 6, 18), VII (to R2, 6, 18), VIII (to R1, 2, 6, 18), X (to R2, 6, 18), XI (to R2, 6, 18) and on an unknown linkage group (to R18) explaining minor to moderate effects of the phenotypic variation. Resistance QTL against different potato wart races often overlapped, particularly concerning races 2, 6 and 18. Overall, this study gives a valuable insight into the complex inheritance of resistance against potato wart.

  13. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg(-1) d(-1)), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg(-1) d(-1)) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.

  14. Relaciones serológicas entre aislamientos bacterianos de los géneros Erwinia, Pectobacterium Y Pantoea

    OpenAIRE

    Yonis Hernández; Gustavo Trujillo

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio fue realizado con el propósito de conocer las relaciones serológicas entre aislamientos pertenecientes a diferentes generos y especies de bacterias. Se utilizaron ocho aislamientos, tres de Pectobacterium chrysanthemi obtenidos de maíz (Zea mays), papa (Solanum tuberosum) y batata (Ipomoea batatas); tres de P. carotovora subsp. carotovora, provenientes uno de cafecito de jardín (Aglaonema commutatum ´María‘) y dos de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum), con diferencias en el comport...

  15. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoko, Mkabwa L. K.; van Weerden, Gerard M.; van Berg, Ronald G.; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits. PMID:23233812

  16. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  17. AFLP analysis reveals a lack of phylogenetic structure within Solanum section Petota

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    Vleeshouwers Vivianne GAA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secondary genepool of our modern cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. consists of a large number of tuber-bearing wild Solanum species under Solanum section Petota. One of the major taxonomic problems in section Petota is that the series classification (as put forward by Hawkes is problematic and the boundaries of some series are unclear. In addition, the classification has received only partial cladistic support in all molecular studies carried out to date. The aim of the present study is to describe the structure present in section Petota. When possible, at least 5 accessions from each available species and 5 individual plants per accession (totally approx. 5000 plants were genotyped using over 200 AFLP markers. This resulted in the largest dataset ever constructed for Solanum section Petota. The data obtained are used to evaluate the 21 series hypothesis put forward by Hawkes and the 4 clade hypothesis of Spooner and co-workers. Results We constructed a NJ tree for 4929 genotypes. For the other analyses, due to practical reasons, a condensed dataset was created consisting of one representative genotype from each available accession. We show a NJ jackknife and a MP jackknife tree. A large part of both trees consists of a polytomy. Some structure is still visible in both trees, supported by jackknife values above 69. We use these branches with >69 jackknife support in the NJ jackknife tree as a basis for informal species groups. The informal species groups recognized are: Mexican diploids, Acaulia, Iopetala, Longipedicellata, polyploid Conicibaccata, diploid Conicibaccata, Circaeifolia, diploid Piurana and tetraploid Piurana. Conclusion Most of the series that Hawkes and his predecessors designated can not be accepted as natural groups, based on our study. Neither do we find proof for the 4 clades proposed by Spooner and co-workers. A few species groups have high support and their inner structure displays also

  18. Antimutagenic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Methanol Extracts of Sweetpotato (Ipomea batata) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan-Goo; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Joon-Hyoung

    2010-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antimutagenic potential of the methanolic extract from the leaves of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, IB) with the SOS chromotest (umu test) and Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. The anticarcinogenic effects were also studied by calculation of the IC50 on human cancer cell lines and investigating the function of gap junction in rat liver epithelial cells. The IB extract inhibited dose-dependently the β-galactosidase activity induced spontaneously at concentration of more than 200 mg/ml in S. typhimurium TA 1535/pSK 1002, and decreased significantly (p batatas has antimutagenic and anticarcionogenic activity in vitro.

  19. A new tetraploid species of Solanum section Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.

    2012-01-01

    Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraplo

  20. Characterization and partial purification of attractants for nematodeOrrina phyllobia from foliage ofSolanum elaeagnifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A F; Saldana, G

    1989-02-01

    An unknown attractant for the nematodeOrrina phyllobia was extracted with water from foliage ofSolanum elaeagnifolium. Stability, solubility, ionic character, and Chromatographie purification were investigated using a bioassay based on nematode aggregation in agar. Activity was nonvolatile, dialyzable, heat stable below 60 °C, and partially lost within 30 min at 100 °C. Activity was unchanged from pH 5 to 12, but was entirely lost at pH 2. Loss of activity at low pH did not appear to result from direct effects of pH on nematode behavior and was partially recovered by readjustment to pH 7. The attractive factor was most soluble in water and appeared to be cationically but not anionically exchangeable. Activity appeared to Chromatograph as several compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography employing reverse phase C18 and amine-bonded columns. Various known compounds that are common toSolanum spp. or that attract other nematodes were unattractive. Extraction ofS. elaeagnifolium foliage specifically for solanaceous glycoalkaloids using methods developed forS. tuberosum did not yield an attractive product.

  1. Construcción de un Inmunosensor Amperométrico utilizando Apirasa de Solanum tuberosum para la Detección de Esquistosomiasis Construction of an Amperometric Immunosensor using Solanum tuberosum potato Apyrase for the Detection of Schistosomiasis

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    Ninoska I Bojorge Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el desarrollo de un inmunosensor amperométrico composito a base de una proteína de origen vegetal para la determinación de antí-anticuerpo de S. mansoni. El inmunosensor consiste en una matriz electródica rígida construida con grafito y resina epoxi en la que se inmoviliza covalentemente la Apirasa. La estrategia de inmovilización se basa en silanización de la matriz compósita con 3-aminopropilsilano (3-APTES y su activación mediante glutaraldehído. La inmovilización fue monitoreada mediante voltaamperometría cíclica en Fe(CN6(4-/Fe(CN6³, obteniéndose una respuesta cuasi-reversible del inmunosensor y muy estable en el tiempo. La inmovilización también fue caracterizada mediante ángulos de contactos y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Estas cualidades son aprovechables para la determinación clínica de esquistosomiasis dada la rapidez y sensibilidad de respuesta.This paper presents the development of an amperometric composites inmunosensor based on a vegetable protein for the determination of anti-Ac S. mansoni. The inmunosensor consists of a rigid matrix built with graphite and epoxy resin in which immobilizes covalently the Apyrase. The strategy of immobilization is based in silanization of the matrix composites with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES and its activation by glutaraldehyde. The detection was monitored by cyclic voltammetry Fe(CN6(4-/ Fe(CN6³, obtaining a response quasi-reversible of the immunosensor and very stable over time. The immobilization was also characterized by angles contacts and scanning electron microscopy. These qualities are useful for determination clinical of schistosomiasis given the speed of response and sensitivity.

  2. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation; Variaciones observadas en la actividad respiratoria de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) despues de un tratamiento con radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. REGENERACION Y SENSIBILIDAD A MANOSA EN ENTRENUDOS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum spp. andígena Var Diacol Capiro. REGENERATION AND MANNOSE SENSIBILITY IN POTATO INTERNODAL EXPLANTS (Solanum tuberosum spp. andígena Var Diacol Capiro

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    MARY LUZ YAYA-LANCHEROS

    Full Text Available Se estableció un sistema de organogénesis indirecta para la obtención de brotes múltiples a partir de segmentos internodales de la variedad Diacol Capiro. La ubicación de explantes en medio Murashige y Skoog (MS suplementado con 2 mg/l de zeatina ribosido (ZR, 0,02 mg/l de ácido naftalenácetico (ANA y 0,02 mg/l de ácido giberélico (AG3, permite la obtención de plántulas entre la séptima y novena semana con una efectividad del 80-100%. Mediante ubicación de explantes previamente cocultivados con la cepa LBA4404 de Agrobacterium tumefaciens que contiene el plásmido recombinante pNOV022, se verificó la utilidad del medio para procesos de transformación, obteniéndose tasas hasta del 100% de regeneración. Finalmente, con el objetivo de determinar el uso potencial de la manosa como agente selectivo en procesos de transformación, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de manosa sobre la viabilidad y capacidad regenerativa de explantes.A system of indirect organogenesis for the multiple buds production from internode stem sections in Diacol Capiro variety was established. Explants on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium with zeatine riboside (ZR 2 mg/l, naftalenacetic acid (NAA 0.02 mg/l and giberelic acid (GA3 0.02 mg/l, produced plants ranging between 7 to 9 weeks with 80-100% effectiveness. In the same medium, explants infected with Agrobacterium LBA4404 strain which carries recombinant plasmid pNOV022, produced regeneration rates reached 100%, thus, the medium utility for trnsformation processes was verified. Finally, to determine the potential use of the mannose as selective agent in transformation processes, the effect of different mannose concentrations on explant viability and regenerative capacity was evaluated.

  4. Caracterización postcosecha y composición química de la batata (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamb. variedad Topera.

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    Auris Damely García-Méndez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la composición química y calidad postcosecha de la batata variedad Topera proveniente de una producción semi-mecanizada con buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA. El estudio se realizó en el Laboratorio de Procesamiento Primario de Productos Agrícolas y Bioquímica de Alimentos de la Facultad de Agronomía (FAGRO de la Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV durante el año 2014. La metodología permitió determinar algunas características físicas, texturales y composición química por los métodos de AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Se obtuvieron batatas con un menor coeficiente de variabilidad en el peso (CV: 20,12%, forma (CV: 5,63% y tamaño (CV: 12,80%. Esta respuesta permitió establecer tres categorías de calidad con una baja incidencia de defectos (2,15% y daños físico-mecánicos (30,25%, esta última asociada a la alta resistencia del material (6,25+0,05 kgf/mm. Las batatas presentaron contenidos de azúcares reductores de 9,88%, fibra de 6,19% y proteína de 4,13%; estas características nutricionales sugieren su uso como suplemento alimenticio. La producción semi-mecanizada con la implementación de las técnicas de las BPA, permitió obtener batatas con características de importancia para la agroindustria procesadora de alimentos IV Gama y, a nivel del consumidor, con una calidad física homogénea.

  5. CRESCIMENTO E NUTRIÇÃO MINERAL DO SORGO GRANÍFERO APÓS ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA E CULTIVO DA BATATA

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    Tácio Oliveira Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of residual organic fertilization is an essencial tool for maintaining the sustainability of soil fertility in the semi-arid region. This study objectives assess the effect of residual organic fertilization on the income of mass drought and absorption of nutrient by sorghum grown in Entisol which for six years has received application of caprine manure or green fertilization with crotalaria and cultivated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. In the cultivation of potato annually the treatments consisted of planting and incorporation of the Crotalaria juncea L. at the time of flowering (C; addition of 15 t ha-1 of caprine manure (E; Planting and incorporation of crotalaria + 7,5 t ha-1 manure (CE; and witness without crotalaria or manure (T with four repetitions. The treatments receiving application of manure provided the largest accumulations of N, P and K by sorghum. The effect of residual organic fertilization favored larger increase in the production of dry sorghum in the crops first and second. The annual organic fertilization of potato increased the levels of P and K in the soil swappable which influenced the growth of sorghum in subsequent cultivation. The manure shows high potential to be used as organic fertilizer in the region. However the planting and the incorporation of biomass of crotalaria without the addition of manure in addition to nitrogen not contributed the nutrient content of soil.

  6. Chemical optimization of protein extraction from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) have been shown to possess antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. The objective of this study was to chemically optimize a process for extracting proteins from sweet potato peel. The extraction procedure involved mixing pe...

  7. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Halide, H., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Kurniawan, D. [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Wahab, A. W. [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  9. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2012-06-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics.

  10. Data integration and knowledge management to facilitate research on plant-pathogen interactions: case study Solanum tuberosum – Verticillium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt is an important disease causing considerable economic losses in potato production globally. Soil and environmental conditions affect symptom expression and the effect of the disease on yield. A ten year field trial has been conducted in order to better understand the dynamics of wi...

  11. Xiphinema brasiliense, nova espécie de nematóide do Brasil, parasita de Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Luís Gonzaga E. Lordello

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiphinema brasiliense, a new opistodelphic species of Brazilian nematode, was found in soil around potato roots at Sapecado (State of São Paulo, Brazil. It differs from the other known opistodelphic species of the genus, by its type of tail end, which is digitate. It contrasts most strongly with X. ensiculiferum (Cobb, 1893, in which the shape of the extremity is decidedly hemispheroidal. The species most closely resembling X. brasiliense isX. chambersi Thorne, 1939, from which it is distinguished by its longer stylet and the mentioned characteristic form of the end of the tail. The X. brasiliense amphids are also very short and wide, unlike those of X. chambersi.

  12. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  13. Isolation and chemoenzymatic treatment of glycoalkaloids from green, sprouting and rotting Solanum tuberosum potatoes for solanidine recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Grokoré Yvonne; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Due, Ahipo Edmond; Combes, Didier

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of glycoalkaloids in the flesh of different types of decayed potatoes was evaluated. The results showed that turned green and also sprouting or rotting potato flesh contain high amounts of toxic solanine and chaconine, exceeding by 2-5-fold the recommended limit, and ranging from 2578±86mg/kg to 5063±230mg/kg of dry weight potato flesh. For safety consideration, these decayed potatoes should be systematically set aside. To avoid a net economic loss and encourage the removal of this hazardous food, a recycling process was investigated to generate added-value compounds from the toxic glycoalkaloids. A simple chemo-enzymatic protocol comprising a partial acidic hydrolysis followed by an enzymatic treatment with the β-glycosidase from Periplaneta americana allowed the efficient conversion of α-chaconine to solanidine.

  14. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  15. In vitro co-culture of Solanum tuberosum hairy roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi: structure, growth and production of volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, JMS; Sena, I.; Maleita, CM; Vieira, I; Ascenção, L; Abrantes, Isabel; Bennett, RN; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, AC.

    2014-01-01

    Meloidogyne spp., commonly known as root- knot nematodes (RKNs), are economically important plant sedentary endoparasites that cause galls on susceptible hosts. The Columbia root-knot nematode (CRKN), M. chitwoodi, is a quarantine A2 type pest by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization since 1998. This nematode has been found associated with economi- cally important crops such as potato and tomato, causing severe damage and making the agricultural products unac- ceptable ...

  16. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  17. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Desiree, Merkur and transgenic Desiree line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons be

  18. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Désirée, Merkur and transgenic Désirée line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons be

  19. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GIBERELIN TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIBIT KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CV. GRANOLA UKURAN M (31 - 60 GRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to increase the production of seed potato size 31 - 60 grams by applying gibberellic acid (GA3. Seeds that passed their dormancy period were dipped in gibberellic acid solutions (10, 15 and 20 mg/L for 15 minutes a day before planting. Control seeds were dipped in water. Seeds were then air dried for 24 hours. Seeds were planted in plots with length, width and height of 150 x 100 x 30 cm respectively with planting space 20 cm and planting depth 15 cm. The design was randomized block with four replications. The results showed that gibberellic acid enhanced shoot emergence. Gibberellic acid increased stem number, tuber number and yield per plant. Tuber number and yield of size M (31 ? 60 g increased, whereas tuber number and yield of size LL decreased drastically. The optimum concentration of gibberellin for these increases was 15 mg/L. Plant height was not influenced by gibberellic acid.

  20. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  1. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxic activity of mono-PEGylated StAP3 (Solanum tuberosum aspartic protease 3 forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available StAP3 is a plant aspartic protease with cytotoxic activity toward a broad spectrum of pathogens, including potato and human pathogen microorganisms, and cancer cells, but not against human T cells, human red blood cells or plant cells. For this reason, StAP3 could be a promising and potential drug candidate for future therapies. In this work, the improvement of the performance of StAP3 was achieved by means of a modification with PEG. The separation of a mono-PEGylated StAP3 fraction was easily performed by gel filtration chromatography. The mono-PEGylated StAP3 fraction was studied in terms of in vitro antimicrobial activity, exhibiting higher antimicrobial activity against Fusarium solani spores and Bacillus cereus, but slightly lower activity against Escherichia coli than native protein. Such increase in antifungal activity has not been reported previously for a PEGylated plant protein. In addition, PEGylation did not affect the selective cytotoxicity of StAP3, since no hemolytic activity was observed.

  2. Study of effects of cooking methods on physical properties and bioactive compounds in selected potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yali

    2015-01-01

    La patata es una fuente de carbohidratos, de versátil preparación y presentación. Dependiendo del proceso de cocción y de las características morfológicas y nutricionales de la patata estos efectos pueden ser positivos o negativos, especialmente en los compuestos bioactivos. La formación de acrilamida en la fritura es otro problema sin resolver, por ello la investigación de cómo prevenir y/o reducir su contenido es un objetivo para la industria alimentaria. Sin embargo, no existen límites leg...

  3. The Transcriptome of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans Revealed by DeepSAGE Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike;

    2012-01-01

    of the compatible and incompatible interaction were captured by DeepSAGE analysis of 44 biological samples comprising five genotypes, differing only by the presence or absence of the R1 transgene, three infection time points and three biological replicates. 30.859 unique 21 base pair sequence tags were obtained...... for multigene families encoding defense response genes and genes functional in photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. Numerous transcriptional differences were also observed between near isogenic genotypes prior to infection with P. infestans. Our DeepSAGE transcriptome analysis uncovered novel candidate genes...

  4. Application of potato (Solanum tuberosum plant wastes for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dye pollutants from the textile, paper, and leather industries are important sources of environmental contamination. In the present study an agricultural waste from potato plant (potato stem powder, PSP and potato leaves powder, PLP was used as an adsorbent for removal of the methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of physico-chemical parameters, such as pHpzc, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dyes concentration and temperature. The kinetics of adsorption was studied by applying the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model better represented the adsorption kinetics and the mechanism was controlled by surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in enthalpy (ΔH°, entropy (ΔS° and Gibb’s free energy (ΔG° of adsorption systems were also determined and evaluated.

  5. REGENERACION Y SENSIBILIDAD A MANOSA EN ENTRENUDOS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum spp. andígena Var Diacol Capiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAYA-LANCHEROS MARY LUZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Se estableció un sistema de organogénesis indirecta para la obtención de brotes múltiples a partir de segmentos internodales de la variedad Diacol Capiro. La ubicación de explantes en medio Murashige y Skoog (MS suplementado con 2 mg/l de zeatina ribosido (ZR, 0,02 mg/l de ácido naftalenácetico (ANA y 0,02 mg/l de ácido giberélico (AG3, permite la obtención de plántulas entre la séptima y novena semana con una efectividad del 80-100%. Mediante ubicación de explantes previamente cocultivados con la cepa LBA4404 de Agrobacterium tumefaciens que contiene el plásmido recombinante pNOV022, se verificó la utilidad del medio para procesos de transformación, obteniéndose tasas hasta del 100% de regeneración. Finalmente, con el objetivo de determinar el uso potencial de la manosa como agente selectivo en procesos de transformación, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de manosa sobre la viabilidad y capacidad regenerativa de explantes.

    Palabras clave: organogénesis indirecta, selección positiva, plantas transgénicas, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.


    ABSTRACT

    A system of indirect organogenesis for the multiple buds production from internode stem sections in Diacol Capiro variety was established. Explants on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium with zeatine riboside (ZR 2 mg/l, naftalenacetic acid (NAA 0.02 mg/l and giberelic acid (GA3 0.02 mg/l, produced plants ranging between 7 to 9 weeks with 80-100% effectiveness. In the same medium, explants infected with Agrobacterium LBA4404 strain which carries recombinant plasmid pNOV022, produced regeneration rates reached 100%, thus, the medium utility for trnsformation processes was verified. Finally, to determine the potential use of the mannose as selective agent in transformation processes, the effect of different mannose concentrations on explant viability and regenerative capacity was evaluated.

    Key words: Indirect organogenesis, positive selection, transgenic plants, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  6. Pasting, textural and thermal properties of resistant starch prepared from potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch using pullulanase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Pramila, S; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2015-03-01

    Pullulanase enzyme (40 U/g, 10 h) was used for enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch which was autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h) and lyophilized. Comparison of morphological, pasting, textural and thermal properties among native hydrolysed starch (V2) and gelatinized hydrolysed starch (V3) prepared using pullulanase enzyme on potato starch (V1) were studied. The round, elliptical, irregular and oval shape with smooth surface of V1 was replaced with amorphous mass of cohesive structure leading to loss of granular appearance in V2 and V3. The percentage of amylose and resistant starch content of V2 (27.16 %) and (24.16 %); V3 (51.44 %) and (29.35 %) was higher when compared to V1 (22.17 %) and (3.62 %). The swelling power of V1 observed at 60 °C (0.85 %) and 95 °C (8.64 %) were significantly different from V2 at 60 °C (4.97 %) and 95 °C (7.66 %) and that of V3 at 60 °C (5.82 %) and 95 °C (7.5 %). Significance difference in water solubility (7.62 %) and absorption capacity (6.11 %) was noted in V3 when compared with V1 and V2 owing to amylose/amylopectin content. Increase in water solubility and absorption capacity along with decrease in swelling power of V2 and V3 was noted due to hydrolytic and thermal process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P < 0.05).

  7. Effects of storage temperatures and annealing conditions on the structure and properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, R F; Ansell, R; Snape, C E; Yusuph, M

    2005-07-01

    Starches were extracted from freshly harvested potatoes (12 cultivars, grown in Perthshire) and the properties of the starches of six cultivars were compared with starches extracted from the same samples but stored at 5, 25 or 55 degrees C for 7 days before extraction. The amylose (total) content of the freshly extracted starches from tubers stored at 5, 25 or 55 degrees C was on average 27.9+/-2.3, 28.3+/-1.7, 29.2+/-2.2 and 28.8+/-1.5%, respectively, with corresponding phosphorus representing 60+/-16, 64+/-9, 61+/-5 and 63+/-9 mg 100 g(-1). The unit chain distribution by chromatography of the amylopectin molecules from the starches extracted from the different conditions was very similar with an average degree of polymerisation (DP) of 26+/-2 where the two major fractions (F1 and F2) represented 54+/-2 and 19+/-1, respectively. Peak gelatinisation temperatures (Tp) and enthalpies (DeltaH) for the freshly extracted starches and from tubers stored at 5 or 25 degrees C were very similar (63.3+/-1.5 degrees C and 18.6+/-0.8 J g(-1); 63.1+/-1.0 degrees C and 17.7+/-1.5 J g(-1) and; 62.9+/-0.7 degrees C and 18.7+/-1.1 J g(-1), respectively) although starches stored at 55 degrees C were annealed, where Tp represented 71.1+/-1.1 degrees C and DeltaH 18.1+/-1.4 J g(-1). These in situ-annealed starches were comparable in terms of gelatinisation characteristics to annealed freshly extracted starches where on average, T(p) represented 72.7+/-1.0 degrees C and DeltaH 20.8+/-1.0 J g(-1). Annealing of tubers in situ prior to processing might be beneficial with respect to developing new potato-based products.

  8. Identification, characterization and expression analysis of MicroRNAs and their targets in the potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fuliang; Frazier, Taylor P; Zhang, Baohong

    2011-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as a class of important post-transcriptional expression regulators that act on their target genes by degradation of target mRNAs or by inhibition of target protein translation. Compared with the current numbers of identified miRNAs for other species in the plant kingdom, a large number of potential miRNAs remains to be identified in potato. In this study, using a newly modified comparative genome strategy, a total of 202 potential potato miRNAs were identified, which belong to 78 families. miR162, miR167, and miR396 are highly expressed in all tested organs. miR372 is highly expressed in flowers. A total of 1094 miRNA targets were predicted and some of them encode transcription factors as well as genes that function in stress response, signal transduction, and a variety of other metabolic processes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis implicates that these targets are involved in 545 biological processes. Of those processes, 28 are related to potato defense mechanisms against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, the metabolism of molecules such as carbon, sucrose, starch, and lipid, and the development of primary and lateral roots. Pathway enrichment analysis, based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), demonstrates that the identified miRNAs participated in 98 metabolism networks, some of which include sucrose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, carbon fixation, and the biosynthesis of plant hormones.

  9. Effects of selenium treatments on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and concentrations of soluble sugars and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turakainen, Marja; Hartikainen, Helinä; Seppänen, Mervi M

    2004-08-25

    The effect of selenium (Se) treatments on potato growth and Se, soluble sugar, and starch accumulation was investigated. Potato plants were cultivated in quartz sand without or with sodium selenate (0, 0.075, 0.3 mg Se kg(-1) sand). In young potato plants, Se treatment resulted in higher starch concentrations in upper leaves. The tuber yield of Se-treated potato plants was higher and composed of relatively few but large tubers. At harvest, the starch concentration in tubers did not differ significantly between treatments. The higher Se addition (0.3 mg Se kg(-1)) may have delayed the aging of stolons and roots, which was observed as high concentrations of soluble sugar and starch. Together with the earlier results showing elevated starch concentration in Se-treated lettuce, the findings of this research justify the conclusion that Se has positive effects also on potato carbohydrate accumulation and possibly on yield formation.

  10. [Identification and characterization of intraspecific variability of the sucrose synthase gene Sus4 of potato (Solanum tuberosum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, K V; Ryzhova, N N; Kochieva, E Z

    2011-02-01

    Nucleotide and amino acid variability of fragments of the Sus4 gene encoding the sucrose synthase enzyme was studied in 24 potato cultivars selected in Russia and other countries and differing in starch content in tubers. Both SNPs and indels were detected in a chosen Sus4 gene fragment including the sequence from exon 3 to exon 6 and corresponding to the main part of the sucrose synthase domain. Four types of Sus4 sequences were revealed depending on the presence of an insertion in introns 4 and 5 and of the mononucleotide octamer (T)8 in intron 5. Differentiation of these sequences was confirmed by statistical methods. Sixteen amino acid substitutions were identified in the translated sequence, of which eleven were nonsynonymous. Specific varietal nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were also revealed, which can be used in future for marking potato cultivars/genotypes. No direct associations between the mutational changes and the starch content were found in the potato cultivars studied by us.

  11. Natural co-infection of solanum tuberosum crops by the potato yellow vein virus and potyvirus in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Villamil-Garzón, Angela; Cuellar, Wilmer J.; Guzmán-Barney, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV), a Crinivirus with an RNA tripartite genome, is the causal agent of the potato yellow vein disease, reported in Colombian since 1950, with yield reductions of up to 50%. Co-infection of two or more viruses is common in nature and can be associated with differences in virus accumulation and symptom expression. No evidence of mixed infection between PYVV and other viruses has been reported. In this study, eight plants showing yellowing PYVV symptoms: four Sol...

  12. Molecular and biological characterisation of two novel pomo-like viruses associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum) fields in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jose Fernando; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-06-01

    Potato is the fourth most important crop worldwide that is used as a staple food, after rice, wheat and maize. The crop can be affected by a large number of pathogens, including fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and viruses. Diseases caused by viruses are among the most important factors contributing to reduced quality and yield of the crop. Potato mop-top virus (genus Pomovirus) induces necrotic flecks in the tuber flesh and skin of potato in temperate countries. Spongospora subterranea is the vector of PMTV. Both the virus and its vector cause disease in potato. In Colombia, PMTV has been detected throughout the country together with a novel pomo-like virus in the centre (Cundinamarca and Boyacá) and south west (Nariño) of the country. We studied the molecular and biological characteristics of this novel virus. Its genome resembles those of members of the genus Pomovirus, and it is closely related to PMTV. It induces mild systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana (mosaic, branch curling), but no symptoms in N. tabacum, N. debneyi and Chenopodium amaranticolor. The proposed name for the virus is "Colombian potato soil-borne virus" (CPSbV). Additionally, another pomo-like virus was identified in Nariño. This virus induces severe systemic stem declining and mild mosaic in N. benthamiana. The tentative name "soil-borne virus 2" (SbV2) is proposed for this virus. No vectors have been identified for these viruses despite several attempts. This work focused on the characterisation of CPSbV. The risk posed by these viruses if they are introduced into new territories is discussed.

  13. Phenotypic performance of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants with pyramided rice cystatin genes (OCI and OCII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evaluation of transgenic plants commonly carried out under controlled conditions in culture rooms and greenhouses can give valuable information about the influence of introduced genes on transgenic plant phenotype. However, an overall assessment of plant performance can only be made by testing t...

  14. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2008-05-01

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Désirée, Merkur and transgenic Désirée line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons between both experiments were made using Désirée plants. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches were used to demonstrate effects on total bacterial, actinobacterial and Pseudomonas communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils and endospheres. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints prepared with group-specific primers were analyzed using multivariate analyses and revealed that bacterial communities in Achirana Inta plants differed most from those of Désirée and Merkur. No significant effects were found between Désirée and DL12 lines. Plant growth stage strongly affected different plant-associated communities in both experiments. To investigate the effect of plant-associated communities on plant health, 800 isolates from rhizospheres and endospheres at the flowering stage were tested for suppression of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 and/or Rhizoctonia solani AG3. A group of isolates closely resembling Lysobacter sp. dominated in young plants. Its prevalence was affected by plant growth stage and experiment rather than by plant genotype. It was concluded that plant growth stage overwhelmed any effect of plant genotype on the bacterial communities associated with potato.

  15. Discriminative study of a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivation region by measuring the stable isotope ratios of bio-elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Jin, Yong-Ik; Oh, Yong-Taek; Prabakaran, Mayakrishnan; Youn, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Compared to other foods, the use of common bio-elements to identify the geographical origin of potato remains limited. Thus, this study aimed to verify whether the cultivation regions of raw potato tubers could be determined by the stable isotope composition analysis of bio-elements. δ(13)CVPDB and δ(15)NAIR in potato were influenced by region and cultivar, whereas δ(18)OVSMOW and δ(34)SVCDT were only influenced by region (ppotato tubers varies with respect to cultivation regions and cultivars.

  16. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-08-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.

  17. Chromosomal organizations of major repeat families on potato (Solanum tuberosum) and further exploring in its sequenced genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaomin; Datema, Erwin; Guzman, Myriam Olortegui; de Boer, Jan M; van Eck, Herman J; Bachem, Christian W B; Visser, Richard G F; de Jong, Hans

    2014-12-01

    One of the most powerful technologies in unraveling the organization of a eukaryotic plant genome is high-resolution Fluorescent in situ hybridization of repeats and single copy DNA sequences on pachytene chromosomes. This technology allows the integration of physical mapping information with chromosomal positions, including centromeres, telomeres, nucleolar-organizing region, and euchromatin and heterochromatin. In this report, we established chromosomal positions of different repeat fractions of the potato genomic DNA (Cot100, Cot500 and Cot1000) on the chromosomes. We also analysed various repeat elements that are unique to potato including the moderately repetitive P5 and REP2 elements, where the REP2 is part of a larger Gypsy-type LTR retrotransposon and cover most chromosome regions, with some brighter fluorescing spots in the heterochromatin. The most abundant tandem repeat is the potato genomic repeat 1 that covers subtelomeric regions of most chromosome arms. Extensive multiple alignments of these repetitive sequences in the assembled RH89-039-16 potato BACs and the draft assembly of the DM1-3 516 R44 genome shed light on the conservation of these repeats within the potato genome. The consensus sequences thus obtained revealed the native complete transposable elements from which they were derived.

  18. The effect of density and inflorescence removing on yield and yield components of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasrollahzadeh Asl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of florescence removing and plant density on yield of potato as factorial based on the randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications in a farm located in Majid Abad region of Khoy province, Iran during spring of 2014. The first factor was florescence removing at two levels of florescence removing and not removing florescence; second factor included density at 6 levels of 3/5, 4/5, 5/5, 6/5, 7/5 and 8/5 plants per square meter. The obtained results indicated that florescence removing and density had a significant effect on tuber size, tuber weight, number of leaves, number of branches and tuber yield. The tuber yield increased to 3/7 tons per hectares when florescence was removed and the most tuber yield was equal to 39/63 tons per hectares under conditions of density of 6/5 plants per square meter and removed florescence.

  19. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized.

  20. Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepedonicus: UNA ENFERMEDAD BACTERIANA EN EL CULTIVO DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) EN SONORA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente; Maricela Duarte Medina; Ana Gabriela Alvarado Martínez; Adrián Mauricio García Ortega; Mario Antonio Tarazón Herrera; Ramón Jaime Holguín Peña; Bernardo Murillo Amador; José Luís García Hernández; Arnoldo Flores-Hernández; Ignacio Orona-Castillo

    2009-01-01

    A nivel mundial la papa junto con el arroz, el maíz y el trigo, constituyen los cuatro cultivos más importantes para la alimentación humana. En años recientes se ha detectado en algunas regiones de Estados Unidos (EUA) y Canadá, la bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepedonicus (Cms) la cual provoca la enfermedad denominada podredumbre anular (PA) en el cultivo de papa. Esta bacteria ocasiona una pudrición en el tubérculo, tallos y hojas de este cultivo y tiene la particularidad de disemi...

  1. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve process quality through reconditioning. Breeding for retention of postharvest quality and LTS resistance should consider strategies for incorporating more robust tolerance to in-season heat stress.

  2. Impact of foliar application of seaweed extract on growth, yield and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasim Haider, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Habat Ullah Asad, Abdul Manan, Syed Ali Raza and Irfan Ashraf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out in 2010 to investigate the effect of foliar application of seaweed extract “Primo” as an organic biostimulant on potato cv. ‘Sante’. Foliar application of seaweed extract was carried out at different growth stages of the crop (i.e. 30 days; 45 days; 60 days; 30 and 45 days; 30 and 60 days; 45 and 60 days; 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing. Control plants were sprayed with water without seaweed extract. A significant improvement in growth, yield and tuber quality of potato was observed where treatment was applied. The highest tuber yield was recorded with applications of seaweed extract at 30 + 60 days interval after planting. The treatment also improved nitrogen, total soluble solids and protein contents of the potato tubers. The results of the study concluded a positive response of potato plant growth and yield to the foliar application of seaweed extract.

  3. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  4. Solanum tuberosum lectin inhibits Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells growth by inducing apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Rahman, Md Musfikur; Amin, Ruhul; Karim, Md Rezaul; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Hossain, M Tofazzal

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a lectin was purified from the potato cultivated in Bangladesh locally known as Sheel. In the present study cytotoxicity of the lectin against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells was studied by MTT assay in vitro in RPMI-1640 medium and 8.0-36.0 % cell growth inhibition was observed at the range of 2.5-160 μg/ml protein concentration when incubated for 24 h. The lectin-induced apoptosis in EAC cells was confirmed by fluorescence and optical microscope. The apoptotic cell death was also confirmed by using caspase inhibitors. Cells growth inhibition caused by the lectin (36 %) was remarkably decreased to 7.6 and 22.3 % respectively in the presence of caspase-3 and -8 inhibitors. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-X, p53, and Bax. An intensive expression of Bcl-X gene was observed in untreated control EAC cells with the disappeared of the gene in Sheel-treated EAC cells. At the same time, Bax gene expression appeared only in Sheel-treated EAC cells and the expression level of the p53 gene was increased remarkable after the treatment of EAC cells with the lectin. The lectin showed strong agglutination activity against EAC cells. Flow cytometry was used to study the cell cycle phases of EAC cells and it was observed that the lectin arrested the G2/M phase. In conclusion, Sheel lectin inhibited EAC cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

  5. SELECCIÓN DE PARENTALES PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA BOTÁNICA DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Salomón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental de Papa se estudiaron durante dos campañas de cultivo (diciembre, 1996-marzo, 1997 y diciembre, 1997-marzo, 1998 20 variedades foráneas de papa, con el objetivo de seleccionar las mejores para su uso como parentales en la producción de semilla sexual. Se evaluaron los caracteres reproductivos y agronómicos: número de tubérculos, rendimiento, calidad de los tubérculos, floración e incidencia en el follaje por las principales enfermedades fungosas en Cuba. Se estimaron los parámetros estadísticos fundamentales y se realizó un Análisis de Componentes Principales mediante una matriz de correlaciones. Se seleccionaron las variedades Raja, Fontenot, Atlantic, Century Russet, Carlita, Desirée y Cóndor, por presentar el mayor número de tubérculos, adecuado rendimiento, baja incidencia de los hongos Alternaria solani y Phytophthora infestans y apropiada floración en condiciones de campo. Las variedades Fontenot, Kondor y Desirée presentaron los porcentajes más altos de viabilidad del polen. Estos resultados indican que estas variedades podrían utilizarse como parentales en los programas de mejoramiento genético para la producción de semilla sexual de papa.

  6. Jasmonate effect on in vitro tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars under light and dark conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Duplessis, P.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of jasmonic acid (JA) on in vitro tuberization of six potato cultivars were examined. Tuberization was carried out in the dark, or with 8 h photoperiod on MS media with vitamins, 8% sucrose, 0.6% agar and either 2.5 muM JA (JAMed) or no JA using explants either preconditioned with 2.5 muM JA

  7. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on Metalaxyl Degradation and Metabolite Profile of Potato Seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) Alpha Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G.; Miller, Marion G.; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L.; Hengel, Matt J.; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC–TOF–MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism. PMID:22363586

  8. Androgenesis in Anther Culture of Lithuanian Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ASAKAVICIUTE, Rita

    2008-01-01

    An anther culture method was used for the production of doubled haploids (DHs) in Lithuanian barley and potato cultivars that were directly regenerated from embryoids (Caredda´s method) were applied to determine androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green DH regenerants were obtained in 3 Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (´Aidas´, ´Alsa´, and ´Auksiniai´) out of 10 studied. The highest rate of embryoid formation was determined in cv. ...

  9. The effect of temperature upon the pathogenicity and chemical control of Rhizoctonia solani K. on potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Błaszczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In poe experiment, it was found that Rhizoctonia solani was most pathogenic to potato sprouts at 14.8 and 17.4°C. At a third temperature applied (9.9°C, the pathologenicity was much lower. The higher temperatures decreased the fungicidal activity of Ceresan Nassbeize and Rizokton. The addition to the soil of 1 and 3% of corn straw did not affect the pathogenicity of the fungus.

  10. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae from Tanzania

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    Mkabwa L.K. Manoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place S. umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits.

  11. Free radical scavenging potential of Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sreevidya; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Vijayakumar, Madhavan; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2006-04-06

    Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker commonly referred as 'Musli' has been widely used as a potent 'Rasayana' drug in 'Ayurveda' as a rejuvenator and tonic. Antioxidant potential of Chlorophytum tuberosum has been investigated for their ability to scavenge 1,1,diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide radical along with their capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate, chelation of ferrous ion, radical scavenging potential using chemiluminescence and their total antioxidant capacity. Sugar, starch, protein, and Vitamin C content were estimated spectrophotometrically along with the percentages of the individual amino acids by HPLC and individual sugars by using HPTLC as standardization tool. The extract has been found to possess antioxidant activity in all the models tested as evident by IC50 values being 225.31, 888.44, 809.22 and 422.97 microg/ml for scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and ferry bi-pyridyl complex, respectively, along with a integral anitoxidant activity of 2.986 nmol ascorbic acid/g equivalents in photochemiluminescence assay.

  12. Algunos componentes esteroidales del solanum havanense jacq

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    Mario J. Basterrechea Rey

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo alcaloide esteroidal llamado acetil etiolina, ha sido aislado de las hojas, tallos y raices del Solanum havanense Jacq y su estructura corresponde con (25S-16a-acetoxi-22.26-epiminocolest-5.22(N-dien-3ß-ol.

  13. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  14. Flowerlocation in Solanum dulcamara L. (Solanaceae

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    Irina Zhuravlyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of inflorescence of Solanum dulcamara is studied. Pseudolateral location of inflorescence relatively to plant body is set, the absence of bracteae and the sympodial type of growing of branches are found out. From W. Troll point of view the inflorescence of nightshade is defined as the polytelica synflorescence – complex dichasium.

  15. Comprimento e largura do tamanho ótimo da parcela experimental em batata

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    Storck Lindolfo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A redução do erro experimental e o conseqüente aumento da precisão experimental podem ser obtidos com a aplicação do tamanho ótimo de parcelas experimentais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as relações da largura e do comprimento sobre a estimativa do tamanho ótimo de parcela na cultura de batata pelo método da regressão múltipla. Doze ensaios de uniformidade de batata da cultivar Macaca foram conduzidos na estação experimental da Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária em Júlio de Castilhos, Rio Grande do Sul. Cada ensaio foi constituído por 12 linhas com 24 covas. Foram estimados o ponto crítico e a natureza da função de superfície de resposta do coeficiente de variação em relação às diferentes larguras e comprimentos das parcelas planejadas. A análise de causa e efeito foi feita usando-se o tamanho ótimo de parcela como variável dependente e as estimativas dos parâmetros da função de superfície de resposta como variáveis independentes. O tamanho ótimo de parcela pode ser estimado procedendo-se a colheita das covas em linhas independentes. O efeito linear do comprimento é quem define o tamanho ótimo de parcela na cultura da batata. O tamanho ótimo de uma parcela experimental de batata é de 24 covas distribuídas em uma linha.

  16. Desempenho de cultivares nacionais de batata para produtividade de tubérculos

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    Giovani Olegario da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desempenho dos cultivares de batata nacionais BRS Ana e BRS Clara, em comparação com os cultivares importados Ágata e Asterix, em relação à produtividade de tubérculos. Os experimentos foram realizados no município de Canoinhas, SC. Foram avaliados quatro cultivares de batata: BRS Ana, BRS Clara, Asterix e Ágata. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As parcelas continham quatro linhas com 20 plantas em cada linha. Cento e dez dias após o plantio foi realizada a colheita e, os tubérculos de cada parcela, avaliados para caracteres relacionados com a produtividade de tubérculos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e agrupamento de médias, por Skott & Knott, a 5% de probabilidade. Os cultivares de batata nacionais BRS Ana e BRS Clara foram mais produtivos do que os importados Asterix e Ágata; no entanto, são mais tardios, quanto ao ciclo vegetativo.

  17. Comparative analysis of Solanum stoloniferum responses to probing by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana E.Alvarez; Viviana G.Broglia; Anahí M.Alberti D'Amato; Doret Wouters; Edwin van der Vossen; Elisa Garzo; W.Fred Tjallingii

    2013-01-01

    Plants protect themselves against aphid attacks by species-specific defense mechanisms.Previously,we have shown that Solanum stoloniferum Schlechtd has resistance factors to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera:Aphididae) at the epidermal/mesophyll level that are not effective against Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Homoptera:Aphididae).Here,we compare the nymphal mortality,the pre-reproductive development time,and the probing behavior of M.persicae and M.euphorbiae on S.stoloniferum and Solanum tuberosum L.Furthermore,we analyze the changes in gene expression in S.stoloniferum 96 hours post infestation by either aphid species.Although the M.euphorbiae probing behavior shows that aphids encounter more probing constrains on phloem activities-longer probing and salivation time-on S.stoloniferum than on S.tuberosum,the aphids succeeded in reaching a sustained ingestion of phloem sap on both plants.Probing by M.persicae on S.stoloniferum plants resulted in limited feeding only.Survival of M.euphorbiae and M.persicae was affected on young leaves,but not on senescent leaves of S.stoloniferum.Infestation by M.euphorbiae changed the expression of more genes than M.persicae did.At the systemic level both aphids elicited a weak response.Infestation of S.stoloniferum plants with a large number ofM.persicae induced morphological changes in the leaves,leading to the development of pustules that were caused by disrupted vascular parenchyma and surrounding tissue.In contrast,an infestation by M.euphorbiae had no morphological effects.Both plant species can be regarded as good host for M.euphorbiae,whereas only S.tuberosum is a good host for Mo persicae and S.stoloniferum is not.Infestation of S.stoloniferum by M.persicae or M.euphorbiae changed the expression of a set of plant genes specific for each of the aphids as well as a set of common genes.

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of cadmium responses in Solanum nigrum and Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Sun, Jianhang; Du, Liguo; Liu, Xiaojing

    2012-10-01

    Solanum nigrum is a cadmium (Cd) accumulator, whereas Solanum torvum is a low Cd-accumulating plant. The molecular mechanisms that are responsible for differential cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the two Solanum species are poorly understood. • Here, grafting experiments confirmed that increased Cd loading into the root xylem was responsible for the differential Cd accumulation in the two Solanum species. An iron (Fe) supply assay indicated that low Fe accumulation in S. torvum leaves is related to its Cd sensitivity. • Transcriptome analyses revealed higher expression of the genes that encode several metal transporters as well as antioxidant-related genes, and several organic and amino acid biosynthesis/metabolism-related genes in Cd-treated S. nigrum. Our data also indicated that the different responsive mechanisms of the transporter genes to Fe deficiency might be responsible for differential uptake and redistribution of metals in the two Solanum species • These results form a basis upon which to further explore the molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation and tolerance, and provide an insight into novel strategies that can be used for phytoremediation and food safety.

  19. Lectotypification of Cavanilles' names in Solanum (Solanaceae

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    Knapp, Sandra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes are confirmed or designated here for the 13 names coined by Antonio José Cavanilles that were either described, or today are recognised as, members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae: Solanum betaceum, S. elaeagnifolium, S. fructotecto, S. lanceolatum, S. lentum, S. parviflorum, S. phyllanthum, S. pinnatum, S. pomiferum, S. pygmaeum, S. triquetrum, Triguera ambrosiaca and T. inodora. A brief introduction assesses the importance of Cavanilles to the botany of his time, and identifies difficulties in lectotypifying names coined by him. The currently accepted name for each taxon is given. Each typification is accompanied by a discussion of the reasoning behind the choice of specimen, and all lectotypes are illustrated.Se confirman o designan los lectótipos de 13 nombres de Antonio José Cavanilles que o bien fueron descritos dentro del género Solanum (Solanaceae o son actualmente reconocidos como parte del mismo: Solanum betaceum, S. elaeagnifolium, S. fructo- tecto, S. lanceolatum, S. lentum, S. parviflorum, S. phyllanthum, S. pinnatum, S. pomiferum, S. pygmaeum, S. triquetrum, Triguera ambrosiaca y T. inodora. Se incluye una breve introducción explicando la importancia de Cavanilles para la botánica de su tiempo, así como las dificultades que entraña lectotipificar las especies de este autor. Se indica el nombre aceptado para cada especie. Las tipificaciones se acompañan de una discusión, explicando la elección de los especímenes. Todos los lectótipos están ilustrados.

  20. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF KAKAMACHI (SOLANUM NIGRUM LINN

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    Jani Dilip K.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kakamachi (Solanum nigrum Linn belongs to family Solanaceae and is being used in Ayurveda in skin diseases and diabetes. It is being sold in the market under the common name Makoy. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization to remove the controversy, a detailed pharmacognostic study on whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn has been carried out. The review on this drug shows that the drug is known since Vedic period. This is the plant amongst the few plants, which are used widely for purposes like Shaka Dravya (Vegetable drug. This study confirms that Solanum nigrum Linn fulfill the standard parameters, decided by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial committee of India. The Physiochemical standards like ash value, alcohol soluble extracts, water soluble extracts etc, were also with the limits of the values mentioned in Pharmacopoeia. The heavy metals analysis of Kakamachi was carried out for Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, etc., shows that the drug, is free from the abnormal levels of heavy metals. The qualitative study shows the presence of Saponins, Tannins and Alkaloids in Kakamachi. The standard monogram prepared concludes that these parameters could be useful for future standard.

  1. Identification and characterisation of CYP75A31, a new flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, isolated from Solanum lycopersicum

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    Bourgaud Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the regulation of the flavonoid pathway is important for maximising the nutritional value of crop plants and possibly enhancing their resistance towards pathogens. The flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H enzyme functions at an important branch point between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis, as is evident from studies in petunia (Petunia hybrida, and potato (Solanum tuberosum. The present work involves the identification and characterisation of a F3'5'H gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, and the examination of its putative role in flavonoid metabolism. Results The cloned and sequenced tomato F3'5'H gene was named CYP75A31. The gene was inserted into the pYeDP60 expression vector and the corresponding protein produced in yeast for functional characterisation. Several putative substrates for F3'5'H were tested in vitro using enzyme assays on microsome preparations. The results showed that two hydroxylation steps occurred. Expression of the CYP75A31 gene was also tested in vivo, in various parts of the vegetative tomato plant, along with other key genes of the flavonoid pathway using real-time PCR. A clear response to nitrogen depletion was shown for CYP75A31 and all other genes tested. The content of rutin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside was found to increase as a response to nitrogen depletion in most parts of the plant, however the growth conditions used in this study did not lead to accumulation of anthocyanins. Conclusions CYP75A31 (NCBI accession number GQ904194, encodes a flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, which accepts flavones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols and flavonols as substrates. The expression of the CYP75A31 gene was found to increase in response to nitrogen deprivation, in accordance with other genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, as expected for a gene involved in flavonoid metabolism.

  2. Characterization of the multiple resistance traits of somatic hybrids between Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. and two commercial potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Nachtigall, Marion; Schubert, Jörg; Hammann, Thilo; Antonova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific somatic hybrids between commercial cultivars of potato Solanum tuberosum L. Agave and Delikat and the wild diploid species Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (cph) were produced by protoplast electrofusion. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by flow cytometry, simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) markers and morphological analysis. Somatic hybrids were assessed for their resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) using a laboratory bioassay, to Potato virus Y (PVY) by mechanical inoculation and field trials, and foliage blight in a greenhouse and by field trials. Twenty-four and 26 somatic hybrids of cph + cv. Agave or cph + cv. Delikat, respectively, showed no symptoms of infection with PVY, of which 3 and 12, respectively, were also resistant to foliage blight. One hybrid of cph + Agave performed best in CPB and PVY resistance tests. Of the somatic hybrids that were evaluated for their morphology and tuber yield in the field for 3 years, four did not differ significantly in tuber yield from the parental and standard cultivars. Progeny of hybrids was obtained by pollinating them with pollen from a cultivar, selfing or cross-pollination. The results confirm that protoplast electrofusion can be used to transfer the CPB, PVY and late blight resistance of cph into somatic hybrids. These resistant somatic hybrids can be used in pre-breeding studies, molecular characterization and for increasing the genetic diversity available for potato breeding by marker-assisted combinatorial introgression into the potato gene pool.

  3. Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill. and S. nigrum L. (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Mariani, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two hexaploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum are present in Africa: Solanum scabrum and S. nigrum. Solanum scabrum is a widely cultivated species and is used as a leafy vegetable, as a source of medicine and as a source of ink dye. In previous studies a wide range of morphological diversity has be

  4. Antioxidant glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the invasive tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eggplant (Solanum melongena) and other species within the “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) contain diverse and abundant antioxidant caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. The fruit of an aggressive invasive species in the spiny solanums, Solanum viarum, contain numerous CQA deri...

  5. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  6. AFLP markers support separation of Solanum nodiflorum from Solanum americanum sensu stricto (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, R.G. van den; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, G.M. van der; Mariani, C.

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at examining the relationships between the African material of Solanum americanum (also designated as S. nodiflorum), accessions of this taxon from other geographical areas, and American S. americanum using AFLP markers. 96 individuals representing 39 accessions of S. americanum

  7. AFLP markers support separation of Solanum nodiflorum from Solanum americanum sensu strictio (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Mariani, C.

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at examining the relationships between the African material of Solanum americanum (also designated as S. nodiflorum), accessions of this taxon from other geographical areas, and American S. americanum using AFLP markers. 96 individuals representing 39 accessions of S. americanum

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J R; Cantliffe, D J

    1984-06-01

    Leaf, shoot-tip, stem, and root explants of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.) gave rise to two kinds of callus on nutrient agar medium containing 0.5 to 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. One callus, bright- to pale-yellow, was compact and organized, while the other was dull-yellow and friable. The former callus gave rise to numerous globular and heart-shaped embryoids. When transferred onto hormone-free medium, the embryoids readily developed into a torpedo-shape before germination. The plantlets were transplanted to soil where they flowered and formed storage roots at maturity.

  9. Osmotic dehydration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas in ternary solutions Desidratação osmótica de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas em soluções ternárias

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    Graziella Colato Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas using hypertonic sucrose solutions, with or without NaCl, at three different concentrations, at 40 °C. Highest water losses were obtained when the mixture of sucrose and NaCl was used. The addition of NaCl to osmotic solutions increases the driving force of the process and it is verified that the osmotic dehydration process is mainly influenced by changes in NaCl concentration, but the positive effect of the salt-sucrose interaction on soluble solids also determined the decrease of solid gain when solutes were at maximum concentrations. Mass transfer kinetics were modeled according to Peleg, Fick and Page's equations, which presented good fittings of the experimental data. Peleg's equation and Page's model presented the best fitting and showed excellent predictive capacity for water loss and salt gain data. The effective diffusivity determined using Fick's Second Law applied to slice geometry was found to be in the range from 3.82 x 10-11 to 7.46 x 10-11 m²/s for water loss and from 1.18 x 10-10 to 3.38 x 10-11 m²/s for solid gain.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a desidratação osmótica da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas utilizando soluções hipertônicas de sacarose e/ou NaCl, em três concentrações diferentes a 40 °C. As perdas de água mais elevadas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a mistura de sacarose e NaCl. A adição do NaCl às soluções osmóticas aumenta a força motriz do processo. Verifica-se que o processo de desidratação osmótica é principalmente influenciado pela mudança da concentração de NaCl, mas o efeito positivo da interação do sal com a sacarose também determinou a diminuição do ganho de sólidos quando os solutos estavam em concentrações máximas. As cinéticas de transferência de massa foram modeladas de acordo com as Equações de Peleg, de Fick e de Page, e apresentaram bons ajustes aos dados

  10. Solanum nigrum L. as a Hepatoprotective Agent

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    Muthiana Rizky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver damage may be caused by various factors. Solanum nigrum L. fruit is known to contain flavonoid antioxidant which is responsible for its hepatoprotective effect. A study was conducted to determine the protective effect of Solanum nigrum L. fruit infusion (SNFI on CCl4-induced hepatic cell damage in rats. Methods: A complete randomized experimental study was conducted on 25 male Wistar strain-white rats (Rattusnorvegicus which were divided into five groups during the period of September– October 2012. Group I (negative control was given standardized food and water; group II (positive control was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 10% paraffin intraperitoneally by 8 mL/kg body weight on the 8th day of the study; group III, IV, V (treated were given Solanum nigrum L. fruit infusion (SNFI by 22.5g/100mL, 45 g/100mL and 90g/100mL concentrations for 8 days, respectively, prior to CCl4 induction. The calculation of necrotic liver cells was performed in 48 hours after induction. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney post-hoc test. Results: The percentage of necrosis liver cells in group III, IV, and V was smaller compared to the positive control group. The protective effect of SNFI against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity may be related to its ability to elevate the antioxidant agent in the body. There were significant differences in necrotic between Group II and group III, IV, V which were treated with SNFI. Conclusion: Further investigation is required to characterize the active ingredients and the mechanism of SNF action to confirm the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects.

  11. A Functional mathematical index for predicting effects of food processing on eight sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas)cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we apply an improved functional mathematical index (FMI), modified from those presented in previous publications, to define the influence of different cooking processes of eight sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on composition of six bioactive phenolic compounds (flavonoids). Th...

  12. Caracterização de variedades de batata doce (Ipomoea batatas L. através de descritores morfológicos e isoenzimáticos Morphological and isoenzymatic characterization of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Augustin

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocorre grande variabilidade no germoplasma de batata-doce disponível no Rio Grande do Sul, mas nem todas populações podem ser caracterizadas através de aspectos morfológicos, havendo necessidade de recorrer a outros métodos, como análise de isoenzimas, para a sua diferenciação. A avaliação de características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas de dez acessos do Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da Embrapa Clima Temperado foi o objetivo deste trabalho. Quatro descritores morfológicos foram utilizados, permitindo distinguir seis variedades. Análises de isoenzimas de peroxidase, aspartato transaminase e esterase foram efetuadas, utilizando-se eletroforese horizontal em gel de poliacrilamida. Foi observada similaridade máxima (1,00 estimada através do coeficiente de Jaccard, com base nesses marcadores, apenas entre as variedades Americana e Morada INTA. A análise de agrupamento permitiu a distinção de dois grupos e quatro subgrupos, utilizando UPGMA (método da média aritmética não ponderada. Os resultados obtidos permitiram a diferenciação dos dez acessos estudados e indicaram que a análise de isoenzimas associada a avaliações morfológicas é de grande valia na caracterização de germoplasma de batata-doce disponível no Rio Grande do Sul.Despite the variability observed in sweet potato germplasm found in the Rio Grande do Sul State, many populations can not be morphologically characterized without the use of additional methods, such as isoenzyme analysis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics of ten accesses of the genetic resources program of Embrapa Clima Temperado. Four morphological descriptors were used, which allowed to distinguish six varieties. Polyacrylamyde electrophoresis was used to analyze peroxidase, aspartate transaminase and esterase isoenzymes. Maximum similarity (1.00, estimated through Jaccard coefficient, was observed only in comparisons between

  13. Reconstruction of muon tracks in a buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggi, S., E-mail: simone.riggi@ct.in [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Insolia, A. [Universita di Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Medina-Tanco, G. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Trovato, E. [Universita di Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy)

    2012-10-01

    The BATATA muon counter was designed as one of the foreseen detector upgrades of the Pierre Auger Observatory with the main goal of quantifying the electromagnetic contamination of the muon signal as a function of the depth for cosmic ray shower energies above 10 PeV. Nevertheless BATATA offers also the possibility of measuring the incoming direction of secondary muons from both GeV and PeV primary cosmic rays. Large efforts have been already done to quantify from simulations the amount of the electromagnetic contamination and the expected muon identification performances. The present work is focused on the evaluation of the detector performances for muon track reconstruction. To this aim and in view of the detector installation in the field, expected to be completed by the first half of current year, we performed a GEANT4 end-to-end simulation of such device and set up a track reconstruction procedure. Typical results concerning achieved acceptance and angular resolution for muons are presented.

  14. Central diabetes insipidus following digestion Solanum indicum L. concentrated solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Fang, Ji-Tseng

    2008-04-01

    In Taiwan, Solanum indicum L. has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, ascites, edema, and wound infection. The plant is rich in solanine, an alkaloidal glycoside. We report a 43-year-old man who developed polyuria and polydipsia after taking seven doses of concentrated solution of Solanum indicum L. over two weeks. A water deprivation test and a low serum antidiuretic hormone level helped to confirm a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus. We suggest that excessive doses of Solanum indicum L. may cause central diabetes insipidus.

  15. Associação de Rhizoctonia solani Grupo de Anastomose 4 (AG-4 HGI e HGIII à espécies de plantas invasoras de área de cultivo de batata Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4 HGI and HGIII associated with weed species from a potato cropping area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida da Silva-Barreto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos 3 e 4 de anastomose (AG-3 e AG-4 do fungo Rhizoctonia solani são importantes grupos associados à batata no mundo. No Brasil, o AG-3 é relatado afetando principalmente batata e fumo. Já o AG-4 causa perdas consideráveis em culturas de importância econômica, como a soja, o feijão e o amendoim, podendo ocorrer também em hortaliças como o espinafre, o pimentão, o brócolis, o tomate, a batata e frutíferas como o melão. Recentemente foi constatada, em Brasília-DF, a associação de R. solani a plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivo de batata. Entretanto, não há informação a respeito da etiologia do patógeno bem como do papel de espécies invasoras como outras hospedeiras no ciclo do patógeno. Objetivou-se com esse estudo caracterizar isolados de R. solani obtidos de batata e de outras três espécies de plantas invasoras associadas a áreas de cultivo da cultura: juá-de-capote [Nicandra physaloides (L. Pers., Solanaceae], beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae, e caruru (Amaranthus deflexus L., Amaranthaceae. Foi confirmada a hipótese de que os isolados obtidos de R. solani de beldroega, caruru e juá-de-capote pertencem ao grupo 4 de anastomose e são patogênicos à batata, exceto o isolado de beldroega. Estes isolados apresentaram patogenicidade cruzada às três espécies e também patogênicos à maria-pretinha (Solanum americanum Mill., uma outra espécie de Solanaceae invasora. A classificação dos isolados no grupo AG-4 HGI ou no grupo AG-4 HGIII (isolado de caruru foi confirmada através de características culturais e moleculares (seqüenciamento da região ITS-5.8S do rDNA. Os resultados deste trabalho trazem implicações importantes para o manejo das podridões radiculares de Rhizoctonia em batata.The anastomosis groups 3 and 4 (AG-3 and AG-4 of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani are important groups associated with potatoes worldwide. In Brazil, the AG-3 is reported affecting mainly potatoes and

  16. Chemical constituents of Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn; Constituintes quimicos de Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Torres, Maria da conceicao M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L., E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Ondina, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Botanica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical investigation of the stem EtOH extract of S. buddleifolium resulted in the isolation of terpenoids, amides, lignans and a steroidal alkaloid. Based on HRMS, IR and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as: 13-hydroxysolavetivone, betulinic acid, N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyldopamine, N-trans-p-cumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl- 3'-O-methoxydopamine, alangilignoside C, isolariciresinol, polistachiol, (+)-(8R,7'S,8'S)-3{alpha}-O-({beta}-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol, (-)-(8S,7'R,8'R)-3{alpha}-O-({beta}-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol and solamargine. The occurrence of terpenoids and amides is common in Solanum, unlike lignans which are rare. The isolated lignans described in this work are reported for the first time in the genus Solanum. (author)

  17. Effect of foliar fertilisation on growth of solanum trilobatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, S; Madhavan, S; Babu, T

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the fertilizers, CYTOZYME, MIRACLE, PLANOFIX and VIPUL on Solanum trilobatum were studied CYTOZYME showed improved morphometric performance and the highest yield. VIPUL contributed greater drought resistance to the medicinal plant.

  18. STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDES FROM THE ROOTS OF SOLANUM MELONGENA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan Shvets

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One new cholestane glycoside, six steroidal glycosides of spirostane series and one pregnane glycoside have been isolated from the roots of Solanum melongena L. for the first time. Their structures were determined by physico-chemical methods.

  19. Resolution by recombination: breaking up Solanum pennellii introgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseekh, Saleh; Ofner, Itai; Pleban, Tzili; Tripodi, Pasquale; Di Dato, Francesco; Cammareri, Maria; Mohammad, Ayed; Grandillo, Silvana; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zamir, Dani

    2013-10-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) genetics retains an important role in the study of biological and agronomic processes; however, its genetic resolution is often comparatively low. Community-based strategies are thus required to address this issue. Here we detail such a strategy wherein the widely used Solanum pennellii introgression lines (ILs) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are broken up into molecular marker-defined sublines as a community resource for map-based cloning.

  20. Chemical Constituents from the Tubers of Ipomoea batatas%甘薯的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹永芹; 孔令义

    2008-01-01

    目的:对甘薯(Ipomoea batatas)的化学成分进行研究.方法:运用多种层析方法进行分离纯化,通过波谱和化学方法确定化合物的结构.结果:分离鉴定了5个化合物,即乙酰-β-香树醇(1)、表木栓醇(2)、咖啡酸乙酯(3)、咖啡酸(4)、simonin Ⅳ(5).结论:5个化合物为首次从该植物中分离得到,其中simonin Ⅳ(5)为首次从甘薯中分离得到的树脂糖苷类化合物.

  1. Phenology and morphological diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas landraces of the Vale do Ribeira Fenologia e diversidade morfológica de etnovariedades de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas do Vale do Ribeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Veasey

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas landraces was assessed using morphological traits, verifying how this diversity is distributed among the households and settlements of the Vale do Ribeira, Brazil. A total of 74 accessions, involving 53 landraces, collected from 30 households distributed among 18 settlements that practice traditional agriculture in the municipalities of Iguape, Ilha Comprida, and Cananeia, as well as four commercial varieties acquired in markets of Iguape and Piracicaba, were evaluated under an ex situ experimental condition in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Nine phenological and floral descriptors, nine morphological vegetative aerial descriptors and five storage root traits were recorded. The 14 aerial vegetative and root descriptors were evaluated as binary data, totaling 74 attributes. Cluster analyses were made using the Jaccard similarity index and the UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean agglomerative method. Binary data was also submitted to a variance analysis (AMOVA. No defined groups were observed, indicating that the diversity of the landraces is not structured in space, but considerable morphological variation was found in this area (Jaccard similarity index varying from 0.12 to 1.0. Most of the variability occurred within households (64.4%, followed by the distribution among households within settlements (27.1% and among settlements (8.4%. Thus, the traditional agriculturists of Vale do Ribeira maintain a high morphological diversity for sweet potato within their households, which can be assumed to be produced by the outcrossing mating system of this species and somatic mutation events, as well as the exchange system at local and regional levels.Avaliou-se a diversidade fenotípica de etnovariedades de batata-doce através de descritores morfológicos, visando verificar como esta diversidade está distribuída em nível de roças e comunidades do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil

  2. Changes in electrophoretic profiles of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato induced by gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of nodal segments of Ipomoea batatas to differentiate shoots and roots was evaluated after gamma irradiation. Shoot differentiation was less sensitive to irradiation than roots. However, at 90 Gy, no shoot was able to regenerate a new plant; in contrast 76 % of the roots from irradiated nodal segments continued to grow. The gamma radiation also induced changes in electrophoretic profiles of peroxidases of storage roots. Plants originated from irradiated storage roots presented changes in leaf peroxidase profiles very similar to those produced by leaves directly irradiated. The peroxidase profile of absorbent roots from irradiated storage roots was different from that obtained from directly irradiated absorbent roots.A capacidade de Ipomoea batatas diferenciar parte aérea e raízes foi avaliada após irradiação com raios gama. A diferenciação da parte aérea foi menos sensível que a das raízes. Contudo, na dose de 90 Gy nenhum broto diferenciado regenerou planta, enquanto 76 % das raízes diferenciadas dos segmentos nodais irradiados manteve o crescimento. A radiação também induziu mudanças no perfil elotroforético de isoperoxidases. Plantas originadas de raízes tuberosas irradiadas apresentaram alteração no perfil de isoperoxidases foliares semelhantes ao perfil de folhas diretamente irradiadas. O perfil de isoperoxidases de raízes absorventes irradiadas diretamente não apresentou o mesmo padrão do perfil das raízes absorventes desenvolvidas de raízes tuberosas irradiadas.

  3. Desempenho de clones elite de batata para caracteres agronômicos e de qualidade industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Olegario da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desempenho de clones elite de batata, em relação a caracteres agronômicos e de qualidade industrial. Os experimentos foram realizados em Pelotas, RS, Canoinhas, SC, e Londrina, PR. Foi avaliado um conjunto de clones elite, pertencentes ao Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Batata, da Embrapa. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições para Pelotas e Londrina e quatro para Canoinhas. Foram avaliados os caracteres massa total de tubérculos, massa comercial de tubérculos, número de tubérculos comerciais, percentagem de massa de tubérculos comerciais, massa média de tubérculos comerciais, peso específico, cor de fritura e ciclo vegetativo. A partir dos dados obtidos foram realizadas as análises de variância para cada local e teste de agrupamento de médias para cada caráter. Para identificação de clones apropriados ao mercado 'in natura', em que é fundamental o elevado potencial produtivo e precocidade, os clones mais promissores foram F80-03-06 e CL02-05, quando comparados à cultivar testemunha Ágata. Para o processamento industrial, em que o peso específico, a cor de fritura e o rendimento de tubérculo são caracteres importantes, destacou-se o clone F81-01-06, que apesar de não apresentar os maiores rendimentos totais, apresentou tubérculos grandes, ciclo vegetativo intermediário e boa aptidão para fritura, quando comparando-se ao cultivar testemunha Asterix.

  4. Sensorial, physical and chemical evaluation of bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara N.G. Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck (BDB in nature and processed. Methods: BDB was processed as sweet (in natura, paste and syrup and physicochemical characteristics were compared, total carotenoids, beta-carotene, antioxidant activity (DPPH and microbiological and sensory analyses were performed. Results:The analysis of total carotenoids, beta-carotene and anti-oxidant potential showed the following results: BDB in nature – 11.81 mg/100 g/440.5 mg/100 g/26.30%; sweet paste – 0.61 mg/100 g/53.5 mg/100 g/53.40% and savored syrup – 0.85 mg/100 g/46.0 mg/100 g/14.30%. The methods of conservation avoided the coliforms growth at 35 and 45°C, Staphylococcus coagulasa positivo, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella in all elaborated candies. The sensorial analysis didn’t detect significant differences among the syrup or paste. Conclusions: The conservation methods have an important function keeping the physical, chemical characteristics and sensorial of BDB, although they can influence in their chemical and nutritional composition, mainly in relation to the quantity of total carotenoids and beta-carotene.

  5. Corte de tubérculos de batatinha (Solatium tuberosum L.: parte I - Estudos comparativos sôbre plantio de tubérculos inteiros, e cortados em "ápice" e "base"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo J. Boock

    1947-01-01

    Full Text Available Several trials were conducted with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. to study the relative value of the apical and basal sets, as compared to whole seed tubers, since cutting potatoes before planting has been a matter of discussion. The experiments have been carried out on a high and on a low districts, say, respectively, at Joanópolis mountainous region, and at Taubaté flat lands, the latter on the right bank of Paraíba river, both in the State of São Paulo. Results have shown that on high lands, over 1,000 meters above sea level, the cutting process may be accomplished, though the basal sets have yielded less than apical ones, and whole tubers. Apical sets produced as well as whole tubers. At Taubaté district, aproximately 500 meters above sea level, where potato crop is usually grown from May to September in the dry season, on irrigated flat lands, after rice has been harvested, best results were secured from whole seed tubers. Apical and basal sets decayed easily, due probably to irrigation water ; for this reason they are not to be used.

  6. Determinación cuantitativa de vitamina C y pigmentos y procesamiento de la papa criolla, variedad yema de huevo (Solanum phureja Juz et Buck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alvarez G.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Empleando papa pardo'pastusa (Solanum tuberosum como control, se determinó el contenido de Vitamina C total en la papa criolla, variedad Yema de Huevo (Solanum phureja, Juz et Buck y se evaluaron las pérdidas durante la cocción y el freído. Se utilizaron los métodos colorimétrico y densitométrico: el primero dio resultados altos debido a sustancias interferentes; el segundo reportó los siguientes valores: criolla 21 mg/100 g, pardo-pastusa 18 mg/100 g (para muestra fresca. Las pérdidas de Vitamina C de papa criolla con piel fueron durante la cocción {92°C durante 25' de 1 9 % y en el freído (175°C por 3' de 30%. También se analizaron los carotenos y xantofilas dando: carotenos en papa criolla, 1.5 mg/100 g, en pardo-pastusa 0.5 mg/100 g (muestra fresca y xantofilas en papa criolla 0.6 mg/100 g, en pardo-pastusa 0.13 mg/100 g. Se procesó en las siguientes formas no tradicionales: en harinas compuestas aceptadas por ios consumidores, en una sustitución del 2 0% con puré; frita en tajadas con piel y pasabocas de puré. El tiempo de vida fue para frita tres semanas a 16°C V más de una semana a 25°C; para pasabocas cinco semanas y media a 16 C y un mes a 30°C.

  7. Decrease in spermatic parameters of mice treated with hydroalcoholic extract Tropaeolum tuberosum “mashua”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Vásquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we provided a Tropaeolum tuberosum hydroalcoholic extract to male mice (780 mg kg-1 for 7, 14 and 21 days treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, testes, epididymides and prostate weight (p> 0.05, nevertheless progressive motility decreased and immobile sperm count increased significantly after 21 days treatment (p <0.05. The sperm count in the epididymis cauda decreased in the 3 three assessments, concentration on 21 days treatment was significantly lower than those of 7 and 14 days treatments (p <0.05. Our results suggest, that T. tuberosum has a direct action on the male reproductive system decreasing spermatic parameters without exerting toxic effects on mice.

  8. Listado anotado de Solanum L. (Solanaceae) en el Perú

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Baden, Maria; Gonzáles, Paúl

    2015-01-01

    The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 275 species of Solanum L., of which 252 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 73 Solanum species (29% of native...

  9. Efectos del Almacenamiento y de la Cocción sobre el Contenido de Glicoialcaloides en Papa (Solanum Iuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Marín Héctor

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Los glicoalcaloides son O-glicósidos derivados de alcaloides 3 hidroxi-esteroides. Son bases débiles, ligeramente solubles en agua, solubles en ácidos débiles y alcoholes acidificados. Los que se encuentran en la papa (Solanum tuberosum son α-solanina y α-chaconina. A partir de ciertas concentraciones pueden manifestarse como mutagénicos, teratogénicos y carcinogénicos. Valores superiores a 1O mg/1OOg de tubérculo fresco imparten un sabor amargo. Contenidos de 20 mg/1OOg o más, dan sensación de quemadura. Se han reportado muertes a niveles de 30 mg/1OOg. Se estudiaron los efectos del almacenamiento y de la cocción sobre el contenido de glicoalcaloides totales (cuantitativo y el sabor amargo (cualitativo, en las dos variedades de papa de mayor consumo en Antioquia: ICA puracé y DIACOL capiro, bajo las condiciones de temperatura 16 y 21.5 °C. Los contenidos de glicoalcaloides totales fueron: 1.5 mg/1OOg en el tubérculo fresco variedad DIACOL capiro y 2.6 mg/1OOg para la variedad ICA puracé. Al pasar de 15 a 30 días el almacenamiento de las dos variedades a ambas temperaturas, se incrementaron los glicoalcaloides totales. No obstante, estos valores están por debajo de los niveles que inciden en el sabor amargo y más distantes aún de los considerados tóxicos. Con respecto a la cocción, hubo una clara reducción en el contenido de los glicoalcaloides. Para la variedad ICA puracé, hubo menores niveles de glicoalcaloides a la temperatura 21.5 °C, pero la variedad DIACOL capiro no mostró esa diferencia.

  10. BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA

    CERN Document Server

    Medina-Tanco, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    BATATA is a hodoscope comprising three X-Y planes of plastic scintillation detectors. This system of buried counters is complemented by an array of 3 water-Cherenkov detectors, located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with 200 m sides. This small surface array is triggered by extensive air showers. The BATATA detector will be installed at the centre of the AMIGA array, where it will be used to quantify the electromagnetic contamination of the muon signal as a function of depth, and so to validate, in situ, the numerical estimates made of the optimal depth for the AMIGA muon detectors. BATATA will also serves as a prototype to aid the design of these detectors.

  11. Molecular cloning, functional characterization and expression of potato (Solanum tuberosum) 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 1 (StDXS1) in response to Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Maria Antonia; Soliman, Atta; Li, Genyi; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Ayele, Belay T; Daayf, Fouad

    2016-02-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) catalyzes the initial step of the plastidial 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP-MEP) pathway involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis. In this study, we cloned the complete cDNA of potato DXS gene that was designated StDXS1. StDXS1 cDNA encodes for 719 amino acid residues, with MW of 77.8 kDa, and is present in one copy in the potato genome. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments assigned StDXS1 to a group with DXS homologues from closely related species and exhibited homodomain identity with known DXS proteins from other plant species. Late blight symptoms occurred in parallel with a reduction in StDXS1 transcript levels, which may be associated with the levels of isoprenoids that contribute to plant protection against pathogens. Subcellular localization indicated that StDXS1 targets the chloroplasts where isoprenoids are synthesized. Arabidopsis expressing StDXS1 showed a higher accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll as compared to wild type controls. Lower levels of ABA and GA were detected in the transgenic DXS lines as compared to control plants, which reflected on higher germination rates of the transgenic DXS lines. No changes were detected in JA or SA contents. Selected downstream genes in the DOXP-MEP pathway, especially GGPPS genes, were up-regulated in the transgenic lines.

  12. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy...

  13. 微波辅助提取马铃薯龙葵素%Microwave-assisted Extraction of Solanine from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 文雄; 潘双银; 熊兴耀

    2008-01-01

    应用微波辐射技术,用乙醇-乙酸双溶剂法从'中薯3号'马铃薯薯皮中提取了马铃薯植株和块茎中的生物碱龙葵素,对所得初提物进行了纯化,并应用HPLC技术对提取的龙葵素进行了定量分析.通过4因素3水平正交试验确定了本法的最佳提取参数.结果表明微波辐射提高了提取效率并缩短了提取时间.正交试验所得最佳提取流程是:将样品和乙醇-冰乙酸(体积比为100:10)按10(g):200(mL)的比例混合,在540 W的微波功率下提取6 min.

  14. Distribución diferencial de bacterias con potencial biocontrolador de spongospora subterranea en plantas de papa (solanum tuberosum cv. diacol capiro)

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Arango, Juliana; Posada Uribe, Luisa Fernanda; Pérez Naranjo, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. La búsqueda de microorganismos promisorios para biocontrol de patógenos de plantas en el suelo con frecuencia se ha orientado a la detección de productores de hormonas y enzimas líticas, condiciones asociadas a su capacidad para promover crecimiento vegetal. Sin embargo, el suelo es altamente variable en escalas pequeñas y se conoce poco sobre la distribución espacial de microorganismos que expresan esas funciones. Este estudio determinó la capacidad de producción de indoles totales ...

  15. Beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharide induced activation of four enzymes responsible for N-p-coumaroyloctopamine biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum cv.) tuber tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, F; Miyagawa, H; Ueno, T

    2000-01-01

    Potato tuber disks, when treated with laminarin, a beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharide from Laminaria digitata, accumulate a hydroxycinnamoyl amide compound, N-p-coumaroyloctopamine (p-CO). The biosynthesis of p-CO was investigated by feeding experiments, in order to show that the precursors of N-p-coumaroyl and octopamine moieties of p-CO are L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, respectively. The treatment of potato tuber tissue with laminarin resulted in elevated activities of four enzymes which are putatively involved in p-CO biosynthesis: phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5), 4-hydroxycinnamic acid:CoA ligase (4CL; EC 6.2.1.12), hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase (THT; EC 2.3.1.110) and tyrosine decarboxylase (TyrDC; EC 4.1.1.25). Among these, the response of TyrDC was specific to laminarin treatment, thus indicating that the regulation of TyrDC activity is critical for the accumulation of p-CO in potato tuber tissue.

  16. Evaluación de diferentes combinaciones fitohormonales en la regeneración de Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae Var. Pastusa Suprema a partir de explantes internodales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Paola Jiménez Barreto

    2009-10-01

    The presence of NAA was seen to be essential in explants’ callogenic and regenerative response. Adding 3.0 mg/L ZR, 0.02 mg/L NAA and 1.0mg/L GA3 to a basic M-S medium was an appropriate hormonal combination for inducing indirect organogenesis in the Pastusa Suprema potato variety; it produced more than 90% callus genesis and plant regeneration and an average of six regenerants per explant. Key words: zeatin riboside; naphthalene acetic acid; gibberellic acid; indirect organogenesis.

  17. Modulation of the cellulose content of tuber cell walls by antisense expression of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) CesA clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, R.J.F.J.; Tzitzikas, E.; Bakx, E.J.; Straatman-Engelen, I.; Bush, M.S.; Mccann, M.C.; Schols, H.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vincken, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Four potato cellulose synthase (CesA) homologs (StCesA1, 2, 3 and 4) were isolated by screening a cDNA library made from developing tubers. Based on sequence comparisons and the fact that all four potato cDNAs were isolated from this single cDNA-library, all four StCesA clones are likely to play a r

  18. Modulation of the cellulose content of tuber cell walls by antisense expression of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) CesA clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Ronald J F J; Tzitzikas, Emmanouil N; Bakx, Edwin J; Straatman-Engelen, Irma; Bush, Maxwell S; McCann, Maureen C; Schols, Henk A; Visser, Richard G F; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2004-03-01

    Four potato cellulose synthase (CesA) homologs (StCesA1, 2, 3 and 4) were isolated by screening a cDNA library made from developing tubers. Based on sequence comparisons and the fact that all four potato cDNAs were isolated from this single cDNA-library, all four StCesA clones are likely to play a role in primary cell wall biosynthesis. Several constructs were generated to modulate cellulose levels in potato plants in which the granule-bound starch synthase promoter was used to target the modification to the tubers. The StCesA3 was used for up- and down-regulation of the cellulose levels by sense (SE-StCesA3) and antisense (AS-StCesA3) expression of the complete cDNA. Additionally, the class-specific regions (CSR) of all four potato cellulose synthase genes were used for specific down-regulation (antisense) of the corresponding CesA genes (csr1, 2, 3 and 4). None of the transformants showed an overt developmental phenotype. Sections of tubers were screened for altered cell wall structure by Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR) and exploratory Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and those plants discriminating from WT plants were analysed for cellulose content and monosaccharide composition. Several transgenic lines were obtained with mainly decreased levels of cellulose. These results show that the cellulose content in potato tubers can be reduced down to 40% of the WT level without affecting normal plant development, and that constructs based on the CSR alone are specific and sufficient to down-regulate cellulose biosynthesis.

  19. Isolation of a Plasmalemma Aquaporin Encoding Gene StPIP1 from Solanum tuberosum L. and Its Expression in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wang-ze; PENG Xiao-li; WANG Di

    2009-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) belongs to a highly conserved group of membrane proteins considered as major intrinsic proteins, which facilitate water transport across biological membranes. The discovery of AQPs in plants has resulted in a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant-water relations, however, the potential relationship between the role of aquaporins in regulating plant water balance and drought tolerance still remains elusive. In this study, the gene encoding potato AQP cDNA, StPIP1 (GenBank accession no. DQ999080), was cloned from the leaf of potato cultivar Gannongshu 2 by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Sequence alignment was made by BLASTn in GenBank, the phylogenetic analysis was conducted using PHYLIPWY, the 3D structure was predicted in Swiss-Model server. Subcellular localization of StPIP1 was performed by constructing CaMV35S-StPIP1-GFP and rd29A-StPIP1-GFP fusion proteins and transient expression in onion epidermis. To understand StPIP1 physiological functions in potato under various stress conditions, the StPIP1 gene in a reverse orientation was transformed into tobacco driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV) 35S promoter. The expression levels of transgenic and wild-type plants were assessed under various abiotic stress conditions using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the morphological and physiological responses of transgenic plants to different stress conditions were investigated. The expression of StPIP1 mRNA decreased in transgenic plants under non-stress and stress conditions, however, the reduction was more severer under drought stress. In both non-stress and stress conditions, StPIP1 was expressed predominantly in root. The morphological and physiological investigation showed no significant differences in growth rate, germination rate, and root fresh weight (FW) between transgenic and wild-type plants when grown under favorable conditions. In contrast, under drought stress, the reduction in StPIP1 expression leads to a delay in seed germination and seedling growth, accelerated seedling wilt, and leaf morphological abnormity. Under "enough" water conditions (i.e., water culture), the aerial parts of anti-sense plants showed no differences. However, for the aerial parts to accumulate the same amount of biomass, transgenie plants needed about 3 times more abundant root system to transport water for plant growth than wild-type plants. Morphological investigation showed that the reduction in StPIP1 expression increased the root system in transgenic plants under drought stress. As a result, the increase of root mass might compensate the reduced cellular water permeability in order to ensure a sufficient water supply for the plant. Results demonstrated that StPIP1 plays an important role for water transportation in potato, especially under drought stress conditions. The reduced expression of StPIP1 decreases the cellular water transport and influences the expression of endogenous AQPs genes and thereby, has impacts on seed germination, seedling growth, and stress responses of potato to drought conditions.

  20. Confrontación entre un agrupamiento a priori de germoplasma de papa solanum tuberosum subespecie andigena y un agrupamiento no jerárquico

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Ángela María; Arias, Jorge Enrique; Moreno, José Dilmer; Valbuena, Iván; Rodríguez, Luis Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Con el fin de establecer patrones de similitud entre las accesiones para facilitar la identificación de cruzamientos potenciales, se realizó el agrupamiento a priori de la Colección Central Colombiana de papa subespecie andigena por características de color de piel y carne del tubérculo. La necesidad de incluir otras variables de tubérculo y realizar una clasificación basada en métodos estadísticos aumentó con el tiempo y con la evolución de las técnicas multivariadas de datos. En este trabaj...

  1. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (porganic farming. The farming type has no significant effect (p>0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes.

  2. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA SUPERFICIE FOLIAR EN DOS VARIEDADES DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L. POR MÉTODOS NO DESTRUCTIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jerez Mompie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas con el objetivo de determinar una función matemática a partir de las medidas lineales de las hojas de papa para estimar la superficie foliar de la planta de manera no destructiva. Se utilizaron plantas de dos variedades de papa Call White y Santana colectadas a los 40, 60 y 70 días después de la plantación, para asegurar que existieran hojas de distintos tamaños. Una vez realizadas las medidas lineales de las hojas (largo y ancho se procedió a determinar la superficie foliar real de la hoja con el empleo de un integrador de superficie foliar AM300 y a partir de estas variables se establecieron las regresiones lineales correspondientes al área real de cada hoja con cada una de las longitudes obtenidas y el producto de ellas. Se tuvo en cuenta el resultado del coeficiente de correlación y de determinación para escoger la función lineal que con mayor exactitud estima la superficie foliar de la hoja. La ecuación obtenida a partir del producto del largo por el ancho resultó la de mayor coeficiente de determinación en ambas variedades.

  3. SEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURAL GENE FOR GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE OF POTATO (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L) AND EVIDENCE FOR A SINGLE POINT DELETION IN THE AMF ALLELE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, Feike R.; VISSER, RGF; Ponstein, Anne S.; Jacobsen, Evert; Feenstra, Willem

    1991-01-01

    The genomic sequence of the potato gene for starch granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS; "waxy protein") has been determined for the wild-type allele of a monoploid genotype from which an amylose-free (amf) mutant was derived, and for the mutant part of the amf allele. Comparison of the wild-type seq

  4. Three-phase partitioning as a rapid and easy method for the purification and recovery of catalase from sweet potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Yonca Avcı; Kaya, Erdem

    2013-07-01

    Three-phase partitioning (TPP) was used to purify and recover catalase from potato crude extract. The method consists of ammonium sulfate saturation, t-butanol addition, and adjustment of pH, respectively. The best catalase recovery (262 %) and 14.1-fold purification were seen in the interfacial phase in the presence of 40 % (w/v) ammonium sulfate saturation with 1.0:1.0 crude extract/t-butanol ratio (v/v) at pH 7 in a single step. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the enzyme showed comparatively purification and protein molecular weight was nearly found to be 56 kDa. This study shows that TPP is a simple, economical, and quick method for the recovering of catalase and can be used for the purification process.

  5. Desarrollo de un sistema de selección positiva para plantas transgénicas de papa (Solanum tuberosum SSP andígena var diacol capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Lancheros Mary Luz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del proceso para la obtención de plantas transgénicas, la selección es una etapa fundamental puesto
    que permite identificar el material potencialmente transformado. Los métodos convencionalmente utilizados
    son efectivos, pero han sido ampliamente cuestionados, principalmente por aspectos relacionados con bioseguridad,
    por lo cual, se han desarrollando nuevas estrategias para su reemplazo. Dentro de estas, el sistema de selección positiva pmi/manosa, ha demostrado alta efectividad en la identificación de plantas transgénicas de distintas especies. Con el objetivo de desarrollar un sistema de selección pmi/manosa para la variedad Diacol Capiro, se establecieron las condiciones necesarias para la transformación de entrenudos con la cepa LBA4404 de Agrobacterium tumefaciens que contiene el vector binario pNOV022, obteniéndose tasas regenerativas del 80-100% y plantas entre la séptima y novena semana. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de manosa sobre la viabilidad y capacidad regenerativa de los explantes, escogiendo la combinación manosa 5g/l y sacarosa 10 g/l para su posterior evaluación en el medio de selección; además se corroboró la utilidad de la manosa como agente selectivo. Los distintos procesos selectivos realizados, generaron frecuencias de selección entre 1 y 20%, con tasas esperadas de escapes entre 0 y 8%. El análisis por PCR determinó amplificación de un fragmento específico pmi en dos plantas provenientes de un mismo explante, correspondiendo a una frecuencia de transformación del 2,8%. La prueba del rojo de clorofenol indicó expresión
    indirecta de la proteína PMI en las dos plantas PCR positivas.

  6. CARACTERIZACIÓN Y CALIDAD DE UN ABONO ORGÁNICO FERMENTADO aof PREPARADO CON RESIDUOS DEL PROCESO DE INDUSTRIALIZACIÓN DE LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La producción de abonos orgánicos en Colombia se ha incrementado en los últimos años buscando dar un manejo adecuado a los desechos biodegradables generados por los procesos agroindustriales; el presente trabajo evaluó la calidad de composición mineral, caracterización del producto y población microbiana de un AOF fabricado a partir de los desechos generados en la transformación industrial de la papa. En el ensayo se hicieron 2 tratamientos: T1 consistió en la mezcla de 90% de material orgánico (residuo de papa 80%, aserrín 5%, desperdicios de molinería 3% y melaza 2% más la adición de minerales en forma de carbonatos, fosfatos y sulfatos en razón del 10%, en T2 solo se mezclo el material orgánico. El ensayo demostró que este material con 75% de humedad genera una fermentación anaeróbica con olor ácido muy fuerte, que decrece en la medida en que se pierde humedad, quedando la mezcla en un volumen de 50% y cambiando el olor al de una fermentación alcohólica. Respecto a las características del producto final el T2 mostró valores más altos de pH, COO, CIC, CRH y C/N, demostrando que el residuo de papa tiene un buen comportamiento como abono orgánico. De otra parte la adición de minerales eleva las cantidades de estos, que están contenidas de forma natural en el sustrato, dando al compuesto el valor agregado de un porcentaje más alto de elementos disponibles; en ambos casos la oferta de nutrientes y microorganismos es favorable para la nutrición vegetal.

  7. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon.

  8. Efecto de antioxidantes y señalizadores en plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. infectadas con Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum bajo condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Humberto Almeyda León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, the losses caused by the purple top syndrome in potato range from 30 to 95%. This syndrome has been greatly associated with the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter solaneacearum, which produces reduction in yield and in crop quality, the tubers have internal browning, which is not desirable either for fresh consumption or for the industry. Present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of three products that act as antioxidants and / or signs to reduce damage on potato caused by Ca. L. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. Plants uninfected and infected with the bacterium, produced in vitro were used. The products evaluated were: dehydroascorbic acid (600 ppm, ascorbic acid (600 ppm and hydrogen peroxide (1 mM, and were applied to infected and uninfected plants twice a week. Infected and uninfected plants without application of antioxidants were used as control treatments. To avoid experimental error in the application of the products evaluated the experimental design was a randomized complete block. A reduction of potato damage by Ca. L solaneacearum was registered, and there were significant differences among treatments in the tubers production. The largest tuber number in treatments that included uninfected plants was obtained in the hydrogen peroxide application, which exceeded a 33 %, 48 % and 59 % to plants treated with dehydroascorbic acid, with ascorbic acid and the controls respectively. Similarly, the largest tuber number in treatments included infected plants was obtained by hydrogen peroxide, and it exceeded a 33 %, 17 % and 67 % to treatments with dehydroascorbic acid, with ascorbic acid and the controls respectively. These results show a potential effect of the products evaluated to protect potato plants against Ca. L. solanacearum, although its function is not to diminish the growth or development of bacteria.

  9. [Effects of antisense acid invertase gene on reducing sugar and starch contents of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber stored at low temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Li, Xue-Cai

    2005-10-01

    Two transgenic potato lines with antisense AcInv gene and the non-transgenic varieties were used to test the reducing sugar and starch contents. The results indicated that the reducing sugar content increased and total starch content decreased in all samples after tubers were stored at 4 degrees C for 40 d. The reducing sugar content in tubers of transgenic line "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" were lower about 23% and 18% than those of Atlantic and Gannongshu No.2 (Table 1). The total starch and the amylopectin were also decreased by 1% and 1.3% in "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 1.4% and 1.7% in "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" respectively (Table 2). The proportions of amylose and amylopectin were lower in the transgenic lines than the non-transgenic varieties (Figs. 1 and 2). It was only 0.29 for "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 0.38 for "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2". Meanwhile, there are fewer dark blue starch particles in transgenic tuber, which is less than in tuber of the non-transgenic varieties by paraffin-cut section method (Fig. 3). After the tubers were transferred to the storage temperature 15-17 degrees C for 20 d, the reducing sugar contents in tubers of the two transgenic lines were significantly lower than that of non-transgenic varieties. It was 0.23% for "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 0.24% for "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" (Table 1). It is suggested that the trans-antisense AcInv gene in the transgenic potato down-regulates the AcInv gene expression after the tubers were stored under low temperature.

  10. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  11. Studies regarding the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil treatments in healthy and potato virus Y (PVY infected plants Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Liliana BĂDĂRĂU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato virus Y cause loss in yield and quality of tubers. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid present in oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants are implicated in signaling against stress. The effects of these chemicals on tuber yield and pigments content were evaluated in plants testing positive after virus mechanical infection. Without chemical treatment, positive plants showed significant reductions in leaf pigments content and tuber weights compared to uninfected controls. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and oil treatments of PVY infected plants significantly reduced the number of minitubers, enhancing their weights, while leaf pigment content also increased. This research demonstrates potential benefits of treatments with oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid in enhancing the yield and quality of tubers.

  12. Studies regarding the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil treatments in healthy and potato virus Y (PVY) infected plants Solanum tuberosum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Liliana BĂDĂRĂU; Angela MĂRCULESCU; Nicoleta CHIRU; Florentina DAMŞA; Andreea NISTOR

    2010-01-01

    The potato virus Y cause loss in yield and quality of tubers. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid present in oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants are implicated in signaling against stress. The effects of these chemicals on tuber yield and pigments content were evaluated in plants testing positive after virus mechanical infection. Without chemical treatment, positive plants showed significant reductions in leaf pigments content and tuber weig...

  13. INFLUENCE DE LA DIMENSION DES PLANTS-MERES SUR LE RENDEMENT FINAL ET CELUI DES DIFFERENTS CALIBRES CHEZ QUATRE VARIETES DE POMME DE TERRE (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BENNIOU

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Le calibre de plantation est un paramètre qui conditionne d’une manière importante la production et la dimension des tubercules-fils de la pomme de terre. A travers notre étude menée sur deux années (1991/92 et 1993/94, nous avons cherché à mettre en relief l’effet du calibre de plantation sur le rendement et la répartition de la production par classe des tubercules selon leur diamètre. Dans ce contexte, nous avons combiné les effets du calibre de plantation à trois niveaux (45/55, 35/45 et 28/35 chez quatre variétés (Desirée, Diamant, Nicola et Chieftain, dans les conditions agro-climatiques de la région de Sétif. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le calibre de plantation a un effet favorable sur le rendement final et sur le répartition des tubercules- fils. Le calibre (28/35 a tendance à produire des gros tubercules (> 55 mm, fraction destinée à la consommation. Par contre, les calibres (45/55 et (35/45 ont tendance à produire des moyens et petits tubercules (< 45 mm; cette fraction est destinée, d’une manière générale, à la semence, à l’exception des petits tubercules inférieurs à 28 mm, qui sont appréciés également à la consommation. De ce fait, le calibre de plantation pourrait être un moyen de contrôle de rendement et de la qualité physique des tubercules-fils, à savoir sa grosseur.

  14. Influence of heat treatment on the sensory and physical characteristics and carbohydrate fractions of french-fried potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Carvalho Montenegro de VASCONCELOS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the impact that heat treatment with salts and freezing processes on the sensory, instrumental, and physico-chemical characteristics of fried potatoes of the Monalisa cultivar. The potatoes were blanched in distilled water (P; sodium chloride solution (B1; calcium chloride solution (B2, and a solution with both of these salts (B3. They were then pre-cooked and frozen for 24 hours and for 30 days. After frying, sensory characteristics were analyzed (color, texture, flavor, oiliness, along with overall preference and instrumental determinations of texture, color, and oil content. Further tests were conducted on the sample with the best results in the sensory analysis (B1, along with sample P as a control, to determine granule microstructure, carbohydrate fractions, glycemic index, and glycemic load. Blanching B3, despite reducing oil absorption and providing less oiliness, obtained lesser overall preference. Freezing for 30 days increased the lightness, except for when sodium chloride was used, which intensified the color yellow. The use of sodium chloride did not interfere with the type of starch granules, nor with the formation of resistant starch; however, longer freezing time reduced the glycemic index and concentrated the dietary fiber content. All samples exhibited low glycemic index and moderate glycemic loads.

  15. BÚSQUEDA DE UN MEDIO DE CULTIVO PARA LA MICORRIZACIÓN In Vitro DE PLÁNTULAS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanne Fernández Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El medio de cultivo constituye un eslabón clave para garantizar el establecimiento de la simbiosis micorrízica arbuscular en plantas in vitro, pues involucra a organismos con requerimientos nutricionales muy diferentes. Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de desarrollar un medio de cultivo a partir de modificaciones nutricionales realizadas al medio MS, que permitiera el establecimiento de la micorrización in vitro de plantas de papa con un estado nutricional adecuado. Se realizaron dos experimentos utilizando diferentes medios de cultivo (SRM, MS y 1⁄2 MS, así como variaciones en las concentraciones de nutrientes del medio MS empleando Diseños Completamente Aleatorizados. En estos medios se inocularon plántulas de papa, de entre siete y diez días de micropropagadas, con esporas de Glomus clarum, en un sistema autotrófico parcialmente in vitro. Se realizaron muestreos del desarrollo fúngico y de las plántulas a los 20, 30 y 40 días de cultivo. Se observó un comportamiento diferenciado tanto en los parámetros de crecimiento vegetal como fúngicos, dependiendo del medio de cultivo en el cual se desarrollaron, siendo en el medio E (1⁄4P-1⁄4N-1⁄4K con respecto a MS en el que se encontraron, de forma integral, los mayoresvalores de las variables evaluadas. Durante el tiempo de duración de los experimentos no se detectaron diferencias entre las plántulas inoculadas y las controles.

  16. Influence of Biodynamic Preparations on the Quality Indices and Antioxidant Compounds Content in the Tubers of Coloured Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvyra JARIENĖ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic preparations 500 and 501 are plant strengthening agents of biodynamic agriculture method, prepared of manure and powdered quartz. The objective of the present study was to determine effects of biodynamic (BD preparations 500 and 501 on the quality indices and antioxidant compounds content in the tubers of coloured flesh potatoes. The experiment included two factors: potato cultivar and treatment with BD preparations as field sprays. The experiment was carried out in four replications, in a randomly design. Results showed that application of BD preparations did not influence significantly the contents of dry matter, crude fibre and crude ash in all tested cultivars. Separately used BD preparation 500 increased content of total anthocyanins in tubers of ‘Vitelotte’ and ‘Red Emmalie’ and leucoanthocyanins content in ‘Blue Congo’, but decreased the content of total phenolics in all cultivars. Treatment with BD preparation 501 had significant effect on the contents of total phenolics and total anthocyanins in all cultivars. However, treatment with BD preparation 500 in combination with BD preparation 501 substantially increased the contents of total phenolics and total anthocyanins in all cultivars. Tubers of ‘Vitelotte’ with dark-purple flesh contained significantly more antioxidant compounds than the light-purple and red.

  17. Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huigun; Xiao, Langtao; Tong, Jianhua;

    2010-01-01

    activity. Results showed that 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in potato leaves. These treatments also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves. A positive linear relationship...

  18. Isolation and characterization of a β-propeller gene containing phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 for growth promotion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Naqqash, Tahir; Shahid, Muhammad; van Elsas, Jan D

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006

  19. Aqueous two-phase (PEG4000/Na2SO4) extraction and characterization of an acid invertase from potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzugullu, Yonca; Duman, Yonca Avcı

    2015-01-01

    Invertases are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plant invertases have essential roles in carbohydrate metabolism, plant development, and stress responses. To study their isolation and purification from potato, an attractive system useful for the separation of biological molecules, an aqueous two-phase system, was used. The influence of various system parameters such as type of phase-forming salts, polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular mass, salt, and polymer concentration was investigated to obtain the highest recovery of enzyme. The PEG4000 (12.5%, w/w)/Na2SO4(15%, w/w) system was found to be ideal for partitioning invertase into the bottom salt-rich phase. The addition of 3% MnSO4 (w/w) at pH 5.0 increased the purity by 5.11-fold with the recovered activity of 197%. The Km and Vmax on sucrose were 3.95 mM and 0.143 U mL(-1) min(-1), respectively. Our data confirmed that the PEG4000/Na2SO4 aqueous two-phase system combined with the presence of MnSO4 offers a low-cost purification of invertase from readily available potato tuber in a single step. The biochemical characteristics of temperature and pH stability for potato invertase prepared from an ATPS make the enzyme a good candidate for its potential use in many research and industrial applications.

  20. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  1. A cell wall extract from Piriformospora indica promotes tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) via enhanced expression of Ca(+2) signaling pathway and lipoxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Prasad, Ram; Verma, Ajit

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable phytopromotional endosymbiont that mimics capabilities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This is a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, which promotes growth, development, and seed production in a variety of plant species. We report that the cell wall extract (CWE) from P. indica induces tuberization in vitro and promotes tuber growth and yield in potato. The CWE altered the calcium signaling pathway that regulates tuberization process. An increase in tuber number and size was correlated with increased transcript expression of the two Ca(2+)-dependant proteins (CaM1 and St-CDPK1) and the lipoxygenase (LOX) mRNA, which are known to play distinct roles in potato tuberization. External supplementation of Ca(2+) ions induced a similar set of tuberization pathway genes, indicating presence of an active Ca(2+) in the CWE of P. indica. Since potato tuberization is directly influenced by the presence of microflora in nature, the present study provides an insight into the novel mechanism of potato tuberization in relation to plant-microbe association. Ours is the first report on an in vitro tuber-inducing beneficial fungus.

  2. Comparative analysis of virus-specific small RNA profiles of three biologically distinct strains of Potato virus Y in infected potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Russet Burbank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Khalid; Mitter, Neena; Harper, Artemus; Dhingra, Amit; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-10-13

    Deep sequencing technology has enabled the analysis of small RNA profiles of virus-infected plants and could provide insights into virus-host interactions. Potato virus Y is an economically important viral pathogen of potato worldwide. In this study, we investigated the nature and relative levels of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in potato cv. Russet Burbank infected with three biologically distinct and economically important strains of PVY, the ordinary strain (PVY-O), tobacco veinal-necrotic strain (PVY-N) and tuber necrotic strain (PVY-NTN). The analysis showed an overall abundance of vsiRNAs of 20-24nt in PVY-infected plants. Considerable differences were present in the distribution of vsiRNAs as well as total small RNAs. The 21nt class was the most prevalent in PVY-infected plants irrespective of the virus strain, whereas in healthy potato plants, the 24nt class was the most dominant. vsiRNAs were derived from every position in the PVY genome, though certain hotspots were identified for each of the PVY strains. Among the three strains used, the population of vsiRNAs of different size classes was relatively different with PVY-NTN accumulating the highest level of vsiRNAs, while PVY-N infected plants had the least population of vsiRNAs. Unique vsiRNAs mapping to PVY genome in PVY-infected plants amounted to 3.13, 1.93 and 1.70% for NTN, N and O, respectively. There was a bias in the generation of vsiRNAs from the plus strand of the genome in comparison to the negative strand. The highest number of total vsiRNAs was from the cytoplasmic inclusion protein gene (CI) in PVY-O and PVY-NTN strains, whereas from PVY-N, the NIb gene produced maximum total vsiRNAs. These findings indicate that the three PVY strains interact differently in the same host genetic background and provided insights into virus-host interactions in an important food crop.

  3. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Richael, Craig; Chamberlain, Patrick; Busse, James S; Bussan, Alvin J; Jiang, Jiming; Bethke, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv) expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  4. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  5. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...... was found, but more than the 8% threshold value. Even in plots where systemic neonicotinoids were applied and very few aphids were recorded, no significant reduction in infestation level of PVY was found. The present experiment shows that mineral oil and insecticides applied to potato crops each week...

  6. The influence and possible recombination of genotypes on the production of microspore embryoids in anther cultures of Solanum tuberosum and dihaploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, E; Sopory, S K

    1978-05-01

    In addition to physical and chemical factors, genotype appears to be a very important factor influencing success in anther culture. Recombination by making crosses with selected responding clones has been introduced as a possible helpful method to positively influence the success and response type via the factor genotype. From the progeny of such a cross, one genotype could be selected, producing in 30 to 40 percent of the cultured anthers, fully developed embryoids and plantlets, which are a mixture of polyploids, dihaploids and monohaploids.Further, a pleiotropic marker 'embryo spot' visible as a 'nodal band' in the plant stage, has been used to confirm the microsporic origin of dihaploids and polyploids and to prove their homozygous nature. This marker also shows potential use in confirming the origin of calli from individual microspores.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Codon-modified cry V Constructs in Cultivated Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) for Control of Potato Tuber Moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Hongju; Li Wenbin; Douches David; Lu Cuihua

    2007-01-01

    A cryV gene, specifically toxic to Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, was incorporated into binary vectors with different promoters and the presence or absence of the β -glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene. These constructs were integrated into potato cv. Spunta by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Highest expression of cryV gene, determined by mRNA levels and insect mortality, was obtained using the CaMV 35S promoter without the gus gene configuration.Detached leaf and tuber bioassays showed a mortality rate of up to 83% and 100%, respectively, for potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) in the transgenic lines. Our results demonstrated that the presence of the gus gene negatively affects the expression level of the cryV gene. Bt expression was also facilitated by using the (ocs)3 mas super promoter, whereas the Bt expression regulated by the patatin promoter (tuber-specific) was too low to have any effect upon the mortality of potato tuber moth. These results represent significant improvement in the level of host plant resistance for the control of potato tuber moth via Bt transgenes.

  8. Genetic characterisation of agronomic and morphological traits and the development of DNA markers associated with total glycoalkaloid content in the tubers of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.

    2002-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites that are characterised by an undesirable taste, and which are known to be toxic when consumed in large quantities. Some wild potato germplasms that are used for the introgression of genes

  9. Efeito do nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na adubação da batatinha - Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1950-08-01

    Full Text Available Five potatoes fertilizers trials were carried out. in diffeient soil types of the State of São Paulo with the purpose to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, on tuber production. It was found that nitrogen increased plant growth, intensified green color of foliage and retarded maturity. Nitrogen also increased susceptibility to fungus diseases. Phosphoric acid increased yield and shortened the vegetative period. Potassium induced a light -green color of the foliage, but otherwise had almost no influence on plant development. Phosphoric acid was the most important factor in increasing tuber production : nitrogen was second and potassium, third. A response to potassium was noticed only when this element was applied together with phosphorus and nitrogen.

  10. Uptake of iodine-131 in tropical crops. [Ipomoea batatas; Ipomoea reptans; Lycopersicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vegetable crops which include sweet potato tops (Ipomoea batatas), kangkong (Ipomoea repitans) and tomato plants were grown in dark-painted jars containing Hoagland-Arnon modified nutrient solution, utilizing the technique of hydroponics. The experiments for sweet potato tops and kangkong plants were duplicated for replicate studies and steady-state conditions were simulated throughout. Tomato plants were grown in the same manner but growth was observed to be hampered when starting from mature plants. Radioiodine was added to the nutrient medium containing 0.5% non-radioactive NaI solution. The solution in the jar was adjusted daily so as to maintain a constant concentration which would simulate routine releases that are essentially continuous. After incorporating the radioiodine to the solution, 10 ml aliquot was taken and counted for radioactivity by means of a 5'' x 5'' NaI(T1) detector connected to the multichannel gamma analyzer. Both plants and solution were counted for radioactivity at different time intervals using the same geometry. Results indicate that the activity in the plants were relatively higher than that of the solution. The activity tends to level off or decrease after a few days. The concentration factor which is the ratio of the activity in the plant (uCi/gm) over the activity in the medium (uCi/ml) varied for each time interval. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Thaís Pochapski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP, has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.

  12. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  13. Postharvest Quality and Physiological Behavior of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) Leaf Stalks Under Three Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yan; XU Yong-quan; DUAN Dao-fu; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    Sweet potato (lpomoea batatas Lam.) leaf stalks were cut into 20 cm length, and stored at 20, 6, and 2℃. The respiration rate, ethylene production, ascorbic acid, free amino acid, total chlorophyll content, freshness, and shelf life were determined during storage to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the quality and physiological responses in sweet potato leaf stalks. Wound responses were observed as high respiration rate and ethylene production immediately after cutting. Sweet potato leaf stalks were found to be sensitive to chilling injury manifested as browning and water-soaking on the surface at 2℃. In contrast, sweet potato leaf stalks were susceptible to senescence, exhibited by etiolating and yellowing, at 20℃. Loss in weight and chlorophyll was minimized under low temperatures. High temperatures also caused the accumulation of amino acids with a significant loss of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll. Sweet potato leaf stalks had a storage life of 16 days at 6℃, 8 days at 2℃, and 6 days at 20℃, respectively.

  14. Coronatine Induces an Accumulation of Anthocyanin and Starch in Purple-fleshed Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoqing WANG; Beitao XIE; Haiyan ZHANG; Liming ZHANG; Qingmei WANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this research was to examine the effects of COR on anthocyanin and starch content in storage roots of two PFS genotypes, and to explore the relationships between anthocyanin synthesis and starch accumula-tion. [Method] A field experiment was carried out to determine the changes in yield components, yield, contents of anthocyanin and starch, activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and adenosine 5-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AG-Pase) in two genotypes of PFS (Ipomoea batatas L., var. ‘Ayamurasaki’ and‘Jishu18’). [Result] The application of COR significantly increased starch and antho-cyanin content in storage roots of Jishu18 across developmental stages by inducing the activities of PAL and AGPase, and final y enhanced yield by promoting fresh weight of storage roots. Ayamurasaki was insensitive to treatment with COR al-though its PAL activity temporal y increased. The starch and anthocyanin content of Aya, and the anthocyanin content of Jishu18 increased progressively across devel-opmental stages with or without COR application, but the starch content of Jishu18 increased initial y, then decreased before increasing again without application of COR. Treatment with COR reduced downward trend of starch accumulation in Jishu18. Thus, the effect of COR on accumulation of anthocyanin and starch in storage roots of PFS differs according to genotypes. [Conclusion] The application of 0.05 μmol/L COR may increase starch and anthocyanin content in PFS genotypes with lower starch and anthocyanin content in storage roots.

  15. In vivo wound healing and antiulcer properties of white sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Hermes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential of tuber flour of Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. cv. Brazlândia Branca (white sweet potato as wound healing and antiulcerogenic agent was investigated in vivo in animal model. Excision on the back of Wistar rats was performed to induce wounds that were topically treated with Beeler’s base containing tuber flour of white sweet potato at 2.5%. Number of cells undergoing metaphase and the degree of tissue re-epithelialization were investigated 4, 7 and 10 days post-treatment. The protective effect of aqueous suspension of tuber flour (75 and 100 mg/kg animal weight on gastric mucosa of Wistar rats was also studied by using the ethanol-induced ulceration model. Ointment based on white sweet potato at 2.5% effectively triggered the healing of cutaneous wound as attested by the increased number of cells undergoing metaphase and tissue re-epithelialization regardless the time of wound treatment. Tuber flour potentially prevented ethanol-induced gastric ulceration by suppressing edema formation and partly protecting gastric mucosa wrinkles. Crude extracts also exhibited potential as free radical scavengers. The results from animal model experiments indicate the potential of tuber flour of white sweet potato to heal wounds.

  16. Estabilidade de farinha de batata-doce biofortificada Stability of biofortified sweet potato flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Vercelino Alves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de batata-doce, quando elaborada a partir de raízes com alto teor de β-caroteno, é fonte de pró-vitamina A, que apresenta efeitos benéficos na saúde humana. Visando contribuir com o suprimento de vitamina A na alimentação de populações carentes, a EMBRAPA tem selecionado e melhorado culturas via biofortificação, como da batata-doce, e pesquisado o desenvolvimento de produtos com esta matéria-prima biofortificada. Complementando esses desenvolvimentos, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito do tipo de embalagem e do sistema de acondicionamento do produto na preservação de carotenoides de farinha de batata-doce biofortificada. A farinha foi acondicionada com e sem vácuo, em embalagens com diferentes barreiras ao oxigênio, vapor d'água e luz (PET/Al/PEBD, PETmet/PEBD, PEBD/PA/PEBD e PEBD e estocada a 25 °C/75%UR com e sem exposição à luz por um ano. Perdas de 50% de carotenoides totais e β-caroteno ocorreram na farinha em PETmet/PEBD e PEBD sem vácuo, aos 50 dias de estocagem, em razão do teor de oxigênio residual presente no espaço livre e também da alta permeação de oxigênio pelo material no caso do PEBD, no qual a composição do ar foi mantida durante todo o estudo. Perdas de 50% de carotenoides ocorreram aos 90 dias com ou sem exposição à luz no produto em PEBD/PA/PEBD com vácuo, indicando que a reação de oxidação de carotenoides sob luz se restringe apenas à farinha em contato com a superfície da embalagem. Sob vácuo e em PETmet/PEBD, os teores de carotenoides na farinha diminuíram ligeiramente e foram mantidos no PET/Al/PEBD, até 360 dias de estocagem. Os resultados indicaram que a redução do teor de oxigênio no espaço livre da embalagem por meio da aplicação de vácuo aliada ao uso de materiais de embalagem com barreira ao oxigênio da ordem de grandeza de PET com metalização barreira são os fatores mais importantes na preservação de carotenoides em farinha de batata

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Root Organogenesis in Ipomoea batatas, Salix matsudana and Glycine max

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhang; Jun Tang; Xiao-Ping Liu; Yun Wang; Wei Yu; Wei-Yan Peng; Fang Fang; Dai-Fu Ma; Zhao-Jun Wei; Lan-Ying Hu

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, promoted adventitious root formation mediated by auxin and nitric oxide (NO). Application of the H2S donor to seedling cuttings of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) promoted the number and length of adventltious roots in a dose-dependent manner. It was also verified that H2S or HS- rather than other sulfur-containing components derived from NariS could be attributed to the stimulation of adventitious root formation. A rapid Increase In endogenous H2S, indole acetic acid (IAA) and NO were sequentially observed in shoot tips of sweet potato seedlings treated with HallS. Further investigation showed that HzS-mediated root formation was alleviated by N-l-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an IAA transport inhibitor, and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), an NO scavenger. Similar phenomena in H2S donor-dependent root organogenesis were observed in both excised willow (Sallx matsudana var. tortuosa Vilm) shoots and soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings. These results indicated that the process of H2S-induced adventitious root formation was likely mediated by IAA and NO, and that H2S acts upstream of IAA and NO signal transduction pathways.

  18. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. as dentin hypersensitivity desensitization gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariza Hanum Mayvita Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a short sharp sense of pain in the teeth when exposed to excitatory stimulus. A total of 74% of world population experiencing dentin hypersensitivity. Home treatment topical desensitization is rarely found in Indonesia. The use of dentrifice is less practical because it must be done with regular brushing. Indonesia has abundant natural resources, one of which is purple sweet potato. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. has highest potasium ions compared to other foodstuffs. Potassium ions can be a solution of dentin hypersensitivity by temporary blocking the suffix pulp nerve impulses. Purpose: The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the 10% purple sweet potato extract gel of the dental pain threshold score. Method: An experimental study carried out by dental pain threshold score measurements using vitality tester into the teeth with gum recession. Samples included 32 respondents with a single blind and pre-post test control group design. They were divided into treatment group and negative control group. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon were used as data analysis. Result: The results showed dental pain threshold score increasing either in treatment group and negative control, although not as significant as in the treatment group. Conclusion: 10% purple sweet potato extract gel containing potassium ions is able to reduce the pain of dentin hypersensitivity.

  19. Microbial deterioration of white variety sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas under different storage structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom Amoa-Awua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest protection of white variety sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas has been dealt with rarely in the past, although it is comparatively easy to grow and has high consumer acceptability in Ghana. Microbial deterioration of sweet potato roots stored in three different storage structures was studied. The sweet potato roots initially cured for 7 and 14 days were stored in traditional, pit, and clamp storage structures for a maximum of 28 days. For the 7 days-cured sweet potato roots, the bac­teria population in the three different storage structures increased by 1.2-2.3 log cfu/g whereas for the 14 days-cured roots, the bacteria population was 0.1-1.0 log cfu/g within 28 days of storage. The fungal population in the 14 days-cured sweet potato roots was higher than in the 7 days-cured sweet potato roots by 0.6-1.6 log cfu/g for 28 days of storage. For both the 7 and 14 days-cured sweet potato roots, the sweet potato roots stored for 28 days in the three different storage structures had a higher microbial count compared to the sweet potato roots stored for 14 days. Aspergillus flavus was the most dominant fungal species occurring in all of the three different storage structures followed by A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Tricho-derma viride, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium digitatum, Cladosporium herbarum,and Aspergillus ochraceus, in that order.

  20. Cryopreservation of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and its pathogen eradication by cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chaohong; Yin, Zhenfang; Ma, Yanli; Zhang, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Wang, Biao; Li, Baiquan; Huang, Yushen; Wang, Qiaochun

    2011-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) ranks as the seventh most important staple crop in the world and the fifth in developing countries after rice, wheat, maize and cassava. Sweetpotato is mainly grown in developing countries, which account for more than 95% of total production of the whole world. Genetic resources, including cultivated varieties and wild species, are a prerequisite for novel sweetpotato breeding in both conventional and genetic engineering programs. Various cryopreservation protocols have been developed for shoot tips and embryogenic tissues. The former explants are preferred for long-term conservation of sweetpotato genetic resources, while the latter are valuable for sweetpotato genetic improvement. This review provides update comprehensive information on cryopreservation of sweetpotato shoot tips and embryogenic tissues. Plant pathogens such as viruses and phytoplasma severely hamper high yield and high quality production of sweetpotato. Thus, usage of pathogen-free planting materials is pivotal for sustainable sweetpotato production. Cryotherapy of shoot tips can efficiently eradicate sweetpotato pathogens such as viruses and phytoplasma. The mechanism behind pathogen eradication by cryotherapy of shoot tips has been elucidated. Pathogen eradication by cryotherapy provides an alternative, efficient strategy for production of pathogen-free plants. In addition, cryopreserved tissues may also be considered to be safer for exchange of germplasm between countries and regions.

  1. High Yield Culture Technique of Summer Ipomoea batatas in Binhai County%滨海县夏山芋高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆体; 金叶红; 迟金和; 李晴; 刘永

    2011-01-01

    从品质选择、育苗、地块选择、施肥、移栽、除草、病虫害防治、收获与贮藏等方面总结夏山芋高产栽培技术,以提高滨海县的山芋生产水平。%The high yield culture techniques of summer Ipomoea batatas were summarized from several aspects,such as variety selection,seeding,field selection,fertilization,transplantation,weeding,disease and insect control,harvesting and storage,so as to improve the production level of Ipomoea batatas in Binhai County.

  2. Marcadores funcionales relacionados con la síntesis de pigmentos y su localización en un mapa de ligamiento en Ipomoea batatas L. Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Arizio, Carla Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas L. Lam, es una especie de importancia agrícola, que se cultiva en más de 100 países con una producción anual de 120 millones de toneladas. Esta especie presenta una raíz engrosada denominada batata que constituye un alimento básico en muchos países subdesarrollados. En la piel y en la pulpa de la raíz engrosada puede observarse una amplia variedad de colores. Estos colores se deben a la presencia de dos clases de pigmentos: las antocianinas (flavonoides) y los carotenoides. Es...

  3. Solanum carolinense L. en Pimpinella peregrina L. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, Gerard M.; Holverda, Wout J.; Hochstenbach, Sophie M.H.; Reijerse, Fons A.I.

    2007-01-01

    Solanum carolinense L., een kniehoog bestekeld en met sterharen bezet, bleekblauw bloeiend struikje is recent op een aantal plekken aan vooral de Waal gevonden. De eerste vondst dateert echter al van 1983 bij Ochten, maar de soort werd toen niet herkend. Gebleken is dat de populaties zich in ieder g

  4. Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golas, T.M.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.; Allefs, J.J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a

  5. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitali Das; Nilotpal Barua

    2013-01-01

    Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and ana...

  6. Solanum sect. Petota in Guatemala: taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Hoekstra, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Martinez, V.

    1998-01-01

    There are five wild potato species in Guatemala:Solanum agrimonifolium,S. bulbocastanum,S. clarum,S. demissum, andS. morelliforme. We conducted a collecting expedition there from September 11 to November 5, 1995. The goals of the expedition were to gather field data for taxonomic studies of the five

  7. Propriedades físicas de solo e crescimento de batata-doce em diferentes sistemas de preparo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos sobre preparo reduzido em solos cultivados com raízes e tubérculos são escassos e controversos. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o impacto de sistemas de preparo em propriedades físicas de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo e no crescimento de raízes tuberosas de batata-doce. Para avaliação das propriedades físicas do solo, foi instalado experimento em blocos ao acaso, esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As parcelas corresponderam aos tratamentos: preparo convencional, com confecção de leiras, e preparo reduzido, com manutenção de palhada superficial e as subparcelas, às épocas de coleta: 120 e 180 dias após o plantio (DAP da cultura de batata-doce. Foram avaliados os atributos físicos densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade, resistência do solo à penetração e umidade gravimétrica do solo. Para avaliação do crescimento de raízes tuberosas de batata-doce, montou-se experimento em que as parcelas corresponderam às formas de manejo do solo, e as subparcelas às quatro épocas de colheita: 90, 120, 150 e 180 DAP. Avaliaram-se as relações comprimento/diâmetro e massa fresca individual/comprimento de raízes tuberosas. O preparo convencional do solo com confecção de leiras, em oposição ao preparo reduzido, promoveu menores valores de densidade do solo, resistência do solo à penetração e microporosidade, maiores valores de porosidade total e macroporosidade; proporcionou menor manutenção de água na camada superior do solo (0-0,15 m; e permitiu maior crescimento vertical de raízes tuberosas de plantas de batata-doce.

  8. EFECTO DE Tropaeolum tuberosum FRENTE A LA HIPERPLASIA PROSTÁTICA BENIGNA INDUCIDA EN RATAS HOLTZMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioliana Aire-Artezano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de Tropaeolum tuberosum(mashua frente a la Hiperplasia Prostática Benigna (HPB y compararlo con finasterida. Métodos: Estudio experimental completo. Se emplearon 30 ratas Holtzman macho de 12 semanas de edad, aleatorizadas y divididas en seis gru- pos: grupo blanco; grupo testosterona; grupo finasterida (0.33mg/kg/rata; y tres grupos dosis, dosis 1 (300mg/kg/rata, dosis 2 (500mg/kg/rata y dosis 3 (800mg/kg/rata tratados con Tropaeolum tuberosum. Se realizó una medición basal del volumen prostático mediante una ecografía transabdominal. La inducción de HPB se realizó con enantato de testosterona (0,083mg/Kg/rata en los grupos dosis, finasterida y testosterona, el día uno y siete. Paralelamente, se administró liofilizado de Tropaeolum tuberosum y finasterida durante 21 días. Para el diagnóstico, se realiza- ron estudios por imágenes, anatomopatológicos e histopatológicos. Resultados: El estudio por imágenes, en relación al incremento del volumen prostático,no arrojó diferencia significativa entre dosis 2 y finasterida; mientras que en relación con la ecogenicidad, dosis 3 presentó similitud cualitativa al finasterida. En el estudio anatomopatológico, no hubo diferencia significativa entre el grupo dosis 3 y el grupo finasterida. Histo- patológicamente, dosis 3 se asemejó cuantitativamente al finasterida. Conclusiones: Se evidenció disminución de la HPB histológicamente y en el estudio por imágenes; sin embargo, ninguna de las dosis mostró efecto superior al finasterida.

  9. Substancias con actividad citoquinínica estimulan la brotación de yemas en tubérculos de papa Substâncias com atividade citocinínica estimulam a brotação de gemas em tubérculos de batata Cytokinin-like substences activity promotes shoot sprouting in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Flórez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Antes de la formación de brotes el tubérculo de papa sufre un período de dormancia característico de cada genotipo. En condiciones favorables para la tuberización, se interrumpe el crecimiento longitudinal del estolón y se ensancha la región subapical entre los dos últimos nudos de cada estolón. Entre los factores participantes de este proceso es clara la acción coordinada de varios fitorreguladores. La presencia de citoquininas en S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia y en S. tuberosum L. variedades ICA-Única y Tuquerreña fue determinada en diferentes estadios del desarrollo del tubérculo: 00 - tubérculo en estadio de dormancia; 03 - tubérculo en el final de la dormancia y con brotes entre 2 y 3 mm de longitud; y 40 - inicio de la tuberización, ensanchamiento de las extremidades de los estolones al doble de su diámetro inicial. Las citoquininas fueron extraídas por cromatografía de capa fina y su detección y cuantificación se realizó por medio del bioensayo de la masa cotiledonar de rábano (Raphanus sativus. En Criolla Colombia, la variedad precoz de S. phureja, la presencia de citoquininas fue significativa en los estadios 00 y 03. Por otro lado, en las variedades de S. tuberosum las citoquininas fueron significativas en el estadio 03 para 'ICA-Única' (variedad precoz; y su presencia no se detectó en la var. Tuquerreña (variedad tardía. Se demostró la relación directa entre la concentración de citoquininas y la precocidad de las variedades: en las precoces, las citoquininas fueron detectadas y en la tardía no se hicieron evidentes.Antes de iniciar a brotação, o tubérculo de batata passa por um período de dormência característico de cada genótipo. Quando as condições são favoráveis à tuberização, o crescimento longitudinal do estolão é interrompido e se inicia o espessamento da região subapical entre a penúltima e a última gema. Entre os fatores envolvidos nesse processo é evidente a a

  10. Quality improvement of sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) roots as feed by ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y H; Huang, T C; Huang, C

    1988-07-01

    1. Sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) strips (SPS) mixed with maize powder (CP) in proportions 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3 were ensiled for 1, 2 or 3 months. 2. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased during ensilage in samples of all treatments while the SPS-CP mixture (7:3, w/w) ensiled for 3 months contained the lowest TIA. 3. SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) dried or ensiled for 2 months, or ensiled for 2 months and dried, were each mixed with twice the amount of control diet (1:2, w/w) to make three diets. These three diets together with the control diet were used for a feeding experiment with rats to evaluate the nutritive value. 4. General composition analysis (including metabolizable energy), fatty acid composition and amino acid analysis (including percentage of essential amino acids) of the samples did not change during ensilage to an extent which could explain the improved performance of rats fed on ensiled diets. 5. Rats fed on diets containing dried SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) showed significantly lower (P less than 0.05) body-weight gain than rats fed on the control diet or ensiled SPS diets, at the end of the 8th week. They also showed enlargement of the pancreas. The adverse effect of SPS was associated with TIA which seemed to be prevented to some extent by ensilage. 6. The possibility that the starch of SPS may also contribute to the adverse effect cannot be excluded at present.

  11. Analyses of the complete genome and gene expression of chloroplast of sweet potato [Ipomoea batata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lang; Lai, Xianjun; Li, Xuedan; Wei, Changhe; Tan, Xuemei; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] ranks among the top seven most important food crops cultivated worldwide and is hexaploid plant (2n=6x=90) in the Convolvulaceae family with a genome size between 2,200 to 3,000 Mb. The genomic resources for this crop are deficient due to its complicated genetic structure. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of sweet potato, which is a circular molecule of 161,303 bp in the typical quadripartite structure with large (LSC) and small (SSC) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The chloroplast DNA contains a total of 145 genes, including 94 protein-encoding genes of which there are 72 single-copy and 11 double-copy genes. The organization and structure of the chloroplast genome (gene content and order, IR expansion/contraction, random repeating sequences, structural rearrangement) of sweet potato were compared with those of Ipomoea (L.) species and some basal important angiosperms, respectively. Some boundary gene-flow and gene gain-and-loss events were identified at intra- and inter-species levels. In addition, by comparing with the transcriptome sequences of sweet potato, the RNA editing events and differential expressions of the chloroplast functional-genes were detected. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on 77 protein-coding genes from 33 taxa and the result may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution progress of the genus Ipomoea (L.), including phylogenetic relationships, intraspecific differentiation and interspecific introgression.

  12. Identification of QTLs for Starch Content in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-xia; ZHAO Ning; LI Hui; JIE Qin; ZHAI Hong; HE Shao-zhen; LI Qiang; LIU Qing-chang

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) breeding is challenging due to its genetic complexity. In the present study, interval mapping (IM) and multiple quantitative trait locus (QTL) model (MQM) analysis were used to identify QTLs for starch content with a mapping population consisting of 202 F1 individuals of a cross between Xushu 18, a cultivar susceptible to stem nematodes, with high yield and moderate starch, and Xu 781, which is resistant to stem nematodes, has low yield and high starch content. Six QTLs for starch content were mapped on six linkage groups of the Xu 781 map, explaining 9.1-38.8% of the variation. Especially, one of them,DMFN_4, accounted for 38.8% of starch content variation, which is the QTL that explains the highest phenotypic variation detected to date in sweetpotato. All of the six QTLs had a positive effect on the variation of the starch content, which indicated the inheritance derived from the parent Xu 781. Two QTLs for starch content were detected on two linkage groups of the Xushu 18 map, explaining 14.3 and 16.1% of the variation, respectively. They had a negative effect on the variation, indicating the inheritance derived from Xu 781. Seven of eight QTLs were co-localized with a single marker. This is the ifrst report on the development of QTLs co-localized with a single marker in sweetpotato. These QTLs and their co-localized markers may be used in marker-assisted breeding for the starch content of sweetpotato.

  13. 紫红薯膳食纤维漂白工艺研究%Studies on the Bleaching Technology of Purple Ipomoea batatas Dietary Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少福; 蒋艳; 上官新晨; 沈勇根; 徐嘉琪; 罗娟

    2011-01-01

    为了得到色泽较浅的紫红薯膳食纤维,以样品的白度为指标,采用单因素和正交优化试验对H2O2漂白紫红薯膳食纤维的工艺进行研究.结果表明:将紫红薯膳食纤维用40 g/L H2O2溶液按1:15调成浆,pH值调整为10.0,在60 ℃的水浴中保温处理180 min,样品的白度值达到85.39%.%In order to obtain lighter -color purple lpomoea batatas dietary fiber, taking whiteness of the sample as an indicator, the bleaching technology of the purple lpomoea batatas dietary fibers was researched by H202 method. The optimum technologic parameters of the purple Ipomoea batatas IDF bleaching was obtained with single -factor and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that: 1:15 proportion of purple lpomoea batatas IDF to H2O2 solution, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was 40 g/L, pH 10, temperature 60 ℃, time 180 min. Its brightness reached 85.39%.

  14. Hematological effects of Ipomoea batatas(camote) and Phyllanthus niruri(sampa-sampalukan) from Philippines in the ICR mice(Mus musculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessa; Fidel; Montejo; Juan; Arturo; Burgos; Mondonedo; Matthew; Genesis; Aguila; Lee; Michael; Bagui; Ples; Rodel; Jonathan; Santos; Vitor; Ⅱ

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the hematological effects of administering Ipomoea batatas(I.batatas)and Phyllanthus niruri(P.niruri) in the ICR mice.Methods:Powdered leaves of /.batatas and P.nintri were fed to mice for 4 weeks.A total of six groups were used to determine the effect of the plants to the complete blood count of the mouse.Group A(blank control) mice were feed with pellets only;Group B(negative control) mice were fed with pellets coated with honey;Group C(low dosage) mice were fed with honey-coated pellets and powdered leaves of 1.batatas at 10 g/kg body weight of the mouse;Group D(high dosage) mice were fed with honey-coated pellets and powdered leaves of I,batatas at 20 g/kg body weight of the mouse;Group E(low dosage) mice were fed with honey-coated pellets and powdered leaves of P.niruri at 10 g/kg body weight of the mouse:and Group F(high dosage) mice were fed with honey-coated pellets and powdered leaves of P.niruri at 20 g/kg body weight of the mouse.Complete blood count was performed on Days 0.14 and 28.Results:It was shown that I.batatas can increase the values of hematocrit and hemoglobin on both the low dose and high dose at Day 28 and red blood cells(RBC) on both Days 14 and28 of testing.On the other hand.P.niruri can increase RBC.hematocrit and hemoglobin on Day 28 with only the low dose.There were no significant differences with white blood cell,absolute granulocyte,lymphocyte and monocyte,and platelet counts observed for both plant samples.Conclusions:I.batatas and P.niruri have effects on the hematocrit,RBC and hemoglobin levels in mice.

  15. Chemical Constituents from the Tubers of Ipomoea batata%番薯块根化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹永芹; 沈志滨; 孔令义

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究番薯块根的化学成分.方法:95%乙醇提取回收溶剂后以氯仿萃取,萃取部位经多种层析方法分离;结合理化性质和波谱方法进行结构鉴定.结果:分离并鉴定了6个化合物,分别为:Batatinoside Ⅰ(1)、枸橼苦素(2)、咖啡酸十八烷酯(3)、乙酰-β-香树醇(4)、咖啡酸(5)、东莨菪素(6).结论:其中,化合物1为结构新颖的树脂糖苷类化合物,并首次从番薯中分离得到.%Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents from the tubers of Ipomoea batata. Methods: The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by solvent extraction together with various chromatographic techniques. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physiochemical property and spectral data. Results: 6 compounds were identified from the CHC13 extract as Batatinoside 1(1), citrusin C(2), octadecyl caffeate (3) , β-amyrin acetate (4) , caffeic acid (5) ,scopoletin (6). Conclusion; Compound 1 is I-solated from Ipomoea batata for the first time.

  16. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and anaphylactic reaction inhibitory activities. Traditional herbal medicine existed before the application of modern scientific method to health care and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices. This review gives an overview mainly on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Solanum melongena.

  17. Nouvelle technique d'élevage de l'acarien phyllophage Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychidae et son application à l'étude de l'efficacité de quelques acaricides sur pomme de terre (Solarium tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A New Rearing Technique of Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychida and its Application in the Study of the Efficacy of some Acaricides on Potato [Solanum tuberosum L.. A 5 cm diameter leaf disc of potato or another host plant (or four on 2.5 cm diameter was used in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter for the rearing technique. This leaf disc, pierced in its centre, slides along a rustproof pin and floats on a 1 mm thick lamina of demineralized fresh water. Water is a "strong barrier" which confines the tetranychid mites on the leaf disc, even if this one does not corne from a host plant (tetranychid mites deprived of food. This rearing technique was used as a bioassay to test the effectiveness of acaricides (pyrimiphos-methyl, bromopropylate, fenpropathrin, dienochlor on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae. The ovicidal activity against the eggs of one, three, seven days old (the eggs incubation duration being 8.1 ±0.15 days was also studied. The results obtained show that bromopropylate, fenpropathrin and dienochlor have an ovicidal activity against the eggs of the different ages, but dienochlor has the highest efficiency (90 % mortality. Pyrimiphos-methyl is only active against the seven-day old eggs and bromopropylate has a high efficiency only on the one-day old eggs. Concerning the other developmental stages such as chrysalis (protochrysalis, deu-tochrysalis, teleiochrysalis and mobile stages (larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult female, pyrimiphos-methyl has de highest efficiency (90 % mortality ; dienochlor also, except mobile stages. Bromopropylate has no activity against the chrysalis and mobile stages and fenpropathrin has a remarkable repulsive effect.

  18. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Särkinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  19. Transmission and recombination of homeologous Solanum sitiens chromosomes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuzé, Ricardo A; Ji, Yuanfu; Chetelat, Roger T

    2003-11-01

    The goal of the present experiments was to transfer the chromosomes of Solanum sitiens (syn. Solanum rickii) into cultivated tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum). By crossing an allotetraploid L. esculentum x Solanum sitiens hybrid to sesquidiploid L. esculentum x S. lycopersicoides, a trigenomic hybrid (2n+14=38) was obtained. Analysis of the latter by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) indicated it contained a full set of 12 S. sitiens chromosomes, plus two extras from S. lycopersicoides. This and other complex hybrids were pollinated with Lycopersicon pennellii-derived bridging lines to overcome unilateral incompatibility. A total of 40 progeny were recovered by embryo rescue, including diploids and aneuploids (up to 2n+8). In order to determine the origin of chromosomes and the location of introgressed segments, progeny were genotyped with RFLP markers. S. sitiens-specific markers on all chromosomes, except 6 and 11, were detected in the progeny. Several S. sitiens chromosomes were transmitted intact, either through chromosome addition (i.e., trisomics) or substitution (i.e., disomics). Recombination between S. sitiens and L. esculentum was detected on most chromosomes, in both diploid and aneuploid progeny. A monosomic alien addition line for S. sitiens chromosome 8 was identified, and the extra chromosome was stably transmitted to approximately 13% of the backcross progeny. This study demonstrates the feasibility of gene transfer from S. sitiens to L. esculentum through chromosome addition, substitution, and recombination in the progeny of complex aneuploid hybrids.

  20. Influência da adição da fécula de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L. sobre a viscosidade do permeado de soro de queijo Influence of sweet potato starch at permeate whey viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Leite Pinto de Andrade

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A viscosidade é um parâmetro importante na aceitabilidade de bebidas lácteas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal fornecer dados relativos ao comportamento da viscosidade uma base de permeado de soro de queijo adicionada de fécula de batata-doce, dados que poderão ser utilizados na elaboração de uma nova bebida láctea. A fécula de batata-doce utilizada apresentou um grau de gelatinização de 72,64%, umidade média de 7,88% e a seguinte composição centesimal média em base seca: 82,59% de amido, 9,33% de fibras dietéticas totais, 4,90% de proteínas, 2,08% de cinzas e 1,11% de lipídios. O permeado de soro foi adicionado a três diferentes concentrações de fécula e submetido a diferentes tratamentos térmicos. A viscosidade mais adequada, em função dos dados obtidos junto aos produtos comerciais, estaria no intervalo de 45mPa.s a 70mPa.s. Assim sendo, a porcentagem de 6% de fécula de batata-doce e um tratamento térmico de 90ºC por cerca de 5 minutos mostrou-se ser o mais adequado. O fluido obtido apresentou um comportamento pseudoplástico.Viscosity is an important parameter of milky drinks acceptability. This work supply data of the viscosity properties of permeate whey plus sweet potato starch basis; these data will may be used at development of a new milky beverage. The used sweet potato starch presented 72.64% of gelatinization, 7.88% of humidity and the following dry composition: 82.59% starch, 9.33% total dietary fibres, 4.90% proteins, 2.08% ashes and 1.10% lipids. The permeate whey had mixed at three different percentages of potato starch and had submitted at various thermal treatments. The most appropriate viscosity, in accord of commercial products, it would be in the interval of 45mPa.s to 70mPa.s. Therefore, the percentage of 6% of sweet potato starch and a thermal treatment of 90ºC for about 5 minutes it was shown to be the most appropriate. The fluid presented a pseudoplastic properties.

  1. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae The pharmacobotanical comparative study of leaves of Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal and Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, (Solanaceae

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    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.In this work, a pharmacobotanical study of Solanum crinitum Lam., S. gomphodes Dunal and S. lycocarpum A. St-Hil., all belonging to the Solanum sect. Crinitum Child. has been realized with the objective of providing a macroscopical and microscopical morphodiagnosis for their characterizations. The three species are commonly named "jurubeba", "fruta-de-lobo" and "lobeira", and they are used in the folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes and others diseases. The three species studied share various morphological characters, like shrub and tree forms, the velutinous abaxial indument, the presence of bristles, the flower with stellate-pentagonal corollas ranging from violet to purple, and the fruit reaching up to 5 cm in diameter. The principal parameters to distinct the three species studied were the morphology of petiole and base of the blade leaf, the indument of adaxial surface, the anatomy of mesophyll, the types of stomata and the leaf margin.

  2. Characterization and development of EST-derived SSR markers in cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas

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    Li Yujun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently there exists a limited availability of genetic marker resources in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas, which is hindering genetic research in this species. It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in sweetpotato genetic research. With the newly developed next generation sequencing technology, large amount of transcribed sequences of sweetpotato have been generated and are available for identifying SSR markers by data mining. Results In this study, we investigated 181,615 ESTs for the identification and development of SSR markers. In total, 8,294 SSRs were identified from 7,163 SSR-containing unique ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 7.1 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motifs (42.9% being the most abundant followed by di- (41.2%, tetra- (9.2%, penta- (3.7% and hexa-nucleotide (3.1% repeat types. The top five motifs included AG/CT (26.9%, AAG/CTT (13.5%, AT/TA (10.6%, CCG/CGG (5.8% and AAT/ATT (4.5%. After removing possible duplicate of published EST-SSRs of sweetpotato, a total of non-repeat 7,958 SSR motifs were identified. Based on these SSR-containing sequences, 1,060 pairs of high-quality SSR primers were designed and used for validation of the amplification and assessment of the polymorphism between two parents of one mapping population (E Shu 3 Hao and Guang 2k-30 and eight accessions of cultivated sweetpotatoes. The results showed that 816 primer pairs could yield reproducible and strong amplification products, of which 195 (23.9% and 342 (41.9% primer pairs exhibited polymorphism between E Shu 3 Hao and Guang 2k-30 and among the 8 cultivated sweetpotatoes, respectively. Conclusion This study gives an insight into the frequency, type and distribution of sweetpotato EST-SSRs and demonstrates successful development of EST-SSR markers in cultivated sweetpotato. These EST-SSR markers could enrich the current resource of molecular markers for the sweetpotato community and would

  3. Purification and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity of a Sporamin B from Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. 55-2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-li; SUN Jun-mao; LI Qing-peng

    2009-01-01

    Sporamin is a soluble protein in sweet potato, and falls into two distinct homology groups, subfamilies A and B. In this research, a sporamin B was purified and its amino acid sequences, trypsin inhibitor activity (Ti activity) were analyzed. This sporamin B was isolated from sweet potato tubers [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. 55-2] through extraction of the water-soluble fraction, dialysis, ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. Homology determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that mainly one bond appeared in gel after being reduced by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), or by SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol, or in native situation. By comparing the data of the polypeptide mass Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry with those of the mass of the theoretical amino acid sequences from NCBI protein database, it was revealed that it was Q40091|Q40091_IPOBA, sweet potato sporamin B - Ipomoea Batatas (sweet potato) (Batate). The sequence coverage was 70.6%. N-terminal sequence was SETPV (Ser-Glu-Thr-Pro-Val). There is a linear relationship between trypsin inhibitor activity (Ti activity) and amounts of this sporamin B (3-18 μg mL-1). The equation of linear regression was y=2.5809x+17.049 (r2=0.9966). There was a curvilinear relationship between Ti activity and amounts of this sporamin B (21-150 μg mL-1). The equation of curvilinear regression is y= 14.4171n(x)+23.26 (r2=0.9924). The concentration of sporamin B with Ti activity after heating at 40℃ may induce part denature of this sporamin B, and there was no statistic difference after heating at 40, 50, 60℃ for 20 min. Heat treatment at more than 90℃ leads to a dramatic decrease of trypsin inhibitor efficiency. The results suggested that Q40091|Q40091_IPOBA was the major sporamin B in sweet potato tubers [Ipomoea Batatas (L.) Lain cv. 55-2], which had strong Ti activity, and was stable to both thermal and DTT (DL-dithiothreitol) relatively.

  4. DESIDRATAÇÃO OSMÓTICA DE BATATA BAROA (Arracacia xanthorrhiza OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF PERUVIAN CARROT (Arracacia xanthorrhiza

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    Manoel Soares Soares Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as condições ótimas para desidratação osmótica de batata baroa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza, submetida, em seqüência, ao congelamento e fritura, e à avaliação sensorial. Os resultados mostraram uma desidratação máxima em torno de 18% da massa inicial, sob as seguintes condições: concentração de 4 g de cloreto de sódio e 45 g de sacarose por 100 mL de solução, trinta minutos de tempo de contato e temperatura de 50°C. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que a desidratação osmótica, seguida de congelamento e fritura, pode ser uma nova alternativa viável para o mercado consumidor de batata baroa.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Desidratação osmótica; batata baroa; congelamento; análise sensorial.

    The aim of this research was to study the excellent conditions for the osmotic dehydration of Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza, submitted in sequence to freezing, and frying, and sensorial analysis. The results showed maximum dehydration of about 18% of the initial mass, under the following conditions: a concentration of 45 g of sodium chloride and 45 g of sucrose for 100 ml of solution, thirty minutes of contact time, and a temperature of 50°C. The sensorial evaluation showed that osmotic dehydration of Peruvian carrot, before freezing and frying can be a new alternative for the consumer market.

    KEY-WORDS: Osmotic dehydration; Peruvian carrot; freezing; sensorial analysis.

  5. Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante Yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante, conduziu-se um experimento no período de Janeiro a Junho de 2004, em NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO, psamítico típico, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 e ausência e presença de biofertilizante. As parcelas foram constituídas por 80 plantas, espaçadas de 80 x 30 cm. O número de raízes comerciais por planta atingiu valores máximos estimados de 2,0 e 1,7 raízes, respectivamente, nas doses de 26 e 25 t ha-1 de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. O peso médio de raízes comerciais da batata-doce aumentou com elevação das doses de esterco bovino, atingindo na maior dose 360 e 224 g na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As doses de 25,6 e 24,4 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pela máxima produção total de raízes de 21,4 e 21,2 t ha-1, respectivamente, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As máximas produções de raízes comerciais, 15,2 e 12,9 t ha-1 foram alcançadas com 25,5 e 21,3 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante, respectivamente.Aiming to evaluate the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. yield fertilization with bovine manure and biofertilizer, an experiment was carried out from January to July, 2004, on ustipsamment soil, at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia-PB. The Experimental outline used was randomized blocks, with four replications and, treatments distributed in factorial arrangement 6 x 2, being six levels of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 and absence and presence of biofertilizer. Plots were constituted by 80 plants, spaced 80 x 30 cm. Commercial roots number per plant reached

  6. PEMANFAATAN UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir SEBAGAI PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN TEPUNG TERIGU DAN SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN PADA ROTI TAWAR [Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir as a Partial Subtitute of Wheat flour and Source of Antioxidant on Plain Bread

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    Hardoko*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir is potential for functional food, especially as antioxidant source due to its purple color and other nutrient content. The objective of this research was to produce plain bread containing antioxidant by partial substitution of wheat flour with purple sweet potato flour. The result showed that the best plain bread was produced by a maximum substitution of 20% purple sweet potato flour to wheat flour. The hedonic characteristics of the resulting bread including aroma, taste, and texture were not significantly different from bread without substitution. Nevertheless, the crust was harder and darker. Addition of 1.0% GMS emulsifier and reduction of purple potato flour to 15% increased the score of softness, hedonic texture, acceptance level, as well as the volume of the bread. The substituted bread had antioxidant activity of 55833.78 ppm DPPH as shown by the IC50 value and contained 4.30% of dietary fiber.

  7. Comparative sequence analysis of Solanum and Arabidopsis in a hot spot for pathogen resistance on potato chromosome V reveals a patchwork of conserved and rapidly evolving genome segments

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    Bruggmann Rémy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative phenotypic variation of agronomic characters in crop plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors (quantitative trait loci = QTL. To understand the molecular basis of such QTL, the identification of the underlying genes is of primary interest and DNA sequence analysis of the genomic regions harboring QTL is a prerequisite for that. QTL mapping in potato (Solanum tuberosum has identified a region on chromosome V tagged by DNA markers GP21 and GP179, which contains a number of important QTL, among others QTL for resistance to late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans and to root cyst nematodes. Results To obtain genomic sequence for the targeted region on chromosome V, two local BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome contigs were constructed and sequenced, which corresponded to parts of the homologous chromosomes of the diploid, heterozygous genotype P6/210. Two contiguous sequences of 417,445 and 202,781 base pairs were assembled and annotated. Gene-by-gene co-linearity was disrupted by non-allelic insertions of retrotransposon elements, stretches of diverged intergenic sequences, differences in gene content and gene order. The latter was caused by inversion of a 70 kbp genomic fragment. These features were also found in comparison to orthologous sequence contigs from three homeologous chromosomes of Solanum demissum, a wild tuber bearing species. Functional annotation of the sequence identified 48 putative open reading frames (ORF in one contig and 22 in the other, with an average of one ORF every 9 kbp. Ten ORFs were classified as resistance-gene-like, 11 as F-box-containing genes, 13 as transposable elements and three as transcription factors. Comparing potato to Arabidopsis thaliana annotated proteins revealed five micro-syntenic blocks of three to seven ORFs with A. thaliana chromosomes 1, 3 and 5. Conclusion Comparative sequence analysis revealed highly conserved collinear regions

  8. RESPUESTA DE LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIEDAD DIACOL CAPIRO A LA FERTILIZACIÓN EN UN ANDISOL DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. DIACOL CAPIRO VARIETY UNDER ANDISOL FROM EAST ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Edison David Tabares Patiño

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la respuesta de la fertilización en papa DIACOL Capiro se evaluaron diferentes niveles de Ca (0, 3, 5 y 9 cmolc kg-1, Mg (0, 0,7; 1,4 y 3 cmolc kg-1, B (0, 0,5, 1,0 y 2,0 mg kg-1 y S (0, 10, 20 y 40 mg kg-1, con tres niveles de NPK, (relación 1:2:2 en dosis de 500, 1.500 y 3.000 kg ha-1. Para ello se utilizó un diseño central compuesto modificado sobre 80 parcelas experimentales de 1 m2. Para determinar las concentraciones de estos elementos en el suelo, se realizaron incubaciones de suelo y se obtuvieron eficiencias de 0,17; 0,83; 0,79; 0,90; 0,10 y 0,53 para P, K, Ca, Mg, B y S, respectivamente. Hubo una respuesta positiva a las dosis crecientes de NPK, cuyos promedios de producción total fueron 7,54; 9,34 y 11,39 kg m-2. Sin embargo, la relación costo/beneficio, indica que las dosis adecuadas para la fertilización química de la papa Diacol Capiro en este suelo, están alrededor de 1.500 kg ha-1 y no justifica la aplicación de las dosis más altas de fertilizante, dado que al duplicarlas solo se logra un incremento del 22% en la producción total y no se observaron diferencias significativas en la producción de tubérculos de mayor valor comercial. Las aplicaciones de Ca y Mg no siempre presentaron efectos positivos sobre la producción en los diferentes niveles de fertilización evaluados. Las adiciones de B y S mostraron reducción en la producción con diferencias significativas, por posible desbalance en la solución nutritiva del suelo, dado que la materia orgánica adicionada, suple las deficiencias de microelementos y el S.This research was carried out for evaluate the response to fertilization in andic soils of the potato variety DIACOL Capiro. Different levels of Ca (0, 3, 5 y 9 cmolc kg-1, Mg (0, 0.7, 1.4 and 3 cmolc kg-1, B (0, 0,5, 1,0 and 2,0 mg kg-1 and S (0, 10, 20 y 40 mg kg-1 with three levels of NPK, (grade 1:2:2 in 500, 1.500 and 3.000 kg ha-1 dose where evaluated. A modified central composite design was used and 80 experimental plots of 1 m2 were established. In order to determinate the concentrations of these elements in the soil solution, there were made incubations with different dose of these elements and the application efficiency were P: 0.17, K: 0.83, Ca: 0.79, Mg: 0.90, S: 0.53 and B: 0.10. The yield was partitioned in four categories by size tuber. The levels of NPK showed a positive response for total yield with averages 7.54, 9.34 and 11.39 kg m-2 for 500, 1.500 and 3.000 kg ha-1 of NPK, respectively.. Differences among the tuber size categories, more of 6 cm, 2-4 cm and less of 2 cm , were significant, but in the 4-6 cm category it did not have significant differences. The Ca and Mg applications showed unpredictable effects over the production in the different fertilization levels evaluated. The use of B and S did show significant differences in the production for the studied soil.

  9. Het aantonen van de aanwezigheid van Solanum nigrum (zwarte nachtschade) in monsters snijmaiskuilvoeder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de W.J.H.J.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.

    1984-01-01

    Uit de literatuur werden gegevens verzameld over Solanum nigrum, zoals het voorkomen, de morfologie van de plant en het zaad, de toxinen in deze planten en de toxiciteit hiervan voor het vee. In een vijftal monsters snijmaiskuilvoeder werd door middel van microscopisch onderzoek nagegaan of Solanum

  10. Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum species: Consequences for potato breeding and food safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van W.M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tuberiferous and nontuberiferous wild Solanum species are increasingly being used in potato breeding as a source of genes for disease and pest resistances and for other valuable characteristics. A disadvantage of Solanum species, from a consumers point of view, is that they contain ste

  11. A new cryptically dioecious species of bush tomato (Solanum from the Northern Territory, Australia

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    Christopher Martine

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of dioecious Solanum from the Australian “Dioicum Complex” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum cowiei Martine sp. nov., is allied with other members of this problematic lineage, but differs in its slender leaves, limited armature and diminutive habit. The species was first segregated by botanists at the Northern Territory Herbarium as Solanum sp. Litchfield (I.D. Cowie 1428; and specimens representing this species have also been referred to by Symon as Solanum sp. Fitzmaurice River. Collections suggest that this is an endemic of the sub-arid tropical zone of the Northern Territory. SEM images support initial assumptions that the new species is cryptically dioecious via production of inaperturate pollen grains in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers.

  12. A new cryptically dioecious species of bush tomato (Solanum) from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, Christopher T; Symon, David E; Evans, Elizabeth C

    2013-01-01

    A new species of dioecious Solanum from the Australian "Dioicum Complex" of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum cowiei Martine sp. nov., is allied with other members of this problematic lineage, but differs in its slender leaves, limited armature and diminutive habit. The species was first segregated by botanists at the Northern Territory Herbarium as Solanum sp. Litchfield (I.D. Cowie 1428); and specimens representing this species have also been referred to by Symon as Solanum sp. Fitzmaurice River. Collections suggest that this is an endemic of the sub-arid tropical zone of the Northern Territory. SEM images support initial assumptions that the new species is cryptically dioecious via production of inaperturate pollen grains in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers.

  13. Expressed nifH Genes of Endophytic Bacteria Detected in Field-Grown Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado-Tonooka, Junko; Ohwaki, Yoshinari; Yamakawa, Hiromoto; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Fujihara, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    We examined the nitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria expressed in field-grown sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Gene fragments corresponding to nifH were amplified from mRNA obtained from the stems and storage roots of field-grown sweet potatoes several months after planting. Sequence analysis revealed that these clones were homologous to the nifH sequences of Bradyrhizobium, Pelomonas, and Bacillus sp. in the DNA database. Investigation of the nifH genes amplified from the genomic DNA extracted from these sweet potatoes also showed high similarity to various α-proteobacteria including Bradyrhizobium, β-proteobacteria, and cyanobacteria. These results suggest that bradyrhizobia colonize and express nifH genes not only in the root nodules of leguminous plants but also in sweet potatoes as diazotrophic endophytes.

  14. Elaboración de sopa instantánea a partir de harina de ipomoea batatas(camote)

    OpenAIRE

    Albán, Carlos; Figueroa, Astrid; Cornejo, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    Se elaboró una sopa instantánea a partir de la harina de camote, ya que además de ser rica en nutrientes se quiere es rescatar el consumo de productos autóctonos. Primero se realizó la caracterización de la materia prima (Ipomoea batatas), mediante ensayos físico-químico, después se elaboró la isoterma del camote, las curvas de secado y la caracterización de la harina de camote. Después de la obtención de la harina se realizó diferentes formulaciones con el objetivo de determinar la más adecu...

  15. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of total flavonoids from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Lianying

    2013-08-01

    The in vivo anti-fatigue activity of the total flavonoids from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf was investigated in male Kunming mice. The total flavonoids from sweet potato leaf (TFSL) were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue effect was studied using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and hepatic and muscle glycogen contents. The results showed that TFSL had significant anti-fatigue effects. TFSL extended the exhaustive swimming time, effectively inhibited the increase of BLA, decreased the level of SUN and increased the hepatic and muscle glycogen content of mice. Thus, TFSL may have potential as an anti-fatigue agent.

  16. Caracterização morfológica de acessos de batata-doce Morphologic characterization of sweet potato

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    Máskio Daros

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar morfologicamente acessos de batata-doce da Coleção de Germoplasma da UENF e visando otimizar a utilização de genomas de interesse para o melhoramento, foram instalados dois experimentos, ambos em blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Os plantios foram realizados em novembro e em dezembro de 1997, ambos na cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ. Para tanto, quatorze acessos de batata-doce foram avaliados quanto a descritores da parte aérea e das raízes, num total de vinte características. Constatou-se a ocorrência de variabilidade genética entre os acessos, proporcionada principalmente pelas características pubescência do ápice das ramas, pigmentação das nervuras inferiores da folha e formato das raízes. Os acessos 'Amarelinha', 'Roxinha', 'WON-B' e 'Campina 3' apresentaram características de interesse para o mercado consumidor Norte- Fluminense.To characterize morphologically accesses of sweet potato from the germplasm collection of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF Brazil, as a way to optimize the utilization of important genomes for plant breeding, two experiments were carried out in field conditions, both in a randomized blocks design with three replications. The experiments were done in November at UENF and December in Campos. For such experiment, fourteen sweet potato accesses were evaluated for different traits related to aerial parts, and root descriptors, in a total of twenty characteristics. Genetic variability between accesses was observed, mainly due to characteristics of pubescence of the stem apex, pigmentation of the inferior veins of leaves and shape of roots. The accesses, Amarelinha, Roxinha, WON-B and Campina 3 presented interesting characteristics for the market of north-fluminense region.

  17. Sistemas de labranza y densidades de la batata: calidad del suelo y de las raíces tuberosas.

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    Maiby Pérez-Darniz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de sistemas de labranza y densidades de siembra en la calidad de las raíces tuberosas de batata (Ipomoea batata (L Lamb.. El estudio se realizó en la Universidad Central de Venezuela, en el año 2014. Se determinaron los grados de severidad de la degradación del suelo y su correspondencia con las escalas de preferencia basadas en el peso unitario y dimensiones de la raíz tuberosa. Se usó un arreglo en franjas, donde los sistemas de labranza (SL fueron asignados a las parcelas, y las densidades de siembra (Ds a las franjas. Los SL consistieron en labranza vertical con cincel (LC, con arado de disco (LA, convencional con tres pases de rastra de disco (LCo y mínima con un pase de rastra de disco (LM. Las Ds fueron de 0,25 cm (D1 y 0,15 cm (D2 en la hilera. La calidad física del suelo fue superior en los tratamientos de LA. De estos, la combinación con la distancia de siembra más larga (LA-D1 favoreció la mayor calidad postcosecha del cultivo. Al contrario, en los tratamientos con cincel se promovió la menor aceptación del consumidor. La ligera a moderada severidad de la degradación del suelo no explicó la variación de la calidad postcosecha. Se in ere sobre la menor tasa de movimiento de agua en LC, que promovió un exceso de humedad y la más baja calidad de la raíz tuberosa.

  18. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-06-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change.

  19. Identificación de virus en el cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L. en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Valverde

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificación de virus en el cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L. en Costa Rica. En el período entre febrero y mayo del 2002, se realizó un reconocimiento de los virus del cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L., en cinco plantaciones comerciales ubicadas en las principales regiones productoras de este cultivo en Costa Rica. Previo al muestreo, en cada plantación se evaluó la incidencia de plantas con síntomas de enfermedades virales. Para la identificación de los virus, se recolectaron secciones apicales de tallo de plantas de camote con síntomas las cuales se injertaron sobre las plantas indicadoras de virus, de la especia Ipomoea setosa para inocularlas. Las muestras foliares de plantas inoculadas fueron analizadas serológicamente para el virus del moteado plumoso del camote (SPFMV y el virus del mosaico del pepino (CMV; con la reacción en cadena de polimerasa de transcripción reversa (RT-PCR para el virus del enanismo clorótico del camote (SPCSV y por hibridación molecular para el virus del enrollamiento de la hoja del camote (SPLCV. Las plantaciones ubicadas en el Cacao y el Coyol de Alajuela, y San Pedro de Santa Bárbara, presentaron las mayores incidencias de plantas con síntomas virales; a saber: 30, 90 y 90% respectivamente. El SPFMV, transmitido por los áfidos fue el virus más común. Otros virus detectados fueron el SPCSV y el SPLCV. El CMV, no se encontró en ninguna de las muestras analizadas.

  20. Obtención de Maltodextrinas por vía enzimática a partir del almidón de camote (Ipomoea batatas).

    OpenAIRE

    Medina García, Luis

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación consistió en producir maltodextrinas por vía enzimática a partir del almidón del camote (Ipomoea batatas); materia prima que es ampliamente cultivada en varios estados de la República Mexicana. 5 Inicialmente se realizó el análisis químico proximal de los tubérculos del camote (Ipomoea batatas variedad nylon), después se llevó a cabo la extracción y caracterización del almidón y posteriormente se determinaron las condiciones de hidrólisi...

  1. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Moon Park; Dong Woo Kim; Seung Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence w...

  2. Analysis on Nutrition Value of Different Batatas Vine%不同品种甘薯秧营养价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 李魁英; 王学清; 王昆; 马书林; 张新同; 吴占军; 刘小虎

    2011-01-01

    对不同品种甘薯秧营养成分进行测定分析.结果表明,不同品种甘薯秧间营养成分含量有显著差异,粗蛋白含量最高是冀薯13-10,粗脂肪含量最高的是冀薯6-5,中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维以冀薯4号最高,粗灰分最高冀薯13-10.%Studying on regularity about nutrient content of differencet batatas vine,The results show that there are significant difference between different batatas vine in crude protein,NDF,ADF,crude fat,AshJi Shu 13-10 has the hightest crude protein and crude AshJi Shu 6-5 has the highest crude fat,Ji Shu NO 4 has the highest NDF and ADF among other batatas vine.

  3. Wild Solanum resistance to aphids: antixenosis or antibiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Vincent; Dugravot, Sébastien; Campan, Erick; Dubois, Françoise; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    The type (antixenosis or antibiosis) of resistance against the aphids Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) was characterized for the wild tuber-bearing potatoes, Solanum chomatophilum Bitter and Solanum stoloniferum Schltdl. & Bouché through behavioral (olfactometry and electrical penetration graph) and physiological studies. In dual-choice assays, only S. stoloniferum exerted attraction to M. euphorbiae. This ruled out the possibility that plant volatiles of S. chomatophilum and S. stoloniferum may contribute to the high resistance expressed. In electrical penetration graph experiments, aphids feeding on S. stoloniferum showed increased salivation phases, whereas phloem ingestion was drastically reduced for both aphid species. Because reaching phloem elements was not delayed in both species, the resistance mechanism was phloem-located. The antixenosis exhibited by S. stoloniferum was similar on young and mature leaves. S. chomatophilum also showed phloem-located antixenosis against M. persicae. In contrast, M. euphorbiae had no difficulty to reach S. chomatophilum phloem tissues and to ingest sap. S. chomatophilum resistance against M. euphorbiae was antibiosis and only expressed in mature leaves, where a complete nymphal mortality was observed.

  4. 超声波提取紫薯多糖的工艺优化%Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction Process of Ipomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚惠伶; 蒋林彬

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharide from lpomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. [ Method ] Polysaccharide from Ipomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. was extracted by ultrasonic technology,and the extraction conditions were optimized by orthogonal test combined with single factor test. [ Result ] The influencing order of each factor on yield of polysaccharide was determined to be ultrasonic frequency > solid to liquid ratio > extraction temperature > extraction duration. The optimum conditions for extracting polysaccharide from Ipomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. were: solid to liquid ratio of 1: 15, extraction duration of 40 min, extraction temperature of 60 ℃ and ultrasonic frequency of 80 kHz. Under the optimal extracting conditions,extraction rate of polysaccharide from Ipomoea batatas (Linn.) Lam. reached as high as 3.63%.[ Conclusion] Ipomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. polysaccharide extracted by ultrasonic technology was high in yield and short in extraction time. If carried out at low temperature,the extraction was less in extracting solvent and less in cost.%[目的]优化紫薯多糖的提取工艺.[方法]利用超声波技术提取紫薯粗多糖,用单因素试验和正交试验设计相结合的方法获得最佳提取工艺.[结果]影响紫薯多糖得率的主要因素按重要性排序为:超声频率>料液比>提取温度>提取时间;紫薯粗多糖最佳提取工艺条件为:料液比1:15,提取时间40min,提取温度60℃,超声频率80 kHz,此条件下紫薯多糖的提取率为3.63%.[结论]利用超声技术提取紫薯多糖可以提高多糖得率、缩短提取时间、采用较低温度提取、节省提取溶剂,降低提取成本.

  5. Identiifcation of microRNAs in two species of tomato,Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites, by deep sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shan-shan; LI Qian-nan; GUO Guang-jun; GAO Jian-chang; WANG Xiao-xuan; GUO Yan-mei; John C Snyder; DU Yong-chen

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~21 nucleotide (nt), endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression in plants. Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs play an important role in species-speciifc development in plants. However, the detailed miRNA proifle divergence has not been performed among tomato species. In this study, the smal RNA (sRNA) proifles of Solanum lycopersicumcultivar 9706 andSolanum habrochaites species PI 134417 were obtained by deep sequencing. Sixty-three known miRNA families were identiifed from these two species, of which 39 were common. Further miRNA proifle comparison showed that 24 known non-conserved miRNA families were species-speciifc between these two tomato species. In addition, six conserved miRNA families displayed an apparent divergent expression pattern between the two tomato species. Our results suggested that species-speciifc, non-conserved miRNAs and divergent expression of conserved miRNAs might contribute to developmental changes and phenotypic variation between the two tomato species. Twenty new miRNAs were also identiifed inS. lycopersicum. This research signiifcantly increases the number of known miRNA families in tomato and provides the ifrst set of smal RNAs inS. habrochaites. It also suggests that miRNAs have an important role in species-speciifc plant developmental regulation.

  6. Assessment of pollen reward and pollen availability in Solanum stramoniifolium and Solanum paniculatum for buzz-pollinating carpenter bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, A; Schlindwein, C; Lunau, K

    2014-03-01

    The two widespread tropical Solanum species S. paniculatum and S. stramoniifolium are highly dependent on the visits of large bees that pollinate the flowers while buzzing them. Both Solanum species do not offer nectar reward; the rewarding of bees is thus solely dependent on the availability of pollen. Flower visitors are unable to visually assess the amount of pollen, because the pollen is hidden in poricidal anthers. In this study we ask whether and how the amount of pollen determines the attractiveness of flowers for bees. The number of pollen grains in anthers of S. stramoniifolium was seven times higher than in S. paniculatum. By contrast, the handling time per five flowers for carpenter bees visiting S. paniculatum was 3.5 times shorter than of those visiting S. stramoniifolium. As a result foraging carpenter bees collected a similar number of pollen grains per unit time on flowers of both species. Experimental manipulation of pollen availability by gluing the anther pores showed that the carpenter bees were unable to detect the availability of pollen by means of chemical cues before landing and without buzzing. Our study shows that the efficiency of pollen collecting on S. paniculatum is based on large inflorescences with short between-flower search times and short handling time of individual flowers, whereas that of S. stramoniifolium relies on a large amount of pollen per flower. Interestingly, large carpenter bees are able to adjust their foraging behaviour to drastically different strategies of pollen reward in otherwise very similar plant species.

  7. Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de batata: I - macronutrientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Mazetti Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A determinação das quantidades de nutrientes absorvidas durante o ciclo de desenvolvimento é de suma importância para estabelecer as épocas em que esses elementos são mais exigidos e as quantidades corretas que devem ser disponibilizadas à cultura da batata. No entanto, quase não existem essas informações para as principais cultivares utilizadas no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a extração e a exportação de macronutrientes pelas cultivares de batata Ágata, Asterix, Atlantic, Markies e Mondial. O experimento foi conduzido durante a safra de inverno, em um Latossolo Vermelho, no município de Itaí (SP. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas cinco cultivares, e as subparcelas, por épocas de coletas, realizadas no momento do plantio e a cada sete dias após a emergência. As cultivares Mondial e Asterix, mais produtivas, apresentaram maior extração de macronutrientes, com quantidades médias por hectare de 116 kg de N, 18 kg de P, 243 kg de K, 50 kg de Ca e 13 kg de Mg, enquanto as cultivares Ágata, Atlantic e Markies extraíram menor quantidade, com valores médios de 92, 14, 178, 35 e 9 kg ha-1, respectivamente. A maior demanda por macronutrientes pelas cultivares estudadas ocorreu na fase inicial de enchimento dos tubérculos (42 a 70 DAP. A exportação de macronutrientes não esteve diretamente relacionada com a produtividade de tubérculos, já que a cultivar mais produtiva (Mondial não foi a que exportou a maior quantidade de macronutrientes. A cultivar Asterix exportou maior quantidade de N, P, K e Mg, com valores de 88, 15, 220 e 8 kg ha-1, respectivamente, enquanto a menor exportação foi observada na cultivar Atlantic, com 48 kg ha-1 de N, 10 kg ha-1 de P, 143 kg ha-1 de K e 5 kg ha-1 de Mg. A variação entre as cultivares na extração, especialmente de K e N, indica necessidade de manejo diferencial da adubação.

  8. Índices para avaliar o estado de nitrogênio da batata multiplicada por distintos materiais propagativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialva Alvarenga Moreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melhoria na eficiência de aplicação do N pode ser conseguida pela sincronização da demanda da planta com o suprimento de N durante o ciclo da batateira. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar os valores ótimos de índices relacionados com o estado de nitrogênio ao longo do ciclo da batata cultivada em ambiente protegido, utilizando distintos materiais propagativos, tubérculo-semente, minitubérculo e broto, comuns na produção de tubérculo-semente básica. Os índices, determinados na quarta folha e na mais velha, foram intensidade da cor verde, avaliada pelo índice SPAD e pela tabela de cor, e características agronômicas: comprimento, largura, área e número de folíolos. Foram realizados três experimentos em vaso, em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Em cada experimento, instalado no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, foram utilizadas seis doses de nitrogênio (0; 25; 50; 100; 200 e 400 mg dm-3. Os índices foram determinados a cada 10 dias iniciando-se aos 20 dias após a emergência. Com cada material de propagação, o índice SPAD medido tanto na QF quanto na FV respondeu de forma diferenciada ao incremento na dose de N e atingiu os valores ótimos de 41,3; 40,5; 37,0; 35,8; 36,0; 31,9 e 29,8 dos 20 aos 80 DAE, respectivamente, ao ser utilizado o tubérculo-semente básica. Com todos os materiais de propagação, a idade da planta influencia significativamente todas as variáveis, exceto o número de hastes ou o número de folhas, quando é utilizado broto ou minitubérculo, respectivamente. O valor