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Sample records for batata solanum tuberosum

  1. Solanum tuberosum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Key words: Table sugar, micro-propagation, single node cultures, Solanum tuberosum L. ... cited in all potato growing regions has been lack of high .... Generation. = Interval between subcultures (35 days). Table 2. Mean number of nodes per plantlet during the four generations of culture for the cultivars ...

  2. Teor de açúcar em genótipos de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. Sugar content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. genotypes

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    Arione da Silva Pereira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor de açúcares redutores e totais, em tubérculos de batata de germoplasma selecionado do programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Dezoito cultivares e clones, e duas cultivares de indústria (Atlantic e Bintje, testemunhas foram avaliadas neste estudo. O experimento foi conduzido no outono de 1994, em Pelotas, RS. A concentração de açúcares redutores nos tubérculos dos 20 genótipos variou de 0,21% a 1,71%. O clone C-1582-25-90 e a cultivar Cerrito Alegre apresentaram teores mais baixos de açúcares redutores do que as testemunhas, sem, no entanto, diferirem significativamente destas. Os outros clones e cultivares testados também não diferiram da Atlantic. Estes resultados indicam que no germoplasma da Embrapa Clima Temperado existem genótipos com teor de açúcares redutores semelhante ao dos genótipos utilizados pelas indústrias brasileiras de processamento de batata. Entretanto, nenhum deles apresenta baixo teor de açúcares redutores. A concentração de açúcares totais foi mais baixa nos tubérculos das cultivares Cristal e Macaca, e do clone C-1582-25-90, sem diferir significativamente das testemunhas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the reducing and total sugar content in potato tubers of selected germplasm of the Embrapa Clima Temperado breeding program. Eighteen cultivars and clones and two processing cultivars (Atlantic e Bintje, checks were evaluated in this study. The experiment was carried out during de fall season of 1994, in Pelotas, RS. The reducing sugar concentration in the tubers of the 20 genotypes varied from 0,21% to 1,71%. The clone C-1582-25-90 and the cultivar Cerrito Alegre had lower reducing sugar content than the check cultivars, however, without, differing significantly from them. The other tested clones and cultivars also did not differ from ‘Atlantic’. These results indicate that in the Embrapa Clima Temperado germplasm there are

  3. ALTERAÇÕES FÍSICAS E FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE BATATAS (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADAS INTERCALADAS COM DIFERENTES FILMES ATIVOS

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    E. ENDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Batatas (Solanum tuberosum L. da variedade Monalisa, foram minimamente processadas e submetidas a diferentes tratamentos, empregados para a avaliação de seus efeitos sobre o escurecimento decorrente da ação das Polifenoloxidases (PPO. Estes tratamentos consistiram em filmes celulósicos puros (0% ou incorporados com aditivos 2% de ácido cítrico (2%AC, 0,5% de monocloridrato de Lcisteína (0,5%CIS, 7% de ácido sórbico (7%AS e mistura dos compostos (Mistura que foram intercalados às batatas fatiadas. Como controle, utilizaram-se batatas mantidas sem filme intercalado (SF. Todas as amostras foram acondicionadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, envoltas em filme de PVC e armazenadas por 9 dias a 8ºC ± 2ºC. A cada três dias foram avaliados: atividade da PPO, cor (coordenadas L*, a* e b* e diferença de cor ( E, pH, acidez total titulável (%, atividade de água (Aa e perda de massa (%. Os resultados indicaram que os tratamentos não diferiram significativamente (p>0,05 para a maioria dos parâmetros avaliados, com exceção da diferença de cor, que apresentou diferença significativa aos 10% de probabilidade. Nesta avaliação, as amostras intercaladas com os filmes de ácido cítrico e de cisteína demonstraram os melhores desempenhos, indicando que estes filmes possuem potencial para minimizar o escurecimento enzimático, mantendo a cor original da batata minimamente processada e refrigerada por mais tempo.

  4. Analysis of sphingolipids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Nana; Fischbeck, Anne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were detected. For ceramides and glucocerebrosides 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)) was found as the major long-chain base, with lesser amounts of 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)) and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)). 2-(Alpha-)hydroxypalmitic acid (C16:0h) was the major fatty acid, which was found to be acylated to the long-chain bases. For quantification of these compounds, an RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with an "echo-peak"-technique simulating internal standard injection was developed. The analyzed samples of potatoes and sweet potatoes showed amounts of approximately 0.1-8 microg/kg single ceramides and amounts up to 500 microg/kg glucocerebrosides, with C16:0h-glucosyl-4,8-sphingadienine as the major component.

  5. Efeito da substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por farinha de casca de batata (Solanum Tuberosum Lineu Effect of the partial replacement of wheat flour for potato skin flour (Solanum Tuberosum L.

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    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento dos subprodutos da agroindústria de alimentos diminui os custos da produção, aumenta o aproveitamento total do alimento e reduz o impacto que esses subprodutos podem causar ao serem descartados no ambiente. Dessa forma, alguns subprodutos da batata são aproveitados e transformados em ingredientes alimentícios, como é o caso da casca. Neste estudo utilizou-se a casca de batata para produção de farinha visando a sua utilização em produtos de panificação, sendo utilizadas as seguintes porcentagens na composição da farinha mista: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50% e 12-38-50% de farinha de casca de batata, farinha de trigo branca e farinha de trigo integral, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas na farinha de casca de batata, análises físicas na farinha de casca, nas farinhas de trigo branca e integral e análises reológicas nas farinhas mistas. A farinha de casca de batata apresentou bons teores de fibras e minerais, e dentro deste último, destacam-se os teores de fósforo, cálcio e magnésio. Quanto à granulometria e à diferença de cor, as farinhas de casca de batata e a farinha de trigo integral apresentaram valores mais próximos uma da outra. À medida que se aumentou a substituição da farinha de trigo branca pela farinha de casca de batata, as análises reológicas indicaram uma queda na qualidade tecnológica das massas.Reusing some agro-industrial food by-products lower the production costs, increase efficient food utilization, and reduce the impact that these sub-products cause if discarded in the environment. Thus, some potato by-products are reused utilized and transformed into food ingredients, such as potato skin. In this study, potato skin was utilized for the production of flour to be used in bakery products. The following percentages were utilized in the composition of the mixed flour: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50%, and 12-38-50% of potato skin flour, white

  6. Effect of active packages on enzymatic browning in fresh-cut potatoes (solanum tuberosum / Efeito de embalagens ativas no escurecimento enzimático de batatas (solanum tuberosum fatiadas e minimamente processadas

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    Sílvia Rosana Colodeti Yokota

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the incidence and the populations dynamics in sugarcane crop in no-tillage system in comparison to the conventional one. The experimental design was completely random, using four replications, in a factorial 4x2 outline. The treatments were: (I – sugarcane PC incorporated to spontaneous vegetation with manuring and (II – the same procedure as in I without manuring; (III – sugarcane SPD over jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis with manuring and (IV – the same procedure as in III without manuring; (V – sugarcane SPD over velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima with manuring and (VI – the same procedure as in V without manuring and (VII – sugarcane SPD over sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea with manuring and (VIII – the same procedure as in VII without manuring. The species Cyperus rotundus and Sorghum halepense presented the highest rates of value of importance in the experimental area. Sugarcane SPD over jack bean presented the lowest similarity rate in the community of weed in relation to the sugarcane cultivated conventionally. The incidence of weed in the sugarcane PC was 531 and 525% superior in to the sugarcane SPD, and contributed to the reduction of 27% in the yield.A vida moderna tem aumentado a demanda por frutas e hortaliças minimamente processadas, que mantêm características próximas ao “in natura”, além da praticidade e conveniência. Foi avaliado o efeito de embalagens ativas na inibição do escurecimento de batatas fatiadas minimamente processadas. Filmes de base celulósica, com 30 micras de espessura, foram incorporados com a mistura ácido ascórbico + ácido cítrico (2, 3 e 5% de cada, antioxidante metabissulfito de sódio (0,3 ; 0,5 e 1,% e o controle (sem agente anti-escurecimento. As amostras de batatas envolvidas em filme (sem agente e sem filme apresentaram aumento de pH de 5,7 para 6,7 após armazenamento, enquanto batatas envolvidas em filmes com adição de compostos qu

  7. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  8. In vitro organogenesis of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic for the genetic transformationOrganogênese in vitro de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic visando transformação genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Kelson Silva Rezende

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of commercial cultivars of potato with resistance to the phytopatogen is a very promising alternative that the genetic engineering can provide, through the introduction of exogenous genes for the genetic transformation. In order to establish an efficient system of transformation, it is crucial first to optimize in vitro organogenesis protocol. This work aimed to establish an efficient protocol for the genetic transformation of potato cv. Atlantic. The efficiency of the in vitro organogenesis is influenced by the explant type and by the kind and concentrations of growth regulators used. Shoot segments of potato cv. Atlantic present better organogenesis capacity than leaf explants. It is recommended to use the woody plant medium (WPM supplied with 1,0 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 5,0 mg L-1 of zeatin riboside (ZEA, to obtain shoots from shoot segments, and the carbenicilin (Cb added to this medium increased this formation. For the process to enlarge shoots, this same antibiotic when added to the WPM medium in growing concentrations (100; 250; 500 mg L-1 promoted a decrease in the height of plants, number of shoots and length of roots. After the co-cultivation of shoots segments with Agrobacterium tumefaciens these concentrations of Cb are not efficient in the elimination of the bacteria, which commits the organogenesis. However, it is possible to establish a protocol of in vitro organogenesis of potato cv. Atlantic starting from shoots segments not co-cultivated. These results will be useful for futures experiments of genetic transformation with this and another commercials cultivars of potato.A obtenção de cultivares comerciais de batata com resistência a fitopatógenos é uma alternativa muito promissora que a engenharia genética pode proporcionar, através da introdução de genes exógenos visando transformação genética. Para tal, torna-se imprescindível estabelecer um sistema eficiente de transformação, e

  9. Efeito da fertilização fosfatada na culturada batata (solanum tuberosum l. no planalto do huambo (Angola Effects of phosphorus fertilization on potato (solanum tuberosum l. crop production, in huambo country (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaculada da Conceição Henriques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se ensaios realizados, no ano agrícola 2004/5, em blocos completos casualizados, para estudo do efeito na produção de doses de fertilização fosfatada da cultivar de batata-semente importada ‘Romano’ e da cultivar regional ‘Tchigembo’, plantadas em duas datas (Outubro e Fevereiro da época das chuvas e numa terceira data (Junho, na época seca, praticada em regadio. Os ensaios foram repetidos em três locais da Província do Huambo - Bailundo, Chianga e Calenga - distanciados de cerca de 50 km. Avaliaram-se os efeitos, na produção total e comercial de tubérculos (diâmetro > 25 mm, de diferentes doses de fósforo, na forma de superfosfato simples (24% de P2O5, tendo-se aplicado uniformemente ureia (300 kg ha-1 de N, fraccionada em três aplicações. As doses de fósforo ensaiadas foram 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5, comparadas com uma testemunha sem qualquer aplicação de fertilizante, azotado ou fosfatado. As modalidades de fertilização azotada receberam, uniformemente 300 de azoto. A dose que maior benefício económico originou, sem desperdício de químicos para o meio ambiente, foi a de 200 kg ha-1 de P2O5.Several trials were carried out to compare total and commercial potato yield of the imported cultivar ‘Romano’ and the regional cultivar ‘Tchigembo’, planted in two dates on rain season (October and February and in a third date (June, in dry season, with irrigation. The trials were repeated in three locations of the Huambo country - Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga. The effects on total and commercial (tubers diameter > 25 mm potato yields of different amounts of phosphorus, applied with single superphosphate (24% of P2O5 were evaluated. Treatments were: control (any type of soil fertilization null, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5. Phosphorus treatments received also 300 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (urea applied uniformly, in three times. The greatest economic benefice for both potato

  10. Determinação de glicoalcalóides em batatas in natura (Solanum Tuberosum L.) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Rita Margarete D.; Toledo,Maria Cecília F.

    2004-01-01

    A batata é uma das principais hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil, constituindo-se em um dos mais importantes alimentos na dieta humana, em decorrência de sua disponibilidade e características nutricionais. Entretanto, membros da família Solanaceae produzem, durante crescimento e após colheita, compostos potencialmente tóxicos denominados glicoalcalóides, dos quais alfa-solanina e alfa-chaconina predominam. A concentração máxima desses compostos em batata in natura considerada segura para consumo...

  11. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  12. Physiological effect of fungicides on growth, productivity and post-harvest potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ãâdina Cristiane Pereira Lopes

    2011-01-01

    A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em ÃÂrea experimental do Departamento de Agronomia da UNICENTRO, em Guarapuava Ãââ PR. O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos aditivos dos fungicidas fluazinam e metiram + piraclostrobina no desenvolvimento vegetativo, produÃÂÃÂo e qualidade pÃÂs-colheita de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.). AlÃÂm de estabelecer uma metodologia para determinaÃÂÃÂo da ÃÂrea foliar da cultura baseada na estimativa por equaÃÂÃÂo de regressÃÂo pelo comprimento e largura das folhas. Considerou-...

  13. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  14. Resistance to Erwinia spp. in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allefs, S.

    1995-01-01

    Blackleg is a disease of potato, Solanum tuberosum , which is caused by the bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ( Ecc ), E.c. subsp. atroseptica ( Eca ) or

  15. Genetic Variability in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Genotypes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Late blight (Phytophthora infestans de Bary) is the most important and destructive disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L). The pathogen has the ability to rapidly evolve and overcome resistance genes, leading commercial potato varieties to succumb to it too soon. As a result, evaluation of commercial potato varieties for ...

  16. Evaluation of genetic stability in cryopreserved Solanum tuberosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, the genetic stability of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets of the cultivars Agria and Marphona stored under cryopreservation and non-cryopreservation conditions was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Also, flow cytometric studies were performed to

  17. Transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) using particle bombardment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, A.; Raemakers, K.; Visser, R.; Mooibroek, H.

    2001-01-01

    Internodes, leaves and tuber slices from potato (Solanum tuberosum), genotype 1024-2, were subjected to particle bombardment. Transient expression was optimized using the uidA and the luc reporter genes that encode #-glucuronidase (GUS) and luciferase, respectively. Stable transformation was

  18. Determinação de glicoalcalóides em batatas in natura (Solanum Tuberosum L.) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo Determination of glycoalkaloides in potato tubers (Solanum Tuberosum L.) marketed in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Margarete D. Machado; Maria Cecília F. Toledo

    2004-01-01

    A batata é uma das principais hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil, constituindo-se em um dos mais importantes alimentos na dieta humana, em decorrência de sua disponibilidade e características nutricionais. Entretanto, membros da família Solanaceae produzem, durante crescimento e após colheita, compostos potencialmente tóxicos denominados glicoalcalóides, dos quais alfa-solanina e alfa-chaconina predominam. A concentração máxima desses compostos em batata in natura considerada segura para consumo...

  19. Determinação de glicoalcalóides em batatas in natura (Solanum Tuberosum L. comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo Determination of glycoalkaloides in potato tubers (Solanum Tuberosum L. marketed in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Margarete D. Machado

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A batata é uma das principais hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil, constituindo-se em um dos mais importantes alimentos na dieta humana, em decorrência de sua disponibilidade e características nutricionais. Entretanto, membros da família Solanaceae produzem, durante crescimento e após colheita, compostos potencialmente tóxicos denominados glicoalcalóides, dos quais alfa-solanina e alfa-chaconina predominam. A concentração máxima desses compostos em batata in natura considerada segura para consumo humano é estimada em 200mg·kg-1, expressa como glicoalcalóides totais (GAT. No presente estudo, foram extraídos e quantificados os GAT em amostras de tubérculos de batata in natura comercializados na cidade de Campinas, SP. A técnica utilizada foi a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE com coluna C18 e detetor de arranjo de diodos. O valor médio de recuperação foi 102,6% para alfa-solanina e 100,2% para alfa-chaconina. Os limites de quantificação foram 2,5µg·mL-1 para alfa-solanina e 1,4µg·mL-1 para alfa-chaconina. As concentrações de GAT em amostras individuais de tubérculos inteiros das diferentes variedades e tipos estudados (Bintje, Monaliza, Asterix e Bolinha variaram de 22,4 a 246,9mg·kg-1. Das amostras analisadas, 82% apresentaram níveis de GAT inferiores a 100mg·kg-1, o que indica que as variedades de batatas estudadas podem ser consideradas seguras para consumo humano.Potato is included among the main horticultural crops in Brazil. Due to its broad availability and nutritional characteristics, it has been considered one of the most important components in the human diet. Nevertheless, members of the family Solanaceae produce potentially toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids during growth and post-harvest, amongst which alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine predominate. The recommended safety level for these compounds in unprocessed potato tubers for human consumption, expressed as total glycoalkaloids, is

  20. Resistência de cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum) à sarna comum (Streptomyces spp.) e mecanismo de ação da fitotoxina taxtomina A em sorgo (Sorghum bicolor ): aspectos bioquímicos e ultraestruturais

    OpenAIRE

    Ely Oliveira Garcia

    2008-01-01

    O gênero Streptomyces constitui-se em um grupo diferenciado de procariotos fitopatogênicos, por serem morfologicamente similares aos fungos e produzirem diversos importantes metabólitos secundários. A sarna comum da batata é principal doença causada pelo gênero. O principal agente causal da doença, Streptomyces scabies, produz fitotoxinas denominadas concanamicinas, porém, não foi comprovada a importância da produção das mesmas na agressividade dos isolados de S. scabies. Dessa forma, neste t...

  1. OBSERVAÇÕES SOBRE DEGENERESCÊNCIA E COMPORTAMENTO EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE PLANTIO DE QUATRO VARIEDADES DE BATATA (Solanum Tuberosum L. COMMENTS ON DEGENERATION AND BEHAVIOR AT DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES OF FOUR POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As variedades de batata DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA foram plantadas em duas gerações, a primeira na seca e a segunda, nas águas de 1971, em Goiânia. Para o primeiro plantio, usaram-se batatas-sementes importadas, para o segundo, as filhas destas. HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA produziram mais na segunda geração do que na primeira, devido às melhores condições da época chuvosa. A produção da DELTA-A praticamente não variou nas duas épocas. HANSA foi significantemente superior às outras, em produção total, nas duas épocas e em produção de tubérculos comerciáveis (acima de 33 mm, na época chuvosa. Neste período, seus tubérculos grandes, (acima de 40 mm apresentaram-se com superdesenvolvimento de lenticelas e manchados internamente, ficando comercialmente desvalorizados. A variedade HYDRA destacou-se das demais pela produção de batatas grandes, principalmente na seca. Mostrou-se, porém, muito suscetível à sarna comum, cujo ataque inutilizou grande parte de seus tubérculos. TONDRA foi a variedade que melhor se adaptou ao período chuvoso. Produziu duas vezes mais tubérculos comerciáveis e quase três vezes mais tubérculos grandes, que na seca.

    The four potato varieties DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA and TONDRA were tested in the dry and in the rainy season of 1971, in Goiânia. Imported certified seed potatoes were used for the first planting and the harvested tubers, for the second. All varieties, except DELTA-A, yielded more in the rainy than in the dry season. This difference was found to be caused by the better water supply during the rainy season. There was no significant influence of the season on the production of DELTA-A. HANSA produced in both seasons significantly more in total weight than the other varieties and more marketable potatoes (over 33 mm in the rainy season. But the large

  2. Expression of modified 7SL RNA gene in transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Lukáš; Matoušek, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), 371-380 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : transgenic plants * Solanum tuberosum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  3. Expressão eficiente do gene reporter beta-glucuronidase nos tecidos vasculares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizando de um promotor específico (BRA3 de Agrobacterium rhizogenes Efficient expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in vascular tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing a specific promoter (BRA3 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotores tecido-específico controlam a transcrição de genes em diferentes tecidos vegetais bem como em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, levando à indução de distintos níveis de atividade transiente e/ou estável do gene. Tais promotores podem ser empregados para a expressão seletiva de genes de interesse. O promotor rol A de Agrobacterium rhizogenes, por exemplo, é floema-específico, sugerindo que possa ser empregado em estratégias de defesa de plantas que são infectadas por vírus com replicação restrita ao floema. A expressão do gene marcador da ß-glucuronidase (gus dirigido pelo promotor rol A (pBRA3 foi observada em plantas transgênicas de batata (cvs. Macaca e Baronesa. Entrenós e secções de folhas foram submetidos ao cocultivo com A. tumefaciens. A atividade do gene gus avaliada em brotações resistentes à canamicina não se restringiu ao floema (alto nível de expressão do gene, mas também se manifestou no xilema dos caules. As expressões transiente e estável são, no entanto, tecido-específicas, localizadas sobretudo no sistema vascular de entrenós e ausente em raízes e folhas. As plantas gus positivas foram micropropagadas, plantadas em casa de vegetação e avaliadas por PCR, utilizando-se 'primers' específicos para o gene npt II. Nenhuma alteração fenotípica foi observada em plantas transgênicas, em relação às não transformadas.Tissue-especific promoters allow the modulation of gene transcription in different tissue types as well as in different stages of plant development, leading different levels of transient and stable activity of the gene product. These promoters have been employed for selective gene expression. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol A gene promoter (BRA3 controls phloem-specific expression indicating that this promoter might have an important role in plant defense strategies against virus which replicated only in the phloem. The expression of

  4. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and mapping of tuber skin colour loci using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Two existing genetic models for anthocyanin pigmentation are compared: the genetic model as proposed by Lunden (1937, 1960, 1974) for tetraploid potato Solanum tuberosum group Tuberosum and the model by Dodds & Long (1955, 1956) for diploid cultivated Solanum species. By crossing well defined

  5. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  6. Effect of wounding and light exposure on sterol, glycoalkaloid, and calystegine levels in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. group Tuberosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Usman

    2013-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are neurotoxic substances that are present in some members of the Solanaceae family, including crop species like potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tomato. The SGA level in the potato tuber is a genetic trait, but certain environmental factors such as wounding and light exposure can increase SGA levels several-fold, which may render tubers unsuitable for human consumption. There is little information about SGA biosynthesis. The sterol cholesterol is commonly rega...

  7. Glycoalkaloid profile in potato haploids derived from solanum tuberosum-S. bulbocastanum somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carputo, Domenico; Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Aversano, Riccardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GA) that may affect either human health or biotic stress resistance. Therefore, GA composition must be a major criterion in the evaluation of breeding products when species genomes are merged and/or manipulated. This work reports the results of GA analysis performed on unique haploid (2n=2x=24) plants obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum bulbocastanum-S. tuberosum hybrids through in vitro anther culture. Glycoalkaloids were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. Haploids generally showed the occurrence of parental GA. However, in several cases loss of parental GA and gain of new GA lacking in the parents was observed. It may be hypothesized that new GA profiles of our haploids is the result of either genetic recombination or combinatorial biochemistry events. To highlight differences between haploids and parents, soluble proteins and antioxidant activities were also determined. Both were always higher in haploids compared to their parents. The nature of the newly formed GAs will be further investigated, because they may represent new metabolites that can be used against pest and diseases, or are useful for human health.

  8. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Solanum commersonii and its application to chloroplast genotype in somatic hybrids with Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Hong, Su-Young; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Yu, Yei-Soo; Park, Tae-Ho

    2016-10-01

    Chloroplast genome of Solanum commersonii and S olanum tuberosum were completely sequenced, and Indel markers were successfully applied to distinguish chlorotypes demonstrating the chloroplast genome was randomly distributed during protoplast fusion. Somatic hybridization has been widely employed for the introgression of resistance to several diseases from wild Solanum species to overcome sexual barriers in potato breeding. Solanum commersonii is a major resource used as a parent line in somatic hybridization to improve bacterial wilt resistance in interspecies transfer to cultivated potato (S. tuberosum). Here, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genomes of Lz3.2 (S. commersonii) and S. tuberosum (PT56), which were used to develop fusion products, then compared them with those of five members of the Solanaceae family, S. tuberosum, Capsicum annum, S. lycopersicum, S. bulbocastanum and S. nigrum and Coffea arabica as an out-group. We then developed Indel markers for application in chloroplast genotyping. The complete chloroplast genome of Lz3.2 is composed of 155,525 bp, which is larger than the PT56 genome with 155,296 bp. Gene content, order and orientation of the S. commersonii chloroplast genome were highly conserved with those of other Solanaceae species, and the phylogenetic tree revealed that S. commersonii is located within the same node of S. tuberosum. However, sequence alignment revealed nine Indels between S. commersonii and S. tuberosum in their chloroplast genomes, allowing two Indel markers to be developed. The markers could distinguish the two species and were successfully applied to chloroplast genotyping (chlorotype) in somatic hybrids and their progenies. The results obtained in this study confirmed the random distribution of the chloroplast genome during protoplast fusion and its maternal inheritance and can be applied to select proper plastid genotypes in potato breeding program.

  9. Kualitas Umbi Beberapa Klon Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Dataran Medium Untuk Keripik* [Tuber Quality of Some Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Clones of Medium Altitude Area for Chips Making

    OpenAIRE

    Asgar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Quality testing of several potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.) planted at mid level area for potato chips. Objective of the research is to test the quality of clones/cultivars resulted from selection. Quality test of 8 selective clones was conducted from November 2010 to February 2011 in post-harvest laboratory of Research Institute for Vegetables Lembang. Research was arranged in randomized complete block design with 4 replications. Treatments consisted of 1) klon 395195.7, 2) klon 397073.7...

  10. Potato virus Y induced changes in the gene expression of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe-Novak, M.; Gruden, K.; Baebler, P.; Krecic-Stress, H.; Kovac, M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Ravnikar, M.

    2005-01-01

    The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease in sensitive potato cultivars. Gene expression in the disease response of the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Igor was investigated at different times after infection, using

  11. GENE-REGULATION IN INTERTYPIC HETEROKARYONS OF SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM AND NICOTIANA-TABACUM TISSUE PROTOPLASTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKESTEREN, WJP; BIJMOLT, EW; TEMPELAAR, MJ

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter enzyme were evaluated in transgenic plants, protoplasts, and intertypic heterokaryons of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana tabacum. With GUS under control of the promoter of the cauliflower-mosaicvirus 35S RNA gene (CaMV), activities of the enzyme

  12. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, R.; Vries, R.S.M.; de Boer, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM

  13. Resistance to alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  14. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  15. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasare, S.A.; Ducreux, L.J.M.; Morris, W.L.; Campbell, R.; Sharma, S.K.; Roumeliotis, E.; Kohlen, W.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bramley, P.M.; Roberts, A.G.; Fraser, P.D.; Taylor, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it

  16. Hydroxycinnamic acids in cooked potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum group Phureja

    OpenAIRE

    Pi?eros?Ni?o, Clara; Narv?ez?Cuenca, Carlos?Eduardo; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C.; Mosquera, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hydroxycinnamic acids are phenolic compounds and are considered to have health promotion properties due to their antioxidant activity. Potato tubers of 113 genotypes of Solanum tuberosum group Phureja belonging to the Colombian Central Collection, landraces of potatoes, and commercial cultivars were evaluated for their hydroxycinnamic acids content. The composition of these compounds was analyzed using cooked tubers in two different agro?climatic conditions. The genotypes were analyz...

  17. Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Bajji; Mahmoud M’Hamdi; Frédéric Gastiny; Jorge A. Rojas-Beltran; Patrick du Jardin

    2007-01-01

    The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the first approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud/sprout » level. In particular, dormancy release was accompanied by a transient but remarkable increase in H2O2 c...

  18. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Salami Olusola Abiodun; Popoola Omololu Olumide

    2007-01-01

    Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato) was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three specie...

  19. Functional properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch and its chemical modification by acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, G.; Martínez, P.; Velezmoro, C.

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important source of starch which is underused in Peru, as are mainly imported potato starch, for has not been achieved yet, industrialization starch extraction is a success. This study aimed to obtain, characterize and modify chemically by acetylation, starch of a commercial potato variety, Unique. Extraction was performed with water and chemical modification was performed by acetylation using acetic anhydride at different levels (% v/w starch): 5, 10 y 15...

  20. Avaliação da infestação de insetos-praga associados à batata (Solanum tuberosum L. sob efeito de nutrientes nitrogenados e potássicos e teores acumulados de aminoácidos livres nas cultivares Achat e Monalisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of insect-pest infestation associated to potato (Solanum tuberosum L. under effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and the accumulated amount of free aminoacids in Achat and Monalisa cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurence of insect-pests on potato plants influenced by dosages of nitrogen and potassium accumulated in plant organs. A total of 169 plants of the Achat and Monalisa cultivars were evaluated to determine the presence-absence of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon Hüfnagel, 1767. The experiment was carried out and executed at the Universidade Federal Fluminense, and the delineation was complete randomized block design, with four replication and nine treatments, using three fertilization level (0; 75 and 150 Kg/ha with N-urea + KCl. The aminoacid levels were adjusted by the Leucine standard-curve (µg/l, using the Ninhydrin method, at 570 nm. The results showed that the tubercles of Monalisa accumulated high free aminoacid levels with 7,95% in the treatment N1K2 and 7,75% in the N2K1.These treatments, induced the infestation by D. speciosa larvae in 27,03%, when the aminoacid level was 2,01 ± 0,58% (X ± EP, with probability of 0,0196

  1. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  2. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  3. The Transcriptome of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans Revealed by DeepSAGE Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker-assissted s......Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker...

  4. Híbridos somáticos obtenidos por fusión de protoplastos entre Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum y la especie silvestre Solanum circaeifolium Bitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Espejo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de obtener híbridos somáticos interespecíficos, se fusionaron protoplastos de la especie tetraploide Solanum tuberosum y de la especie silvestre diploide Solanum circaeifolium utilizando polietilenglicol. Los productos de fusión fueron cultivados en el medio V-KM suplementado con albúmina de suero bovino. Las primeras divisiones celulares ocurrieron a los 3 a 4 días de cultivo. Después de la formación de colonias se observó una rápida proliferación de callos, a partir de los cuales se regeneraron 19 plantas. El análisis molecular usando RAPD, confirmó que los regenerantes presentaban segmentos de ADN de ambos parentales, sugiriendo su posible naturaleza de híbridos somáticos. Las observaciones del número de cromosomas indicaron que todos los híbridos fueron aneuploides. En condiciones de invernadero, los regenerantes derivados de la fusión de protoplastos, mostraron características morfológicas intermedias entre las líneas parentales. Este estudio muestra la producción de híbridos somáticos de papa con el método de fusión presentado.

  5. Assessment of genetic variability of haploids extracted from tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48) Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolano, M R; Carputo, D; Li, J; Monti, L; Barone, A; Frusciante, L

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic variability of haploids (2n = 2x = 24) extracted from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum through 4x x 2x crosses with Solanum phureja. Molecular and phenotypic analyses were performed to fingerprint the genotypes used and to evaluate their potential use in breeding programs. AFLP analysis revealed the presence of specific bands derived from the tetraploid seed parent S. phureja, as well as ex novo originated bands. On average, 210 bands were visualized per genotype, 149 (70%) of which were common to both parental genotypes. The percentage of S. tuberosum specific bands ranged from 25.1% to 18.6%, with an average of 22%. The fraction of genome coming from S. phureja ranged from 1.9% to 6.5%, with an average value of 4%. The percentage of ex novo bands varied from 1.9% to 9.0%. The presence of S. phureja DNA is very interesting because it indicated that S. phureja pollinator is involved in the mechanism of haploid formation. The characterization for resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and potato virus X (PVX) provided evidence that haploids may express traits that are lacking in the tetraploids they come from, which can be useful for both genetic studies and breeding purposes. It is noteworthy that genotypes combining resistance to both diseases and good pollen stainability were identified. Other possible breeding implications owing to the presence of S. phureja genome in the haploids analyzed are discussed.

  6. Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis of its value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Irish potato, food security, stakeholder analysis, sustainability indicators, Cool Farm Tool-Potato, yield gap, resource use efficiency, LINTUL-POTATO model, Zimbabwe. Oniward Svubure (2015). Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis

  7. Genetic transformation of Slovak cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): efficiency and the behavior of the transgene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravcikova, J.; Libantova, J.; Matusikova, I.; Libiakova, G.; Nap, J.P.H.; Mlynarova, L.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) of selected Slovak cultivars (cvs.) and one breeding line were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In vitro-grown plants of cvs. Albina, Eta, Malvina, Vila and line 116/86 were tested for their ability to regenerate transgenic plants.

  8. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber

  9. Evaluation de l'efficacité de la Bacillus thuringiensis contre les larves et imagos de Andrector ruficornis sur les plants de Solanum tuberosum au Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Ouzounov, IS.; Omokolo, ND.; Ambang, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis on Larvae and Adults of Andrector ruficornis on Solanum tuberosum plants in Cameroon. The efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide on the larvae and adults of A. ruficornis (a leaf eating pest) was investigated on Solanum tuberosum plants grown in the field. The results show that, one hour following the treatment of A. ruficornis with a 1.4 g/l suspension of Bacillus thuringiensis, larvae and adults are paralysed on the plan...

  10. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers-Tomczak, A.M.; Bakker, E.H.; Boer, de J.M.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.; Achenbach, U.; Golas, T.M.; Suryaningrat, S.; Smant, G.; Bakker, J.; Goverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a

  11. Análisis de crecimiento en siete variedades de papa (solanum tuberosum l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Borrego

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de crecimiento en siete variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.. Se evaluaron siete variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Norteña, Gigant, Mondial, Snowden, Alpha, Atlantic y Russett Burbank, bajo criterios de eficiencia y productividad del análisis de crecimiento (seis muestreos, cada 18 días en promedio, como la tasa de crecimiento del cultivo (TCC, tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR, tasa de crecimiento relativo foliar (TCRF, relación de área foliar (RAF, índice de area foliar (IAF y tasa de asimilación neta (TAN. Se encontraron diferencias (p≤0,01 para las variables en estudio (a excepción de la TAN, para las fuentes de variación de muestreos (seis a lo largo del ciclo siendo mayor la TCC en el cuarto muestreo con las variedades Norteña y Russett Burbank. La TCR fue mayor en Norteña, Russett Burbank y Alpha, habiendo un incremento considerable del quinto al sexto muestreo. En la RAF, los mejores genotipos fueron Atlantic y Snowden, mostrando Russett Burbank un pronunciado declive del quinto al sexto muestreo, por la senescencia del follaje. Por lo que respecta al IAF, los mejores genotipos fueron Norteña y Gigant, estableciéndose el máximo del cuarto al sexto muestreo, sin senescencia hasta ese muestreo. En la TAN, no se encontraron diferencias entre genotipos, mostrando superioridad la Norteña, siguiendo las otras cinco un patrón de comportamiento muy semejante

  12. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as qm=1.075 mg/g, 1.173 mg/g ΔG°=-3.397, and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP and Psidium guajava leaves (GL, respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green.

  13. Laju Tumbuh Tanaman dan Produksi Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Varietas Granola pada Pemberian Pupuk Organik Kascing dan Inokulasi Mikoriza Arbuskular

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhalisyah, Nurhalisyah

    2008-01-01

    The Crop Growth Rate and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) of Granola Variety Under Applying Earthworms Castings and Inoculants of Arbuscular MycorrhizaeABSTRACT. This study intends to identify the crop growth rate and yield of potato at the application earthworms castings and inoculants arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM). Using randomized block design with dual factorial. First factor was the application the earthworm castings with four levels of treatment, that are 0, 100, 200, and 300 gram c...

  14. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiatti, Vera A D; Dalmas, Fernando R; Astarita, Leandro V

    2009-01-01

    The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in defense mechanisms

  15. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA A D POIATTI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POX were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in

  16. Infra-red thermography for high throughput field phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prashar

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions.

  17. Chitosans of different molecular weight enhance potato (Solanum tuberosum L. yield in a field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro B. Falcón-Rodríguez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical features of chitosan affect its biological activity on plants. In this work, the influence of chitosan molecular mass in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. yields was investigated. By using chitosan polymers of high (CH-1 and low (CH-2 molecular weight and a hydrolysed chitosan derivative (CHH, two experiments were performed under field conditions to determine the effect of these polymers on yields of two potato varieties, ‘Call White’ and ‘Santana’. For this purpose, the foliar spray of low doses of the derivatives at three cultivation moments was performed and several yield variables were determined at crop harvest. All three chitosan compounds increased the performance variables determined respect to the control, depending on the variable, the dose employed and the mass of the derivative evaluated. In most variables determined, the two lowest doses (200 and 325 mg/ha provoked the highest increments above control. Chitosans also affected distribution of mass per tuber size, particularly; in ‘Santana’ variety the two lowest doses enhanced the commercial tuber sizes. Among the polymers, CH-1 caused the greatest increases in performance, while, compared to the polymer, CHH provoked higher yields. In conclusion, foliar application at low doses of high molecular weight and hydrolysed chitosan enhanced potato yield between 15-30%.

  18. Invasion of Solanum tuberosum L. by Aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Chandradev, Sharma K; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-06-10

    Aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. Recently, researchers have discovered that A. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of A. terreus in this important crop. Microscopic study revealed that invasion of leaf tissue is marked by rapid germination of A. terreus phialidic conidia (PC) by 4 h after inoculation. By 8 h after inoculation, primary germ tubes from PC differentiated into irregular protuberance, often displayed stomata atropism, and failed to penetrate via the epidermal cells. Colonization of leaf tissues was associated with high rate of production of accessory conidia (AC). These analyses showed the occurrence of a unique opposing pattern of AC, tissue-specific and produced on melanized colonizing hyphae during the infection of leaf tissue. A significant proteome change hallmarked by differential expression of class I patatin, lipoxygenase, catalase-peroxidase complex, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor were observed during tuber colonization. These proteins are often involved in signal transduction pathways and crosstalk in pathogenic responses. A. terreus abundantly produced AC and multipolar germinating PC to invade potato leaf tissue. Additionally, A. terreus differentially induced enzymes in potato tuber during colonization which facilitates rapid disease development.

  19. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  20. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  1. Robust regeneration protocol for the Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Solanum tuberosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bilal, M.; Hussain, J.; Shah, M. M.; Hassan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant genetic transformation requires robust regeneration system. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as cytokinins (CKs) play a pivotal role in organogenesis; however, CKs are the most expensive PGRs. In the current study, an efficient yet economical protocol for regeneration of potato plant was developed. Stem inter-nodal and leaf explants were cultured on different regeneration media supplemented with varying concentration of different CKs such as kinetin and zeatin. Murashige- Skoog media added with zeatin (1, 1.5 mg/L) was designated as RZ1, RZ1.5, respectively or kinetin (1.5, 2 mg/L) was designated as RK1.5 and RK2, respectively, however, concentrations of other hormones such as NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and GA3 (Gibberellic acid A3) were kept same. RZ1 and RZ1.5 gave significantly better Results as compared to RK-type media in all aspects studied such as callus initiation, days to first shoot emergence, number of shoots per explants. RZ1 medium was then selected as regeneration media for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato plants with cyanobacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene, which provided multiple putative transformants on selection media. The transformants were further confirmed through PCR. The current protocol is found to be cost effective and efficient for the regeneration of Solanum tuberosum and can be successfully implied for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (author)

  2. Resistance to Alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B N; Jansky, S H

    2012-02-01

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic loss in many potato-growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early blight resistant clone of the diploid wild species S. raphanifolium was crossed as a male to a haploid (2n=2x) of cultivated potato. Hybrids were backcrossed to both parents. Eight families were created and evaluated for early blight resistance in the field. Families created by backcrossing to the wild species parent exhibited significantly lower relative area under the disease progress curve means than those from backcrossing to the cultivated parent, leading to the conclusion that S. raphanifolium contributes genes for early blight resistance. The mechanism of resistance in S. raphanifolium is unique because A. solani could not be recovered from lesions. Clones were identified with high levels of resistance and adaptation to the photoperiod of a temperate production region.

  3. Metabolic Biosynthesis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) Antioxidants and Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Christie; Nassar, Atef M K; Kubow, Stan; Li, Xiu-Qing; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2016-10-25

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is common, affordable, readily stored, easily prepared for consumption, and nutritious. For these reasons, potato has become one of the top five crops consumed worldwide. Consequently, it is important to understand its contribution to both our daily and long-term health. Potato is one of the most important sources of antioxidants in the human diet. As such, it supports the antioxidant defense network in our bodies that reduces cellular and tissue toxicities that result from free radical-induced protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and DNA damage. In this way, potato antioxidants may reduce the risk for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even radiation damage. A better understanding of these components of potato is needed by the food industry, health professionals, and consumers. This review provides referenced summaries of all of the antioxidant groups present in potato tubers and updated schematics including genetic regulation for the major antioxidant biosynthesis pathways. This review complements current knowledge on the role of potato in human health. We hope it will provide impetus toward breeding efforts to develop cultivars with increased antioxidant capacity as 'functional foods' and encourage potato consumers and processors to work toward preservation of antioxidant capacity in cooked potato and potato products.

  4. Proteomic evaluation of wound-healing processes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Inês; Pinheiro, Carla; Paiva, Jorge A P; Planchon, Sébastien; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Graça, José A; Costa, Gonçalo; Coelho, Ana V; Ricardo, Cândido P Pinto

    2009-09-01

    Proteins from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber slices, related to the wound-healing process, were separated by 2-DE and identified by an MS analysis in MS and MS/MS mode. Slicing triggered differentiation processes that lead to changes in metabolism, activation of defence and cell-wall reinforcement. Proteins related to storage, cell growth and division, cell structure, signal transduction, energy production, disease/defence mechanisms and secondary metabolism were detected. Image analysis of the 2-DE gels revealed a time-dependent change in the complexity of the polypeptide patterns. By microscopic observation the polyalyphatic domain of suberin was clearly visible by D4, indicating that a closing layer (primary suberisation) was formed by then. A PCA of the six sampling dates revealed two time phases, D0-D2 and D4-D8, with a border position between D2 and D4. Moreover, a PCA of differentially expressed proteins indicated the existence of a succession of proteomic events leading to wound-periderm reconstruction. Some late-expressed proteins (D6-D8), including a suberisation-associated anionic peroxidase, have also been identified in the native periderm. Despite this, protein patterns of D8 slices and native periderm were still different, suggesting that the processes of wound-periderm formation are extended in time and not fully equivalent. The information presented in this study gives clues for further work on wound healing-periderm formation processes.

  5. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ivanesa G M; Silva, Edvane B; Amaral, Ademir J; Machado, Erilane C L; Silva, Josenilda M

    2016-06-07

    This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L.), including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2) and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  6. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. after irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANESA G.M. SOARES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L., including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2 and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  7. Infra-red Thermography for High Throughput Field Phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Ankush; Yildiz, Jane; McNicol, James W.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Jones, Hamlyn G.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions. PMID:23762433

  8. Purification and Partial Characterization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase and Its Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Invertase plays an important role in the hydrolysis of sucrose in higher plants, especially in the storage organs. In potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers, and in some other plant tissues, the enzyme seems to be controlled by interaction with an endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor. An acid invertase from potato tubers (variety russet) was purified 1560-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity by consecutive use of concanvalin A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography, Sephadex G-150 chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography. The enzyme contained 10.9% carbohydrate, had an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 by gel filtration, and was composed of two identical molecular weight subunits (Mr 30,000). The enzyme had a Km for sucrose of 16 millimolar at pH 4.70 and was most stable and had maximum activity around pH 5. The endogenous inhibitor was purified 610-fold to homogeneity by consecutive treatment at pH 1 to 1.5 at 37°C for 1 hour, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex G-50-120 chromatography, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The inhibitor appears to be a single polypeptide (Mr 17,000) without glyco groups. The purified inhibitor was stable over the pH range of 2 to 7 when incubated at 37°C for 1 hour. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667287

  9. Characteristics of the Inhibition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase by an Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor in Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of several parameters on inhibition of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertase by its endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor was determined using homogeneous preparations of both proteins. The inhibitor and invertase formed an inactive complex with an observed association rate constant at pH 4.70 and 37°C of 8.82 × 102 per molar per second and a dissociation rate constant of 3.3 × 10−3 per minute. The inhibitor appeared to bind to invertase in more than one step. Initial interaction (measured by loss of invertase activity) was rapid, relatively weak, readily reversible (Ki of 2 × 10−6 molar) and noncompetitive with substrate at pH 4.70. Initial interaction was probably followed by isomerization to a tighter (Ki of 6.23 × 10−8 molar) complex, which dissociated slowly with a half-time of 3.5 hour. Interaction between enzyme and inhibitor appeared to be of ionic character and essentially pH independent between pH 3.5 and 7.4. PMID:16667286

  10. Phenetic relationships of nine varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Topik; Barlian, Andri; Kusdianti, R.; Kirana, Rinda

    2017-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) is an important commodity in Indonesia as one of the main crop after rice. Recently some new varieties have been released, but their relationship have not been studied yet. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship among nine varieties of potatoes. Phenetic analysis was conducted using 27 morphological character states, which was derived from stems, leaves, and tubers. The character states observed were scored, and further analyzed based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) method. The results showed a high diversity of morphological character states, of which 20 states were significantly different across the varieties. Phenogram indicated that the nine varieties of potato were classified into three main groups. While the first group was consisted of varieties of Cipanas, Granola, Atlantic, and Repita, the second group was housed of Manohara and GM 05. The third group was composed of Margahayu, Mb 17, and Maglia. This pattern of relationships can be used as one of the basis in the process of crossbreeding to assemble the new varieties. The crossbreeding will be better if it is made between distantly related varieties.

  11. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-01-01

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with herbicides (cloransulam, dicamba, glyphosate, imazapyr, primsulfuron, sulfometuron, or tribenuron) at simulated drift levels [effective concentrations producing a 25% potato tuber fresh weight (EC25) of 0.00038, 0.0016, and 0.0021 x f.a.r. of 1,124, 52, and 9 g active ingredient hectare(-1) (g a.i. HA(-1)), respectively. Primisulfuron, dicamba, and cloransulam also significantly reduced tuber fresh weight, but with higher EC25 values of 0.011, 0.07, and 0.010 to 0.2 x f.a.r. of 40, 558, and 18 g a.i. HA(-1), respectively. Glyphosate had little effect on tuber fresh weight, with a significant reduction in only one experiment. Sulfometuron reduced tuber fresh weight at an EC25 value lower than the EC25 values for shoot dry weight or plant height. For other herbicides, the reduction in tuber fresh weight occurred within the range of EC25 values for other responses. Although additional experiments are required to develop further a phytotoxicity test, these results indicated that tuber production in young potato plants (harvested approximately 42 DAE) may be an effective assay for below-ground asexual reproductive responses to herbicides, especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors.

  12. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets to gradient saline stress

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    Hui-Juan eGao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. ‘Longshu No. 3’ plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl with two consequent observations (two and six weeks, respectively. The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1 the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2 cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3 mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4 leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5 leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD increased significantly, and (6 leaf malondialdehyde (MDA content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  13. Novel somatic hybrids (Solanum tuberosum L.+Solanum tarnii) and their fertile BC1 progenies express extreme resistance to potato virus Y and late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Antonova, Olga; Schubert, Jörg; Nachtigall, Marion; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Solanum tarnii, a wild diploid, tuber-bearing Mexican species belonging to the series Pinnatisecta is highly resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY) and Colorado potato beetle and shows a strong hypersensitive reaction to Phytophthora infestans. Therefore, it could be a potential source of resistance to pathogens for potato breeders. S. tarnii (2n=2x=24) is reproductively isolated from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum and hence difficult to include in potato breeding programmes. In this study, interspecific somatic hybrids were produced for the first time by protoplast electrofusion of the cells of potato cv. Delikat (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Solanum tarnii. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and by morphological analysis and flow cytometry. Selected somatic hybrids were successfully backcrossed with cv. Delikat. Parental lines, primary somatic hybrids and BC1 progeny were assessed for resistance to PVY by mechanical inoculation, grafting and exposure to viruliferous aphid vectors in the field, and resistance to late blight (P. infestans) by detached leaflet and whole tuber tests. The somatic hybrids showed no symptoms of viral infection and most of them displayed high levels of resistance to foliage blight. The BC1 progenies were highly resistant to PVY and a few were resistant to foliage blight. Selected hybrids and BC1 clones were evaluated in the field for tuber quality and tuber yield. Some BC1 clones produced yields of good quality tubers. The results confirm that both the resistance to PVY and to late blight of S. tarnii is expressed in somatic hybrids, and PVY resistance is transferred to BC1 progeny, whereas blight resistance is harder to transfer. Somatic hybridization again proved to be a valuable tool for producing pre-breeding material with increased genetic diversity.

  14. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-Fran?ois; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H. P.; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-Fran?ois; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. D?sir?e) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4??C over 270?d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dim...

  15. Análisis de la tendencia del consumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) fresca en México.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh Sánchez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Actualmente los productores mexicanos de papa fresca (Solanum tuberosum L.) sostienen que un aumento en el consumo per cápita sería la solución a los problemas relacionados con el mercado del tubérculo. Con la finalidad de conocer la tendencia del consumo de papa fresca en el largo plazo, se formuló y estimó un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto de dos ecuaciones de oferta, una de demanda, cuatro ecuaciones de precios y dos identidades; el modelo fue estimado por el método de mínimo...

  16. Assessment of the processing profile of six “creole potato” genotypes (Solanum tuberosum Phureja Group

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    Rivera Jesús Elías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Six diploid potato (“creole potato”, Solanum tuberosum PhurejaGroup genotypes were grown at the localities of Soacha, Duitama and Mosquera (Colombia and were assessed for their suitability for industrial processing using Individual Quick Freezing (IQF as pickled and dehydrated (flakes potatoes. The following variables were assessed: Percentage of defective tubers, dry weight, specific gravity, “eye” depth, skin type, shape, appearance, color, aroma, flavor and texture. Cultivar Criolla Colombia and clone 98-71.26 showed the best behavior for precooking processing. The best characteristics for IQF and pickling corresponded to tubers with yellow colored peel, round shape, shallow “eyes”, 16 to 20.5% dry weight, 2.5 to 3.5 cm diameter and less than 0.1% reducing sugars. For dehydrated flakes the tubers with 21-25% dry weight, large size and reducing sugars below 0.1% exhibited the best processing behavior. In addition, it was observed that the cultivar’s environmental conditions affect tuber quality and processing type to be performed.

  17. Profiles of the biosynthesis and metabolism of pyridine nucleotides in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Riko; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    As part of a research program on nucleotide metabolism in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.), profiles of pyridine (nicotinamide) metabolism were examined based on the in situ metabolic fate of radio-labelled precursors and the in vitro activities of enzymes. In potato tubers, [(3)H]quinolinic acid, which is an intermediate of de novo pyridine nucleotide synthesis, and [(14)C]nicotinamide, a catabolite of NAD, were utilised for pyridine nucleotide synthesis. The in situ tracer experiments and in vitro enzyme assays suggest the operation of multiple pyridine nucleotide cycles. In addition to the previously proposed cycle consisting of seven metabolites, we found a new cycle that includes newly discovered nicotinamide riboside deaminase which is also functional in potato tubers. This cycle bypasses nicotinamide and nicotinic acid; it is NAD --> nicotinamide mononucleotide --> nicotinamide riboside --> nicotinic acid riboside --> nicotinic acid mononucleotide --> nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide --> NAD. Degradation of the pyridine ring was extremely low in potato tubers. Nicotinic acid glucoside is formed from nicotinic acid in potato tubers. Comparative studies of [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid metabolism indicate that nicotinic acid is converted to nicotinic acid glucoside in all organs of potato plants. Trigonelline synthesis from [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid was also found. Conversion was greater in green parts of plants, such as leaves and stem, than in underground parts of potato plants. Nicotinic acid utilised for the biosynthesis of these conjugates seems to be derived not only from the pyridine nucleotide cycle, but also from the de novo synthesis of nicotinic acid mononucleotide.

  18. Application time of nitrogen fertilizer 15N by a potato crop (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Urquiaga, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed at the ''San Jorge'' experimental farm of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Bogota, Colombia. The study was performed to investigate the effect of timing of application of nitrogen fertilizer on the productivity of, and the efficiency of utilization of 15 N-labelled fertilizer by, a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.), cv. Tequendama. The crop was fertilized with 100, 200 and 100 Kg/ha -1 of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O respectively. The N fertilizers were either added as 15 N labelled urea (2.955 at.% 15 N excess) or as labelled ammonium sulphate (2.071 at.% 15 N excess). In all treatments with nitrogen, a total of 100 Kg N ha -1 was added, but the nitrogen was added either in two or three split doses (only one dose being labelled with 15 N) at the following times: at planting, 35 days after emergence (DAE) and/or 60 DAE. It was found that: a) Nitrogen fertilization increased tuber production from 24 to 43 t/ha -1 ; b) The tubers constituted approximately 80% of total plant dry matter and 70% of the total nitrogen and fertilizer N accumulated by the plant; c) The fertilizer use efficiency varied between 49 and 68%, and the highest efficiency occurred when the nitrogen was split in three doses; d) The urea and ammonium sulphate gave similar results in all parameters evaluated; e) When the total nitrogen difference method was applied to interpretation of the results the fertilizer use efficiency was overestimated by 15 to 30%

  19. Karakteristik Edible Film dari Pati Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L. dengan Penambahan Gliserol

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    Sjamsiah Sjamsiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible film is a thin layer that serve as the packaging or upholstery as well as food that can be eaten with a product. It is packaged and can be degraded by nature. Potato starch can be used as raw material in manufacturing edible film, in which the addition of glycerol is needed as a plasticizer that function to improve the elasticity of the edible film. The goal of the research is to know the influence of glycerol concentration variation against the characteristics of edible film of starch potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. the parameters examined in this study i.e the physical test that includes a test of strong thickness, tensile test and present enlargement, test the solubility and organoleptic. To help figure out the data obtained in the real effect or not, is done using the SPSS Analysis Variant 1 direction or one-way ANOVA. Characteristics of edible film from potato starch with addition of glycerol with a concentration of 20%, 30% and 40% (v/v to the value of the thickness of consecutive 0,058 mm, 0,062 mm and 0,071mm. The value of the tensile strengh i.e 0,75 N/mm2, 0,69 N/mm2 and 0,35 N/mm2. The value obtained by elongation percent 4,96%, 9,04% and 9,51% where as the value of solubility is obtained that is 19%, 21,4% and 34,6%. Application of edible films from potato starch as the packaging on candy jelly can be acceptedas alternative packaging material for food.

  20. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers

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    Mohammed Bajji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the first approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud/sprout » level. In particular, dormancy release was accompanied by a transient but remarkable increase in H2O2 content. In the second approach, the effect of a catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6 inhibitor (thiourea or of exogenous H2O2 application on tuber sprouting behaviour was assessed. Both treatments resulted in a reduction of the dormancy period and in rapid and synchronised sprouting of the treated tubers when compared to the control as well as in increased sprout number per tuber. In the third approach, the effect of CAT inhibition on potato tuber dormancy and sprouting was evaluated using the transgenic technology. Plants partially repressed in their CAT activity were produced and, once again, CAT inhibition resulted in acceleration of the sprouting kinetics and in increased sprout number of the transgenic tubers compared to those from the wild type. It thus appears that tuber dormancy and sprouting can be controlled in potato by the manipulation of H2O2 metabolism via the inhibition of CAT activity. The possible mechanisms whereby CAT inhibitors or H2O2 overcome dormancy and promote sprouting in the potato tuber are discussed in relation to what is known in other plant models (seeds and fruit tree buds.

  2. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Jaarsma

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+ shoot distribution index (SDI for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+ points to a role of stem Na(+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1 gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+ transport to the leaves.

  3. MEKANISME KETAHANAN KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM TERHADAP NEMATODA SISTA KUNING (GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS

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    Dewi Fitriyanti, Mulyadi, dan Christanti Sumardiyono .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance mechanism of potato (Solanum tuberosum to golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis.  The research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2006 in Kepuhharjo, Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The aims of the research were to find the resistance status of 20 potato varieties, role of  chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid  in the resistance mechanism and histopathological differences between resistant and susceptible potato varieties to  G. rostochiensis. The results showed that two varieties were resistant to G. rostochiensis, i.e, Hertha and Manohara.  Thirteen varieties were moderately resistant, i.e; No.30, No.44, No. 5, No.19, Batang Hitam, Agria,  Desiree, Berolina, Atlantik, No.095, Cipanas, FLS and Colombus, and five varieties were susceptible, i.e; Kikondo, Granola, Erika, LBR, and Fries. The presence of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Hertha (resistant variety and in Granola (susceptible variety were analized by TLC. In Hertha chlorogenic acid was detected at 4, 5, and 6 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas in Granola it was detected at 1 and 6 DAI. It was assumed that the presence of chlorogenic acid for 3 successively week in Hertha, caused it more resistant than Granola.  Cell lignification inhibited                       G. rostochiensis grow well inside the root tissue of Hertha, whereas in Granola only a few cell was lignified as indicated by less absorption of red colour (safranin in infected areas. Caffeic acid was not detected either in uninoculated or inoculated of both potato varieties.  It indicated that caffeic acid might not be naturally present in Hertha and Granola and nematode infection could not stimulate the production of this compound.

  4. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  5. Salicylic acid is involved in the Nb-mediated defense responses to Potato virus X in Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gerardo; Gerhardt, Nadia; Siciliano, Florencia; Vojnov, Adrián; Malcuit, Isabelle; Marano, María Rosa

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the role of salicylic acid (SA) in Nb-mediated hypersensitive resistance to Potato virus X (PVX) avirulent strain ROTH1 in Solanum tuberosum, we have constructed SA-deficient transgenic potato plant lines by overexpressing the bacterial enzyme salicylate hydroxylase (NahG), which degrades SA. Evaluation of these transgenic lines revealed hydrogen peroxide accumulation and spontaneous lesion formation in an age- and light-dependent manner. In concordance, NahG potato plants were more sensitive to treatment with methyl viologen, a reactive oxygen species-generating compound. In addition, when challenged with PVX ROTH1, NahG transgenic lines showed a decreased disease-resistance response to infection and were unable to induce systemic acquired resistance. However, the avirulent viral effector, the PVX 25-kDa protein, does induce expression of the pathogenesis-related gene PR-1a in NahG potato plants. Taken together, our data indicate that SA is involved in local and systemic defense responses mediated by the Nb gene in Solanum tuberosum. This is the first report to show that basal levels of SA correlate with hypersensitive resistance to PVX.

  6. Uptake of Plutonium-238 into Solanum tuberosum L. (potato plants) in presence of complexing agent EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawussi, Frank; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Mühr-Ebert, Elena L; Schneider, Stephanie; Bister, Stefan; Walther, Clemens

    2017-11-01

    Bioavailability and plant uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. Transfer into different plant parts depends on chemical and physical processes, which need to be known for realistic ingestion dose modelling when these plants are used for food. Within the scope of the present work, the plutonium uptake by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) was investigated in hydroponic solution of low concentration [Pu] = 10 -9  mol L -1 . Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides in the solution which was modelled by the speciation code PHREEQC. The speciation, the solubility and therefore the plant availability of radionuclides mainly depend on the pH value and the redox potential of the solution. During the contamination period, the redox potential did not change significantly. In contrast, the pH value showed characteristic changes depending on exudates excreted by the plants. Plant roots took up high amounts of plutonium (37%-50% of the added total amount). In addition to the uptake into the roots, the radionuclides can also adsorb to the exterior root surface. The solution-to-plant transfer factor showed values between 0.03 and 0.80 (Bq kg -1 / Bq L -1 ) for the potato tubers. By addition of the complexing agent EDTA (10 -4  mol L-1), the plutonium uptake from solution increased by 58% in tubers and by 155% in shoots/leaves. The results showed that excreted substances by plants affect bioavailability of radionuclides at low concentration, on the one hand. On the other hand, the uptake of plutonium by roots and the accumulation in different plant parts can lead to non-negligible ingestion doses, even at low concentration. We are aware of the limited transferability of data obtained in hydroponic solutions to plants growing in soil. However, the aim of this study is twofold: First we want to investigate the influence of Pu speciation on plant uptake in a rather well defined system which can be modelled using available thermodynamic data

  7. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  8. NAS CULTIVARES DE BATATA ASTERIX E ATLANTIC POR MARCADORES MORFOLÓGICOS E MICROSSATÉLITES

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Santiago

    2011-01-01

    A batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) ocupa o quarto lugar em nível mundial em produção, sendo superada apenas pelo trigo, arroz e milho. A cultura da batata é propagada de forma vegetativa e, devido à suscetibilidade a doenças, é imprescindível o emprego da cultura de ápices caulinares para efetuar limpeza clonal e, na sequência, da micropropagação das partes aéreas para a obtenção de mudas livres de patógenos para satisfazer a demanda dos agricultores. Entretanto, a cultura de tecidos pode induzi...

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  10. Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J

    1997-03-01

    Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species.

  11. Tissue Damage, Temperature, and pH Induced by Different Electrode Arrays on Potato Pieces (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraelys Morales González

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems of electrochemical therapy is the design and selection of suitable electrode array for cancer. The aim is to determine how two-dimensional spatial patterns of tissue damage, temperature, and pH induced in pieces of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., var. Mondial depend on electrode array with circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic shape. The results show the similarity between the shapes of spatial patterns of tissue damage and electric field intensity, which, like temperature and pH take the same shape of electrode array. The adequate selection of suitable electrodes array requires an integrated analysis that involves, in a unified way, relevant information about the electrochemical process, which is essential to perform more efficiently way the therapeutic planning and the personalized therapy for patients with a cancerous tumor.

  12. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  13. Histopathology of Andean Potato (Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group) varieties parasitized by the false root-knot nematode, Nacobbus aberrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordable, M Del C; Andrade, A J; Doucet, M E; Lax, P

    2018-02-01

    Landraces of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group are abundant and diverse. They are a valuable genetic resource possessing resistance to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. In the Andean region, populations of the false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans became specialized to infect native potatoes, being one of the major limiting factors affecting this crop. A better understanding of the host plant-parasite interactions is important in order to select tolerant or resistant plants to be included in management programs. Despite the close of association of N. aberrans with potato, and the great diversity of the S. tuberosum Andigenum group, few histopathological studies have been conducted. The aim of this work was to analyze histological alterations induced by different Argentine populations of the nematode in naturally infested roots of four Andean potato varieties (Collareja, Negra Imilla, Ojo de Señorita and Colorada). All the varieties showed hyperplastic tissue in the central zone of galls, where syncytia developed in close association with the nematode female. Syncytia were composed of modified hyperplastic tissue and parenchyma xylem cells. The results showed differences among varieties in their response to nematode populations, with Ojo de Señorita and Negra Imilla being the most susceptible ones. This study is the first describing histopathological alterations induced by N. aberrans in susceptible Andean potato landraces.

  14. Histopathology of Andean Potato (Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group varieties parasitized by the false root-knot nematode, Nacobbus aberrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. del C. Tordable

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Landraces of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group are abundant and diverse. They are a valuable genetic resource possessing resistance to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. In the Andean region, populations of the false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans became specialized to infect native potatoes, being one of the major limiting factors affecting this crop. A better understanding of the host plant-parasite interactions is important in order to select tolerant or resistant plants to be included in management programs. Despite the close of association of N. aberrans with potato, and the great diversity of the S. tuberosum Andigenum group, few histopathological studies have been conducted. The aim of this work was to analyze histological alterations induced by different Argentine populations of the nematode in naturally infested roots of four Andean potato varieties (Collareja, Negra Imilla, Ojo de Señorita and Colorada. All the varieties showed hyperplastic tissue in the central zone of galls, where syncytia developed in close association with the nematode female. Syncytia were composed of modified hyperplastic tissue and parenchyma xylem cells. The results showed differences among varieties in their response to nematode populations, with Ojo de Señorita and Negra Imilla being the most susceptible ones. This study is the first describing histopathological alterations induced by N. aberrans in susceptible Andean potato landraces.

  15. Root exudate of Solanum tuberosum is enriched in galactose-containing molecules and impacts the growth of Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroney, Abdoul Salam; Plasson, Carole; Pawlak, Barbara; Sidikou, Ramatou; Driouich, Azeddine; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2016-07-06

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important food crop and is grown worldwide. It is, however, significantly sensitive to a number of soil-borne pathogens that affect roots and tubers, causing considerable economic losses. So far, most research on potato has been dedicated to tubers and hence little attention has been paid to root structure and function. In the present study we characterized root border cells using histochemical staining, immunofluorescence labelling of cell wall polysaccharides epitopes and observation using laser confocal microscopy. The monosaccharide composition of the secreted exudates was determined by gas chromatography of trimethylsilyl methylglycoside derivatives. The effects of root exudates and secreted arabinogalactan proteins on bacterial growth were investigated using in vitro bioassays. Root exudate from S. tuberosum was highly enriched in galactose-containing molecules including arabinogalactan proteins as major components. Treatment of the root with an elicitor derived from Pectobacterium atrosepticum, a soil-borne pathogen of potato, altered the composition of the exudates and arabinogalactan proteins. We found that the growth of the bacterium in vitro was differentially affected by exudates from elicited and non-elicited roots (i.e. inhibition versus stimulation). Taken together, these findings indicate that galactose-containing polymers of potato root exudates play a central role in root-microbe interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  17. Efecto antioxidante y citoprotector del Solanum tuberosum (papa en la mucosa gástrica de animales de experimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sandoval-Vegas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Existen alternativas terapéuticas con productos naturales oriundos usados de manera empírica en la población. Tal es el caso del zumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum usado para problemas de mucosa gástrica. Objetivos: Evaluar la capacidad antioxidante y el efecto citoprotector a la mucosa gástrica del zumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Materiales biológicos: Solanum tuberosum, variedad Tomasa y ratas albinas machos. Métodos: Se administró vía oral post ayuno las fracciones de sobrenadante y sedimento del zumo de Solanum tuberosum. Una hora después se administró alcohol como injuria de mucosa gástrica. Por laparotomía abdominal se obtuvo el tejido gástrico. Se midió en la mucosa gástrica el estrés oxidativo por lipoperoxidación, la formación de moco por alcian blue y la protección midiendo la extensión del área lacerada en imagen digitalizada. Principales medidas de resultados: Capacidad antioxidante y efecto citoprotector a la mucosa gástrica. Resultados: El sobrenadante de la dosis 5 mL/ kg produjo mayor protección al estrés oxidativo; el precipitado en dosis 5 mL/kg presentó mayor producción de moco, sin superar al control. El precipitado 20 mL/kg produjo mayor citoprotección (73,8%. Conclusión: La fracción sobrenadante del zumo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum posee actividad de defensa antioxidante y la fracción del sedimento, mayor actividad citoprotectora de la mucosa gástrica.

  18. Bactericidal and Cytotoxic Activities of Polyphenol Extracts from Solanum tuberosum spp. tuberosum and spp. andigena Cultivars on Escherichia coli and Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ximena Silveyra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. are a good source of dietary antioxidant polyphenols. This study investigated the potential antioxidant, bactericidal, and cytotoxic activities in vitro of the phenolic compounds present in tubers of one S. tuberosum spp. tuberosum (Summerside, and three S. tuberosum spp. andigena (landraces Moradita, Waicha, and Santa María cultivars. Both the content of phenolic acids, chlorogenic acids (CGAs being the most abundant, and the antioxidant activity were higher in extracts from skin than from flesh. Extracts from Moradita flesh and Summerside skin showed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 but failed to inhibit pathogenic E. coli O157. Both extracts lack pigmentation but do contain 5-CGA, caffeic, and ferulic acids. Positive control with gentamicin and commercial 5-CGA resulted in a complete inhibition of bacterial growth. In addition, all potato extracts and commercial 5-CGA diminished dose-dependently human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell viability. Skin extracts were more potent than flesh extracts. Among flesh extracts, Moradita was the most potent. Together, our results suggest that Moradita flesh could provide a desirable source of important health-promoting substances. Findings indicate that the biological activity of potato extracts is a combination of various bioactive compounds and contribute to the revalorization of potato as a functional food.

  19. The Solanum tuberosum KST1 partial promoter as a tool for guard cell expression in multiple plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gilor; Lugassi, Nitsan; Belausov, Eduard; Wolf, Dalia; Khamaisi, Belal; Brandsma, Danja; Kottapalli, Jayaram; Fidel, Lena; Ben-Zvi, Batsheva; Egbaria, Aiman; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Zheng, Chuanlin; Or, Etti; Distelfeld, Assaf; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2017-05-17

    To date, guard cell promoters have been examined in only a few species, primarily annual dicots. A partial segment of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) KST1 promoter (KST1 partial promoter, KST1ppro) has previously been shown to confer guard cell expression in potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), citrus [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis×Poncirus trifoliata)], and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we describe an extensive analysis of the expression pattern of KST1ppro in eight (previously reported, as well as new) species from five different angiosperm families, including the Solanaceae and the Cucurbitaceae, Arabidopsis, the monocot barley (Hordeum vulgare), and two perennial species: grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and citrus. Using confocal imaging and three-dimensional movies, we demonstrate that KST1ppro drives guard cell expression in all of these species, making it the first dicot-originated guard cell promoter shown to be active in a monocot and the first promoter reported to confer guard cell expression in barley and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The results presented here indicate that KST1ppro can be used to drive constitutive guard cell expression in monocots and dicots and in both annual and perennial plants. In addition, we show that the KST1ppro is active in guard cells shortly after the symmetric division of the guard mother cell and generates stable expression in mature guard cells. This allows us to follow the spatial and temporal distribution of stomata in cotyledons and true leaves. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Measurement and modelling of ABA signalling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during partial root-zone drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Song, Ri; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    model predicting [X-ABA] in the PRD plants ([X-ABA](PRD)) was developed. Assuming that a constant [X-ABA] of 115 nM (similar to that found in the FI plants) originated from the wet roots; the simulation results indicated that irrigation should be shifted between the two sides when Psi(soil-dry) had......The objective of this study was to develop a simple mechanistic model to predict the magnitude of ABA signalling ([X-ABA]) of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) exposed to partial root-zone drying (PRD). Potatoes were grown in pots in a glasshouse with the roots split equally between two soil columns....... At tuber initiation stage, plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments: (1) both soil columns were fully irrigated (FI) daily to a volumetric soil water content (theta) of 18.0%; (2) PRD, in which one soil column was irrigated daily to 18.0% while the other was allowed to dry, and the irrigation...

  1. The expression of a recombinant glycolate dehydrogenase polyprotein in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plastids strongly enhances photosynthesis and tuber yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölke, Greta; Houdelet, Marcel; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    We have increased the productivity and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by developing a novel method to enhance photosynthetic carbon fixation based on expression of a polyprotein (DEFp) comprising all three subunits (D, E and F) of Escherichia coli glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH). The engineered polyprotein retained the functionality of the native GlcDH complex when expressed in E. coli and was able to complement mutants deficient for the D, E and F subunits. Transgenic plants accumulated DEFp in the plastids, and the recombinant protein was active in planta, reducing photorespiration and improving CO2 uptake with a significant impact on carbon metabolism. Transgenic lines with the highest DEFp levels and GlcDH activity produced significantly higher levels of glucose (5.8-fold), fructose (3.8-fold), sucrose (1.6-fold) and transitory starch (threefold), resulting in a substantial increase in shoot and leaf biomass. The higher carbohydrate levels produced in potato leaves were utilized by the sink capacity of the tubers, increasing the tuber yield by 2.3-fold. This novel approach therefore has the potential to increase the biomass and yield of diverse crops. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparative proteomics of tuber induction, development and maturation reveal the complexity of tuberization process in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Gupta, Sonika; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2008-09-01

    Tuberization in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is a developmental process that serves a double function, as a storage organ and as a vegetative propagation system. It is a multistep, complex process and the underlying mechanisms governing these overlapping steps are not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis of tuberization in potato, a comparative proteomic approach has been applied to monitor differentially expressed proteins at different development stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differentially displayed proteomes revealed 219 protein spots that change their intensities more than 2.5-fold. The LC-ES-MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 97 differentially regulated proteins that include predicted and novel tuber-specific proteins. Nonhierarchical clustering revealed coexpression patterns of functionally similar proteins. The expression of reactive oxygen species catabolizing enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase, were induced by more than 2-fold indicating their possible role during the developmental transition from stolons into tubers. We demonstrate that nearly 100 proteins, some presumably associated with tuber cell differentiation, regulate diverse functions like protein biogenesis and storage, bioenergy and metabolism, and cell defense and rescue impinge on the complexity of tuber development in potato.

  3. Inorganic phosphorus along with biofertilizers improves profitability and sustainability in soybean (Glycine max–potato (Solanum tuberosum cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Munda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to assess role of phosphorus (P fertilization on economics, energy efficiency, P use indices and soil P balance in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril]–potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cropping system during 2008–09 and 2009–10. Treatments in soybean as main plots consisted of two sources and two levels of phosphorus with or without biofertilizers [phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, PSB and arbuscular mycorrhizae, AM]. Three levels of P were applied to potato as subplots. System productivity was calculated in terms of soybean equivalent yield and found to be better with biofertilizers treated plots. When applied in combination with biofertilizers, 50% recommended dose of P (RDP as diammonium phosphate (DAP recorded B:C ratio at par with 100% RDP. Direct application of 100% RDP to potato resulted in significantly higher returns, enhancing the net returns. Application of biofertilizers alone increased the energy use efficiency over no biofertilizer application. Irrespective of source (DAP or rock phosphate treatments with biofertilizers had improved P use indices and apparent soil P balance even at 50% RDP. This indicates the role of biofertilizers in P solubilization and making it available to plant. Biofertilizers application can help cutting down the fertilizer P application in soybean–potato cropping system without any considerable reduction in yield and economic returns. Keywords: AM, B:C ratio, P use indices, PSB, Rock phosphate, Agronomic use efficiency

  4. Preferential colonization of Solanum tuberosum L. roots by the fungus Glomus intraradices in arable soil of a potato farming area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; van Tuinen, Diederik; Copetta, Andrea; Chatagnier, Odile; Berta, Graziella; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Lingua, Guido

    2008-09-01

    The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to affect both the diversity and productivity of agricultural communities. In this study, we characterized the AM fungal communities of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) roots and of the bulk soil in two nearby areas of northern Italy, in order to verify if land use practices had selected any particular AM fungus with specificity to potato plants. The AM fungal large-subunit (LSU) rRNA genes were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred eighty-three LSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, and eight monophyletic ribotypes, belonging to Glomus groups A and B, were identified. AM fungal communities differed between bulk soil and potato roots, as one AM fungal ribotype, corresponding to Glomus intraradices, was much more frequent in potato roots than in soils (accounting for more than 90% of sequences from potato samples and less than 10% of sequences from soil samples). A semiquantitative heminested PCR with specific primers was used to confirm and quantify the AM fungal abundance observed by cloning. Overall results concerning the biodiversity of AM fungal communities in roots and in bulk soils from the two studied areas suggested that potato roots were preferentially colonized by one AM fungal species, G. intraradices.

  5. UV-C treatment on physiological response of potato (Solanum tuberosumL.) during low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Xie, Yajing; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Shuzhen; Xie, Xinfang; Guan, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    The storage of potato tuber ( Solanum tuberosum L.) at low temperatures minimizes sprouting and disease but can cause cold-induced sweetening (CIS), which leads to the production of the cancerogenic substance acrylamide during the frying processing. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of UV-C treatment on CIS in cold stored potato tuber. 'Atlantic' potatoes were treated with UV-C for an hour and then stored at 4 °C up to 28 days. The UV-C treatment significantly prevented the increase of malondialdehyde content (an indicator of the prevention of oxidative injury) in potato cells during storage. The accumulation of reducing sugars, particularly fructose and glucose, was significantly reduced by UV-C treatment possibly due to the regulation of the gene cascade, sucrose phosphate synthase , invertase inhibitor 1/3 , and invertase 1 in potato tuber, which were observed to be differently expressed between treated and untreated potatoes during low temperature storage. In summary, UV-C treatment prevented the existence of oxidative injury in potato cells, thus, lowered the amount of reducing sugar accumulation during low temperature storage of potato tubers.

  6. Comparison between Proteome and Transcriptome Response in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Leaves Following Potato Virus Y (PVY) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stare, Tjaša; Stare, Katja; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Gruden, Kristina

    2017-07-06

    Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical control of these pathogens is so far not applied in the field except to control the insect vectors of the viruses. Understanding of molecular responses of plant immunity is therefore economically important, guiding the enforcement of crop resistance. To disentangle complex regulatory mechanisms of the plant immune responses, understanding system as a whole is a must. However, integrating data from different molecular analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, smallRNA regulation etc.) is not straightforward. We evaluated the response of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) following the infection with potato virus Y (PVY). The response has been analyzed on two molecular levels, with microarray transcriptome analysis and mass spectroscopy-based proteomics. Within this report, we performed detailed analysis of the results on both levels and compared two different approaches for analysis of proteomic data (spectral count versus MaxQuant). To link the data on different molecular levels, each protein was mapped to the corresponding potato transcript according to StNIB paralogue grouping. Only 33% of the proteins mapped to microarray probes in a one-to-one relation and additionally many showed discordance in detected levels of proteins with corresponding transcripts. We discussed functional importance of true biological differences between both levels and showed that the reason for the discordance between transcript and protein abundance lies partly in complexity and structure of biological regulation of proteome and transcriptome and partly in technical issues contributing to it.

  7. StPOTHR1, a NDR1/HIN1-like gene in Solanum tuberosum, enhances resistance against Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiansi; Tian, Zhendong; Jiang, Rui; Zheng, Xueao; Xie, Conghua; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-19

    A family of NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes that shows homology to the nonrace-specific disease resistance (NDR1) and the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) harpin-induced (HIN1) genes is reported to be involved in defense. However, little information about NHL genes is available for the potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here, we report that the expression of StPOTHR1, a member of the NHL gene family, is associated with resistance in potato against Phytophthora infestans, and is specifically induced in inoculation sites. Overexpression of StPOTHR1 enhances resistance against P. infestans via restricting rapid pathogen proliferation. Further, suppression of StPOTHR1 does not compromise R-mediated cell death. Subcellular localization and posttranscription modifications (PTMs) analysis reveals that StPOTHR1 is localized in plasma membrane (PM) and undergoes multiple PTMs. Moreover, StPOTHR1 interacts with NbMKK5L, a component of the MAP kinase signaling cascade. Taken together, our results suggest that the PM-localized StPOTHR1 contributes to potato immunity against P. infestans and may be associated with the MAP kinase signaling cascade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing the effect of decreasing cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase on Solanum tuberosum hairy root cells using a kinetic-metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valancin, Alexandre; Srinivasan, Balasubrahmanyan; Rivoal, Jean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2013-03-01

    A kinetic-metabolic model of Solanum tuberosum hairy roots is presented in the interest of understanding the effect on the plant cell metabolism of a 90% decrease in cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase (cTPI, EC 5.3.1.1) expression by antisense RNA. The model considers major metabolic pathways including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle, as well as anabolic reactions leading to lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, and structural hexoses synthesis. Measurements were taken from shake flask cultures for six extracellular nutrients (sucrose, fructose, glucose, ammonia, nitrate, and inorganic phosphate) and 15 intracellular compounds including sugar phosphates (G6P, F6P, R5P, E4P) and organic acids (PYR, aKG, SUCC, FUM, MAL) and the six nutrients. From model simulations and experimental data it can be noted that plant cell metabolism redistributes metabolic fluxes to compensate for the cTPI decrease, leading to modifications in metabolites levels. Antisense roots showed increased exchanges between the pentose phosphate pathway and the glycolysis, an increased oxygen uptake and growth rate. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase is involved in the salvage of extracellular ATP in Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) has recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in plant development and growth. To investigate the fate of eATP within the apoplast, we used intact potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber slices as an experimental system enabling access to the apoplast without interference of cytosolic contamination. (i) Incubation of intact tuber slices with ATP led to the formation of ADP, AMP, adenosine, adenine and ribose, indicating operation of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase. (ii) Measurement of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase activities in fractionated tuber tissue confirmed the apoplastic localization for apyrase and phosphatase in potato and led to the identification of a novel cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase activity. (iii) When intact tuber slices were incubated with saturating concentrations of adenosine, the conversion of adenosine into adenine was much higher than adenosine import into the cell, suggesting a potential bypass of adenosine import. Consistent with this, import of radiolabeled adenine into tuber slices was inhibited when ATP, ADP or AMP were added to the slices. (iv) In wild-type plants, apyrase and adenosine nucleosidase activities were found to be co-regulated, indicating functional linkage of these enzymes in a shared pathway. (v) Moreover, adenosine nucleosidase activity was reduced in transgenic lines with strongly reduced apoplastic apyrase activity. When taken together, these results suggest that a complete ATP salvage pathway is present in the apoplast of plant cells.

  10. Comparative effects of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on nitrogen uptake in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huiqun; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2009-01-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) as compared with deficit irrigation (DI) and full irrigation (FI) on nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated. Potato plants were grown in split-root pots and were exposed to FI, PRD, and DI treatments...... at tuber bulking stage. Just before onset of the irrigation treatment, each plant received 0.6 g N (in the form of urea) with 5% of which was 15N-labeled. After 4 weeks of irrigation treatments (i.e., one drying/wetting cycles completed in the PRD treatment), the plants were harvested and plant dry mass...... and N content were determined. The results showed that although the plant dry mass was not affected by the irrigation treatments, due to a reduced water use by the plant, both the PRD and DI treatments significantly increased crop water use efficiency. Compared with the FI and DI plants, PRD plants had...

  11. Pengaruh Kerapatan Tanaman terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Benih Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L. Generasi Satu (G1 Varietas Granola

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    Deden Fatchullah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in Experimental Research Station of Indonesian Institute for Vegetable Research (IIVR at Cikole, Lembang city, West Bandung in September to December 2015. The research area was located in 1250 m above sea level with the type of soil is Andosol, and type of climate is B (Wet. The objective of this experiment was to find out the effect of plant spacing on the growth and the quality of potato seed (Solanum tuberosum L. var granola of the first generation (G1. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design (RBD with a single factor. The treatment was 4 types of plant spacing: A1 (5 cm x 5 cm, A2 (6 cm x 6 cm, A3 (7 cm x 7 cm and A4 (8 cm x 8 cm. The result showed that the plant spacing was significantly affecting on plant height and plant canopy at 21 days after planting (DAP, and percentage of germination at 63 DAP. It was determined that A1 plant spacing (5cm x 5cm provide the highest plant (15.11 cm and highest plant canopy (10.40 cm at 21 DAP, and A4 plant spacing (8cm x 8cm present the highest of a percentage of germination (27,34%.

  12. Natural co-infection of Solanum tuberosum crops by the Potato yellow vein virus and potyvirus in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Villamil-Garzón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, a Crinivirus with an RNA tripartite genome, is the causal agent of the potato yellow vein disease, reported in Colombian since 1950, with yield reductions of up to 50%. Co-infection of two or more viruses is common in nature and can be associated with differences in virus accumulation and symptom expression. No evidence of mixed infection between PYVV and other viruses has been reported. In this study, eight plants showing yellowing PYVV symptoms: four Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja (P and four Group Andigena (A, were collected in Cundinamarca, Colombia to detect mixed infection in the isolates using next generation sequencing (NGS. The Potato virus Y (PVY complete genome (similar to N strain and the Potato virus V (PVV partial genomes were detected using NGS and re-confirmed by RT-PCR. Preliminary field screening in a large sample showed that PYVV and PVY co-infect potato plants with a prevalence of 21% within the P group and 23% within the A group. This is the first report of co-infection of PYVV and potyvirus in Colombia and with the use of NGS. Considering that potyviruses enhance symptom severity and/or yield reductions in mixed infections, our results may be relevant for disease diagnosis, breeding programs and tuber certification.

  13. ACUMULACIÓN Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE MATERIA SECA DE CUATRO VARIEDADES DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L. EN ZIPAQUIRÁ, CUNDINAMARCA (COLOMBIA DRY MATTER ALLOCATION AND PARTITIONING OF FOUR POTATO VARIETIES (Solanum tuberosum L. IN ZIPAQUIRÁ, CUNDINAMARCA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ñústez López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación evaluó la acumulación y distribución de materia seca en los diferentes órganos de la planta de cuatro variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en el municipio de Zipaquirá (Cundinamarca uno de los mayores productores de papa en Colombia. Se evaluaron las variedades Betina, Pastusa Suprema y Esmeralda (desarrolladas por el programa de mejoramiento genético de papa de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y la variedad Diacol Capiro, que es una de las más sembradas en el país. Se determinó la materia seca de cada uno de los órganos de la planta por medio de muestreos destructivos de tres sitios de siembra al azar por variedad, realizados cada dos semanas durante el ciclo de cultivo. Se observaron diferencias en cuanto al comportamiento de acumulación de materia seca en hojas y tallos, siendo mayor para Pastusa Suprema a las 16 semanas después de emergencia (sde. Betina y Esmeralda acumularon la mayor parte de la materia seca de los tubérculos en la etapa final del ciclo de cultivo, entre las 16 y 18 sde, mientras que Diacol Capiro y Pastusa Suprema acumularon materia seca en estos órganos en forma progresiva a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo. La variedad Pastusa Suprema presentó el menor Índice de Cosecha con 72% siendo inferior a las variedades Diacol Capiro, Esmeralda y Betina. Debido a esta alta partición de materia seca hacia los tubérculos en la etapa final del ciclo, no se recomienda la práctica de "agobio" o "corte de rama", ya que puede disminuir el rendimiento en estas variedades.This investigation evaluated the dry matter production and partitioning of four potato varieties (Solanum tuberosum L. in the Zipaquirá town (Cundinamarca Department one of the biggest production zones of potato in Colombia. Betina, Pastusa Suprema and Esmeralda (varieties developed by the program of genetic improvement of potato of the Faculty of Agronomy of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia and

  14. Distribución Diferencial de Bacterias con Potencial Biocontrolador de Spongospora subterranea en Plantas de Papa (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro Differential Distrubution of Candidadate Biocontrol Bacteria against Spongospora subterranea in Potato Plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soler Arango

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La búsqueda de microorganismos promisorios para biocontrol de patógenos de plantas en el suelo con frecuencia se ha orientado a la detección de productores de hormonas y enzimas líticas, condiciones asociadas a su capacidad para promover crecimiento vegetal. Sin embargo, el suelo es altamente variable en escalas pequeñas y se conoce poco sobre la distribución espacial de microorganismos que expresan esas funciones. Este estudio determinó la capacidad de producción de indoles totales y quitinasas en bacterias cultivables aisladas del interior de la raíz, la rizósfera, la superficie de los tubérculos o suelo de un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol Capiro. Las muestras se obtuvieron en un campo comercial en el municipio de la Unión en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, en plantas que presentaban síntomas de infección por Spongospora subterranea. Se encontró una producción diferencial de indoles o quitinasas según el sitio de aislamiento de las bacterias. No se encontró una alta producción de ambas actividades en un sólo aislamiento, la mayor producción de indoles totales y quitinasas se encontró en bacterias aisladas a partir de raíz y rizósfera, comparada con las aisladas de tubérculos y suelo. Estos resultados sugieren que en el suelo no es aleatoria la distribución de funciones deseables en controladores biológicos. Con estos resultados es posible orientar su búsqueda para optimizar el uso de recursos y el desarrollo de nuevos bioproductos.Abstract. Searching for promising microorganisms to biocontrol soil-borne plant pathogens has been often focused on producers of hormone and lytic enzymes, since these traits are linked to plant growth promotion. However, the environment from inner roots to bulk soil is quite variable, and little is known about the spatial distribution of microorganisms expressing these desirable traits. Using potato plants (Solanum tuberosum var. Diacol Capiro from a

  15. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum × S. sparsipilum located at chromosome I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    New potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties are required to contain low levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids and a potential approach to obtain this is through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Before applying MAS it is necessary to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for glycoalkaloid content in potato......) after field trials. In addition, tubers were assayed for TGA content after exposure to light. A detailed analysis of segregation patterns indicated that a major QTL is responsible for the TGA content in tubers of this potato population. One highly significant QTL was mapped to chromosome I of the HAG...

  16. Evaluación de diferentes combinaciones fitohormonales en la regeneración de solanum tuberosum (solanaceae) var. pastusa suprema a partir de explantes internodales

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Barreto, Jenny Paola; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro; Blanco, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    La regeneración de plantas mediante el cultivo de tejidos es un importante componente de la biotecnología que es requerido para procesos tales como la obtención de plantas transgénicas. Se estableció un sistema eficiente de regeneración para la especie Solanum tuberosum L. var. Pastusa Suprema, susceptible de ser transformada genéticamente. Se evaluó el efecto de las fitohormonas zeatina ribósido (ZR), ácido naftalénacetico (ANA) y ácido gibérelico (AG3), utilizadas en combinaciones específic...

  17. Detección de ca liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (solanum tuberosum l.) en el valle de toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Ana Tarin; Sánchez Pale, Jesús Ricardo; Laguna Cerda, Antonio; Ramírez Dávila, José Francisco; Balbuena Melgarejo, Artemio; Alvarado Gómez, Omar Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC) o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP) o enfermed...

  18. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) en el Valle de Toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez; Jesús Ricardo Sánchez Pale; Antonio Laguna Cerda; José Francisco Ramírez Dávila; Artemio Balbuena Melgarejo; Omar Guadalupe Alvarado Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC) o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP) o enfermed...

  19. Elaboración de galletas a base de harina de papa de la variedad Parda Pastusa (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Cerón Cardenas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La papa (Solanum tuberosum se considera el cuarto cultivo más importante en el mundo y su consumo ha pasado de producto fresco a producto laborado en forma industrial. En el estudio se determinó el nivel máximo de sustitución de la harina de trigo por harina de papa de la variedad Parda Pastusa en la elaboración de galletas fermentadas dulces. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar, donde el factor de estudio fueron el nivel de sustitución, 0%, 30%, 40% y 50%, y las variables de respuesta: sensoriales (color, sabor, textura y aceptabilidad y químicas proximales (materia seca, proteína, ceniza y grasa. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 en color, textura y aceptación; mientras para la variable sabor fue diferente en los niveles 0% y 30% de sustitución. Para los niveles de sustitución se encontraron, respectivamente, reducciones en contenido de proteína en 7.42%, 17.40% y 23.62%, y de grasa en 25.65%, 42.59% y 55.87%; mientras que la materia seca aumentó 3.83%, 4.95% y 5.62% y el contenido de ceniza en 13.14%, 17.71% y 23.43%, respectivamente. Con la sustitución de 30% se produjeron galletas de buena aceptación mientras que niveles mayores no son recomendables.

  20. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  2. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26172952

  3. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (ppotato plots (T5), while mean cumulative runoff reduced by 8.5, 17.1 and 28.3 mm from T2, T3 and T4 respectively when compared with the sole potato plots (T5) indicating that T4 plots provided the most effective cover in reducing soil loss and runoff. Regression analyses revealed that both runoff and soil loss related significantly with surface roughness and percent cover (R2=0.83 and 0.73 respectively, ppotato cropping systems so as to minimize soil and nutrient losses due to erosion. Acknowledgement This study was part of the CIP-Sub Saharan Africa managed project-"Improved Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Intensification in Potato Based Systems in Ethiopia and Kenya"-funded by the BMZ/GIZ International Agricultural Research for Development Fund.

  4. The transcriptome of compatible and incompatible interactions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans revealed by DeepSAGE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike; Basekow, Rico; Ballvora, Agim; Imhoff, Maren; Kersten, Birgit; Nielsen, Kåre-Lehman; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker-assissted selection or by transgenic approaches. Specific P. infestans races having the Avr1 effector gene trigger a hypersensitive resistance response in potato plants carrying the R1 resistance gene (incompatible interaction) and cause disease in plants lacking R1 (compatible interaction). The transcriptomes of the compatible and incompatible interaction were captured by DeepSAGE analysis of 44 biological samples comprising five genotypes, differing only by the presence or absence of the R1 transgene, three infection time points and three biological replicates. 30,859 unique 21 base pair sequence tags were obtained, one third of which did not match any known potato transcript sequence. Two third of the tags were expressed at low frequency (potato transcribed genes. Tag frequencies were compared between compatible and incompatible interactions over the infection time course and between compatible and incompatible genotypes. Transcriptional changes were more numerous in compatible than in incompatible interactions. In contrast to incompatible interactions, transcriptional changes in the compatible interaction were observed predominantly for multigene families encoding defense response genes and genes functional in photosynthesis and CO(2) fixation. Numerous transcriptional differences were also observed between near isogenic genotypes prior to infection with P. infestans. Our DeepSAGE transcriptome analysis uncovered novel candidate genes for plant host pathogen interactions, examples of which are discussed with respect to possible function.

  5. A bionanohybrid ZnAl-NADS ecological pesticide as a treatment for soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Irigoyen, Erika Elizabeth; de Las Mercedes Gómez-Y-Gómez, Yolanda; Flores-Moreno, Jorge Luis; Franco-Hernández, Marina Olivia

    2017-09-18

    Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO 3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM analyses confirmed the successful intercalation of NADS into the interplanar LDH space. The drug release profile indicated that the maximum release was completed in 70 or 170 min for free NADS (alone) or for NADS released from ZnAl-NADS, respectively. This slow release was attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between the drug and the anion exchanger. A modulated release is preferable to the action of the bulk NADS, showing increased effectiveness and minimizing the amount of the chemical available to pollute the soil and the water. The fitting data from modified Freundlich and parabolic diffusion models explain the release behavior of the NADS, suggesting that the drug released from ZnAl-NADS bionanohybrid was carried out from the interlamellar sites, according to the ion exchange diffusion process also involving intraparticle diffusion (coeffect). ZnAl-NADS was tested in vitro against Escherichia coli (Ec) and Pc and exhibited bacteriostatic and biocidal effects at 0.025 and 0.075 mg mL -1 , respectively. ZnAl-NADS was also tested in vivo as an ecological pesticide for combating potato soft rot and was found to delay typical disease symptoms. In conclusion, ZnAl-NADS can potentially be used to control pests, infestation, and plant disease.

  6. Tagging QTLs for late blight resistance and plant maturity from diploid wild relatives in a cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwka, J; Jakuczun, H; Lebecka, R; Marczewski, W; Gebhardt, C; Zimnoch-Guzowska, E

    2007-06-01

    Phytophthora infestans causes an economically important disease of potato called late blight. The epidemic is controlled chemically but resistant potatoes can become an environment-friendly and financially justified alternative solution. The use of diploid Solanum tuberosum derived from European tetraploid cultivars enabled the introgression of novel genes encoding foliage resistance and tuber resistance from other species into the modern cultivated potato gene pool. This study evaluated the resistance of the obtained hybrids, its quality, expression in leaflets and tubers and its relation to the length of vegetation period. We also identified genetic loci involved in late blight resistance and the length of vegetation period. A family of 156 individuals segregating for resistance to late blight was assessed by three laboratory methods: detached leaflet, tuber slice and whole tuber test, repeatedly over 5 years. Length of vegetation period was estimated by a field test over 2 years. The phenotypic distributions of all traits were close to normal. Using sequence-specific PCR markers of known chromosomal position on the potato genetic map, six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance and length of vegetation period were identified. The most significant and robust QTL were located on chromosomes III (explaining 17.3% of variance observed in whole tuber tests), IV (15.5% of variance observed in slice tests), X (15.6% of variance observed in leaflet tests) and V (19.9% of variance observed in length of vegetation period). Genetic characterization of these novel resistance sources can be valuable for potato breeders and the knowledge that the most prominent QTLs for resistance and vegetation period length do not overlap in this material is promising with respect to breeding early potatoes resistant to P. infestans.

  7. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-François; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H P; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-François; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.

  8. Effects of Different Organic Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality Traits of Seed Potato Cultivars (Solanum Tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eleroğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of use organo-mineral fertilizers and poultry manure on yield and quality of seed tubers different potatoes varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.. The study was designed in three replicated completely randomized block factorial design with eight potato cultivars (Madaline, Provento, Marfona, Agata, Arizona, Mustang, Rumba and Saviola and including three different fertilizer as Hexaferm organo-mineral (%20 organics, 8-21-0+Zn, compost (1 t da-1 and fermented poultry manure (1 t da-1. In order to determine the effect of fertilizer forms on the yield and quality characteristics of different varieties of potatoes were examined features like output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill, tuber yield per hill, total tuber yield, cracks tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity. Used fertilizers have no significant effect on output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill, total tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity of varieties. The difference observed in terms of output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill between the varieties was insignificant. The difference between the average tuber yield per hill, total tuber yield, cracks tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity of varieties were significant. Similarly, the fertilizers had a significant effect on the average tuber yield per hill of varieties . The significant interactions were found on traits average tuber yield per hill and average specific gravity between Fertilizer x Varieties. As a result, considered economically the fermented and compost poultry manure can be used instead of organo-mineral fertilizers in the production of seed potatoes.

  9. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Szalonek

    Full Text Available Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin than wild type (WT. Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII, as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Does elevated CO2 ameliorate the impact of O3 on chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Craigon, Jim; Black, Colin R.; Colls, Jeremy J.; Landon, Geoff

    2001-04-01

    This study examined the impact of season-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3), individually and in combination, on leaf chlorophyll content and gas exchange characteristics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje). Plants grown in open-top chambers were exposed to three CO2 (ambient, 550 and 680 µmol mol-1) and two O3 treatments (ambient and elevated; 25 and 65 nmol mol-1, 8 h day-1 means, respectively) between crop emergence and maturity; plants were also grown in unchambered field plots. Non-destructive measurements of chlorophyll content and visible foliar injury were made for all treatments at 2-week intervals between 43 and 95 days after emergence. Gas exchange measurements were made for all except the intermediate 550 µmol mol-1 CO2 treatment. Season-long exposure to elevated O3 under ambient CO2 reduced chlorophyll content and induced extensive visible foliar damage, but had little effect on net assimilation rate or stomatal conductance. Elevated CO2 had no significant effect on chlorophyll content, but greatly reduced the damaging impact of O3 on chlorophyll content and visible foliar damage. Light-saturated assimilation rates for leaves grown under elevated CO2 were consistently lower when measured under either elevated or ambient CO2 than in equivalent leaves grown under ambient CO2. Analysis of CO2 response curves revealed that CO2-saturated assimilation rate, maximum rates of carboxylation and electron transport and respiration decreased with time. CO2-saturated assimilation rate was reduced by elevated O3 during the early stages of the season, while respiration was significantly greater under elevated CO2 as the crop approached maturity. The physiological origins of these responses and their implications for the performance of potato in a changing climate are discussed.

  11. Purification and some properties of pectinesterase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Montañez Sáenz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectinesterase was extracted from potato alpha cultivar, purified and partially characterized The used protocol resulted in a 58.8-fold purification (51 850.2 units/mg protein with 15.5% recovery of pectinesterase activity. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of 27 kDa and its isoelectric point was around 4.5 with pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 60°C, respectively. The purified enzyme had a single symmetric peak of specific activity after chromatographic steps. The homogeneity of the purified pectinesterase was confirmed by gel filtration and polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel.A pectinesterase foi extraída da batata (cultivar do alfa, purificada e parcialmente caracterizada. O protocolo usado levou a uma proteína purificada 58,8 vezes (51 850,2 units/mg da proteína com uma recuperação de 15,5 % da atividade da proteína. A enzima purificada apresentou um peso molecular de 27 kDa e seu ponto isoelétrico foi ao redor 4,5. A pectinesterase exibiu pH e temperatura ótimos de respectivamente 8,0 e 60°C. A enzima purificada apresentou um único pico simétrico de atividade específica após as etapas de cromatografia. A homogeneidade da pectinesterase purificada foi confirmada por filtração em gel e por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida.

  12. Evaluación de dos tipos de esquejes para producción de tubérculo-semilla élite en cuatro variedades de papa Solanum phureja juz et buk y Solanum tuberosum

    OpenAIRE

    Caro Muñoz Marina; Moreno Rengifo Sidney Benhur; Marquinez Casas Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Esta investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales del Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (IBUN) y en los invernaderos de la Facultad de Agronomía, Sede Bogotá. El propósito fue evaluar una metodología para propagación
    de plántulas y producción de tubérculo semilla élite en cuatro variedades de papa: Solanum tuberosum L. ssp andígena (Diacol-Capiro, ICA-Puracé y Parda Pastusa) y Solanum phureja Juz et Buk. (“Yema de huevo”...

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2014-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

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    Lei Gong

    Full Text Available Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L. variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT and re-watering treatment (RWT at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C, Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1, auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2, GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6, Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19, abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  15. Stable expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein VP1 fused with cholera toxin B subunit in the potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-Mei; Qian, Kai-Xian; Shen, Gui-Fang; Li, Yi-Nü; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Su, Zhong-Liang; Shao, Hong-Bo

    2007-04-01

    The expression vector, pBI121CTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructed by fused PCR and transferred into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformed plants were obtained by selecting on kanamycin-resistant medium strictly and regenerated. The transgenic plantlets were identified by PCR, Southern-blot and the production of fused protein was confirmed and quantified by Western-blot and ELISA assays. The results showed that the fused genes were expressed stablely under the control of specific-tuber patatin promoter. The expressed fused proteins have a certain degree of immunogenicity.

  16. Efecto de la temperatura sobre la transferencia de agua durante la deshidratación osmótica de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Paz, Reynaldo Justino; Della Rocca, Patricia A.; Tisocco, Osvaldo D.; Mascheroni, Rodolfo Horacio

    2016-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de papa (Solanum Tuberosum L.). Se comparó el ajuste de los datos experimentales con el modelo cinético fenomenológico y con el modelo de Azuara. Para ello, en cubos de 1 cm de arista se evaluó el efecto de la temperatura (30 ºC, 40 ºC y 50 ºC) sobre los coeficiente de difusión efectiva del agua y sólidos. Se determinó la pérdida de peso de agua y la ganancia de sólidos. Las mayores pérdidas de agua se o...

  17. Méthodes de mesure de l’âge physiologique des tubercules semences de pomme de terre (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Jardin P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment methods of physiological age of potato seed tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.. The study of potato tuber ageing possesses both fundamental and applied interests. Because of potential economical impacts, numerous attempts have been made to develop reliable biophysical, physiological or biochemical markers of physiological age of seed tubers intended for vegetative multiplication. At the present time, biophysical markers do not meet this objective, the obtained results being contradictory or not very transposable. Some physiological markers seem well-suited but they are not predictive. The biochemical studies often focus on potato tuber developmental process or are undertaken without accurate physiological reference frame. After defining the main concepts, this study synthesizes and critically evaluates the different methods used to assess physiological age. An integrated research strategy based on existing data is finally proposed to study potato tuber ageing.

  18. Efeitos da radiação UV-C e da luz fluorescente no controle fitossanotário e na indução de resistência em batata-semente após a colheita

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Batista de Oliveira Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: O cultivo da batateira (Solanum tuberosum L.) apresenta problemas fitossanitários decorrentes do ataque de pragas e doenças, o que acarreta altos cultos de produção. As principais doenças pós-colheita em batata-semente são: podridão seca (agente causal: Fusarium solani), rhizoctoniose (agente causal: Rhizoctonia solani) e podridão mole (agente causal: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum). Os principais glicoalcaloides presentes na batata são a α-chaconina e α-solan...

  19. Efeito residual da adubação da batata sobre a produção do milho-verde em cultivo sucessivo

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA ERNANI CLARETE DA; SILVA FILHO ADEMAR VIRGOLINO DA; ALVARENGA MARCO ANTÔNIO REZENDE

    2000-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado em áreas da Fazenda Experimental da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (Epamig), no Município de Três Pontas, MG. O objetivo foi analisar o efeito residual da adubação aplicada no solo, por ocasião do plantio da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.), em subseqüente cultivo de milho-verde (Zea mays L.). A batata, cv. Achat, plantada no espaçamento 0,80 m x 0,40 m, foi adubada nas doses: 0, 2 e 4 t ha-1 da fórmula 4-16-8. Após a colheita da batata, o milho-verd...

  20. Structural studies of the carbohydrate moieties of lectins from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and thorn-apple (Datura stramonium) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, David; Desai, Nila N.; Allen, Anthony K.; Neuberger, Albert; O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Selvendran, Robert R.

    1982-01-01

    1. Methylation analysis of potato (Solanum tuberosum) lectin and thorn-apple (Datura stramonium) lectin confirmed previous conclusions that both glycoproteins contained high proportions of l-arabinofuranosides and lesser amounts of d-galactopyranosides. The arabinofuranosides are present in both lectins as short unbranched chains containing 1→2- and 1→3-linkages, which are known to be linked to hydroxyproline. Galactopyranosides are present as monosaccharides, which are known to be attached to serine, in potato lectin and as both the monosaccharide and the 1→3-linked disaccharide in Datura lectin. 2. Alkaline digestion of potato lectin and subsequent separation of the components by gel filtration led to the isolation of four fractions corresponding to the mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-arabinosides of hydroxyproline. The latter two fractions accounted for over 70% of the total hydroxyproline. 3. Methylation analysis was used to show that the triarabinoside contained only 1→2-linkages between sugars, but that the tetra-arabinoside contained both 1→2- and 1→3-linkages. Direct-insertion mass spectrometry of these compounds using electron impact and chemical ionization, in a comparison with other known structural patterns, was used to determine the sequences of the sugars, which were Araƒ1→2Araƒ1→2Araƒ1→Hyp and Araƒ1→3Araƒ1→2Araƒ1→2Araƒ 1→Hyp. 4. On the basis of optical rotation it had previously been suggested [Allen, Desai, Neuberger & Creeth (1978) Biochem. J. 171, 665–674] that all the arabinose of potato lectin was present as the β-l-furanoside. However, measurement of the optical rotations of the hydroxyprolyl arabinosides showed that whereas the diarabinoside had a molar rotation ([m]) value close to that predicted, the triarabinoside was more dextrorotatory and the tetra-arabinoside was less dextrorotatory than expected. Possible explanations for these findings are that, although the di- and tri-arabinosides contain exclusively

  1. Nematofauna asociada a la rizosfera de papas (Solanum tuberosum cultivadas en la zona productora del Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México Nematode fauna associated with the rhizosphere of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum grown in the region of Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico

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    Damaris Desgarennes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron y clasificaron en grupos tróficos las especies de nematodos asociados a la rizosfera de Solanum tuberosum en suelos altamente infectados por el nematodo dorado de la papa (Globodera rostochiensis en un ciclo de cultivo, en la zona productora del Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México. Se identificaron 7 géneros (Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus, Crassolabium, Mesodorylaimus, Plectus y Steinernema y 8 especies (Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Ecumenicus monohystera, Acrobeles mariannae, Acrobeles singulus, Acrobeloides nanus, Cruznema tripartitum, Eucephalobus oxyuroides, y Globodera rostochiensis en asociación con la rizosfera de papas cultivadas. Crassolabium sp. y E. monohystera se registran por primera vez para México.Nematode species associated with the rhizosphere of Solanum tuberosum were identified and classified into trophic groups from soils highly infected by the golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis in a single crop cycle in the producing zone on the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. Seven genera (Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus, Crassolabium, Mesodorylaimus, Plectus and Steinernema and 8 species (Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Ecumenicus monohystera, Acrobeles mariannae, Acrobeles singulus, Acrobeloides nanus, Cruznema tripartitum, Eucephalobus oxyuroides, and Globodera rostochiensis were found in association with the rhizosphere of cultivated potatoes. Crassolabium sp. and E. monohystera are recorded for the first time in México.

  2. Solanum tuberosum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... (Nif) was bred via crossing in Turkey, and this cultivar has never had a change in commercial production since its registration (Caliskan et al., 2010). However, only 16 to 22% demand for high quality and certified seed is supplied. The remaining demand is obtained either from stocked harvested seeds by ...

  3. Caracterización de la respuesta fisiológica de tres variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) bajo condiciones de estrés por déficit hídrico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Pérez, Loyla

    2015-01-01

    En esta tesis se evalúo la respuesta fisiológica, bioquímica y de fenología de tres variedades colombianas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) sometidas a déficit hídrico y rehidratación. La hipótesis planteada fue que con base en el comportamiento de las variedades en las zonas de producción, las tres variedades de Solanum tuberosum L. presentarían respuesta diferencial a un período de déficit hídrico por suspensión del riego. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportam...

  4. Characterization of chromosome instability in interspecific somatic hybrids obtained by X-ray fusion between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and S. brevidens Phil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehér, A.; Preiszner, J.; Litkey, Z.; Csanádi, G; Dudits, D.

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum L. and S. brevidens Phil. have been obtained via the fusion of protoplasts from potato leaves and from cell suspension culture of S. brevidens. The wild Solanum species served as donor after irradiation of its protoplasts with a lethal X-ray dose (200 Gy). Selection of the putative hybrids was based on the kanamycin-resistance marker gene previously introduced into the genome of Solanum brevidens by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Thirteen out of the 45 selected clones exhibited reduced morphogenic potential. The morphological abnormalities of the regenerated plantlets were gradually eliminated during the extended in vitro culture period. Cytological investigations revealed that the number of chromosomes in the cultured S. brevidens cells used as protoplast source ranged between 28-40 instead of the basic 2n=24 value. There was a high degree of aneuploidy in all of the investigated hybrid clones, and at least 12 extra chromosomes were observed in addition to the potato chromosomes (2n=48). Interand intraclonal variation and segregation during vegetative propagation indicated the genetic instability of the hybrids, which can be ascribed to the pre-existing and X-ray irradiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in the donor S. brevidens cells. The detection of centromeric chromosome fragments and long, poly-constrictional chromosomes in cytological preparations as well as non-parental bands in Southern hybridizations with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed extensive chromosome rearrangements in most of the regenerated clones. On the basis of the limited number of RFLP probes used, preferential loss of S. brevidens specific markers with a non-random elimination pattern could be detected in hybrid regenerants

  5. Propuesta de un sistema de transformación de plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena var. Pastusa suprema mediado por Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Alfredo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se ha demostrado que la transformación de papa (Solanum tuberosum mediada por Agrobacterium tumefaciens es dependiente del genotipo y que la mayoría de protocolos de transformación reportados son ineficientes al aplicarlos en la subespecie andigena. En esta propuesta se manejaron los procesos iniciales de mejoramiento genético de la nueva variedad colombiana de papa Pastusa suprema (Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena que es altamente androestéril, característica de gran importancia para los organismos modificados genéticamente. Esta variedad resultó de la hibridación interespecífica de tres especies de papa (Solanum stoloniferum, Solanum phureja var. Yema de huevo y Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena var. Parda pastusa. Se transformaron explantes internodales mediante el vector pCambia2301 que posee un gen reportero de la β-glucoronidasa y un gen de resistencia a la kanamicina. Se obtuvo un porcentaje de transformación inicial de 31 ± 2,5%, que se expresó mediante formación de callo sobre medios de selección y una frecuencia final con base en el ensayo GUS de 30%. Este es el primer reporte de transformación de un híbrido interespecífico de tres especies diferentes.

  6. Efecto antioxidante y citoprotector del tocosh de Solanum tuberosum ‘papa’ en la mucosa gástrica de animales de experimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernán Sandoval Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El tocosh es un producto alimenticio obtenido por una técnica de conservación andina y que tiene propiedades nutritivas y terapéuticas. Objetivo: Demostrar la capacidad antioxidante y el efecto citoprotector del tocosh de Solanum tuberosum ‘papa’ en la mucosa gástrica de animales de experimentación. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Tocosh seco y molido administrado a ratas albinas. Intervenciones: A 6 grupos de ratas albinas machos (200 ± 50 g se les dividió en: (GI solución NaCl 0,9%, 10 mL/kg;(GII etanol al 70% a 10 mL/kg; (GIII, IV y V Tocosh equivalente a 900 mg/kg, 1 800 mg/kg y 2 700 mg/kg, respectivamente, y (GVI sucralfato 30 mg/kg. En todos los casos, una hora después se indujo injuria con etanol 70° a 10 mL/kg y por laparotomía abdominal se obtuvo el tejido gástrico. Principales medidas de resultados: Porcentaje de citoprotección gástrica en imagen digitalizada por image analysis software for plant disease quantification y capacidad antioxidante por lipoperoxidación método espectrofotométrico de la reacción de especies reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. Resultados: La marcha fitoquímica identificó compuestos fenólicos, alcaloides, triterpenoides y esteroides, azúcares reductores y aminoácidos libres como metabolitos secundarios. Las dosis de 2 700 mg/kg y 900 mg/kg resultaron en 0,72 y 1,81 nmol/g tejido de lipoperoxidación, respectivamente. La dosis de 1 800 mg/kg protegió un 97% del área de la mucosa gástrica, 2 700 mg/kg un 95% y la de 900 mg/kg, 88% (p<0,05. La dosis de 1 800 mg/kg exhibió mejor efecto citoprotector y la de 2 700 mg/kg mejor actividad antioxidante, comparada con sucralfato 30 mg/kg. Conclusiones: El tocosh de Solanum tuberosum ‘papa’ tuvo efecto citoprotector y actividad antioxidante.

  7. El manganeso como factor positivo en la producción de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. y arveja (Pisum sativum L. en suelos del altiplano Cundiboyacense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Manuel Iván

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En dos suelos contrastantes, Andic Eutrudepts (Funza, Cundinamarca y Typic Hapludands (Saboyá, Boyacá, se evaluó la respuesta agronómica a la aplicación de manganeso de Solanum tuberosum L. y Pisum sativum L. En S. tuberosum se realizó la investigación en dos localidades, Funza y Saboyá, evaluando dosis de Mn de 0,0; 3,0; 4,0; 6,0 kg· ha-1, respectivamente, aplicado en mezcla con el fertilizante NPK en siembra; en Saboyá se contó con un testigo sin aplicación de fertilizante. Las variedades utilizadas en la investigación fueron ‘Diacol Capiro’ en Funza y ‘Parda Pastusa’ en Saboyá. En P. sativum la evaluación se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Funza y se valoraron dosis de Mn de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0 kg· ha-1 aplicadas en mezcla con el fertilizante recomendado NPK. En todos los casos, se utilizó como fuente sulfato de Mn granulado (Microman, 20% Mn. Los ensayos estuvieron bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres réplicas. Se observó una respuesta positiva en S. tuberosum bajo Andic Eutrudepts con dosis de Mn de 5,0 a 6,0 kg· ha-1 y en Typic Hapludands con dosis de Mn de 3,0 a 4,0 kg· ha-1, respuesta que provocó un incremento significativo del rendimiento entre 10% y 17%, con relación al tratamiento sin aplicación. En P. sativum la aplicación de Mn generó incrementos altamente significativos en el rendimiento, favorables a dosis de Mn de 2,5 a 3,0 kg· ha-1. Esta investigación es extrapolable a unidades de suelos con características similares y demuestra que existen factores nutricionales  pasivos que pueden disminuir la brecha en el potencial de rendimiento. 

  8. Influence of the time of application of 32P triple Superphosphate on the efficiency of the phosphate fertilization and the productivity of the potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Alvarez, A.L.; Urquiaga, S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was performed on a soil derived from volcanic ash (Andic Humitropept), in Pasto (Narino), Colombia, to investigate the influence of additions of 100 and 200 Kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 , at two application times (planting and 30 days after emergence - DAE), on the fertilizer use efficiency and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Pardo Pastusa. At planting the phosphorus was applied in a continuous row in the furrow, and at 30 DAE at one side of the plant row, and immediately covered with soil from both sides of the furrow. The fertilizer used was 32 P labelled triple superphosphate (143.59 μ Ci.g -1 p -1 . It was found that: a) the phosphorus fertilization significantly increased (P -1 ) and the accumulation (from 8 to 17.8 kg P ha -1 ) by the tubers, but there was no significant effect of the different rates or times of the fertilizer application; b) the accumulation of P by the plant accompanied the accumulation of plant dry matter; c) at 75 DAE the fraction of fertiliser P in the plant shoot in the treatment fertilized at 30 DAE (52.1%) was significantly higher than that fertilized at planting (21.8%), and this corresponded to a P fertilizer use efficiency of 2.4 and 0.82, respectively

  9. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome components of Solanum tuberosum + S. chacoense somatic hybrids and three SSR alleles related to bacterial wilt resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Guo, Xianpu; Xie, Conghua; He, Li; Cai, Xingkui; Tian, Lingli; Song, Botao; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The somatic hybrids were derived previously from protoplast fusion between Solanum tuberosum and S. chacoense to gain the bacterial wilt resistance from the wild species. The genome components analysis in the present research was to clarify the nuclear and cytoplasmic composition of the hybrids, to explore the molecular markers associated with the resistance, and provide information for better use of these hybrids in potato breeding. One hundred and eight nuclear SSR markers and five cytoplasmic specific primers polymorphic between the fusion parents were used to detect the genome components of 44 somatic hybrids. The bacterial wilt resistance was assessed thrice by inoculating the in vitro plants with a bacterial suspension of race 1. The disease index, relative disease index, and resistance level were assigned to each hybrid, which were further analyzed in relation to the molecular markers for elucidating the potential genetic base of the resistance. All of the 317 parental unique nuclear SSR alleles appeared in the somatic hybrids with some variations in the number of bands detected. Nearly 80 % of the hybrids randomly showed the chloroplast pattern of one parent, and most of the hybrids exhibited a fused mitochondrial DNA pattern. One hundred and nine specific SSR alleles of S. chacoense were analyzed for their relationship with the disease index of the hybrids, and three alleles were identified to be significantly associated with the resistance. Selection for the resistant SSR alleles of S. chacoense may increase the possibility of producing resistant pedigrees.

  10. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  11. The effect of in vitro mycorrhization on growth characteristics, changes in endogenous hormones and performance of microplants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Khosro PARVIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets were inoculated in vitro with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices and their growth response, performance and endogenous hormonal status evaluated. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design consisting of two potato cultivars (Agria and Sante and four culture media was conducted with four replications. The culture media included non-inoculated Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (control, inoculated MS medium, inoculated half-strength MS medium and inoculated MS medium without vitamins and sugar. To do inoculation, germinated spores of fungus were transferred to the root zone of plantlets. Colonization percentage, total chlorophyll content, internodes and stolon length, shoot diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and the level of three endogenous hormones (total auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins were determined. In addition, mini-tuber production was assayed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results demonstrated that the effect of two factors on all characteristics including mini-tuber production was different significantly. Interaction between cultivar and inoculation systems was significantly associated with endogen auxins as well as all range of mini-tuber production. The inoculated MS medium showed the better results, but it did not have significant difference to half-strength MS in terms of plantlet performance and growing parameters. Responses of both cultivars to inoculation were very conspicuous in the production of endogen hormones. Higher endogen hormone levels were associated with elevated growth parameters, greater biomass production and better plantlet performance.

  12. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  13. PG-2, a Potent AMP against Pathogenic Microbial Strains, from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley Tubers Not Cytotoxic against Human Cells

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    Yoonkyung Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, we isolated potamin-1 (PT-1, a 5.6-kDa trypsin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor, from the tubers of a potato strain (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley. We established that PT-1 strongly inhibits pathogenic microbial strains, but not human bacterial strains, and that its sequence shows 62% homology with a serine protease inhibitor. In the present study, we isolated an antifungal and antibacterial peptide with no cytotoxicity from tubers of the same potato strain. The peptide (peptide-G2, PG-2 was isolated using salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS showed the protein to have a molecular mass of 3228.5 Da, while automated Edman degradation showed the N-terminal sequence of PG-2 to be LVKDNPLDISPKQVQALCTDLVIRCMCCC-. PG-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, a human pathogenic yeast strain, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, a plant late blight strain. PG-2 also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but did not lyse human red blood cells and was thermostable. Overall, these results suggest PG-2 may be a good candidate to serve as a natural antimicrobial agent, agricultural pesticide and/or food additive.

  14. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  15. A Medicago truncatula H+-pyrophosphatase gene, MtVP1, improves sucrose accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wang, H Q; Xiang, W W; Chai, T Y

    2014-05-09

    We recently cloned MtVP1, a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Medicago truncatula. In the present study, we investigated the cellular location and the function of this H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). An MtVP1::enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion was constructed, which localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing MtVP1 had more robust root systems and redder shoots than wild-type (WT) plants under conditions of cold stress. Furthermore, overexpression of MtVP1 in potato accelerated the formation and growth of vegetative organs. The tuber buds and stem base of transgenic potatoes became redder than those of WT plants, but flowering was delayed by approximately half a month. Interestingly, anthocyanin biosynthesis was promoted in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and potato tuber buds. The sucrose concentration of transgenic potato tubers and tuber buds was enhanced compared with that of WT plants. Furthermore, sucrose concentration in tubers was higher than that in tuber buds. Although there was no direct evidence to support Fuglsang's hypothetical model regarding the effects of H(+)-PPase on sucrose phloem loading, we speculated that sucrose concentration was increased in tuber buds owing to the increased concentration in tubers. Therefore, overexpressed MtVP1 enhanced sucrose accumulation of source organs, which might enhance sucrose transport to sink organs, thus affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  16. Pyrophosphorylases in Solanum tuberosum: I. Changes in ADP-Glucose and UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activities Associated with Starch Biosynthesis during Tuberization, Maturation, and Storage of Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowokinos, J R

    1976-01-01

    Changes in ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activities were followed during tuber development of Solanum tuberosum and prolonged storage at 4 and 11 C. Potato tuberization was accompanied by a sharp increase in starch synthesis simultaneous with a marked rise in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. When tubers reached an average diameter of 1 centimeter (0.5 gram average tuber weight) and had already established 58% starch on a dry weight basis, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase increased 16- to 24-fold over its activity seen in low starch containing stolon tissue. During this same period UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase increased approximately 2- to 3-fold. Although participation of UDP-glucose in starch formation can not be neglected, it is suggested that the onset of rapid non-photosynthetic potato tuber starch biosynthesis may be closely related to the simultaneous increase in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.Evidence that UDP-glucose and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases are separate protein entities was indicated by their (a) activity ratio variations during tuber development and storage, (b) extraction stabilities, (c) morphological localization, (d) separation with ammonium sulfate, (e) pH optima, and (f) differential activation with 3-P-glycerate.

  17. Estudio de libertad de operación para una línea genéticamente modificada de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Study of freedom to operate for a genetically modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L. line Título corto: Libertad de operación para papa GM Resumen: Durante el desarrollo de los productos biotecnológicos son utilizados materiales y procesos, que pueden estar protegidos por derechos de propiedad intelectual. Para evitar problemas legales en su comercialización, se deben realizar estudios de libertad de operación. Este estudio se realizó sobre una línea genéticamente modificada (GM de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. derivada de la variedad Pastusa Suprema, que expresa el gene Cry1Ac de Bacillus thuringiensis, desarrollada por la Corporación de Ciencias Biológicas y la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín. El punto de partida, fue la deconstrucción del producto, cuyo resultado fue la lista de materiales y procesos usados en el desarrollo del producto. Se buscaron en bases de datos nacionales e internacionales de acceso público, las solicitudes de patentes y patentes relacionadas. En el nivel internacional, se encontraron cuatro solicitudes de patentes y dieciocho patentes relacionadas, la mayoría de las cuales, no han sido solicitadas en Colombia. En el nivel nacional, se encontraron 13 solicitudes de patentes, que han caducado, han sido negadas, abandonadas, desistidas, o están en requerimiento. Se encontró que la variedad tiene registro comercial, pero no título de obtentor. También se examinaron documentos de las instituciones participantes, que contuvieran cláusulas sobre propiedad intelectual, y otros documentos de interés, como los acuerdos de transferencia de materiales (ATM. Se concluye que la libertad de operación puede estar afectada más por problemas detectados en los ATM y en la complejidad de los acuerdos interinstitucionales suscritos, que por los derechos de propiedad intelectual. Palabras clave: Derechos de propiedad intelectual, biotecnología, cultivos transgénicos. Abstract:

  18. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  19. Curdlan β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides induce the defense responses against Phytophthora infestans infection of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1) leaf cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Lu, Guangxing; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system before the invasion of pathogens is a promising way to improve the resistance of plant against infection while reducing the use of agricultural chemicals. Although several elicitors were used to induce the resistance of potato plant to microbial pathogen infection, the role of curdlan oligosaccharide (CurdO) has not been established. In the current study, the defense responses were investigated at biochemical and proteomic levels to elucidate the elicitation effect of CurdOs in foliar tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1). The results indicate that the CurdOs exhibit activation effect on the early- and late-defense responses in potato leaves. In addition, glucopentaose was proved to be the shortest active curdlan molecule based on the accumulation of H₂O₂ and salicylic acid and the activities of phenylalanine amino-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase. The 2D-PAGE analysis reveals that CurdOs activate the integrated response reactions in potato cells, as a number of proteins with various functions are up-regulated including disease/defense, metabolism, transcription, and cell structure. The pathogenesis assay shows that the ratio of lesion area of potato leaf decreased from 15.82%±5.44% to 7.79%±3.03% when the plants were treated with CurdOs 1 day before the infection of Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, the results on potato yield and induction reactions indicate that the defense responses induced by CurdOs lasted for short period of time but disappeared gradually.

  20. Curdlan β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides induce the defense responses against Phytophthora infestans infection of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1 leaf cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available Activation of the innate immune system before the invasion of pathogens is a promising way to improve the resistance of plant against infection while reducing the use of agricultural chemicals. Although several elicitors were used to induce the resistance of potato plant to microbial pathogen infection, the role of curdlan oligosaccharide (CurdO has not been established. In the current study, the defense responses were investigated at biochemical and proteomic levels to elucidate the elicitation effect of CurdOs in foliar tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1. The results indicate that the CurdOs exhibit activation effect on the early- and late-defense responses in potato leaves. In addition, glucopentaose was proved to be the shortest active curdlan molecule based on the accumulation of H₂O₂ and salicylic acid and the activities of phenylalanine amino-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase. The 2D-PAGE analysis reveals that CurdOs activate the integrated response reactions in potato cells, as a number of proteins with various functions are up-regulated including disease/defense, metabolism, transcription, and cell structure. The pathogenesis assay shows that the ratio of lesion area of potato leaf decreased from 15.82%±5.44% to 7.79%±3.03% when the plants were treated with CurdOs 1 day before the infection of Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, the results on potato yield and induction reactions indicate that the defense responses induced by CurdOs lasted for short period of time but disappeared gradually.

  1. Uncoupled protein 3 and p38 signal pathways are involved in anti-obesity activity of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bora Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Soo; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Min-Ho; Ahn, Kyoo-Seok; Lim, Hak-Tae; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2008-08-13

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the anti-obesity mechanism of a new purple potato variety that has been used for the prevention of metabolic diseases as a folk remedy in Korea. Proliferation assay, differentiation assay, Western blotting, were performed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, while blood chemistry for hyperlipidemic parameters, measurement of body weight and abdominal fats, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanning were carried out in high fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats with ethanol extract of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bora Valley (ESTBV). ESTBV significantly inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells as well as reduced the cellular leptin level. ESTBV also significantly attenuated the levels of insulin and leptin at 500mg/kg in high fat diet fed rats. In addition, ESTBV significantly reduced total fat and whole body lipid in a therapeutic experiment, which was confirmed by MRI scanning and also significantly inhibited the retroperitoneal and epididymal fats in a preventive experiment compared with control. Similarly, the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly reduced at a lower dose 200mg/kg of ESTBV in a preventive experiment than at 500mg/kg in a therapeutic experiment. Furthermore, body weight gain was significantly suppressed by over 4 weeks treatment of ESTBV compared with control. Interestingly, the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was significantly downregulated in 3T3-L1 cells by ESTBV and the expression of uncoupled protein 3 (UCP-3) was activated in fats and liver tissues of ESTBV treated group compared with high fat diet control. ESTBV has anti-obesity potential via inhibition of lipid metabolism through p38 MAPK and UCP-3 pathways.

  2. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Yuling [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Chen, Dan [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Chen, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Haoli, E-mail: mahaoli@nwsuaf.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  3. Evaluación financiera del sistema de producción de papa (Solanum tuberosum L en Oicatá, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer Avendaño-Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La factibilidad financiera es fundamental para tomar decisiones en un sistema productivo; en consecuencia, toda actividad agropecuaria debe hacer uso de dicha herramienta, a fin de obtener mayor comprensión de su ejercicio financiero y, a la vez, tener un soporte objetivo para determinar, entre otras cosas, si continuar con la actividad, diversificarla, combinarla o arrendar el espacio físico donde se realiza (1. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una evaluación financiera en el sistema de producción de la papa Solanum tuberosum, variedad Diacol capiro, de manera participativa y con la inclusión de indicadores históricos, en función de horizontes de tiempo y tasa de oportunidad. La población objeto del estudio correspondió a 32 agricultores de papa inscritos en la Empresa Prestadora de Servicios Técnicos Agropecuarios (Epsagro del municipio de Oicatá, departamento de Boyacá, para el año 2014, de los cuales se seleccionaron tres productores (grande, mediano y pequeño para realizar la investigación. Los resultados indican que el diagnóstico rural participativo fue una herramienta de investigación adecuada para la compilación de la información, además de la existencia de diferencias en la estructura de costos de producción en los diferentes agricultores. En el municipio de Oicatá se encontró que existen fallas relevantes a nivel operativo y contable que deben ser corregidas.

  4. Cochliobolus lunatus down-regulates proteome at late stage of colonization and transiently alters StNPR1 expression in Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Talukdar, Narayan C; Roy, Pranab

    2017-03-01

    Cochliobolus lunatus abundantly produces four-celled conidia at high temperatures (>30 °C) and under suitable conditions; the fungus colonizes potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by adopting different invasion strategies at the microscopic level. Long-lasting defence during infection requires an upsurge in proteome changes particularly pathogenesis-related proteins chiefly under the control of nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related proteins. In order to gain molecular insights, we profiled the changes in proteome and potato nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related proteins (StNPR1) during the infection process. It is found that C. lunatus significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the host functional proteome by 96 h after infection (hai), principally, affecting the expression of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase enzyme, plastidic aldolase enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and photosystem II protein prior to the formation of brown-to-black leaf spot disease. Strongest host response was observed at 24 hai hallmarked by 307 differentially expressed peptide spots concurring with the active phase of production of penetrating hyphae. Additionally, C. lunatus differentially down-regulated StNPR1 transcript by 8.19 fold by 24 hai. This study is the first to elucidate that C. lunatus transiently down-regulates the expression of StNPR1 at the onset of infection, and as a whole, infection negatively affects the expression of proteome components involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and light assimilation. This study contributes towards better understanding of the mechanism underlining the invasion strategies of C. lunatus.

  5. Solanum tuberosum L. cv Hongyoung extract inhibits 2,4‑dinitrochlorobenzene‑induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung Ah; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-10-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. cv Hongyoung (SH) is a widely consumed anthocyanin-rich food and medicinal plant, which possesses anti‑inflammatory and anti‑allergic activities. The present study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of SH extract on atopic dermatitis (AD)‑like skin lesions induced by the topical application of 2,4‑dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in NC/Nga mice. SH extract was orally administered to the DNCB‑treated NC/Nga mice. The anti‑AD effects of SH extract were examined by measuring symptom severity; ear thickness; scratching behavior; serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E; T‑helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels in the spleen; mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; and tissue infiltration of inflammatory cells. The results demonstrated that SH extract inhibited the development of AD‑like lesions, and reduced IgE levels and the production of cytokines. Furthermore, SH extract significantly suppressed the expression of AD‑associated mRNAs in lesional skin. Histological alterations in the AD‑like lesions were visualized using hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue staining in the DNCB‑treated group; the alterations were attenuated following SH treatment. In addition, thickening of the epidermis and accumulation of inflammatory cells in the DNCB‑treated mice were suppressed by SH treatment. These results suggested that SH extract may suppress the development of AD symptoms through modulation of the Th1 and Th2 responses.

  6. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. under In Vitro Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Metin Kumlay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the effects of 1.0×MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3 in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0×MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0×MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3+1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm, maximum number of nodes (13.50, and maximum number of leaves (11.00 were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0×MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA+0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  7. In silico insights into protein-protein interactions and folding dynamics of the saposin-like domain of Solanum tuberosum aspartic protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dref C De Moura

    Full Text Available The plant-specific insert is an approximately 100-residue domain found exclusively within the C-terminal lobe of some plant aspartic proteases. Structurally, this domain is a member of the saposin-like protein family, and is involved in plant pathogen defense as well as vacuolar targeting of the parent protease molecule. Similar to other members of the saposin-like protein family, most notably saposins A and C, the recently resolved crystal structure of potato (Solanum tuberosum plant-specific insert has been shown to exist in a substrate-bound open conformation in which the plant-specific insert oligomerizes to form homodimers. In addition to the open structure, a closed conformation also exists having the classic saposin fold of the saposin-like protein family as observed in the crystal structure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plant-specific insert. In the present study, the mechanisms of tertiary and quaternary conformation changes of potato plant-specific insert were investigated in silico as a function of pH. Umbrella sampling and determination of the free energy change of dissociation of the plant-specific insert homodimer revealed that increasing the pH of the system to near physiological levels reduced the free energy barrier to dissociation. Furthermore, principal component analysis was used to characterize conformational changes at both acidic and neutral pH. The results indicated that the plant-specific insert may adopt a tertiary structure similar to the characteristic saposin fold and suggest a potential new structural motif among saposin-like proteins. To our knowledge, this acidified PSI structure presents the first example of an alternative saposin-fold motif for any member of the large and diverse SAPLIP family.

  8. Physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to partial root-zone drying: ABA signalling, leaf gas exchange, and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fulai; Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias N; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian R

    2006-01-01

    The physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Folva) to partial root-zone drying (PRD) were investigated in potted plants in a greenhouse (GH) and in plants grown in the field under an automatic rain-out-shelter. In the GH, irrigation was applied daily to the whole root system (FI), or to one-half of the root system while the other half was dried, for 9 d. In the field, the plants were drip irrigated either to the whole root system near field capacity (FI) or using 70% water of FI to one side of the roots, and shifted to the other side every 5-10 d (PRD). PRD plants had a similar midday leaf water potential to that of FI, whereas in the GH their root water potential (Psi(r)) was significantly lowered after 5 d. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) was more sensitive to PRD than photosynthesis (A) particularly in the field, leading to greater intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) (i.e. A/g(s)) in PRD than in FI plants on several days. In PRD, the xylem sap abscisic acid concentration ([ABA](xylem)) increased exponentially with decreasing Psi(r); and the relative [ABA](xylem) (PRD/FI) increased exponentially as the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) in the drying side decreased. In the field, the leaf area index was slightly less in PRD than in FI treatment, while tuber biomass was similar for the two treatments. Compared with FI, PRD treatment saved 30% water and increased crop water use efficiency (WUE) by 59%. Restrictions on leaf area expansion and g(s) by PRD-induced ABA signals might have contributed to reduced water use and increased WUE.

  9. Análisis de la interacción genotipo por ambiente en papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. andigena, a través de una metodología no paramétrica Analysis of genotype by environment interaction in potato (Solanum tuberosum spp. andigena by a non-parametric methodology

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    Cortes José M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Mejoramiento en Papa, liderado por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, estableció nueve pruebas regionales durante los años 1998 y 1999, para la evaluación de 20 genotipos promisorios de Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena. Para el análisis e interpretación de la interacción genotipo por ambiente, se utilizó la metodología no paramétrica propuesta por Nassar et al. (1994, en la cual se usa un estadístico que reúne la selección por rendimiento y estabilidad fenotípica. Para la obtención de los índices
    de rendimiento-estabilidad, se implementó una MACRO en el
    programa SAS, la cual permite trabajar con datos desbalanceados, tanto por repeticiones, como por genotipos. Además, se desarrolló una metodología que permitió el análisis multivariado, utilizando, como base el estadístico de rendimiento-estabilidad, lo cual facilita el análisis del rendimiento cuando éste se divida en varias categorías, como el es caso del cultivo de papa. Los resultados, aquí, presentados muestran cómo las ventajas del uso de
    metodologías no paramétricas, no son compensadas cuando la mayor importancia del análisis de la interacción genotipo por ambiente es la selección de genotipos promisorios próximos a ser entregados al agricultor.The Potato Breeding Program, which belongs to the National
    University ofColombia, carried out nine regional trials during 1998 and 1999 for the evaluation of20 promissory genotypes of Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena. The non-pararnetric methodology proposed by Nassar el al. (1994 which it is based on a statistic that link yield and phenotypic stability was used. In order to analyzer the data set, a MACRO program in the SAS System was developed which allowed working with unbalance data for both repetitions and genotypes. It was also developed a multivariate analysis methodology, based on the yield-stability index, which permitted to analyze the yield when it is partitioning in

  10. Agro-transformation and evaluation of resistance to Phytophthora infestansin Solanum tuberosumL. variety Désirée

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    Jeanette Orbegozo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of the disease known as late blight, is primarily responsible for the decreased in production performance and potato crops worldwide. The integration of the complete Rgenes sequences in the potato genome using Agro-transformation appears an alternative to be considered in the fight against this pathogen. The Rpi-blb2 gene (Rgene from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanumDunal shows a broad resistance to isolates ofP. infestans,making it an important candidate for plant breeding studies. This paper reports the integration of the Rpi-blb2gene into potato var. Désirée genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation system, the molecular characterization of 29 events transformed and whole plant infection with isolate POX67 of P. infestansfrom Peru. Désirée events [Rpi-blb2] 4 and Désirée [Rpi-blb2] 30, showed a substantial resistance to P. infestansinfection confirming complete transfer of the Rpi-blb2gene from a wild species to a cultivated species by genetic transformation.

  11. Changes in Lipid Peroxidation and Lipolytic and Free-Radical Scavenging Enzyme Activities during Aging and Sprouting of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Seed-Tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, GNM.; Knowles, N. R.

    1993-05-01

    Previous research has shown that cell membranes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Russet Burbank) seed-tubers lose integrity between 7 and 26 months of storage (4[deg]C, 95% relative humidity), and this loss coincides with a significant decrease in growth potential. The age-induced decline in membrane integrity is apparently due to increased peroxidative damage of membrane lipids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and ethane concentrations (sensitive markers of lipid peroxidation and membrane damage) increased in seed-tuber tissues with advancing age. Moreover, in vivo ethane production from discs of cortex tissue from 13- and 25-month-old seed-tubers was 87% greater (on average) than that from discs from 1-month-old tubers. Calcium suppressed ethane production from all ages of tissue discs, and the effect was concentration dependent. Linoleic acid enhanced ethane production from 5- and 17-month-old tubers by 61 and 228%, respectively, suggesting that older tissue may contain a higher free-radical (FR) titer and/or lower free polyunsaturated fatty acid content. In addition, throughout plant establishment, the internal ethane concentration of older seed-tubers was 54% higher than that of younger seed-tubers. MDA concentration of tuber tissue declined by about 65% during the initial 7 months of storage and then increased 267% as tuber age advanced to 30 months. The age-induced trend in tuber reducing sugar concentration was similar to that of MDA, and the two were linearly correlated. The age-dependent increase in reducing sugars may thus reflect peroxidative degeneration of the amyloplast membrane, leading to increased starch hydrolysis. Compared with 5-month-old seed tubers, 17- and 29-month-old seed-tubers had significantly higher levels of lipofuscin-like fluorescent compounds (FCs), which are produced when MDA reacts with free amino acids. Age-dependent increases in MDA, ethane, and FCs were not associated with higher activities of phospholipase and lipoxygenase in tissue

  12. Multiple alleles for resistance and susceptibility modulate the defense response in the interaction of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Synchytrium endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballvora, Agim; Flath, Kerstin; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2011-12-01

    The obligate biotrophic, soil-borne fungus Synchytrium endobioticum causes wart disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is a serious problem for crop production in countries with moderate climates. S. endobioticum induces hypertrophic cell divisions in plant host tissues leading to the formation of tumor-like structures. Potato wart is a quarantine disease and chemical control is not possible. From 38 S. endobioticum pathotypes occurring in Europe, pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 are the most relevant. Genetic resistance to wart is available but only few current potato varieties are resistant to all four pathotypes. The phenotypic evaluation of wart resistance is laborious, time-consuming and sometimes ambiguous, which makes breeding for resistance difficult. Molecular markers diagnostic for genes for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 would greatly facilitate the selection of new, resistant cultivars. Two tetraploid half-sib families (266 individuals) segregating for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 were produced by crossing a resistant genotype with two different susceptible ones. The families were scored for five different wart resistance phenotypes. The distribution of mean resistance scores was quantitative in both families. Resistance to pathotypes 2, 6 and 18 was correlated and independent from resistance to pathotype 1. DNA pools were constructed from the most resistant and most susceptible individuals and screened with genome wide simple sequence repeat (SSR), inverted simple sequence region (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Bulked segregant analysis identified three SSR markers that were linked to wart resistance loci (Sen). Sen1-XI on chromosome XI conferred partial resistance to pathotype 1, Sen18-IX on chromosome IX to pathotype 18 and Sen2/6/18-I on chromosome I to pathotypes 2,6 and 18. Additional genotyping with 191 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers confirmed the

  13. Evaluación de cinco genotipos promisorios de papa Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena según desempeño agronómico y calidad industrial

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    Martínez Nancy M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Con base en variables cualitativas y cuantitativas se llevó a cabo la evaluación de cinco genotipos promisorios de papa Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena pertenecientes a la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria –CORPOICA– y de la variedad Diacol Capiro, en siete localidades del país. Los resultados se analizaron por métodos univariados y multivariados para conocer las características que discriminaban a los materiales. En el análisis multivariado de componentes principales, los primeros cuatro componentes representan el 95,22% de la variación total. Las variables de mayor influencia fueron época de maduración, época de emergencia, peso total de los tubérculos por parcela, peso de los tubérculos de tamaño primera, peso de los tubérculos de tamaño cero, peso de los tubérculos de tamaño cuarta, gravedad específica y materia seca. Se detectó que existe interacción significativa entre genotipo y ambiente para las variables de rendimiento en frito y calidad industrial, las cuales, según el análisis de estabilidad fenotípica de Kang (1991, permitieron seleccionar los clones 2, 7 y 14 como los más rendidores y estables según las características peso total de los tubérculos por parcela, materia seca y rendimiento en frito. Considerando el índice de rendimiento y la estabilidad fenotípica combinadas, el clon 7 se recomienda como el material más promisorio.

  14. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 150 kg ha-1 potassium combinations (NK, NPK, NPKMg). Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5 and 6). With the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of NK (Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95), NPK (Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96) and NPKMg (Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96) nutrition systems. The optimum yield ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. From 1962 to 1979 the weather was highly variable, with particularly frequent droughts and over rainfall resulting in yield losses of 13 to 32 percentin in this period. Thus it is important to analyse the consequences of possible future climate change on crop in Hungary. REFERENCES A.E. Johnston. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. Kádár, I-Márton, L.-Horváth, S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. László, M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László, M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László, M. 2001b. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M.-Imre, K.-Jose, E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99

  15. Análisis de la calidad del polen en genotipos de papa Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena y reacción a Phytophthora infestans en progenies Pollen quality analysis in Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena and reaction to Phytophthora infestans in progenies

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    Ospina M. María Carolina

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigación Tibaitatá, de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica, localizado en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundinamarca, Colombia, con una temperatura media de 13°C y 751 mm de precipitación pluvial anual, se evaluó la viabilidad de polen en cultivares de Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena, caracterizados por presentar resistencia a «gota» (Phytophthora infestans y precocidad. Los materiales en referencia tienen como números de origen los siguientes: 658, 678, 275, 250, 215 y 330 y como identificación los nombres: Monserrate, Lupa, Bogotana, nn, Ojona, y Manpuerra, respectivamente. De los materiales mencionados se colectó polen con el fin de evaluar su viabilidad, mediante la aplicación de los métodos de tinción morfológica y germinación in vitro, considerando para el primero como granos fértiles a aquéllos perfectamente teñidos, y, para el segundo, los que presentaron elongación del tubo polínico. En ambos métodos se realizó un conteo del número de granos viables determinando así, el porcentaje de viabilidad de polen. Con el fin de obtener semillas para evaluar la resistencia a «gota», se realizaron cruzamientos controlados entre las variedades, los cuales se distinguieron por la formación de bayas. A partir de la semilla de las progenies se obtuvieron plántulas que fueron inoculadas con el patógeno y se clasificaron dentro de las categorías de resistentes, intermedias y susceptibles. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que las poblaciones segregantes son útiles como posibles nuevas variedades superando, a la variedad Monserrate cuya resistencia es horizontal.
    Pollen's viability in Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena cultivars has been evaluated, mainly characterized by having late blight resistance (Phytophthora infestans and precocity. The materials were originally referenced like 658, 678, 275, 250, 215 and 330, and their identification names are: Monserrate, Lupa

  16. Obtención de plantas sanas de papa, Solanum tuberosum L. Variedad salentuna. A través de las técnicas de termoterapia y cultivo de meristemas in vitro.

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    Marulanda Aguirre Adriana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron plantas Super Elite de papa (Solanum tuberosum L., de la variedad regional Salentuna, catalogada como papa filia, implementando las técnicas de termoterapia, cultivo in vitro de meristemas y multiplicación acelerada. Se limpió esta variedad del complejo de enfermedades que la afectaban, para entregarle a los productores un material sano que los motive a regresar al campo con una alternativa de producción de mayor calidad y rentabilidad. La falta de semilla sana es una necesidad sentida por los agricultores del departamento de Caldas, pues hace más de treinta años que no se renueva el material vegetal y no existen programas de producción de semilla certificad de esta variedad en el país.

  17. Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung Epidermis Extract Inhibits Mite Antigen-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice by Regulating the Th1/Th2 Balance and Expression of Filaggrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gabsik; Cheon, Se-Yun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Sung-Jin; Hong, Chul-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Jin-Cheol; Kwon, Oh-Keun; Nam, Jung-Hwan; An, Hyo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung (JY) is a potato with dark purple flesh and contains substantial amounts of polyphenols. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of S. tuberosum L. cv JY in a mouse model of Dermatophagoides farinae body (Dfb)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). The ethanol extract of the peel of JY (EPJ) ameliorated Dfb-induced dermatitis severity, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine. Histological analysis of the skin also revealed that EPJ treatment significantly decreased mast cell infiltration. The suppression of dermatitis by EPJ treatment was accompanied by a decrease in the skin levels of type 2 helper T-cell cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which leads to a systemic Th2 response, was also decreased in the skin by EPJ. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 was decreased by EPJ in Dfb-induced NC/Nga mice. The protein expression of filaggrin in the AD-like skin lesions was restored by EPJ treatment. These results suggested that EPJ may be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of AD.

  18. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en el Valle de Toluca

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    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP o enfermedad del “amarillamiento por psilidos” la cual es asociada con la presencia de “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”. El objetivo de esta investigación fue detectar la presencia de esta bacteria y de fitoplasmas en plantas de papa que presentaban la coloración purpura de los foliolos. Durante el ciclo primavera – verano 2011 y 2012 se hizo un muestreo en los municipios de Tenango del Valle, Zinacantepec, Villa de Allende y San José del Rincón, del Estado de México. La detección de ambos patógenos se realizó mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con los iniciadores específicos para fitoplasmas: P1/P7, R16mF2/R16mR1 y para Ca Liberibacter solanacearum: OA2/Oi2c, resultando el 35,8% de las plantas positivas para fitoplasmas y el 11,6% para la bacteria. Los resultados indican  que en algunas regiones productoras de papa del Estado de México,  los dos presuntos agentes causales del síndrome de  PMP, fitoplasmas y Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum, pueden estar asociados. Palabras clave: Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum; Fitoplasma; punta morada. Abstract In Mexico and Central America have been detected stained potato tubers with internal browning; recently in Texas, USA, this disease has been called "Zebra Chip" (ZC or striped potato, foliar symptoms resemble the syndrome called "Potato Purple Top" (PPT or "psyllid yellows" disease which is associated with the presence of "Candidatus liberibacter solanacearum

  19. Effect of Organic Fertilizers in Combination with Chemical Fertilizer on Tuber Yield and Some Qualitative Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    ROUHOLLAH Amini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the staple foods for human, with a very high yield. In Iran, the ever-increasing average consumption of potato is over 35 kg while increasing population and high cost of other food sources inevitably leads to need for higher crop production. Generally, humic acid products are available as inexpensive salt solutions such as potassium humate. Humic acid is used to decrease the negative impacts of chemical fertilizers and some other chemicals present in the soil. Impact of humic acid on plant growth has long been established. Ghosh et al. (2004 discussed humic substances as the natural technological products with their miraculous effects on crops and concluded that a scientific and practical program is needed to use this technology in the world, particularly in the developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the effects of different fertilizer treatments on yield components, tuber yield and nitrate concentration of potato tuber to identify the best fertilizer treatment for potato production. Material and Methods In order to evaluate the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and some qualitative characteristics of potato, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications during 2013 in Ardebil region, Iran. This experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with eight treatments and three replications. The fertilizer treatments were including control (without fertilizer, farm manure +50% urea, Pars Humic +50% urea, Bird Hume organic fertilizer, 100% chemical fertilizer (urea, Pars Humic Plus organic fertilizer, Bird Hume + 50% urea and farm manure.Pars Humic Plus organic fertilizer was applied at the rate of 4 kg.ha-1 as mixed with water during 6-8 leaf stage, flowering stage, and tubers expansion stage. Pars Humic Plus organic and biological fertilizer contained 60% humic acid, 15% fulvic

  20. Variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L.. I - Comportamento de 12 variedades procedentes da Holanda, Alemanha e Suécia Behavior of twelve potato varieties from European sources

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    O. J. Boock

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatadas experiências com 12 variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., recebidas da Holanda (Prinslander, Irene, Froma e Barima, Alemanha (Merkur, Sabina, Linda e Concordia e Suécia Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran e Jätte-Bintje. Essas experiências, em número de seis, das quais três no chamado período "da sêca" (março-julho e três no "das águas" (setembro-janeiro, foram executadas nas localidades de Campinas, Louveira o Capão Bonito, no Estado de São Paulo. Ficou evidenciado o seguinte: a dado o bom estado de brotação dos tubérculos, as porcentagens de falhas no plantio "da sêca" foram baixas; já no plantio "das águas", as variedades de brotação lenta, como "Voran" e "Sabina", falharam muito; b "Prinslander" e "Konsuragis" resistiram bem à sêca prolongada, e "Barima" o "Linda" mostraram ser muito sensíveis; c "Linda", "Voran" e "Merkur", principalmente a primeira destas, apresentaram boa resistência a Phytophthora infestans, e "Jätte-Bintje" foi muito suscetível; "Voran", "Irene", "Prinslander" e "Barima" não ofereceram resistência a Alternaria solani; d "Merkur" e "Konsuragis" foram as mais produtivas para as duas épocas de plantio, sendo que "nas águas", "Eigenheimer", "Barima", "Concordia" e Jätte-Bintje", também produziram bem. Outros aspectos relacionados com variedades foram estudados.Twelve potato varieties imported from Holland (Prinslander, Irene, Froma, and Barima, Germany (Merkur, Sabina, Linda, and Concordia, and Sweden (Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran, and Jätte-Bintje were compared in six experiments carried out at three different localities in the state of São Paulo (Campinas, Louveira, and Capão Bonito. The experiments were planted twice a year, once during the so-called dry season (March lo July, and another time during the rainy season (September to March. The following results were obtained: a plantings made in the dry season had a good stand, whereas this was

  1. Variabilidad espacial de propiedades edáficas y su relación con el rendimiento en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Muñoz Juan D.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se efectuó una investigación con el fin de modelar la variabilidad espacial de algunas propiedades del suelo y su relación con la variación de la producción en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosumL., como base para identificar algunos indicadores de calidad de suelos en el departamento de Cundinamarca, región andina de Colombia. Mediante la realización de diversos análisis espaciales se encontró una alta variabilidad espacial de las propiedades del suelo y de la producción dentro del lote. Por otra parte, se encontró que el pH, la suma de bases y saturación de Al son las características de mayor influencia sobre el rendimiento, por lo tanto, pueden ser utilizadas como indicadores de calidad del suelo

  2. VARIACIÓN DE LA DIFUSIVIDAD TÉRMICA DEL LOCHE (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) Y EL CAMOTE (Ipomoea batatas L.) DURANTE EL CALENTAMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Solano-Corenjo, Miguel Ángel; Universidad Señor de Sipan; Vidaurre-Ruiz, Julio Mauricio; Universidad Señor de Sipan

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la variación de la difusividad térmica del loche, la papa y el camote durante el calentamiento. También se evaluó la bondad de ajuste con los diferentes modelos predictivos que relacionan la variación de la difusividad térmica con respecto a la temperatura. Los valores de difusividad térmica efectiva se obtuvieron utilizando la curva de calentamiento de las muestras a las temperaturas de 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 y 90°C y se compararon los valores experi...

  3. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

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    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  4. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de; Lima, Eduardo; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha -1 of N + K with 27.03% at P -1 , in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  5. Pólen 2n e mecanismos meióticos de formação em Solanum commersonii ssp 2n pollen and meiotic mechanisms of Formation in Solanum commersonii ssp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gracielle Oliveira Tomé

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. e Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 - 1EBN não podem ser diretamente cruzadas com a batata cultivada de S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 -4 EBN em razão da barreira da ploidia e do número de equilíbrio do endosperma (EBN. No entanto, a produção de pólen não reduzido por S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 - 1EBN, permite o cruzamento desta com dihaplóides de batata e com as espécies diplóides S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. e S. chacoense Bitt., que possuem 2 EBN. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar o mecanismo meiótico e a freqüência dos grãos de pólen não reduzidos em cinco clones de Solanum commersonii ssp. Foram avaliados três clones de S. commersonii subsp. commersonii (SCC e dois de S. commersonii subsp. malmeanum (SCM. Nas avaliações, duzentos grãos de pólen viáveis foram corados (carmim acético 2% e mensurados, sendo considerados não reduzidos aqueles com o diâmetro igual ou superior a 25 µm. O clone Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC 100 produz 26.1% de polen não reduzido, por fusos fundidos e fusos paralelos, o qual pode ser utilizado em programas de melhoramento.Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. and Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 -1EBN cannot be directly crossed with the cultivated Solanum tuberosum subsp. Tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 - 4EBN species due to ploidy barriers and endosperm balance number (EBN. However, non-reduced pollen production by the wild species S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 -1EBN, allows the crossing of these species with dihaploids of potato and with the diploids species, S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. and S. chacoense Bitt., all with 2EBN. The aim of this work was to determine the meiotic mechanism and frequency of non-reduced pollen production of five clones of S. commersonii ssp. Three different clones of S. commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC and two of S

  6. Evaluación del rendimiento del cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum) variedad chaucha con el manejo fisionutricional (MFN) frente al manejo tradicional en la hacienda "San Patricio" ubicada en la Parroquia Tomebamba del cantón Paute provincia del Azuay

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Zeas, Carlos Geovanny; León Escandón, Wilmer Alfredo; Rojas Orellana, Alicia Guillermina

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo es producto de la investigación que se realizó en la Hacienda San Patricio en la Parroquia Tomebamba. En donde se evaluó el rendimiento del cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum) variedad chaucha con el manejo fisionutricional (MFN) frente al manejo tradicional; con esta investigación se trata de que los agricultores tengan conocimientos sobre nuevas tecnologías de manejo de cultivo de papa. Para entender el Manejo Fisionutricional debemos tomar en cuenta que un manejo ad...

  7. Evaluación preliminar del efecto que sobre algunas enzimas del suelo tienen diferentes mecanismos de control del hongo (Phytophthora infestans) en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum) bajo dos tipos de manejo agrícola (orgánico y convencional)

    OpenAIRE

    Guardiola Marta Lucía; Murcia García Pedro Nel; Melgarejo Luz Marina

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó comparativamente el posible efecto diferencial que, sobre la actividad de las enzimas proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina y celulasa, además del pH y la materia orgánica del suelo, tuvieron los métodos de control de Phytophthora infestans tanto en la agricultura orgánica (purín de Chipaca Bidens pilosum) como en la convencional (diversos fungicidas comerciales) en plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum). Igualmente, en los parámetros antes mencionados, se evaluó el efecto de u...

  8. Transient decreases in methylation at 5'-cCGG-3' sequences in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) meristem DNA during progression of tubers through dormancy precede the resumption of sprout growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, R David; Suttle, Jeffrey C

    2003-02-01

    The 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content in DNA of tuber meristems isolated from field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) was determined during a 7-month storage period at 3 degrees C for three growing/postharvest seasons. No significant changes in 5mC levels were noted genome-wide or within 5'-CG-3' dinucleotide sequences, 5'-CG-3' islands or 5'-CA(T)G-3' trinucleotide sequences during storage. However, a consistent but transient 50-70% decrease in methylation at both cytosines within 5'-CCGG-3' sequences was detected that peaked 112-194 days after harvest. This result was corroborated by methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of meristem DNA. Similar to tuber meristems undergoing progression through natural dormancy, premature chemical termination of dormancy resulted in rapid, transient 5'-CCGG-3' demethylation in meristem DNA. Minimum methylation levels at this sequence preceded initiation of high levels of de novo DNA synthesis by two days. Cytosine methylation status was also followed in in vitro-generated potato microtubers during 7 months of post-harvest storage. As in DNA from tuber bud meristems, no changes in genome-wide 5mC content or methylation at 5'-CA(T)G-3' or 5'-CG-3' island sequences were noted in microtuber DNA. However, there was a transient 46% drop in methylation at 5'-CG-3' dinucleotides concomitant with minimum levels of 5'-CCGG-3' methylation (30-60% below those in dormant microtubers) 57-98 days after harvest. As microtubers exited dormancy, there were sustained three- and seven-fold increases in RNA and DNA synthesis rates, peaking on or after 98 days of storage, respectively. Together, these data demonstrate that demethylation of 5'-CCGG-3' sequences occurs independently of tuber age during dormancy progression and precedes transcriptional activation of genes leading to cell division and meristem growth in potatoes.

  9. Influence of spatial arrangements in maize/solanum potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum tuberosum L.) on the incidence of potato aphids and leafhoppers was conducted at Namulonge in Uganda during the two growing seasons of 1995. Three potato varieties and one maize variety were intercropped in six spatial ...

  10. Antiproliferative activity of cytotoxic tuber lectins from Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    tumor potential against experimentally induced Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice was evaluated. Twenty. (20) kDa chitin-binding lectins from Solanum tuberosum tubers, STL-S and STL-D were purified through.

  11. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers...... that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal....... In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy...

  12. Ipomoea Batatas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tope

    Sweet potato leaves (Ipomoea batatas) decoction is a folk remedy for asthma, bugbites, burns, catarrh, diarrhea, fever, nausea, stomach distress and tumours. Also this plant has haematinic effects and has been used in the treatment of anaemia and other related ailments. Sweet potato leaves were used to feed rabbits.

  13. Caracterização química e física de batatas ágata e monalisa minimamente processadas Chemical and physical characterization of fresh-cut potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia L. O. Pineli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar química e fisicamente batatas minimamente processadas durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Batatas (Solanum tuberosum, L. ágata e monalisa foram minimamente processadas como minibatatas. Após o processamento, as batatas foram acondicionadas sob vácuo parcial e, posteriormente, armazenadas em câmaras frias a 5 e 15ºC, por nove dias. A cada três dias, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: firmeza, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, açúcares solúveis totais, amido e vitamina C total. Nas batatas armazenadas a 15ºC, constatou-se que, após nove dias de armazenamento, sua firmeza era 3,3 vezes menor em batatas monalisa e 4,3 vezes menor para a cultivar ágata, quando comparadas com o produto recém-processado. A atividade da polifenoloxidase mostrou-se praticamente estável em batatas monalisa armazenadas a 5ºC. Batatas monalisa minimamente processadas apresentaram maior atividade da peroxidase a 5ºC, sendo 86% maior do que a atividade desta enzima em batatas ágata ao final do período experimental. O teor inicial de açúcares solúveis totais nas batatas minimamente processadas era 28% maior na cultivar monalisa, quando comparada com tubérculos de ágata. As duas cultivares apresentaram tendência de elevação do teor de amido nos primeiros três dias, para as duas temperaturas estudadas. Em ambas as cultivares, armazenamento a 5ºC possibilitou maior manutenção dos teores de vitamina C.The present work was carried out aiming to evaluate chemical and physical characteristics of fresh-cut potatoes stored under 5 and 15°C. Potatoes, (Solanum tuberosum L. ágata and Monalisa were minimally processed as baby potatoes. After processing, the material was packed under partial vacuum and stored at 5 and 15°C for nine days. Every three days tubers were evaluated for firmness, enzymatic activity (polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase, total soluble sugars, starch, and total vitamin C

  14. Targeted and Untargeted Approaches Unravel Novel Candidate Genes and Diagnostic SNPs for Quantitative Resistance of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Phytophthora infestans Causing the Late Blight Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Teresa; Alvarez, Maria Fernanda; Jiménez-Gómez, José M; Muktar, Meki Shehabu; Paulo, Maria João; Steinemann, Sebastian; Li, Jinquan; Draffehn, Astrid; Hofmann, Andrea; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhardt; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    ), a transcription factor and a homolog of a major gene for resistance to P. infestans from the wild potato species Solanum venturii. The candidate gene approach and GWAS complemented each other as they identified different genes. The results of this study provide new insight in the molecular genetic basis of quantitative resistance in potato and a toolbox of diagnostic SNP markers for breeding applications.

  15. Transfer of U, Al and Mn in the water-soil-plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) system near a former uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal) and implications to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M O; Figueiredo, V R; Abreu, M M

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge about metals in crops, grown in contaminated soils around mine sites, is limited and concerns about exposure to hazardous elements through the consumption of contaminated foodstuff, are high. In this study a field experiment was carried out in two agricultural soils located near a former uranium mine area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water quality on soil-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop system and to evaluate if the consumption of the crop represents health risk to the local villagers. The soils were divided in two plots: one irrigated with contaminated water (U: 1.03-1.04mg/L; Al: 7.5-8.00mg/L; Mn: 4.52mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (U: 14-10μg/L; Al: 17-23μg/L; Mn: 2.4-5.7μg/L). After irrigation and potato growth, only soil characteristics, as salinity and total U and Mn concentrations were significantly different from those measured at the beginning of the experiment. Within the potato plants, elements were mostly translocated and concentrated in the aerial part: stems and leaves (U: 73-87%; Al: 85-96%; Mn: 85-94%), which minimize the risk of contamination of the edible tissue. In potato tubers, the highest average concentrations (121-590μg U/kg; 25-64mg Al/kg; 12-13mg Mn/kg dry weight) were registered at soil plots irrigated with contaminated water. Uranium and Al were mostly concentrated in the potato peel (88-96 and 76-85%, respectively), and Mn (67-78%) in the pulp, which reinforces the importance of removing peel to minimize human exposure. The risk analysis calculated for non-cancer health effects (hazard quotient), related only to the exposure through the consumption of this basic foodstuff, revealed safety for Cunha Baixa village residents (adults and children) even when potato crop was grown on U enriched soils and irrigated with contaminated water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Green synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles using Solanum tuberosum extract and their interaction with human serum albumin: Evidence of "corona" formation through a multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Sajid; Altaf, Mohammad; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A

    2017-08-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by using Solanum tuberosum (potato) extract (PE) as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent which is reasonably cheaper, non-toxic and easily available material. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out by very simple method and the nanoparticles were characterized by surface plasmon band as well as TEM measurements. The PE-AgNPs were highly dispersed in the solution and found to be spherical with around 10nm in size. Interaction of these nanoparticles was studied with plasma protein HSA by means of various spectroscopies, such as, UV-visible, fluorescence, DLS, CD and FTIR spectroscopies. The HSA was found to form the protein "corona" around the starch-capped PE-AgNPs. Absorption spectroscopy revealed that the interaction between HSA and PE-AgNPs resulted in the ground state complex formation. Due to the strong absorption of PE-AgNPs, the inner filter effect was corrected for the fluorescence data. PE-AgNPs were found to quench the fluorescence of HSA with a small blue shift attributed to the increase in the hydrophobicity near tryptophan residue due to the presence of amylopectin and amylose units in the starch. The value of n, Hill's constant, was found to be >1 which determines the existence of a cooperative binding between nanoparticle and albumin. Several parameters such as Stern-Volmer and binding constants in addition to the thermodynamic parameters have been analyzed and discussed which established that the complex formation has taken place via static quenching mechanism and the corona formation between albumin and PE-AgNPs was entropy driven process. Binding of biogenic PE-AgNPs to the HSA slightly affected the secondary structure of latter with a small decrease in α-helical contents resulting in the partial unfolding of the protein, though the structural motif remained the same. Molecular docking simulations revealed various possible binding modes between PE-AgNPs and

  17. Transfer of U, Al and Mn in the water-soil-plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) system near a former uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal) and implications to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.O., E-mail: orquidia.neves@ist.utl.pt [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Figueiredo, V.R., E-mail: vera.figueiredo@ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M.M., E-mail: manuelaabreu@isa.utl.pt [Unidade de Investigacao de Quimica Ambiental, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge about metals in crops, grown in contaminated soils around mine sites, is limited and concerns about exposure to hazardous elements through the consumption of contaminated foodstuff, are high. In this study a field experiment was carried out in two agricultural soils located near a former uranium mine area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water quality on soil-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop system and to evaluate if the consumption of the crop represents health risk to the local villagers. The soils were divided in two plots: one irrigated with contaminated water (U: 1.03-1.04 mg/L; Al: 7.5-8.00 mg/L; Mn: 4.52 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (U: 14-10 {mu}g/L; Al: 17-23 {mu}g/L; Mn: 2.4-5.7 {mu}g/L). After irrigation and potato growth, only soil characteristics, as salinity and total U and Mn concentrations were significantly different from those measured at the beginning of the experiment. Within the potato plants, elements were mostly translocated and concentrated in the aerial part: stems and leaves (U: 73-87%; Al: 85-96%; Mn: 85-94%), which minimize the risk of contamination of the edible tissue. In potato tubers, the highest average concentrations (121-590 {mu}g U/kg; 25-64 mg Al/kg; 12-13 mg Mn/kg dry weight) were registered at soil plots irrigated with contaminated water. Uranium and Al were mostly concentrated in the potato peel (88-96 and 76-85%, respectively), and Mn (67-78%) in the pulp, which reinforces the importance of removing peel to minimize human exposure. The risk analysis calculated for non-cancer health effects (hazard quotient), related only to the exposure through the consumption of this basic foodstuff, revealed safety for Cunha Baixa village residents (adults and children) even when potato crop was grown on U enriched soils and irrigated with contaminated water. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Field experiment with potato in agricultural soils near

  18. Caracterización de fosfatasas de proteínas 2 A en Solanum tuberosum L. y su participación en vías de señalización asociadas a tuberización y estrés

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Silvia Marina

    2010-01-01

    La fosforilación reversible de proteínas tiene un rol importante en la señalización asociada al desarrollo y al estrés en plantas. Algunos estudios sugieren que las fosfatasas de proteínas 2A (PP2A) están involucradas en estos procesos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar las subunidades catalíticas de PP2A (PP2Ac) en Solanum tuberosum L. y estudiar su participación en la señalización asociada a la tuberización y el estrés. Búsquedas bioinformáticas en bases de datos de ESTs revelaro...

  19. Efeito de tratamentos fitossanitários na produção de cultivares de batateira (Solanum tuberosum L. no planalto do Huambo (Angola Effect of pesticides application on the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. varieties production, in Huambo country (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaculada da Conceição Henriques

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se ensaios realizados, no ano agrícola 2004/5, em blocos casualizados completos com parcelas subdivididas no tempo, para estudo do comportamento de 3 cultivares de batata-semente importada - ‘Diamant’, ‘Romano’, ‘Picasso’ - e 3 cultivares regionais - ‘Tchigembo’, ‘Kanjangala’, ‘Boa nova regional’ -, plantadas em duas datas (Outubro e Fevereiro da época das chuvas e numa terceira data (Junho, na época seca, praticada em regadio. Os ensaios foram repetidos em três locais da Província do Huambo - Bailundo, Chianga e Calenga - distanciados de cerca de 50 km. Em todas as épocas e cultivares aplicaram-se, ou não, produtos fitofarmacêuticos, fungicida (mancozebe + metalaxil-M nas duas primeiras épocas, para combate do míldio (Phytophthora infestans e insecticida (lambda-cihalotrina na terceira data de plantação, para controlo de afídios (Myzus persicae. Avaliaram-se o número e peso dos tubérculos, total e com valor comercial (Ø > 25 mm, a incidência e a severidade do míldio e dos afídios e o período vegetativo da batateira.Trials in complete casual blocks subdivided in the time to compare the behaviour of 3 imported seed-potato cultivars - ‘Diamant’, ‘Romano’, ‘Picasso’ - and 3 regional cultivars - ‘Tchigembo’, ‘Kanjangala’, ‘Boa nova regional’ -, planted in two dates on rain season (October and February and in a third date (June, in dry season, with irrigation. The trials were repeated in three locals of the Huambo country - Bailundo, Chianga e Calenga - with 50 km of distance. In all seasons and cultivars were applied, or not, pesticides, the fungicide (mancozeb + metalaxil-M during the two first seasons, to control the potato blight (Phytophthora infestans and the insecticide (lambda-cihalotrine on the third season to control the aphids (Myzus persicae. The number and weight of the total and commercial value tubers (Ø > 25 mm, the incidence and severity of the late blight

  20. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    increased by 635 and 765 euro ha-1y-1 with FTS and MBR, respectively. Tubers were not contaminated by E. coli found in treated wastewater used for irrigation. The frequency of heavy metal and nitrate detection in tubers were comparable among water sources, as well as for the average contents. Only for boron...

  1. Molecular characterization of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both RAPD and ISSR primers revealed 81.45 and 82.98% polymorphism, respectively. Mantel test showed no correlation between RAPD and ISSR (0.27), RAPD and RAPD + ISSR (0.47) similarity matrices. However, a high level of correlation (0.74) was observed between ISSR and RAPD + ISSR similarity matrices.

  2. Morphological characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... for this trait to least significant difference test (LSD) and all the varieties were grouped into five homogenous groups, where the means were not significantly different from one another (Tables 1 and 2). SH-19 and Asterix were in group 'A' by producing highest number of seedlings and this was also visible ...

  3. Técnica para o estudo da anatomia da epiderme foliar de batata A technique for the anatomical study of potato leaf epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bastos Segatto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Embora a batata (Solanum tuberosum seja uma espécie de grande valor econômico, são poucas as informações disponíveis sobre a anatomia foliar, principalmente de características estruturais da epiderme. O estudo da anatomia foliar assume grande importância básica, para a ecologia e fisiologia, e aplicada para a fitopatologia e o melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar uma técnica histológica que permite a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes para avaliar a epiderme foliar, em vista frontal, de um grande número de plantas de batata em um curto período de tempo. O corte paradérmico a mão livre, o método de Jeffrey e as técnicas de hidróxido de potássio e de impressão da epiderme foram avaliados. Lâminas semipermanentes foram confeccionadas da secção frontal da epiderme de folíolos principais do terço médio de plantas de batata. A impressão da epiderme em lâmina foi a única técnica que possibilitou a avaliação adequada de todos os clones de batata utilizados. A impressão da epiderme é uma técnica muito rápida, de baixo custo e de fácil execução, que atende os requisitos necessários para a identificação e seleção de características anatômicas de um grande número de plantas em um programa de melhoramento genético de batata.Even though potato (Solanum tuberosum is an economically important crop, information about leaf characteristics of anatomical structure has not been well studied. Studies of leaf epidermis have significance for basic fields as ecology and physiology and for applied fields as plant pathology and breeding. The objective of this research was to identify a fast and easy technique to prepare semi-permanent slides for studying the anatomy of potato leaf epidermis. Para dermal free hand cut, Jeffrey method, potassium hydroxide and epidermal fingerprint on glass slide techniques were evaluated. Semi-permanent slides were prepared from the longitudinal section of

  4. IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1 gene) is involved in tuberous root initiation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Amy Tsu; Huang, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Yu-Shu; Ma, Daifu; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-07-01

    The tuberization mechanism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has long been studied using various approaches. Morphological data have revealed that the tuberizing events result from the activation of the cambium, followed by cell proliferation. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the regulators participating in this signal-transduction pathway. An attempt was made to characterize the role of one MADS-box transcription factor, which was preferentially expressed in sweet potato roots at the early tuberization stage. A differential expression level of IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1) was detected temporally and spatially in sweet potato tissues. IbMADS1 responses to tuberization-related hormones were assessed. In order to identify the evolutionary significance, the expression pattern of IbMADS1 was surveyed in two tuber-deficient Ipomoea relatives, I. leucantha and I. trifida, and compared with sweet potato. In functional analyses, potato (Solanum tuberosum) was employed as a heterologous model. The resulting tuber morphogenesis was examined anatomically in order to address the physiological function of IbMADS1, which should act similarly in sweet potato. IbMADS1 was preferentially expressed as tuberous root development proceeded. Its expression was inducible by tuberization-related hormones, such as jasmonic acid and cytokinins. In situ hybridization data showed that IbMADS1 transcripts were specifically distributed around immature meristematic cells within the stele and lateral root primordia. Inter-species examination indicated that IbMADS1 expression was relatively active in sweet potato roots, but undetectable in tuber-deficient Ipomoea species. IbMADS1-transformed potatoes exhibited tuber morphogenesis in the fibrous roots. The partial swellings along fibrous roots were mainly due to anomalous proliferation and differentiation in the xylem. Based on this study, it is proposed that IbMADS1 is an important integrator at the initiation of tuberization

  5. Efficiency of breeding method for screening of mutants. [Mutant induction by. gamma. irradiation of rice and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum and Ipomoea batatas) for disease resistance and sugar and starch content of tubers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The method of isolating mutation is one of the important factors for the increase of the efficiency of plant mutation breeding, as well as the method of inducing genetic variability. The population from ..gamma.. mutagenic treatments is essentially different from those from hybridization in the genetic structure, that is, most mutated genes are recessive and mutants are found as genetically fixed individuals at rather early generations, but sporadically and with relatively low frequency in a population. Therefore, a particular breeding procedure, M/sub 1/ spike progeny method established at an infant stage of mutation research, has long and widely been applied, but the demand to improve the efficiency of mutation breeding has come from the plant breeders who want to isolate minor change of a desired character, or to isolate rare mutants from a large number of materials. Experiences of isolating the superior lodging resistant mutant Hokuriku 100 of rice, and of improving the quantitative character in vegetatively propagated materials, that is sugar and starch content of tuber crops (potatoes), are jointly discussed with the theoretical analysis on the efficiency of the various models of breeding procedure.

  6. Efeito de micronutrientes na produção e no tipo de tubérculos de batata, em cultura efetuada em solos de várzea do Vale do Paraíba Effects of micronutrients on potato crops production in hidromorfic soils of Paraíba Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gargantini

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabalho executado para estudar a influência, na produção e no tipo dos tubérculos, dos micronutrientes - ferro, cobre, zinco, molibdênio, manganês e boro - sobre a cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum, L., em solos de várzea do Vale do Paraíba. Os resultados de produção mostraram elevado efeito do boro e do molibdênio. Os outros micronutrientes não apresentaram efeito algum.The influence of the micronutrients iron, copper, zinc, molybdenium, manganese and boron added to the basic fertilizer on yield and quality of potato (Solatium tuberosum L., growing on alluvial soils was studied. An increase in the yield of 40% in soils of Avareí series and 50% of Paraiba series, was associated with application of boron and molybdenium to the soil. The effect of boron was much more pronounced than that of molybdenium. Application of iron, copper, zinc and manganese have no significant effect on potato yield.

  7. Evaluación de bacilos aerobios formadores de endosporas (bafes) para el control biológico de Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn en el cultivo de papa criolla (solanum tuberosum Grupo Phureja)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Zapata, Diana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani es un hongo fitopatógeno que produce la enfermedad de la Rizoctoniasis en cultivos de papa (Solanun tuberosum) a nivel mundial causando reducción en el rendimiento y la producción entre el 10% y el 26% Los mecanismos de control que se utilizan en la actualidad no permiten un control efectivo de la enfermedad, demandan altos costos y generan problemas medioambientales que estimulan a la búsqueda de estrategias alternativas y/o adicionales como el uso de bacilos formadores de...

  8. Évaluation de la productivité de la pomme de terre (Solanum Tuberosum L., sous l’effet de l’irrigation avec une eau traitée magnétiquement, dans la région de Chaouia (Maroc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda TAIMOURYA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature reports that there are some beneficial effects of irrigation water treatment by a static magnetic field. Magnetic field improved the production and the growth characteristics of the plants and make water less limiting to production conditions. To quantify the effect of the application of this new technology on crop production in Moroccan production conditions, an experiment was conducted in situ on a farm situated in the region of Chaouia-Ouardigha. A randomized complete design, with three replicates, was used in the experiment for each treatment of irrigation water (magnetized and ordinary. Potatoes plants (Solanum tuberosum L.,were controlled through regular measurements of growth and production parameters. Magnetic treatments of irrigation water gave the best results. We noted a significantly increase in plant height; branch number; fresh weight of aerial part; dry matter and root fresh weight in the order of 13,9%; 50%; 110%; 91,6% and 40,1%, respectively and an increase in the yield of 35,7%. Finally, we emphasized that the technique of magnetic field in agricultural fields could be a promising technique for agricultural production improvement but extensive research is still required.

  9. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  10. Simulação do desenvolvimento da batata cultivar asterix em cinco cenários de mudanças climáticas em Santa Maria, RS Simulation of potato cultivar asterix development under five climate change scenarios in Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos do impacto de mudanças climáticas sobre agroecossistemas, um aspecto importante a quantificar é o efeito do aquecimento global sobre o desenvolvimento vegetal. O objetivo desse trabalho foi simular o impacto de cenários climáticos de aumento de temperatura do ar no desenvolvimento da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., em Santa Maria, (RS. Cenários meteorológicos de mudanças climáticas (+2 °C, +3 °C, +4 °C, +5 °C e +6 °C para os próximos cem anos foram gerados com Weather Generator LARS-WG usando-se como base a série de dados meteorológicos observados de 1969 a 2003, em Santa Maria, RS. Por meio de um modelo matemático, calculou-se a taxa diária de desenvolvimento da planta e a data dos principais estágios de desenvolvimento da batata, cv. Asterix: emergência, início de tuberização, início de senescência e colheita. Foram consideradas duas épocas de cultivo da batata, o cultivo de outono (plantio em 10/2 e o cultivo de primavera (plantio em 20/7. Verificou-se, para o cultivo de outono, um grande aumento (até 42 dias no ciclo total (emergência-colheita com o aumento da temperatura do ar. Já para o cultivo de primavera, obteve-se uma tendência de um pequeno encurtamento (5-8 dias do ciclo total da batata com o aumento da temperatura média do ar, dependendo do nível de aquecimento. Fases intermediárias do desenvolvimento da batata poderão ter alterações que dependem da época de cultivo. Essas diferentes tendências no comportamento do desenvolvimento da batata refletem a complexidade da resposta dos agroecossistemas à mudança climática.In studies of the impact of climate change on agroecosystems, it is important to quantify the effect of global warming on crop development. The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of increasing air temperature scenarios on the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. development in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State. Climate change scenarios of increasing air

  11. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...

  12. Functional genomics of Phytophthora infestans effectors and Solanum resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champouret, N.

    2010-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is nowadays the most important non-cereal food crop in the world. It is prone to huge annual losses due to late blight, the disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Modern management of late blight necessitates the use of multiple resistance (R)

  13. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BADO, Souleymane

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated ... Micro-tubers were found to be more resistant for in vitro mutation induction than in vitro cuttings. This study shows the ...... analysed by gene expression patterns. Ann. 1st. Super Sanita.

  14. Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria Associated With Irish Potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 15 samples of spoilt Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were collected from five grocery shops in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria and were analysed for aerobic mesophilic bacterial load. The isolated aerobic mesophilic bacteria were phenotypically characterized by biochemical tests and their susceptibility to ...

  15. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  16. Inibição da brotação de tubérculos de batatinha - Solanum Tuberosum L. Treating irish potato tubers with sprout inhibiting products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    0. J. Boock

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Em prosseguimento aos trabalhos iniciados em 1946, referentes ao uso de substâncias inibidoras da brotação de tubéreulos de batatinha usadas tanto para o consumo como para o plantio, são relatados agora os estudos mais recentes e nos quais foram obtidos resultados dos mais animadores, sobrepujando aquêles já publicados (1. Assim, ficou evidenciado que o produto comercial "Ipnogerm", à base de naftil-acetato de metilo, foi um dos mais eficientes na redução da brotação de tubéreulos de batatinha e na perda de pêso, seguido de "Aaservo", à base de isopropil-fenil-carbamato, enquanto o "Barsprout", à base do éster metflico do ácido alfa-naftaleno acético, foi o que mais impediu o aparecimento de podridão mole, ao contrário do "Aaservo". Em relação à podridão sêca, causada por Fusarium, os produtos mais recomendados foram "Fusarex", à base de tetra-cloro-nitro-benzeno, "Agermina", à base de éster metílico do ácido alfa-naftaleno-acético, e "Ralentone", à base de alcani-metil-naftaleno. De um modo geral, os produtos "Ipnogerm", "Aaservo" e "Tuberite", êste último à base de isopropil-fenil-carbamato, não devem ser empregados para batatas-semente, ao contrário do "Fusarex", "Ralentone" e ''Agermina", fato êste comprovado pelo plantio dos tubérculos tratados.Several sprout inhibiting products were tested on Irish potato tubers. "Ipnogerm", a methyl-acetate compound, gave best results, reducing tuber sprouting and loss of weight, "Aaservo", on the basis of isopropil-phenyl-earbamate, was less effective, while "Barsprout", a methyl ester of the alfa-naphtalene acetic acid, was the most effective on the control of tuber soft rot. The dry rot disease caused by Fusarium, during storage, was better controlled by "Fusarex", a tetra-chloro-nitro-bcnzene product, ''Agermina", a methyl-ester of the alfa-naphtalene acetic acid, and "Ralentone", on the basis of alkani-methyl-naphta-lene. As a rule, "Ipnogerm", "Aaservo", and

  17. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  18. Efecto de la edad al trasplante y de la concentración de azúcar in vitro sobre la adaptación y el crecimiento de vitroplantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. vars. atlantic y 1625 frito lay en invernadero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Orozco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La aclimatización y posterior crecimiento y desarrollo in vivo de plantas propagadas in vitro constituye una de las etapas culminantes del proceso de micropropagación de una especie. Esta investigación se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de diferentes edades al trasplante (15, 20 y 25 días de cultivo y el preacondicionamiento in vitro con tres niveles de azúcar comercial (15, 30 y 45 g L-1 sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo en invernadero de vitroplantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. vars. Atlantic y 1625 Frito Lay. En el primer caso se usó el medio de cultivo MS (1962 suministrado por laboratorios Gibco, a razón de 17 g L-1 y suplementado con vitaminas y aminoácidos del mismo medio. En el segundo caso se usó el medio Hyponex a razón de 2.25 g L-1 suplementado con las vitaminas y aminoácidos del medio MS. Los resultados indican que es posible trasplantar a suelo plantas de ambas variedades en cualquiera de las tres edades, sin afectar el rendimiento de minitubérculos. Sin embargo, la tasa de fotosíntesis aparente (TFA se vio favorecida al incrementarse la edad. Respecto a la influencia del preacondicionamiento in vitro con diferentes concentraciones de azúcar, las plantas de la variedad Atlantic ganaron altura, peso seco de raíz y peso fresco y seco de minitubérculos con 15 g L-1 de azúcar, mientras que en plantas de la variedad 1625, este efecto se dio en la concentración de 30 g L-1; el número de minitubérculos no fue favorecido con las concentraciones de azúcar empleadas en el medio Hyponex, pero sí en el medio MS (1962. En este último caso, la TFA sufrió una ganancia gradual al aumentar la concentración de azúcar.

  19. Evaluación preliminar del efecto que sobre algunas enzimas del suelo tienen diferentes mecanismos de control del hongo (Phytophthora infestans en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum bajo dos tipos de manejo agrícola (orgánico y convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Nel Murcia García

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó comparativamente el posible efecto diferencial que, sobre la actividad de las enzimas proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina y celulasa, además del pH y la materia orgánica del suelo, tuvieron los métodos de control de Phytophthora infestans tanto en la agricultura orgánica (purín de Chipaca Bidens pilosum como en la convencional (diversos fungicidas comerciales en plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum. Igualmente, en los parámetros antes mencionados, se evaluó el efecto de un promotor fúngico utilizado como control del mismo hongo en ambas agriculturas. La investigación se dividió en una fase de campo y una de laboratorio. En la fase de campo, realizada durante siete meses de 1999, se acompañó la siembra, el desarrollo del cultivo y evolución de la enfermedad a través de la determinación de la incidencia y su severidad. En el laboratorio se determinó la actividad enzimática proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina, celulasa, así como también el pH y porcentaje de materia orgánica. Se encontró que en el manejo agrícola orgánico la actividad de la fosfatasa ácida, la fosfatasa alcalina y la proteasa así como también el pH fueron más influenciados por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas que por efecto del los tratamientos utilizados en el control del hongo. En el manejo agrícola convencional la actividad enzimática de las celulasas fue inhibida significativamente por los fungicidas. La actividad de las proteasas y fosfatasas ácidas fueron estimuladas por efecto de los fungicidas comerciales y por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas. Las actividades enzimáticas fosfatasa ácida, proteasa y celulasa presentaron comportamientos significativamente diferentes entre los cultivos convencional y orgánico. Para el control de la enfermedad, el uso de los fungicidas fue el tratamiento que mejores resultados presentó con una mayor producción de papa pero con mayores gastos de producción, mientras

  20. Produtividade simulada de tubérculos de batata em cenários de mudanças climáticas Potato tuber simulated yield in climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to simulate potato (Solanum tuberosum tuber yield in different climate change scenarios of increased carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] and air temperature, considering symmetric and asymmetric increases in minimum and maximum daily air temperatures. Spitters model was used to simulate Asterix cultivar tuber yield considering two growing seasons (spring and fall recommended for Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each growing season, five planting dates were evaluated in climate scenarios of a hundred years with no increase in [CO2] and temperature (current scenario, and in scenarios with doubling [CO2] and temperature increases of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6ºC. A symmetric increase of 4ºC and an asymmetric increase of 5ºC in air temperature offset the yield beneficial effect of increasing [CO2] during spring, whereas increase in air temperature does not affect potato tuber yield during fall. Anticipating planting date in spring and delaying it in fall decrease the negative impact of the increasing air temperature on potato tuber yield.O objetivo deste trabalho foi simular a produtividade de tubérculos de batata (Solanum tuberosum em diferentes cenários climáticos de aumento da concentração de dióxido de carbono [CO2] e da temperatura do ar, considerando aumentos simétricos e assimétricos nas temperaturas mínimas e máximas diárias do ar. Utilizou-se o modelo de Spitters para simular a produtividade de tubérculos da cultivar Asterix, em duas épocas de cultivo (primavera e outono, recomendadas para a região de Santa Maria, RS. Em cada época, cinco datas de plantio foram avaliadas, em cenários climáticos de cem anos sem aumentos na [CO2] e na temperatura (cenário atual, e em cenários com o dobro da [CO2] atual e aumentos de 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6ºC na temperatura. No cultivo de primavera, o aumento simétrico de 4ºC, nas temperaturas mínimas e máximas diárias do ar, e assim

  1. Stock indexing and Potato virus Y elimination from potato plants cultivated in vitro Indexação de matrizes e eliminação do Potato virus Y em plantas de batata cultivadas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cordeiro Nascimento

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. have shown degeneration or run out caused by viruses after several cycles of propagation using seed tubers from commercial fields. This work reports the occurrence of single and mixed infections of four potato viruses in Paraíba-Brazil and presents a method for Potato virus Y (PVY elimination, by using thermo-and chemotherapies. Plants of potato cv. Baraka were tested by direct antigen coating ELISA. Antisera against PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV were used. Materials with positive reaction to PVY were treated for virus elimination. Single node cuttings (1.0 cm length were excised and inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (MS medium, supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 of kinetin, 0.001 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 0.1 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid (GA3. The thermotherapy at approximately 37ºC, during 30 and 40 days, resulted in 20.0 and 37.5% PVY elimination, respectively. Chemotherapy was undertaken with Ribavirin (RBV, 5-Azacytidine (AZA, and 3-Deazauridine (DZD. The RBV showed the highest rate of virus eradication, with 55.5% virus-free plants. Simultaneous thermo and chemotherapy had higher efficiency for the elimination of PVY, reaching rates of healthy plants of 83.3% with RBV, 70.0% with AZA, and 50.0% with DZD.Cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. têm mostrado degenerescência causada por vírus após ciclos sucessivos do uso de tubérculos de campos comerciais como material propagativo. Este trabalho verifica a ocorrência de infecção simples e mista de quatro vírus da batata na Paraíba e apresenta adequação da técnica de cultivo in vitro para obtenção de material livre de Potato virus Y (PVY, incluindo uso de microestacas, termo e quimioterapia. Plantas de batata do cv. Baraka foram submetidas à indexação sorológica pelo teste "direct antigen coating" ELISA. Utilizaram-se antissoros contra o PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus

  2. Produtividade e principais problemas fitossanitários de cultivares de batata em Sergipe Yield and phytosanitary problems of potato cultivars in Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Urbana Corrêa Nunes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Sete cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. foram avaliadas durante três anos em Itabaiana-SE, com o objetivo de verificar a potencialidade de produção à altitude de 180 m e identificar os problemas fitossanitários que afetam a produtividade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos nos meses de junho a setembro, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Após a colheita foram avaliadas a produção total, comercial (tubérculos sadios e com peso mínimo de 40 g e perdas de produção decorrentes de sarna, podridão-mole, nematóide e insetos do solo. A análise conjunta das produções totais e comerciais de tubérculos revelou que as cultivares mais produtivas foram Baronesa (33,7 t/ha, Monalisa (32,7 t/ha e Elvira (31,4 t/ha. A produção comercial variou de 3,4 t/ha a 22,5 t/ha, destacando-se as cvs. Elvira e Monalisa, com rendimentos de 22,5 t/ha e 20,5 t/ha respectivamente, com apenas três pulverizações com defensivos. Os problemas fitossanitários que mais afetaram a cv. Elvira foram sarna (13,1% e nematóide das galhas (7,2%, enquanto a 'Monalisa' teve sua produção prejudicada mais pela incidência de insetos (15,1%, sarna (12,0% e nematóide (9,7%. A cv. Monalisa apresentou tubérculos com melhores características para comercialização e está sendo cultivada a nível comercial em substituição às variedades Bintje e Baraka anteriormente cultivadas na região. Os resultados indicam a potencialidade da região de Itabaiana para a produção de batata.The yield potential and main diseases affecting productivity of seven potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. were evaluated during a three years period in experiments carried out at low altitude conditions of Sergipe State, Brazil. The experimental plots were located at 180 m of sea level in a Red-Yellow Podzolic sandy-clay texture soil. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with five replications. Tubers were sown yearly

  3. Evaluation of genetic stability in cryopreserved Solanum tuberosum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... molecular markers (Harding, 1991; Eksomtramage, 1993) without establishing accurately the effects of ... length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, which is a PCR- based technique. Ploidy and developmental .... tubers matched those of the unfrozen stock plants. Schafer-Menuhr and co-workers (1996) did ...

  4. The impact of aeration on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... per plant in aeroponic system when compared to classic hydroponics ... of oxygen. Root zone aeration plays an important role in plant growth. Metabolic processes such as cell division, water gradient into the roots and mineral uptake can be ... worked from sunlight to sunset (5:30 to 19:30). Aeration with ...

  5. The impact of aeration on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeroponic systems are more effective than hydroponics for minituber production, as provided by the optimal system for root oxygenation. The study was conducted to improve conventional hydroponic systems by applying aeration so as to enhance potato minituber production yield via providing adequate oxygen in the root ...

  6. Evaluation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes for yeild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 20°C. The production of potato at lowland areas demands to develop heat tolerant cultivars adaptable specific to high temperatures. Therefore, this research was conducted with the objectives of evaluating the yield and tuber quality related traits of 26 potato genotypes and estimating the genetic diversity under heat stress ...

  7. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  8. Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov., isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Lysøe, Erik; Rossmann, Simeon; Perminow, Juliana; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-12-01

    The genus Pectobacterium, which belongs to the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, contains numerous species that cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants. The species Pectobacterium carotovorum is highly heterogeneous, indicating a need for re-evaluation and a better classification of the species. PacBio was used for sequencing of two soft-rot-causing bacterial strains (NIBIO1006 T and NIBIO1392), initially identified as P. carotovorumstrains by fatty acid analysis and sequencing of three housekeeping genes (dnaX, icdA and mdh). Their taxonomic relationship to other Pectobacterium species was determined and the distance from any described species within the genus Pectobacterium was less than 94 % average nucleotide identity (ANI). Based on ANI, phylogenetic data and genome-to-genome distance, strains NIBIO1006 T , NIBIO1392 and NCPPB3395 are suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Pectobacterium, for which the name Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIBIO1006 T (=DSM 105255 T =NCPPB 4611 T ).

  9. Influence of ventilation and media on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the most suitable relationship between ventilation and media in this study, two mixtures of perlite and coir (3:1, light and 1:3, heavy v/v) were applied to determine the growth characteristics var. Sante of potato plantlets. As potato has high potential in minituber production, different levels of supplemental aeration ...

  10. Influence of ventilation and media on potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... E-mail: hassanzadehsaeid@gmail.com. plants. The reason is the connection between ample oxygen supply to the roots and their ability to exclude toxic ions and tolerate high osmotic pressure (Raviv et al., 2008). In container systems, gravitropism and hydro- tropism frequently leads to accumulation of root ...

  11. The efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Solanum tuberosum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human schistosomiasis is one of the important diseases of helminth origin; it is among the most devastating infectious parasitic disease responsible for several deaths and economic losses amongst ... The skinned suspended tails were then immersed in the test-tube containing 150 cercariae suspension for mice infections.

  12. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  13. (Ipomoea batatas) clones of Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tozo koffi

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an hexaploide plant with complex incompatibility that reduces chances of self-fertilization. In vitro culture of sweet potato by means of biotechnological approaches is an advantage for its study and variety improvement. Three sweet potato cultivars from Togo: Damadoami, Tombolo ...

  14. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  15. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  16. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient for potato in organic farming Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo da batata em sistema agroecológico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the water consumption and the crop coefficients (Kc for the potato (Solanum tuberosum L., in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil, under organic management, and to simulate the crop evapotranspiration (ETc using the Kc obtained in the field and the ones recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The water consumption was obtained through soil water balance, using TDR probes installed at 0.15m and 0.30m deep. At the different stages of development, the Kc was determined by the ratio of ETc and reference evapotranspiration, obtained by Penman-Monteith FAO 56. The crop coefficients obtained were 0.35, 0.45, 1.29 and 0.63. The accumulated ETc obtained in the field was 109.6 mm, while the ETc accumulated from FAO's Kc were 142.2 and 138mm, respectively, considering the classical values and the values adjusted to the local climatic conditions. The simulation of water consumption based on meteorological data of historical series from 1961 to 2007 provided higher value of ETc when compared with the one obtained in the field. From the meteorological data of historical series, it was observed that the use of Kc recommended by FAO may overestimate the amount of irrigation water by 9%, over the same growing season.O trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a quantificar, sob manejo agroecológico, o consumo hídrico e os kcs para a cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., em Seropédica (RJ, e a simular a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc, utilizando os kcs obtidos e os kcs preconizados pela FAO. O consumo hídrico foi obtido por meio do balanço hídrico do solo, utilizando sondas de TDR instaladas a 0,15 e 0,30 m de profundidade. Nas diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, o kc foi determinado pela razão entre a ETc e a evapotranspiração de referência, obtida por Penman-Monteith FAO 56. Os kcs obtidos foram 0,35; 0,45; 1,29 e 0,63. A ETc acumulada obtida em campo foi de 109,6 mm, enquanto as ETcs

  17. Preservação in vitro da batata com ácido acetilsalicílico e duas fontes de carboidrato In vitro storage of potato under acetyl salicylic acid and two carbohydrate sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Renan de Luces Fortes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de carboidratos e do ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS na preservação in vitro da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Brotações de 1,5 a 2,0 cm de comprimento foram transferidas para meio de MS, acrescido de mio-inositol (100 mg L-1 e ágar (6 g L-1. Testaram-se duas fontes de carboidrato, sacarose e manitol (87,6 mM, e cinco concentrações de AAS (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 mg L-1. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições por tratamento e cada repetição formada por oito tubos de ensaio com uma brotação. O material foi mantido à temperatura de 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e radiação de 19 miE m-2 s-1. O crescimento e o número de gemas nas hastes foram avaliados por três meses. Passados nove meses, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos também foram avaliados. O uso de manitol, associado às concentrações a partir de 30 mg L-1 de AAS, proporcionou menor crescimento e formação de gemas nas hastes. No meio suplementado com sacarose, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos foram maiores, independentemente das concentrações de AAS utilizadas, após nove meses de cultivo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA during the in vitro storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Stems derived from in vitro cultures were cut into 1.5 to 2.0 cm segments and inoculated in a MS medium supplemented with myo-inositol (100 mg L-1 and agar (6 g L-1. Sucrose and mannitol 87.6 mM and five ASA concentrations (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L-1 were tested. The stems were cultured on 10 mL medium in test tubes (20 x 150 mm and incubated in a growth chamber at 25±2ºC, 16 hour photoperiod and 19 muE m-2 s-1 radiation. The growth and the bud number formed in the stems for a period of three months were evaluated. Nine months later the survival percentage and the number of microtubers formed

  18. Análise socioeconômica da produção de batata nos municípios de Sanlúcar de Barrameda / Espanha e São Lourenço do Sul / Brasil A socio-economic analysis of potato production in the municipalities of Sanlúcar de Barrameda / Spain and São Lourenço do Sul / Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lírio José Reichert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os municípios de Sanlúcar de Barrameda/Cádiz, região de Andaluzia/Espanha e de São Lourenço do Sul/Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil, têm em comum a economia baseada na agricultura familiar produtora de alimentos, dentre eles a batata (Solanum tuberosum L.. Em ambos, esse cultivo representa fator de desenvolvimento socioeconômico e cultural, se considerado que é praticado por pequenos agricultores imigrantes colonizadores e seus descendentes. O estudo, motivado por um intercâmbio acadêmico, objetivou analisar os respectivos sistemas de produção, desenvolvidos pelos agricultores, avaliando-se as dificuldades, os desafios, os custos de produção e as alternativas para superá-los. Para realizá-lo, utilizaram-se entrevistas estruturadas com dirigentes, técnicos e agricultores das duas localidades. Em São Lourenço do Sul, 20 bataticultores ecológicos foram entrevistados, fato que se repetiu em Sanlúcar com 10 famílias produtoras de batata não ecológicas. Verificou-se que o hábito de cultivo, o trabalho familiar e a organização em cooperativas são iniciativas comuns às localidades estudadas, embora a adoção de sistemas diferentes de produção. Constatou-se também que ambas têm dificuldades de ordem tecnológica, econômica e ambiental e que apoiadas por processos de articulação social, estão buscando alternativas para superá-las, proporcionando condições para a continuidade do cultivo dessa espécie alimentar.The municipalities of Sanlúcar de Barrameda/Cádiz in Andaluzia/Spain and São Lourenço do Sul/Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, have in common a food producer family farm based-economy, among them potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. This crop is a socioeconomic and cultural development factor in both municipalities, considering that it is practiced by small farmers and their descendants that settled those areas. The study was motivated by an academic exchange, and had the objective of analyzing the respective production

  19. Aphrodisiac properties of Allium tuberosum seeds extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guohua, Hu; Yanhua, Lu; Rengang, Mao; Dongzhi, Wei; Zhengzhi, Ma; Hua, Zhang

    2009-04-21

    In the present study, we examined the effect of Allium tuberosum seeds extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Allium tuberosum seeds extract possess aphrodisiac property. The aphrodisiac activity of Allium tuberosum seeds n-BuOH extract was investigated in male rats. The extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day) and L-dopa (100 mg/kg body weight/day) were administered orally by gavages for 40 days. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL),mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40. The n-BuOH extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (p male rats. Present findings provide experimental evidence that the n-BuOH extract preparation of Allium tuberosum seeds possesses aphrodisiac property.

  20. Solanum (Solanaceae in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the 41 species, subspecies and cultivar groups in the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae that occur in Uganda, about 30 are indigenous. In Uganda several members of the genus are utilised as food crops while others are put to medicinal and ornamental use. Some members are notorious weeds. A key to the species and descriptions of all Solanum species occurring in Uganda are provided.

  1. Qualidade para processamento de clones de batata cultivados durante a primavera e outono no Rio Grande do Sul Processing quality of potato clones during spring and autumn grown conditions of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A industrialização da batata (Solanum tuberosum L. tem sido limitada no Brasil, quase que exclusivamente, pela falta de matéria-prima adequada. Alta qualidade do produto processado é dependente de altos teores de matéria seca, que reduz a absorção de óleo durante a fritura e confere crocância, e baixos teores de açúcares redutores, que mantêm a coloração clara das fritas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar clones de batata de alta qualidade para processamento a partir da avaliação de tubérculos produzidos durante os cultivos de primavera de 2003 e outono de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. O experimento foi conduzido em um fatorial (15 clones e duas épocas de cultivo no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados os clones Dakota Rose, SMINIAIporã, SMIJ461-1, SMIJ319-1, SMIJ456-4Y, SMID040-4RY, SMIE040-6RY, SMIC148-A, SMIF165-6RY, SMIH095-1, SMINIA90244-1, SMINIA793101-3, SMINIA95043-11, Macaca e Asterix nos cultivos de primavera de 2003 e outono de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. As condições ambientais, durante o período de produção, influenciaram a qualidade pós-colheita dos tubérculos. Os clones SMIJ461-1, SMIJ319-1, SMIJ456-4Y, SMIC148-A, SMIDO40-4RY e SMIH095-1 foram os que apresentaram o melhor desempenho nas características desejáveis para processamento, sendo superiores a Asterix, cultivada para consumo de mesa ou para processamento na forma de chips nas diferentes regiões produtoras de batata. Dentre esses clones, SMIDO40-4RY e SMIH095-1 foram os menos influenciados pelas diferenças de temperatura e insolação típicas das épocas de cultivo de outono e primavera no RS. Os clones SMIJ461-1 e SMIJ456-4Y apresentaram maior teor de matéria seca e coloração mais clara do chips no cultivo da primavera.The development of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. processing industry has been limited in Brazil, because of the low availability of tubers with adequate quality. High dry matter

  2. The whole chloroplast genome sequence of black nightshade plant (Solanum nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Seo, Young-Jin; So, Jai-Hyun; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2017-03-01

    In this study, complete chloroplast genome of Solanum nigrum, a wild relative of potato and tomato being important for its medicinal features, was sequenced. The genome size is 154 671 bp in length, with 40% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats, IRa and IRSb, were separated by a large single-copy region and a small single-copy region of 82 315 bp and 33 411 bp, respectively. The genome harbored 73 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The evolutionary relationships in our phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. nigrum is closer to S. tuberosum when compared with those of known relatives' species belonging to Solanum genus.

  3. In vitro development of buds from tubers of (Solanum tuberosum L.); Desarrollo in vitro de yemas procedentes de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) tratados por radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the in vitro development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. Ths effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradiation is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. Processos biocatalÃticos utilizando o complexo enzimÃtico dos rizomas de Ipomoea batatas (batata-doce)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo AlcÃntara Alves

    2013-01-01

    A espÃcie Ipomoea batatas, pertencente à famÃlia Convolvulaceae e popularmente conhecida como batata-doce, batata, camote, boniato, apichu e kumara à uma planta tuberosa de folhas longas e caule que atinge atà 3 metros de comprimento sendo cultivada em todo Brasil devido a sua ampla capacidade de adaptaÃÃo. Diversos trabalhos encontrados na literatura envolvendo o isolamento de substÃncias da batata-doce (BD) descreveram a presenÃa de compostos com atividades biolÃgicas e farmacolÃgicas em su...

  5. phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR J.O. OLAYEMI

    Key words: Solanum macranthum, Solanaceae, antimicrobial activity, phytochemical screening. INTRODUCTION. Solanum species (family: Solanaceae) comprises of. 1,700 species which are commonly found in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Solanum macranthum Dunal (Syn. Solanum wrightii Benth) or.

  6. Report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as the causal organism of the leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... and stem blight disease of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). 8408. Report of Sclerotinia ... Objectives: There has been a dearth of information on the fungal field diseases, which affect the production of. African yam bean ... Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas) or Irish (Solanum tuberosum) potatoes ...

  7. YARA: UNA NUEVA VARIEDAD CUBANA DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum, L.) PARA LOS PRODUCTORES

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Salomón; Ana Estévez; J. G. Castillo; F. Manso

    2007-01-01

    Con 4 000 semillas híbridas procedentes de 28 cruces de progenitores resistentes a virus y con calidad comercial, dentro del proyecto cubano de mejoramiento genético de la papa, se comenzó a estudiar y seleccionar esta población en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA) durante 12 años, según el esquema de mejoramiento genético; dentro de dicha población se seleccionó el clón 2-142-94 como progenitor y se cruzó con la variedad comercial "Romano" procedente de Holanda. Este clón se...

  8. Evaluation of Indigenous Potato Challisha (Solanum tuberosum L. Cv. Challisha Somaclonals Tolerance to Salinity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanaullah Biswas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important food crops in the world. It is generally sensitive to salinity and likes to grow in neutral soil. On the other hand, salinity is increasing alarmingly in the ever changing climatic conditions. Thus, the selection of salt tolerant potato cultivars is necessary to keep pace the production of potato. To select salt tolerant cultivars, here we attempt to compare the salinity level between indigenous and modern cultivars. In vitro selection of local and modern potato cultivars were investigated with five levels of NaCl (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM. The indigenous potato Challisha and modern cultivars Diamant and Felsina were used as plant materials. Significant differences were noticed among the cultivars in response to different levels of NaCl. Plant growth and root development were gradually reduced with increased concentration of NaCl. All three cultivars were survived well with exhibiting different growth status up to 60 mM NaCl, but they performed poorly at 120 mM of NaCl. Cultivar Challisha performed better regarding shoot length, root length, the number of nodes per plantlet and the fresh weight per plant up to 90 mM of NaCl. Thus, we can conclude that local indigenous variety Challisha is salt tolerant comparing with the modern cultivated varieties.

  9. Exploratory sensory profiling of three culinary preparations of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-01-15

    A consumer-oriented description of potato quality with regard to culinary preparation could increase potato consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory attributes in 11 potato varieties grown at two locations and used for three culinary preparations. Sensory evaluation of the potatoes served either as boiled, oven-fried or mashed were performed using 15-19 descriptors for appearance, flavour and texture attributes. A principal component analysis revealed that 45% of the variation in the sensory data was related to variety differences, which was ascribed to variation in appearance, dry matter content and texture. Growing location also significantly affected appearance and texture. The sensory panel judged the sensory attributes 'yellowness', 'hardness', 'adhesiveness' and 'moistness' to be important quality descriptors in all three culinary preparations. Internal references showed the high reproducibility of the sensory evaluations. The potatoes grown in a sandy location had higher content of dry matter compared to those grown in a clay location, affecting the quality. This study showed that it was possible to do reliable and reproducible sensory profiles in a potato material with a large span in quality. Sensory information based on few attributes can be used to describe culinary quality of potato varieties. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A family portrait: structural comparison of the Whirly proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Parent, Jean-Sébastien; Sygusch, Jurgen; Brisson, Normand

    2013-11-01

    DNA double-strand breaks are highly detrimental genomic lesions that routinely arise in genomes. To protect the integrity of their genetic information, all organisms have evolved specialized DNA-repair mechanisms. Whirly proteins modulate DNA repair in plant chloroplasts and mitochondria by binding single-stranded DNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Although most of the results showing the involvement of the Whirly proteins in DNA repair have been obtained in Arabidopsis thaliana, only the crystal structures of the potato Whirly proteins WHY1 and WHY2 have been reported to date. The present report of the crystal structures of the three Whirly proteins from A. thaliana (WHY1, WHY2 and WHY3) reveals that these structurally similar proteins assemble into tetramers. Furthermore, structural alignment with a potato WHY2-DNA complex reveals that the residues in these proteins are properly oriented to bind single-stranded DNA in a non-sequence-specific manner.

  11. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic variation for yield, leaf area index, period of maximum soil cover, sensitivity for N-shortage and nitrogen efficiency under low input circumstances was found. However, in these experiments varietie...

  12. Virusoverdracht en vectorbestrijding in pootaardappelgewassen = Virus transmission and vector control in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.P.M.

    1961-01-01

    The extensive literature concerning leafroll virus, virus Y and their vector Myzus persicae Sulz. was surveyed. The relations between virus, aphid and plant were discussed. In virus spread, endogenous infection (spread of virus within the field whereby virus diseased plants act as sources of

  13. Zebra chip disease enhances respiration and oxidative stress of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Knowles, Lisa O; Knowles, N Richard

    2017-10-01

    The physiological phenotype of potato tubers afflicted by zebra chip disease is characterized by increased oxidative stress metabolism and upregulation of systems for its mitigation. Starch catabolism and extensive buildup of reducing sugars render potatoes infected with zebra chip (ZC) pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum) unsuitable for fresh market and processing into chips/fries. Here we show that the disease inflicts considerable oxidative stress, which likely constitutes a substantial sink for metabolic energy, resulting in increased respiration rate of afflicted tubers. In contrast to healthy tubers, tissue from diseased tubers had greater ability to reduce 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride to formazan, indicating enhanced dehydrogenase activity, probable disease-induced changes in cellular redox potential, and increased respiratory activity. The respiration rate of diseased tubers (cv. Atlantic) was 2.4-fold higher than healthy tubers and this correlated with increased activities of glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases, key enzymes responsible for synthesis of cytosolic reducing equivalents. Wound-induced NADPH oxidase activity was greater for ZC than healthy tubers, but the resulting superoxide was rapidly catabolized by higher superoxide dismutase activity in ZC tubers. Peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate free radical reductase activities were also higher in diseased tubers, as was malondialdehyde, a biomarker of peroxidative damage and oxidative stress. Upregulation of the glutathione-ascorbate pathway is a direct response to (and indicator of) oxidative stress, which consumes reducing equivalents (NADPH) to catabolize reactive oxygen species and maintain cellular redox homeostasis. ZC disease substantially altered the oxidative metabolism of tubers, resulting in a physiological phenotype defined by metabolic changes directed toward mitigating oxidative stress. Paradoxically, the increased respiration rate of ZC tubers, which fuels the metabolic pathways responsible for attenuating oxidative stress, likely also contributes to oxidative stress.

  14. (Solanum tuberosum, grupo Phureja de la región Cajamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz P. Rojas Mercado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la productividad de diez cultivares de papa chaucha de la Región Cajamarca, en Diseño de BloquesCompletos al Azar, con diez tratamientos (cultivares y tres repeticiones:Peruanita 3, Montañera 2, Limeña,Amarilla, Clavelina 2, Roja 2, Mulla,Huagalina, Amarilla mahuay y Chimbina colorada. Se evaluóaltura deplanta, número de tallos,número total de tubérculos, número de tubérculos comerciales, peso total detubérculos, peso de tubérculos comerciales,materia seca de tubérculos, peso seco delfollaje e índice decosecha. El rendimiento varió de 5,0 (Huagalina a 11,5 t ha-1(Amarilla mahuay con una media de 8,6 t ha-1.El peso total de tubérculos, el peso de tubérculos comerciales, el número total de tubérculos y el peso seco delfollaje, presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cultivares. Los cultivares Limeña y Huagalinafueron estadísticamente inferiores al resto de cultivares, en peso total de tubérculos y peso de tubérculoscomerciales. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas altamente significativas para número de tallos e índice decosecha. Los mejores índices de cosechase registraron en Huagalina (46%, Amarilla mahuay (45% yClavelina 2 (42%.

  15. De verspreiding van virusziekten van de aardappel (Solanum tuberosum L.) door insekten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elze, D.L.

    1927-01-01

    The object was to study the relation between virus and the transmitting insect, especially the aphids Myzus persicae Sulz., Myzus pseudosolani Theob., Macrosiphum solanifold Ashm., Aphis rhamni Fonsc. and Aphis fabae Scop. The diseases studied were leafroll, common mosaic (virus A), crinckle (virus

  16. Interkingdom protein domain fusion: the case of an antimicrobial protein in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talianová, Martina; Vyskot, Boris; Janoušek, Bohuslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 297, 1-2 (2011), s. 129-139 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/08/0932; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : horizontal gene transfer * interkingdom gene fusion * antimicrobial protein Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2011

  17. Preservation by Irradiation of three varieties of Colombian Potatoes (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleta, S.

    1986-01-01

    This is first study performed in the Gamma Facility of the Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, in Bogota, Colombia, related to the Food Irradiation Programme. The study was made with: Parda Pastusa, ICA Guantiva, and ICA Purace, selected as the most important varieties of colombian potatoes. A complete study prior to the irradiation exposure was made in order to determine the optimum irradiation package. Different dose treatments, chemical and physical changes and organoleptic tests, were studied in this work. The work was performed in the early 1980s

  18. Criodesecación atmosférica de papa (Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Ramírez Navas

    2011-01-01

    etapas del proceso, empleando el índice de amarillez, y se evaluaron las propiedades microbiológicas de las papas crio-desecadas tmosféricamente. Se concluye que el secado de rodajas de papa por CDA permite eliminar el crecimiento microbiológico y las reacciones químicas, pero es necesario realizar pretratamientos para evitar el pardamiento.

  19. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA HIDRÓLISIS ENZIMÁTICA DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Delgado, Raul

    2012-01-01

    La demanda mundial de recursos fósiles tanto para la producción de energéticos, como para la producción de la mayoría de los iniciadores de las cadenas productivas, ha llevado a un decremento considerable en las reservas probadas de estos, con tendencia a la escasez. Por esta razón, es necesaria la búsqueda de nuevas tecnologías para la conversión de materias primas renovables en productos que sostengan el nivel de vida de la sociedad. La papa, un tubérculo rico en almidón, pue...

  20. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic

  1. Accumulation of heavy metals in plants and potential phytoremediation of lead by potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C

    2007-05-01

    The use of sewage sludge as a source of nutrients in crop production is increasing in the United States and worldwide. A field study was conducted on a 10% slope at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22x3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with sewage sludge, six plots were mixed with yard waste compost, and six unamended plots were used for comparison purposes. During a subsequent 3-year study, plots were planted with potato (year 1), pepper (year 2), and broccoli (year 3). The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) characterize chemical properties of soil-incorporated sewage sludge and yard waste compost; (ii) determine the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo) in sewage sludge and yard waste compost used for land farming; and (iii) monitor heavy metal concentrations in edible portions of plants at harvest. Concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge were below the U.S. EPA limits. Analysis of potato tubers, peppers, and broccoli grown in sludge-amended soil showed that Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were not significantly different from control plants. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mo were significantly greater in tubers and peppers grown in sludge compared to their respective controls. Zn and Mo in broccoli heads were higher than their control plants. The ability of potato to accumulate lead needs additional investigation to optimize the phytoremediation of this pollutant element.

  2. Geminivirus-Mediated Genome Editing in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Sequence-Specific Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Nathaniel M; Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F; Douches, David S

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) is rapidly being developed for genetic engineering in crop species. The utilization of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated systems (CRISPR/Cas) for inducing double-strand breaks facilitates targeting of virtually any sequence for modification. Targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) has been demonstrated extensively as being the preferred DNA repair pathway in plants. However, gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) remains more elusive but could be a powerful tool for directed DNA repair. To overcome barriers associated with gene targeting, a geminivirus replicon (GVR) was used to deliver SSNs targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (ALS1) gene and repair templates designed to incorporate herbicide-inhibiting point mutations within the ALS1 locus. Transformed events modified with GVRs held point mutations that were capable of supporting a reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype, while events transformed with conventional T-DNAs held no detectable mutations and were similar to wild-type. Regeneration of transformed events improved detection of point mutations that supported a stronger reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype. These results demonstrate the use of geminiviruses for delivering genome editing reagents in plant species, and a novel approach to gene targeting in a vegetatively propagated species.

  3. Dickeya solani sp. nov., a pectinolytic plant-pathogenic bacterium isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wolf, Jan M; Nijhuis, Els H; Kowalewska, Malgorzata J; Saddler, Gerry S; Parkinson, Neil; Elphinstone, John G; Pritchard, Leighton; Toth, Ian K; Lojkowska, Ewa; Potrykus, Marta; Waleron, Malgorzata; de Vos, Paul; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Pirhonen, Minna; Garlant, Linda; Hélias, Valérie; Pothier, Joël F; Pflüger, Valentin; Duffy, Brion; Tsror, Leah; Manulis, Shula

    2014-03-01

    Pectinolytic bacteria have been recently isolated from diseased potato plants exhibiting blackleg and slow wilt symptoms found in a number of European countries and Israel. These Gram-reaction-negative, motile, rods were identified as belonging to the genus Dickeya, previously the Pectobacterium chrysanthemi complex (Erwinia chrysanthemi), on the basis of production of a PCR product with the pelADE primers, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl esterase analysis, the production of phosphatases and the ability to produce indole and acids from α-methylglucoside. Differential physiological assays used previously to differentiate between strains of E. chrysanthemi, showed that these isolates belonged to biovar 3. Eight of the isolates, seven from potato and one from hyacinth, were analysed together with 21 reference strains representing all currently recognized taxa within the genus Dickeya. The novel isolates formed a distinct genetic clade in multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using concatenated sequences of the intergenic spacer (IGS), as well as dnaX, recA, dnaN, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, rpoS and gyrA. Characterization by whole-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, pulsed field gel electrophoresis after digestion of whole-genome DNA with rare-cutting restriction enzymes, average nucleotide identity analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, showed that although related to Dickeya dadantii, these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Dickeya, for which the name Dickeya solani sp. nov. (type strain IPO 2222(T) = LMG25993(T) = NCPPB4479(T)) is proposed.

  4. Genotype by environment interaction effects on starch content and digestibility in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Stephanie; Yada, Rickey Y; Bizimungu, Benoit; Fan, Ming; Sullivan, J Alan

    2013-04-24

    Biochemically, starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin but can also be defined by its digestibility rates within the human intestinal tract, i.e., rapidly digested (RDS), slowly digested (SDS), or resistant (RS). The relative ratio of these starch components is the main contributor to differences in the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate sources. This study evaluated the digestible starch profile of 12 potato genotypes comprising elite breeding lines and commercial varieties in six environments, with the optimal profile defined as low RDS and high SDS. Genotype by environment interaction (GEI) analysis found significant (p = 0.05) genotypic and environmental effects for all digestibility rate components; however, interaction effects were only significant for SDS. Optimal starch profiles were identified for two genotypes, CV96044-3 and Goldrush. The desirable starch profile in these potato cultivars can be exploited in breeding programs for the improvement of starch profile and other important characteristics such as high yields and disease resistance.

  5. Protein profiling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf tissues by differential centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyun; Chisholm, Kenneth; Coffin, Robert H; Peters, Rick D; Al-Mughrabi, Khalil I; Wang-Pruski, Gefu; Pinto, Devanand M

    2012-04-06

    Foliar diseases, such as late blight, result in serious threats to potato production. As such, potato leaf tissue becomes an important substrate to study biological processes, such as plant defense responses to infection. Nonetheless, the potato leaf proteome remains poorly characterized. Here, we report protein profiling of potato leaf tissues using a modified differential centrifugation approach to separate the leaf tissues into cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions. This method helps to increase the number of identified proteins, including targeted putative cell wall proteins. The method allowed for the identification of 1484 nonredundant potato leaf proteins, of which 364 and 447 were reproducibly identified proteins in the cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively. Reproducibly identified proteins corresponded to over 70% of proteins identified in each replicate. A diverse range of proteins was identified based on their theoretical pI values, molecular masses, functional classification, and biological processes. Such a protein extraction method is effective for the establishment of a highly qualified proteome profile.

  6. Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jian; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Li, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses.

  7. biotechnological studies on the irradiated potato (solanum tuberosum) with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt or brown rot disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes extensive annual losses of different crops especially potato crop. It is considered as one of the limiting factors for potato production and exportation in Egypt. Therefore, the main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma rays on two potato cultivars (Diamant and Spunta). And, to obtain new genotypes of potato resistant to bacterial wilt disease. This study was carried out in the field and Biotechnology laboratory of the Plant Res. Dept., Nuclear Res. Center, Inshas, Egypt and Genetics Dept., Faculty of Agricultural., Cairo Univ., during 2008-2011. In the field experiment, dry tubers of potato cultivars were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays (20, 30 and 40 Gy) to study the effect of gamma rays on the vegetative and yield traits. The results showed that there are no significant differences between cultivars for all studied traits except a number of tubers per plant trait. Also, there are only highly significant and significant differences between treatments for weight of tubers per plant and number of tubers per plant traits, respectively. However, there are only significant differences between the interactions of cultivars and treatments for plant height and weight of tubers per plant traits. Six genotypes were selected from M 1 V 2 generation depending on high yield for RAPD analysis to determine their genetic variability from its parents at molecular level using 11 primers. The results of RAPD analysis showed that 11 primers generated 56 distinct bands of which 31 (55.4%) were considered as polymorphic. The similarity indices of six genotypes of potato and its parents ranged from 70 to 91%. The highest genetic similarity 91% was found between D20 genotype and its parent D0 (Diamant control). On the other hand, the lowest genetic similarity 70% was found between S30, S40 genotypes and its parent S0 (Spunta control). In the artificial infection experiment under in vitro condition, the irradiated and non-irradiated plantlets of potato were cultured on medium inoculated with local virulent isolate of R. solanacearum. The results showed that all in vitro plantlets of the treatments in Diamant and Spunta cultivars were susceptible except S20 treatment was resistant to the infection with R. solanacearum. Protein analysis showed that S20 genotype (resistant mutant) displayed 2 negative unique bands that may be responsible for resistance to R. solanacearum.

  8. Co adaptation of LiCl tolerant Solanum tuberosum L. callus cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... pathways associated with salt tolerance mechanisms at the cellular and whole plant level (Greenway and Munns,. 1980; Hasegawa et al., 2000; Tester and Davepott,. 2003). One of the important mechanisms of salinity tolerance in plant cells is the ionic homeostasis maintenance of cellular sodium at a low ...

  9. Geminivirus-mediated genome editing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. using sequence-specific nucleases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel M Butler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs is rapidly being developed for genetic engineering in crop species. The utilization of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas for inducing double-strand breaks facilitates targeting of virtually any sequence for modification. Targeted mutagenesis via nonhomologous end-joining has been demonstrated extensively as being the preferred DNA repair pathway in plants. However, gene targeting via homologous recombination remains more elusive but could be a powerful tool for directed DNA repair. To overcome barriers associated with gene targeting, a geminivirus replicon (GVR was used to deliver SSNs targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (ALS1 gene and repair templates designed to incorporate herbicide-inhibiting point mutations within the ALS1 locus. Transformed events modified with GVRs held both point mutations that were capable of supporting a reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype, while events transformed with conventional T-DNAs held no detectable mutations and were similar to wild-type. Regeneration of transformed events improved detection of point mutations that supported a stronger reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype. These results demonstrate the use of geminiviruses for delivering genome editing reagents in plant species, and an approach to gene targeting in a vegetatively propagated species.

  10. Effect of Thiourea on Yield and Quality of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani, F.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of five concentrations (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mM of thiourea application on mother tubers on yield and quality attributes of harvested potato, variety Spunta in the region of Chott-Mariem in Tunisia. Treated tubers (Ш = 50 mm were planted in field after breaking dormancy at a spacing of 80 cm x 30 cm according to completely randomized design (CRD in three replications. Quality attributes of potato tubers especially fresh matter and dry matter of plant, total reducing sugars in leaves, tuber yield, number and diameter of tubers per plant and number of sprouts per tuber was measured. Soluble proteins and starch content in potato tubers were also quantified.In general we noted that application of thiourea showed significant influence on yield and on quality of tubers comparing to control. Maximum tuber yield per plant, maximum number of tubers per plant and maximum starch content was recorded with 250 mM of thiourea. Moreover, highest dry matter of potato plant was found also at this concentration. While increasing dose of thiourea thereafter it showed slight significant improvement and do not affect significantly the diameter of tubers comparing to control.

  11. 5-Azacytidine mediated reactivation of silenced transgenes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) at the whole plant level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyč, Dimitrij; Nocarová, Eva; Sikorová, Lenka; Fischer, Lukáš

    2017-08-01

    Transient 5-azacytidine treatment of leaf explants from potato plants with transcriptionally silenced transgenes allows de novo regeneration of plants with restored transgene expression at the whole plant level. Transgenes introduced into plant genomes frequently become silenced either at the transcriptional or the posttranscriptional level. Transcriptional silencing is usually associated with DNA methylation in the promoter region. Treatments with inhibitors of maintenance DNA methylation were previously shown to allow reactivation of transcriptionally silenced transgenes in single cells or tissues, but not at the whole plant level. Here we analyzed the effect of DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AzaC) on the expression of two silenced reporter genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) in potato plants. Whereas no obvious reactivation was observed in AzaC-treated stem cuttings, transient treatment of leaf segments with 10 μM AzaC and subsequent de novo regeneration of shoots on the selective medium with kanamycin resulted in the production of whole plants with clearly reactivated expression of previously silenced transgenes. Reactivation of nptII expression was accompanied by a decrease in cytosine methylation in the promoter region of the gene. Using the plants with reactivated GFP expression, we found that re-silencing of this transgene can be accidentally triggered by de novo regeneration. Thus, testing the incidence of transgene silencing during de novo regeneration could be a suitable procedure for negative selection of transgenic lines (insertion events) which have an inclination to be silenced. Based on our analysis of non-specific inhibitory effects of AzaC on growth of potato shoots in vitro, we estimated that AzaC half-life in the culture media is approximately 2 days.

  12. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  13. Knockdown of Polyphenol Oxidase Gene Expression in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with Artificial MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ming; Bhagwat, Basdeo; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    It is of great importance and interest to develop crop varieties with low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity for the food industry because PPO-mediated oxidative browning is a main cause of post-harvest deterioration and quality loss of fresh produce and processed foods. We recently demonstrated that potato tubers with reduced browning phenotypes can be produced by inhibition of the expression of several PPO gene isoforms using artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology. The approach introduces a single type of 21-nucleotide RNA population to guide silencing of the PPO gene transcripts in potato tissues. Some advantages of the technology are: small RNA molecules are genetically transformed, off-target gene silencing can be avoided or minimized at the stage of amiRNA designs, and accuracy and efficiency of the processes can be detected at every step using molecular biological techniques. Here we describe the methods for transformation and regeneration of potatoes with amiRNA vectors, detection of the expression of amiRNAs, identification of the cleaved product of the target gene transcripts, and assay of the expression level of PPO gene isoforms in potatoes.

  14. An efficient method for the establishment of cell suspension cultures in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, Z.A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures offers an In vitro system that can be used as a tool for various studies involving mutant selection, mass propagation, protoplast isolation, gene transfer and selection of cell-lines which are resistant to various biotic or abiotic stresses. Research work on the development of cell suspension cultures was carried out to establish the most efficient method in Potato (cv. Desiree). Healthy, well-proliferating tissues from different types of callus cultures (compact, friable, embryogenic or non-embryogenic) were inoculated on various media combinations, i.e., MS, MS2 or AA liquid medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D. A fixed quantity (0.5-1.0 g) of callus tissue from 60-day-old callus cultures was transferred to 10-25 ml of liquid medium in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Cultures were placed on an orbital shaker and agitated at different speeds (75, 100 or 125 rpm) under 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C. Medium was changed after every 3 days and fractionated tissue was filtered after every 6 days through sterile mesh (100-800 micro m) to develop a cell-line by transferring resulting suspension to fresh medium under the same conditions. Results indicated that eight-week-old translucent, friable, off-white callus cultures were an excellent starting material for the initiation of homogeneous cell suspension cultures as compared to other tested sources. Of the three tested media (MS, MS2 or AA medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D), MS2 was found to be a better medium for the initiation of cell suspension cultures. Cell suspension cultures, placed in 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C and agitated at 120 rpm using a gyratory shaker showed excellent results. Several other factors influencing quick establishment of cell suspension cultures in this cultivar are also discussed in this communication. (author)

  15. Respon Enam Generasi Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Terhadap Pemberian Pyraclostrobin Di Dataran Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Hans Kurnia; Ainurrasyid, Ainurrasyid; Kuswanto, Kuswanto

    2016-01-01

    Kentang ialah salah satu tanaman yang dibudidayakan karena kaya akan karbohidrat, mineral dan vitamin. Pyraclostrobin merupakan fungisida sis-temik yang berbentuk emulsi yang dapat larut dalam air, yang berfungsi sebagai pemicu pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Selain sebagai fungisida, Pyraclostrobin dapat digunakan sebagai tambahan unsur hara bagi tanaman karena Pyraclostrobin juga mengandung unsur nitrogen (N) dan klor (Cl) yang diperlukan tanaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji resp...

  16. Carbon footprinting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Agriculture contributes significantly to the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Farmers need to fine-tune agricultural practices to balance the trade-offs between increasing productivity in order to feed a growing population and lowering GHG emissions to mitigate climate change and its impact on

  17. Criodesecación atmosférica de papa (Solanum tuberosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Sebastián Ramírez Navas; Jorge E. Cañizares S.; Diofanor Acevedo C.

    2011-01-01

    Mediante la aplicación del proceso conocido como crio-desecación atmosférica (CDA) usando temperaturas bajas y cloruro de calcio o silicagel como agentes higroscópicos, se deshidrataron dos variedades de papa, Gabriela y Chaucha. A las papas se les realizó tres diferentes pretratamientos. Con los datos obtenidos se calcularon: (i) los valores de los coeficientes de transferencia superficial de masa (de 61.77 a 148.55 kg·m-2·s-1), (ii) de calor (de 5.75 a 11.22 W·m-2·°C-1), (iii) el número ...

  18. Analysis of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the Irish potato sector in Zimbabwe is not well understood. Using value chain analysis, this article evaluated the potato industry using quantitative data gathered from stakeholders using structured questionnaires, field observations, local knowledge and expert consultation.

  19. Partial root zone drying (PRD) sustains yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) at reduced water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2008-01-01

    for two months during tuber bulking and maturing stage and was shifted from one side to the other side of the plants every 5-10 days when FI plants had used 20-25 mm. Compared to FI plants, stomatal conductance was generally lower in the PRD-treated plants, whereas leaf water potential tended to be lower...

  20. Mechanisms of self-incompatibility and unilateral incompatibility in diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijlander, R.

    1998-01-01

    In chapter 1 an overview is given of the major mechanisms operating in Angiosperms that prevent or limit the degree of inbreeding. The two major systems that function on the basis of interaction between pollen and stigma/style, are the sporophytic and the gametophytic self-incompatibility

  1. Pseudomonas endophytica sp. nov., isolated from stem tissue of Solanum tuberosum L. in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    A bacterial strain named BSTT44(T) was isolated in the course of a study of endophytic bacteria occurring in stems and roots of potato growing in a soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.7% identity with respect to that of its closest relative, Pseudomonas psychrophila E-3T, and the next most closely related type strains were those of Pseudomonas fragi, with 99.6% similarity, Pseudomonas deceptionensis, with 99.2% similarity, and Pseudomonas lundensis, with 99.0% similarity; these results indicate that BSTT44(T) should be classified within the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 92% in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Cells of the strain bore one polar-subpolar flagellum. The respiratory quinone was Q-9.The major fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive and the arginine dihydrolase system was present, but tests for nitrate reduction, β-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. It could grow at 35 °C and at pH 5-9.The DNA G+C content was 60.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed less than 48% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the combined results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain BSTT44 into a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSTT44(T) ( = LMG 28456(T) = CECT 8691(T)).

  2. Evaluating mustard seed meal for weed suppression in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba controls weeds for several weeks following application to soil, but also has potential to injure the planted crop. Producers of certified organic potatoes typically utilize a combination of cover crops, soil hilling, harrowing, and cultivation for we...

  3. Purification and some properties of pectinesterase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Montañez Sáenz, Julio; Téllez, Alejandro; Garza, Heliodoro de la; Reyes, María de la Luz; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan Carlos; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé

    2000-01-01

    Pectinesterase was extracted from potato alpha cultivar, purified and partially characterized The used protocol resulted in a 58.8-fold purification (51 850.2 units/mg protein) with 15.5% recovery of pectinesterase activity. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of 27 kDa and its isoelectric point was around 4.5 with pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 60°C, respectively. The purified enzyme had a single symmetric peak of specific activity after chromatographic steps. The homogeneity of...

  4. Agronomical indicators for determination of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Morales Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately, water shortage has caused 50% losses in potato yields in several Central American countries. Knowledge and use of more tolerant potato varieties are a critical element to increase production and yields under stressing conditions. The experiments were developed at the Center for Tropical Crops Research (INIVIT, between December 2014, and March 2015. Ten plots were planted, including different varieties. Half of them (5 were not irrigated for 20 days, starting on the 50th day after plantation (drought stress period. Irrigation was resumed on the 70th day. The Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI, Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Tolerance Index (TOL, Mean Productivity (MP, and Yield Stability Index (YSI. The Atlas and Maranca varieties had the lowest values for SSI (0.67 and 0.61, respectively, and the highest values for STI (0.79 and 0.81, respectively. The highest MP (19.92 t/ha was achieved by Atlas. The highest YSI values were observed in Maranca and Atlas (81.07 and 79.29, respectively.

  5. Hubungan Pemencaran Kutu Daun dengan Diseminasi Potato Virus Y (PVY pada Tanaman Kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reymas M. R. Ruimassa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Two aphid species, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, and Aphis gossypii (Glover and the five potato varieties (Alpha, Bintje, Berthaultii, Granola and Premiere were used in the experiments to study the relationship between insect vector dispersal and dissemination of disease caused by potato virus Y (PVY. The results showed that M. persicae could cause time for the appearance of first symptom two to four time faster than A. gossypii . Although statistical analysis (anova in general showed that disease incidence is not significantly different for each treatment. M. persicae caused higher disease incidence than A. gossypii on Bintje (56 and 74 days after planting. M. persicae seems to have better capability to disperse when the plant reach vegetative growth stadia which may result in higher efficiency of transmitting the virus. The relationship between aphid dispersal and dissemination of PVY can be grouped into four categories (1 plant with aphid and showing symptom; (2 plant without aphid but showing symptom; (3 plant with aphid but without symptom; (4 plant without aphid and without symptom.

  6. Ketahanan Beberapa Klon Kentang (Solanum tuberosum L. terhadap Asam Fusarat dan Penyakit Busuk Kering Umbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Citra Sari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFusaric acid produced by Fusarium spp. played a major role in potato dry rot development. Using fusaric acid as a selection agent may be useful to identify resistant clones. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the morphological responses of 10 potato clones (Granola, Atlantic, Cipanas, DTO 28, DTO 33, Russet Burbank, IPB 1, CIP 801040, CIP 801045, dan CIP 801050 and their resistance level to fusaric acid and Fusarium solani. The research was conducted in Plant Breeding Laboratory and Tissue Culture Laboratory 3, Departement of Agronomy and Horticulture from April 2014-February 2015. The in vitro experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 4 fusaric acid concentrations and 4 replications, while the F. solani infection experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 5 replications. The result showed that fusaric acid inhibits growth, reduce microtubers production, and caused planlets death. Correlation analysis between in vitro resistance to fusaric acid and F. solani infection on tuber showed positive and notable result. Accordingly, fusaric acid can be used to identify any clones resistant to F. solani.Keywords: Fusarium solani, phytotoxin, selection

  7. Variation of Growth and Disease Characters Between Clones of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Bång, H; Kotkas, K

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and magnitude of variation of selected characters in clones derived from meristem tips of four potato cultivars in field trials in three countries was assessed. Recorded were: the number of plants per plot; maturity of plants; skin and flesh colour; tuber deformity; time of emergence...

  8. Drought stress affects bioactive compounds in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. relevant to non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Wegener

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Potatoes react very sensitively to drought during growth. Thus, appropriate plant stress responses may affect metabolites associated with the health quality of tubers.Objective:The aim of this study was to determine the effects of drought stress (DS on soluble sugars, starch, crude protein, minerals, free amino acids (AAs, and fatty acids (FAs.Design:The experiment was carried out on three potato genotypes during two years with four replications. The plants were grown in pots in a glasshouse with optimal water supply and under drought stress conditions. After harvest, the tubers of these two variants were analyzed for nutritional and bioactive compounds relevant to human health. Results:Apart from genotypic differences in most parameters, the results revealed that the DS caused a decline in glucose and fructose (P <0.05, all in both years, while sucrose was increased, especially in the second year with severe stress (P < 0.01. Starch was significantly reduced by moderate stress in the first year (P < 0.01, but less affected in the second year. Crude proteins and total amounts of free amino acids (AAs were clearly enhanced by the stress in both years (P < 0.05, all. The minerals magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and phosphorus (P (P < 0.05, all were similarly enhanced, while calcium (Ca actually declined (P < 0.05. The portion of α-linolenic acid (ALA on total lipids was elevated in the stress variants (P < 0.01, while oleic acid (OLA, its precursor, decreased significantly (P < 0.05, but only in the first year. In the second year, ALA was generally higher andnot further induced by the stress. Additionally, OLA was less affected in that year, which was similar to all the other FAs in both years. Interestingly, Myo-inositol (MI and lipid acyl hydrolases (LAH associated with modulation in cell membrane lipids were raised by the drought stress in each year (P < 0.01, all. In the second year, MI and LAH data of the drought stressed tubers correlated significantly (r = 0.90, P < 0.01, suggesting their joined action within plant stress responses. Conclusions:The biochemical changes induced by DS are not alarming with regards to human health. Decline in glucose, fructose, and starch, in addition to increase in crude proteins, free AAs, ALA, MI, and minerals like Mg, K and P is profitable for the health benefits of tubers. However, a better quality is associated with a decrease in tuber yield.

  9. Regeneración de Solanum tuberosum L. variedad pastusa suprema a partir de explantes internodales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Paola Jiménez Barreto

    2006-01-01

    adecuado (26% +/- 16. Los tratamientos en los que se utilizó una concentración baja de ANA (0,02 mg/L, fueron eficientes tanto en la formación de callo, como en la regeneración (86,0 +/- 13 y 70 +/- 22%. El nivel de zeatina ribósido y ácido giberélico utilizados en el medio, demostraron también ser estadísticamente significativos en el comportamiento callogénico y regenerativo. Los ensayos realizados demuestran la importancia de la combinación de los tres tipos hormonales en la inducción de callo, y subsecuente regeneración; probablemente, su interacción a nivel fisiológico crea las condiciones necesarias para que el tejido se desdiferencie y exprese su totipotencialidad. Comparando los resultados obtenidos en los 12 tratamientos para cada una de las variables estudiadas se puede concluir que la adición de 3 mg/L de zeatina ribósido, 0,02 mg/L de ácido naftalénacetico y 1,0 mg/L de ácido gibérelico en el medio de cultivo, constituye una formulación hormonal adecuada para inducir el proceso de organogénesis indirecta sobre la variedad de papa Pastusa Suprema, obteniendo porcentajes de regeneración de 92,9 % +/- 4,9 y un número medio de regenerantes por explante de 6,37 +/- 1,03 en un tiempo total de ocho semanas.

  10. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Bałcyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘Ślęza’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  11. In vitro development of buds from tubers of (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the in vitro development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. Ths effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradiation is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (Author) 17 refs

  12. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to

  13. Characterization of promising potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L. subspecies andigena) for starch extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Magdalena Garnica H; Ángela Rocío Romero B; Lena Prieto C; María del Socorro Cerón L; Jorge Argüelles C

    2012-01-01

    Colombia has been overproducing potatoes with around 18% remaining unmarketable, constituting a potential alternative use in obtaining native starch for the food industry. To this end, 17 promising potato clones from the Programa de Mejoramiento Genético of Corpoica were characterized for agronomic variables, as well as physicochemical variables for the tubers. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and cluster analysis. Clone codified 36 was selected as ha...

  14. Composition and structure of tuber cell walls affect in vitro digestibility of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jovyn K T; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Brummell, David A; O'Donoghue, Erin M; Mishra, Suman; Gidley, Michael J; Monro, John A

    2016-10-12

    The digestibility of starchy foods, such as potatoes, can be characterized by the proportion of starch that is rapidly digestible by in vitro hydrolysis (rapidly digestible starch, RDS). This study evaluated the RDS content in a potato germplasm collection consisting of 98 genotypes and identified three advanced lines, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, where cooked potato RDS content was significantly lower than that of their respective isolated starches (P starch did not differ significantly from that of five control lines with higher RDS contents. Cell wall analyses revealed that, compared with other lines tested, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85 had at least four times the amount of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) galactan side-chains that were very firmly attached to the wall and requiring 4 M KOH for extraction. Pectin solubilization during cooking was also remarkably low (2-4%) in these three lines compared with other lines tested (7-19%). The findings suggest that possession of higher amounts of RG-I galactan that interact strongly with cellulose may provide a sturdier wall that better resists solubilization during cooking, and effectively impedes access of digestive enzymes for starch hydrolysis in an in vitro model.

  15. Characterization of promising potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L. subspecies andigena for starch extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Magdalena Garnica H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has been overproducing potatoes with around 18% remaining unmarketable, constituting a potential alternative use in obtaining native starch for the food industry. To this end, 17 promising potato clones from the Programa de Mejoramiento Genético of Corpoica were characterized for agronomic variables, as well as physicochemical variables for the tubers. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and cluster analysis. Clone codified 36 was selected as having potential for the extraction of native starch, showing agronomically: a plant height of 75 cm, a green and undulating stalk, moderate deep purple and white blooming, semi-stellate-shaped corolla, green globe-shaped berries, oval tubers with a creamy white peel color and dotted with purple spots; physicochemically the tubers had: 1.090 specific gravity, 23.12% dry matter, 16.82% starch (22% amylose and 78% amylopectin, 0.122% reducing sugars, 2% protein, 0.82% ash and a pH of 5.69. The extracted starch showed a yield of 53.66% with 19.32% moisture.

  16. Characterization of promising potato clones (solanum tuberosum l. subspecies andigena) for starch extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Garnica Holguin, Ana Magdalena; Romero Bernal, Angela Rocio; Prieto Contreras, Lena Food Engineering Program, Faculty of Eng; Ceron Lasso, Maria Del Socorro; Argüelles Cárdenas, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Colombia has been overproducing potatoes with around 18% remaining unmarketable, constituting a potential alternative use in obtaining native starch for the food industry. To this end, 17 promising potato clones from the Programa de Mejoramiento Genetico of Corpoica were characterized for agronomic variables, as well as physicochemical variables for the tubers. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and cluster analysis. Clone codified 36 was selected as ha...

  17. Detection of Glycoalkaloids and Chlorophyll in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2017-01-01

    or treated with red, blue, red/blue, UV-a, UV-b or UV-c light. HSI analyses were performed with a reflection based setup implemented in an industrial potato sorting machine. After hyperspectral analyses, the peel was sampled, and concentrations of Chl and total TGA were determined. Results showed...

  18. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 2. Changes in pectin composition during storage of potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Gibcens, T.; Boeriu, C.; Fischer, M.; Stolle-Smits, T.

    2002-01-01

    During the storage season changes in the chemical composition of the pectin moiety of the cell walls of raw potatoes were studied. This compositional analysis was performed for the cultivars Nicola and Irene, which represent two extremes with regard to sensory-perceived texture. Both cultivars were

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum | Aliero | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum. ... Abstract. Acetone, methanol and water extracts from the leaves of Solanum tomentosum were investigated for their antimicrobial activities. ... None of the extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonae and Penicillium notatum.

  20. In vitro regeneration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) yield. The establishment of in vitro regeneration protocol for this plant is essential to improve it through tissue culture and genetic engineering. The objective of this study was to establish in vitro regeneration protocol ...

  1. Qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente tratados com paraquat e o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduo do herbicida Quality of seed potato tubers treated with paraquat and the development of a simplified methodology for paraquat residue detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington Pereira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente (Solanum tuberosum tratados com paraquat e desenvolver uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduos de herbicida. Dois ensaios foram realizados no Laboratório da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas do Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de hortaliças, Brasília, DF. No experimento, tubérculos das cultivares Achat e Baronesa foram submersos em soluções de 0 e 200 ppm de paraquat ou injetados com 0,5 ml de soluções de 0 e 200 ppm do herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 8 repetições e 12 tubérculos por parcela. Os tubérculos foram colocados em câmara fria, após a aplicação com paraquat, para quebra da dormência. Após a brotação dos tubérculos avaliou-se a qualidade interna dos mesmos, amostrando, posteriormente, 2 tubérculos de cada parcela para o plantio em vasos, sob condições de telado, para verificar possíveis danos no crescimento das plantas oriundas dos tubérculos tratados. Os tratamentos de imersão não provocaram, aparentemente, nenhum dano interno nos tubérculos, ou nem mesmo afetaram a nova geração, entretanto, os tubérculos injetados com paraquat foram severamente deteriorados e carbonizados, originando plantas bastante debilitadas. Esses resultados indicam que quando o paraquat for aplicado sob condições que favoreçam sua penetração ou translocação para o interior do tubérculo, atingindo os vasos e a polpa, pode danificá-lo severamente, prejudicar sua aparência, qualidade de produção e reduzir o desenvolvimento da nova geração de plantas oriundas dos tubérculos contaminados . No segundo experimento, desenvolveu-se uma metodologia simplificada para detectar resíduos de paraquat nos tubérculos através de colorimetria, visto que o paraquat é reduzido a um radical de cor azul na presença de ditionito de sódio (Na2S2O4 a 1% em meio básico, a qual se intensifica à medida que a

  2. Adubação orgânica da batata com esterco e, ou, Crotalaria juncea: I - produtividade vegetal e estoque de nutrientes no solo em longo prazo Organic fertilization of potato with manure and, or, Crotalaria juncea: I - long term plant productivity and soil nutrient stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácio Oliveira da Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available No Agreste paraibano, a batata (Solanum tuberosum L. é importante cultura comercial, embora seja limitada pela variabilidade e escassez de chuvas e pela baixa fertilidade do solo. O esterco é a principal fonte de nutrientes utilizada para fertilização do solo, porém geralmente não é disponível em quantidade suficiente nas propriedades rurais para suprir a demanda das culturas agrícolas. Como alternativa tem sido recomendada a adubação verde com Crotalaria juncea L. Realizou-se um experimento, de 1996 a 2002, em um Neossolo Regolítico, com o objetivo de quantificar a produtividade da batata e o estoque de nutrientes no solo, após incorporações anuais de esterco e, ou, crotalária. Os tratamentos consistiram de: incorporação da crotalária (C, adição de 15 t ha-1 de esterco caprino (E, incorporação de crotalária + 7,5 t ha-1 de esterco (CE e testemunha (T. No final do experimento, o tratamento E promoveu aumentos de 73, 45, 221 e 43 % nos teores de N total, P total, P e K extraíveis (Mehlich-1 do solo, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. Os tratamentos C e CE aumentaram o N total do solo em 76 e 63 %, mas não aumentaram o teor dos outros nutrientes. Os acúmulos médios de massa seca, N, P e K na parte aérea da crotalária nos tratamentos, ao longo dos cinco anos, foram de 3.550, 69, 6 e 55 kg ha-1, respectivamente. As produtividades médias de tubérculos, ao longo dos cinco anos de colheita, foram de 15.204, 12.053, 11.085 e 7.926 kg ha-1 nos tratamentos CE, C, E e T, respectivamente. Apesar de a adição de 15 t ha-1 de esterco ter proporcionado os maiores aumentos nos nutrientes do solo, as maiores produtividades de tubérculos ao longo do período do estudo foram obtidas quando se combinou o plantio e a incorporação de crotalária com a adição de 7,5 t ha-1 de esterco.Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important cash crop in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil. However, potato productivity is limited

  3. Endogenous pararetroviral sequences in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Margit Laimer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRVs are a recently discovered class of repetitive sequences that is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. The potential contribution of EPRVs to plant pathogenicity or, conversely, to virus resistance is just beginning to be explored. Some members of the family Solanaceae are particularly rich in EPRVs. In previous work, EPRVs have been characterized molecularly in various species of Nicotiana including N.tabacum (tobacco and Solanum tuberosum (potato. Here we describe a family of EPRVs in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and a wild relative (S.habrochaites. Results Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis revealed that tomato EPRVs (named LycEPRVs are most closely related to those in tobacco. The sequence similarity of LycEPRVs in S.lycopersicum and S.habrochaites indicates they are potentially derived from the same pararetrovirus. DNA blot analysis revealed a similar genomic organization in the two species, but also some independent excision or insertion events after species separation, or flanking sequence divergence. LycEPRVs share with the tobacco elements a disrupted genomic structure and frequent association with retrotransposons. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that copies of LycEPRV are dispersed on all chromosomes in predominantly heterochromatic regions. Methylation of LycEPRVs was detected in CHG and asymmetric CHH nucleotide groups. Although normally quiescent EPRVs can be reactivated and produce symptoms of infection in some Nicotiana interspecific hybrids, a similar pathogenicity of LycEPRVs could not be demonstrated in Solanum L. section Lycopersicon [Mill.] hybrids. Even in healthy plants, however, transcripts derived from multiple LycEPRV loci and short RNAs complementary to LycEPRVs were detected and were elevated upon infection with heterologous viruses encoding suppressors of PTGS. Conclusion The analysis of LycEPRVs provides further

  4. Sweet potato for biomass. [Ipomoea batatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangler, J.M.; Locascio, S.J.; Halsey, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 to determine the root and plant top yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) grown on a sandy soil. Cultivars 'GaTG-3', 'Morado', 'Rojo Blanco', 'Travis' and 'White Star' were evaluated at 2 harvest times. Mean starch yields from 'GaTG-3' at 105-15 days (7.2 t/ha) and at 210-30 days (9.6 t/ha) during two seasons were higher than from the other cultivars. With an increase in the growth period from 105-15 to 210-30 days the mean starch yield increased from 4.6 to 7.3 t/ha but the starch concentration of all cultivars decreased significantly during the same period. 17 references, 2 tables.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uberosum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  6. Note rétrospective sur l'histoire de la pomme de terre Solarium tuberosum dans l'Est du Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoy Kadiebwe, N.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective note on history of the potato Solanum tuberosum in Eastern Zaire. Potato is after cassava and sweet potato, the third culture practished in Ituri area. In this respect, it highly contributes to the feeding of the population and at the same time is a source of their income. There is no indication as when potato culture has been broughtin Ituri. However, research works on this speculation have well begun in 1941 but were suspended in 1959 due to political crisis is... preceded our independance. They have effectively started again in the beginning of 1989, yet no result is given. Despite favorable ecological conditions its expansion is slow nowadays owing to difficulties such as insufficience of selected seeds as well as ignorance of conservation techniques.

  7. The Phytogeography of New Guinea Solanum (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Solanaceae, of which Solanum is the type species, comprise a southern hemisphere family. A general biogeographical introduction is given, with an account of plate tectonics and a discussion of Wallace’s Line and the geographic history of New Guinea. The widely accepted sections of Solanum are

  8. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  9. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Heider, B.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Miller, R.E.; Scotland, R.W.; Wood, J.R.I.; Rossel, G.; Eserman, L.A.; Jarret, R.L.; Yencho, G.C.; Bernau, V.; Juarez, H.; Sotelo, S.; Haan, de S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which

  10. Rapid genetic transformation of sweetpotato ( Ipomoea batatas (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and rapid. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method based on de novo (via callus) organogenesis has been developed from petioles with leaf for sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam). Stable transgenic sweetpotato plants cv. Jewel were obtained in six to ten weeks after infection with Agrobacterium ...

  11. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  12. Effects of feeding sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) leaves on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five (45) weaner rabbits were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (T) to evaluate the effects of graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves (SPL) and pelletized concentrate feed (PCF) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. The treatments were: T1 (0% SPL; 100% PCF); T2 (25% ...

  13. The performance and profitability of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) in ...

  14. Growth and yield responses of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted at the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike research farm in 2005 and 2006 wet seasons to determine the growth and yield responses of two sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) varieties viz TIS 87/0087 and TIS 8164 to time of potassium (K) fertilizer application in a ...

  15. growth and yield responses of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    batatas L. Lam) varieties viz TIS 87/0087 and TIS 8164 to time of potassium (K) fertilizer application in a humid forest zone of .... relative humidity of 75 -85 % . ..... CIP, Lima. Edmond, J.B. 1971. Sweet potato production, processing and marketing. Avi Publishers,. Westport, Connecticut. FAO, 2004. (Food and Agricultural ...

  16. Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    help in weight management in the long run. Potato, a common starchy tuber in our environment is believed to contain substances that can help maintain and increases short‑term satiety. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of the aqueous extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [IB]) on food intake in male ...

  17. Effect of sweetpotato leaf (Ipomoea Batatas) extract on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of plants and herbs as food supplements and medicinal additives is fast gaining grounds and recognition in the world especially in Africa. Sweet potato leaves (Ipomoea batatas) decoction is a folk remedy for asthma, bugbites, burns, catarrh, diarrhea, fever, nausea, stomach distress and tumours. Also this plant has ...

  18. Comparative analysis of Solanum stoloniferum responses to probing by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana E; Broglia, Viviana G; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Wouters, Doret; van der Vossen, Edwin; Garzo, Elisa; Tjallingii, W Fred; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2013-04-01

    Plants protect themselves against aphid attacks by species-specific defense mechanisms. Previously, we have shown that Solanum stoloniferum Schlechtd has resistance factors to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) at the epidermal/mesophyll level that are not effective against Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae). Here, we compare the nymphal mortality, the pre-reproductive development time, and the probing behavior of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae on S. stoloniferum and Solanum tuberosum L. Furthermore, we analyze the changes in gene expression in S. stoloniferum 96 hours post infestation by either aphid species. Although the M. euphorbiae probing behavior shows that aphids encounter more probing constrains on phloem activities-longer probing and salivation time- on S. stoloniferum than on S. tuberosum, the aphids succeeded in reaching a sustained ingestion of phloem sap on both plants. Probing by M. persicae on S. stoloniferum plants resulted in limited feeding only. Survival of M. euphorbiae and M. persicae was affected on young leaves, but not on senescent leaves of S. stoloniferum. Infestation by M. euphorbiae changed the expression of more genes than M. persicae did. At the systemic level both aphids elicited a weak response. Infestation of S. stoloniferum plants with a large number of M. persicae induced morphological changes in the leaves, leading to the development of pustules that were caused by disrupted vascular parenchyma and surrounding tissue. In contrast, an infestation by M. euphorbiae had no morphological effects. Both plant species can be regarded as good host for M. euphorbiae, whereas only S. tuberosum is a good host for M. persicae and S. stoloniferum is not. Infestation of S. stoloniferum by M. persicae or M. euphorbiae changed the expression of a set of plant genes specific for each of the aphids as well as a set of common genes. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of

  19. Utilizing wild relative ((Solanum viarum) as resistant source to shoot and fruit borer in brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha

    2010-01-01

    Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Solanum viarum to transfer th...

  20. SolRgene: an online database to explore disease resistance genes in tuber-bearing Solanum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Finkers, Richard; Budding, Dirk; Visser, Marcel; Jacobs, Mirjam M J; van Berloo, Ralph; Pel, Mathieu; Champouret, Nicolas; Bakker, Erin; Krenek, Pavel; Rietman, Hendrik; Huigen, DirkJan; Hoekstra, Roel; Goverse, Aska; Vosman, Ben; Jacobsen, Evert; Visser, Richard G F

    2011-08-18

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important food crop, but highly susceptible to many pathogens. The major threat to potato production is the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which causes the devastating late blight disease. Potato breeding makes use of germplasm from wild relatives (wild germplasm) to introduce resistances into cultivated potato. The Solanum section Petota comprises tuber-bearing species that are potential donors of new disease resistance genes. The aim of this study was to explore Solanum section Petota for resistance genes and generate a widely accessible resource that is useful for studying and implementing disease resistance in potato. The SolRgene database contains data on resistance to P. infestans and presence of R genes and R gene homologues in Solanum section Petota. We have explored Solanum section Petota for resistance to late blight in high throughput disease tests under various laboratory conditions and in field trials. From resistant wild germplasm, segregating populations were generated and assessed for the presence of resistance genes. All these data have been entered into the SolRgene database. To facilitate genetic and resistance gene evolution studies, phylogenetic data of the entire SolRgene collection are included, as well as a tool for generating phylogenetic trees of selected groups of germplasm. Data from resistance gene allele-mining studies are incorporated, which enables detection of R gene homologs in related germplasm. Using these resources, various resistance genes have been detected and some of these have been cloned, whereas others are in the cloning pipeline. All this information is stored in the online SolRgene database, which allows users to query resistance data, sequences, passport data of the accessions, and phylogenic classifications. Solanum section Petota forms the basis of the SolRgene database, which contains a collection of resistance data of an unprecedented size and

  1. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoko, Mkabwa L K; van Weerden, Gerard M; van Berg, Ronald G; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits.

  2. AFLP analysis reveals a lack of phylogenetic structure within Solanum section Petota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vleeshouwers Vivianne GAA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secondary genepool of our modern cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. consists of a large number of tuber-bearing wild Solanum species under Solanum section Petota. One of the major taxonomic problems in section Petota is that the series classification (as put forward by Hawkes is problematic and the boundaries of some series are unclear. In addition, the classification has received only partial cladistic support in all molecular studies carried out to date. The aim of the present study is to describe the structure present in section Petota. When possible, at least 5 accessions from each available species and 5 individual plants per accession (totally approx. 5000 plants were genotyped using over 200 AFLP markers. This resulted in the largest dataset ever constructed for Solanum section Petota. The data obtained are used to evaluate the 21 series hypothesis put forward by Hawkes and the 4 clade hypothesis of Spooner and co-workers. Results We constructed a NJ tree for 4929 genotypes. For the other analyses, due to practical reasons, a condensed dataset was created consisting of one representative genotype from each available accession. We show a NJ jackknife and a MP jackknife tree. A large part of both trees consists of a polytomy. Some structure is still visible in both trees, supported by jackknife values above 69. We use these branches with >69 jackknife support in the NJ jackknife tree as a basis for informal species groups. The informal species groups recognized are: Mexican diploids, Acaulia, Iopetala, Longipedicellata, polyploid Conicibaccata, diploid Conicibaccata, Circaeifolia, diploid Piurana and tetraploid Piurana. Conclusion Most of the series that Hawkes and his predecessors designated can not be accepted as natural groups, based on our study. Neither do we find proof for the 4 clades proposed by Spooner and co-workers. A few species groups have high support and their inner structure displays also

  3. Processamento de barras de cereais com adição de farinha de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L.) Processing of cereal bars with added sweet potato flour (Ipomea batatas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, José Raniere Mazile Vidal; UNICENTRO; Rigo, Maurício; UNICENTRO; Teixeira, Ângela Moraes; UNICENTRO; Angelo, Mariana Alves; UNICENTRO; Czaikoski, Aline; Graduanda em Engenharia de Alimentos, bolsista Fundação Araucária. BIC/Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste - UNICENTRO.

    2015-01-01

    Considerando o crescimento do segmento de barras de cereais, a importância da cultura da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L.) e seu valor nutricional, este trabalho teve por objetivo a elaboração de barras de cereais com adição de diferentes teores de farinha de batata-doce e sua avaliação de aceitação sensorial, e ainda, a determinação da composição proximal da formulação melhor avaliada sensorialmente. A farinha da batata-doce e as barras de cereais adicionadas a farinha foram submetidas às det...

  4. Potencialidade de processamento industrial de cultivares de batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émerson Loli Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A industrialização da batata tem sido limitada no Brasil, devido à falta de matéria-prima adequada, sendo a demanda suprida pelas importações de produtos processados. Oito cultivares de batata, adaptadas às condições da região serrana de Minas Gerais, safra 2011, foram avaliadas quanto a sua composição centesimal, cor e conteúdo de amilose. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as cultivares 'Marcy' e 'Colorado' apresentam características importantes para o cozimento. As cultivares 'Marlen' e 'Pirassu' apresentam atributos requeridos para o processamento na forma de chips e/ou palha e a cultivar 'BRS Ana' para a forma de palitos pré-fritos.

  5. Solanum (Solanaceae) in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Z. R. Bukenya; J. B. Hall

    1988-01-01

    Of the 22 species, subspecies and varieties in the genus  Solanum L. (Solanaceae) that occur in Ghana, about 15 are indigenous. In Ghana serveral members of the genus are utilized as food crops while others are put to medicinal and ornamental use. Up-to-date and detailed descriptions for all the Solanum taxa occurring in Ghana and a key to the species are provided.

  6. [Stable transformation of Solanum rickii chloroplast DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N A; Shakhovskiĭ, A M; Kuchuk, N V

    2005-01-01

    The biolistic method was used for genetic transformation of Solanum rickii chloroplasts with aadA gene encoding resistance to streptomycine and spectinomycine. Selective pressure was applied immediately after microbombardment to avoid appearance of mutant lines. The transplastomic Solanum rickii plants remained green during two years cultivation on the media supplemented with two antibiotics. There were no morphological differences between the transformed and the wild type plants.

  7. A new tetraploid species of Solanum section Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.

    2012-01-01

    Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among

  8. Ipomoea batatas attenuates amyloid β peptide-induced neurotoxicity in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Choi, Soo Jung; Cho, Hong Yon; Kim, Young Jun; Lim, Seung-Taik; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Eun Ki; Kim, Hye Kyung; Peterson, Sabrina; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the protective effects of 17 Korean native plants against amyloid β peptide (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress were screened using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate assay and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Ipomoea batatas exerted the highest protective effects against oxidative stress and was selected for further investigation. To confirm the protective activity of this extract, the I. batatas extract was fed to ICR mice that had been injected with Aβ to induce neuronal deficits. In these experiments, the extract of I. batatas significantly reversed Aβ-induced neurotoxicity as assessed by the passive avoidance test, a behavioral experiment. Moreover, I. batatas administration reduced the level of lipid peroxidation and increased catalase activities in biochemical studies using the brain tissue of mice. These results indicate that I. batatas might be beneficial against Alzheimer's disease, especially by limiting oxidative stress in the brain.

  9. [FISH analysis of chromosomes of sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas cv.Xushu No.18)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jia-Li; Qi, Da-Shi; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Hui-Juan; Sun, Jian-Ying; Cao, Qing-He; Ma, Dai-Fu; Li, Zong-Yun

    2010-02-01

    In order to understand the chromosome structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Xushu 18), molecular cytogenetic analyses were carried out on I. batatas. by using 45S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (45S rDNA-FISH), self genomic in situ hybridization (self-GISH), and silver staining techniques. Twelve, sixteen, and eighteen regions were silver stained in the interphase nucleus of I. batatas. The results of FISH analysis demonstrated 16 or 18 signals with different intensity on chromosomes of I. batatas. Self-GISH analysis showed that the intensive signals on I. batatas mitotic chromosomes were distributed along the chromosomes. However, the signals located in centromeric, subcentromeric, and telomeric regions were stronger and denser than those in other regions.

  10. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae from Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M.Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S.Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S.Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M.Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.

  11. Two approaches for induction and isolation of starch mutants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): random versus gene targeted mutagenesis = Twee benaderingen voor de inductie en isolatie van zetmeelmutanten in aardappel (Solanum tuberosum L.): ongerichte versus gen gerichte mutagenese

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogkamp, T.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis two approaches were used to induce structural mutations in potato starch biosynthesis genes in potato. First production of new monoploid amf genotypes through parthenogenesis made it possible to initiate mutation breeding for amfae double mutants. Two amf monoploids were selected which fulfilled most of the prerequisites. By inducing a mutation in one of the branching enzymes in an amf -mutant it is possibl...

  12. Two approaches for induction and isolation of starch mutants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): random versus gene targeted mutagenesis = Twee benaderingen voor de inductie en isolatie van zetmeelmutanten in aardappel (Solanum tuberosum L.): ongerichte versus gen gerichte mutagenese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamp, T.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis two approaches were used to induce structural mutations in potato starch biosynthesis genes in potato. First production of new monoploid amf genotypes through parthenogenesis made it possible to initiate mutation breeding for amfae

  13. Índices agronómicos para determinar tolerancia a sequía en variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L./Agronomic index to determine tolerance to drought in varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Morales Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Durante estas últimas temporadas, la sequía ha causado pérdidas del 50 % de la producción de papa en varios países de Centro América. El conocimiento y la utilización de variedades de papa tolerantes a la sequía son elementos clave para incrementar la producción y el rendimiento bajo las condiciones de estrés. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados en el Instituto de Investigaciones de Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT, durante los meses de diciembre de 2014 a marzo de 2015. Se plantaron 10 parcelas por variedad, a la mitad de ellas (5 se les retiró el riego, a partir de los 50 días después de la plantación por espacio de 20 días (período de estrés por sequía reiniciándose el riego a partir de los 70 días. En el momento de la cosecha se determinó: el Índice de Susceptibilidad a Sequía (SSI, Índice de Tolerancia a Sequía (STI, Índice de Tolerancia (TOL, Media de Productividad (MP e Índice de estabilidad del Rendimiento (YSI. Las variedades Atlas y Maranca poseen los menores valores de SSI, con 0,67 y 0,61 respectivamente, y los mayores valores de STI, con 0,79 y 0,81 respectivamente. La MP más alta registrada, fue en la variedad Atlas, con 19,92 t/ha. Los valores de YSI más altos pertenecen a las variedades Maranca y Atlas, con 81,07 y 79,29 % respectivamente. ABSTRACT During recent seasons, drought has caused losses of 50 % of potato production in several countries in Central America. Knowledge and use of varieties tolerant to drought is a key to increase potato production and yield under stress conditions. The experiments were done in the Research Institute of Tropical Roots and Tubers Crop (INIVIT during the months of December 2014 to March 2015. Ten plots per variety were planted; half of them (five was withdrawn irrigation to after 50 days after planting for 20 days (period of drought stress irrigation restarting after 70 days. At the harvest time it was determined: the Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI, Stress Tolerance Index (STI , Tolerance Index (TOL, Mean Productivity ( MP and Yield Stability Index (YSI . Atlas and Maranca varieties have the lowest values of SSI, with 0,67 and 0,61 respectively, and the highest values of STI, with 0,79 and 0,81 respectively. MP recorded the highest was in the Atlas variety, with 19.92 t/ha. Higher values of YSI belong to Atlas and Maranca varieties, with 81,07 and 79,29 % respectively.

  14. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation; Variaciones observadas en la actividad respiratoria de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) despues de un tratamiento con radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs.

  15. Pneumonia intersticial em bovinos associada à ingestão de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas mofada Interstitial pneumonia in cattle fed moldy sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Fighera

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma doença respiratória foi diagnosticada em cinco dentre 23 bovinos (21,7% após terem sido alimentados com batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas mofada em uma pequena propriedade rural em São Vicente do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Três dos cinco bovinos afetados morreram espontaneamente, e o quarto foi sacrificado para necropsia quando mostrava sinais clínicos respiratórios avançados. A manifestação clínica iniciara cerca de 24 horas após a ingestão das batatas-doces e a evolução clínica foi de 1 a 4 dias. Os sinais clínicos incluíam dispnéia (respiração laboriosa e abdominal, taquipnéia, pescoço estendido com cabeça baixa e dilatação ritmada das narinas. Dois bovinos foram necropsiados. Os achados de necropsia incluíam pulmões distendidos, pálidos e de consistência borrachenta, que não colapsavam quando o tórax era aberto; enfisema e edema acentuados eram evidentes no pulmão. Os linfonodos e o baço apresentavam alterações características de hiperplasia linfóide. Histologica-mente, as lesões eram típicas de pneumonia intersticial. Os septos alveolares estavam espessados por fibroblastos e células inflamatórias, havia hipertrofia e hiperplasia de pneumócitos tipo II; os septos interlobulares estavam distendidos por edema e enfisema. A cultura de amostras das batatas-doces mofadas produziu Fusarium solani e F. oxysporum.Cases of respiratory disease were diagnosed in five out of 23 cattle (21.7% after they were fed moldy damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas on a small farm in the county of São Vicente do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Of those five cattle, three died spontaneously and another one was euthanatized for necropsy while showing advanced respiratory clinical signs. The disease manifested itself approximately 24 hours after the ingestion of the sweet potatoes and lasted from 1 to 4 days. Clinical signs included dyspnea (labored breathing and abdominal respiration, tachypnea, extended

  16. Variations in Amylase and Invertase activities in Solanum species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum species (eggplants) are edible, highly valued constituents of the Nigerian food and indigenous medicines. In this study, the activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate degradation such as amylase and invertase were evaluated in two Solanum species viz Solanum melongena (round and oval varieties) and ...

  17. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native sp...

  18. [Study on antitumor effect and its toxicity of Ipomoea Batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Chunbo

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect and estimate the toxicity of Ipomoea Batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins. Mice sarcinoma S180 and mice liver cancer H22 were administered with positive Ftorafur and different dose of Ipomoea Batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins by pouring into the stomach. The antitumor effects of Ipomoea Batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins were observed by calculating the inhibition rate. Subchronic toxicity tests and micronucleus test of bone marrow cell in mice and Ames test were carried out to evaluate the toxicity. At the doses of 150 mg and 75 mg Ipomoea Batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins, the rates of sarcinoma 180 inhibition were 45.04% and 36.64% respectively. The rate of liver cancer H22 inhibition at the dose of 150mg Batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins was 33.33% . The result of subchronic toxicity tests showed that Ipomoea Batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins had no obvious toxicity to rats. The results of the Ames test and micronucleus test were negative. Ipomoea Batatas Poir Cv anthocyanins could have inhibitory effect on transplantation tumor of mice, and have no toxicity and no mutation.

  19. Maturity-adjusted resistance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt is a fungal disease of potato caused by two species of Verticillium, V. dahliae and V. albo atrum. The pathogen infects the vascular tissue of potato plants through roots, interfering with the transport of water and nutrition, and reducing both the yield and quality of tubers. We h...

  20. Genetic enhancement of oil content in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) through an integrated metabolic engineering strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Guo, Qigao; Akbar, Sehrish; Zhi, Yao; El Tahchy, Anna; Mitchell, Madeline; Li, Zhongyi; Shrestha, Pushkar; Vanhercke, Thomas; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Liang, Guolu; Wang, Ming-Bo; White, Rosemary; Larkin, Philip; Singh, Surinder; Petrie, James

    2017-01-01

    Potato tuber is a high yielding food crop known for its high levels of starch accumulation but only negligible levels of triacylglycerol (TAG). In this study, we evaluated the potential for lipid production in potato tubers by simultaneously introducing three transgenes, including WRINKLED 1 (WRI1), DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE 1 (DGAT1) and OLEOSIN under the transcriptional control of tuber-specific (patatin) and constitutive (CaMV-35S) promoters. This coordinated metabolic engineering approach resulted in over a 100-fold increase in TAG accumulation to levels up to 3.3% of tuber dry weight (DW). Phospholipids and galactolipids were also found to be significantly increased in the potato tuber. The increase of lipids in these transgenic tubers was accompanied by a significant reduction in starch content and an increase in soluble sugars. Microscopic examination revealed that starch granules in the transgenic tubers had more irregular shapes and surface indentations when compared with the relatively smooth surfaces of wild-type starch granules. Ultrastructural examination of lipid droplets showed their close proximity to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which may indicate a dynamic interaction with these organelles during the processes of lipid biosynthesis and turnover. Increases in lipid levels were also observed in the transgenic potato leaves, likely due to the constitutive expression of DGAT1 and incomplete tuber specificity of the patatin promoter. This study represents an important proof-of-concept demonstration of oil increase in tubers and provides a model system to further study carbon reallocation during development of nonphotosynthetic underground storage organs. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Appropriateness of culinary preparations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties and relation to sensory and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Wiking, Lars; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-02-01

    Appropriateness of potatoes for culinary preparations is defined as the optimal use of a given variety for a specific culinary preparation. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory attributes and physicochemical characteristics (dry matter content, starch properties, instrumental texture) of 11 potato varieties in relation to their appropriateness for boiling, oven-frying or mashing. The reproducibility of appropriateness was studied by including the effect of two growing conditions and yearly variation combined with internal references. The potato varieties, tested by 31 evaluators in two years, showed three groupings differing in appropriateness, which could be explained by a few sensory attributes: yellowness, mealiness, creaminess and butter taste. The physicochemical data showed a large variation of 23-25% in dry matter content, amylose content and starch granule size and an extreme variation in texture hardness. High reproducibility was found in the ranking of potatoes across years and culinary preparations. Hence, if a variety was judged well appropriate for boiled potatoes, it was also judged well appropriate as mashed or oven-fried potatoes. This study showed the relevance of using sensory descriptors appropriateness in an objective manner. A few sensory descriptors can be used in consumer-labelling appropriateness of potatoes. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase (C3’H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated or characterized i...

  3. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Desiree, Merkur and transgenic Desiree line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons

  4. Cadmium Induced Changes in Metabolic Function of Mitochondrial Isolated from Potato Tissue (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chagra Ali; Djebar M. Reda; Rouabhi Rachid; Berrebbah Houria

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Cadmium is highly toxic at low concentrations, but the mechanism of its toxicity is still not understood particularly at the cellular and subcellular level. Approach: In this study we examined the effects of cadmium on the oxidophosphorylation properties of mitochondria isolated from potatoes. Results: Cadmium strongly disturbed the respiratory metabolism of mitochondria isolated especially in the transfer of electrons by cyanide pathway. Meanwhile, cadmium altered the comp...

  5. The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Bałcyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control treatment, the population size of pathogenic agents remained at a similar level.

  6. CCD-Based Skinning Injury Recognition on Potato Tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.: A Comparison between Visible and Biospeckle Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwang Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Skinning injury on potato tubers is a kind of superficial wound that is generally inflicted by mechanical forces during harvest and postharvest handling operations. Though skinning injury is pervasive and obstructive, its detection is very limited. This study attempted to identify injured skin using two CCD (Charge Coupled Device sensor-based machine vision technologies, i.e., visible imaging and biospeckle imaging. The identification of skinning injury was realized via exploiting features extracted from varied ROIs (Region of Interests. The features extracted from visible images were pixel-wise color and texture features, while region-wise BA (Biospeckle Activity was calculated from biospeckle imaging. In addition, the calculation of BA using varied numbers of speckle patterns were compared. Finally, extracted features were implemented into classifiers of LS-SVM (Least Square Support Vector Machine and BLR (Binary Logistic Regression, respectively. Results showed that color features performed better than texture features in classifying sound skin and injured skin, especially for injured skin stored no less than 1 day, with the average classification accuracy of 90%. Image capturing and processing efficiency can be speeded up in biospeckle imaging, with captured 512 frames reduced to 125 frames. Classification results obtained based on the feature of BA were acceptable for early skinning injury stored within 1 day, with the accuracy of 88.10%. It is concluded that skinning injury can be recognized by visible and biospeckle imaging during different stages. Visible imaging has the aptitude in recognizing stale skinning injury, while fresh injury can be discriminated by biospeckle imaging.

  7. The Effect of Climate Change on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Production in Feridonshahr Region of Isfahan I- Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohrab adavi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The historical trend of Iran annual average temperature of shows a 0.05 °C.year-1 increase which indicates that future emissions of greenhouse gases will continue to increase temperature and consequently cause to climatic change in the country. This change in environment will have a serious impact on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes like photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photo-assimilates. The negative impacts of climate change on potato production are reported in the literature. The present study was conducted to quantify the potential impacts of climate change on phenology, growth and tuber yield of potato. Materials and Methods The climate projections of Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3, France and Institute of Pierre Simon Laplace (IPCM4, United Kingdom, was used to simulate the future conditions based on A2, B1 and A1B SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios scenario at three time periods including 2015-2045 (2030, 2046-2075 (2060 and 2076-2105 (2090with a baseline of 1988-2012 (2012. For each period, the year shown in the parenthesis was considered as target year. The SUBSTOR-Potato model, one of the sixteen models embedded within the DSSAT (v4.5 program, was used to simulate the baseline and future yield and growth characteristics of potato. The model was calibrated and validated during 2012 and 2013 with two different farm experiments. In these experiments, the effects of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and morphological traits of three potato cultivars were investigated. Six levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg urea. ha-1 and three commonly planted potato cultivars in the region (Arinda, Santeh and Agria as early, medium and late maturity varieties, respectively were studied as a factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Several criteria were used to quantify the difference between simulated and observed data. The root mean-squared error (RMSE-N (% was computed to measure the coincidence between measured and simulated values, while mean deviation (RMD was calculated to evaluate the systematic bias of the model and model efficiency (ME to estimate the model performance in relation to the observed mean. Results and Discussion The evaluation of the SUBSTOR-Potato model showed adequate accuracy for simulating tuber yield, LAI, DTA and DTH of potato (Table 3. The results showed that the RMSE-N (% was low for all the parameters. In both GCMs, number of days from planting to anthesis stages of potato decreased in compare to baseline of Fereydoon-Shahr region. Modeled values of day to anthesis in all scenarios and models (except B1 scenario in HadCM3 model showed a decrease over the time, with the lowest amount in 2090. Under all scenarios and GCMs, the length of planting to harvest period will be declined in compareto baseline. Tuber yield will decline in compare to the baseline with a reduction range from 11.21% to 27.53% for HadCM3 model and from 12.60% to 30.58%for IPCM4 model. In HadCM3, B1 scenario in 2030 had the least difference with the baseline period (29.15 t ha-1 (Table 5, which is about 11.21% lower than the current condition. In IPCM4 model, the highest tuber yield was simulated under B1 scenario in 2030 (25.48 t ha-1, which shows a reduction of about 12.60% in compare to the baseline. A2 scenario in both GCMs showed the lowest tuber yield in 2090 (21.13 t ha-1 for HadCM3 and 20.24 t ha-1 for IPCM4, means a drop of 27.53% and 30.58% in tuber yield in compare to the baseline. In fact, in A1B, A2 and B1 scenarios, a decline of 20.29%, 27.53% and 16.04% in tuber yield for HadCM3 and a reduction of 20.88%, 30.58% and 17.90% for IPCM4 model was simulated, respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that tuber yield of common varieties of potato under all scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1 in both GCMs and during the evaluated years will decline in compare to the baseline in Fereydoon-shahr region.

  8. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  9. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  10. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Hengel, Matt J; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  11. Zebra chip disease decreases tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) protein content by attenuating protease inhibitor levels and increasing protease activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Knowles, Lisa O; Knowles, N Richard

    2015-11-01

    Zebra chip disease of potato decreases protease inhibitor levels resulting in enhanced serine-type protease activity, decreased protein content and altered protein profiles of fully mature tubers. Zebra-chip (ZC), caused by Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso), is a relatively new disease of potato that negatively affects growth, yield, propagation potential, and fresh and process qualities of tubers. Diseased plants produce tubers with characteristic brown discoloration of vascular tissue accompanied by elevated levels of free amino acids and reducing sugars. Here we demonstrate that ZC disease induces selective protein catabolism in tubers through modulating protease inhibitor levels. Soluble protein content of tubers from CLso-infected plants was 33% lower than from non-infected plants and electrophoretic analyses revealed substantial reductions in major tuber proteins. Patatin (~40 kDa) and ser-, asp- (22 kDa) and cys-type (85 kDa) protease inhibitors were either absent or greatly reduced in ZC-afflicted tubers. In contrast to healthy (non-infected) tubers, the proteolytic activity in CLso infected tubers was high and the ability of extracts from infected tubers to inhibit trypsin (ser-type) and papain (cys-type) proteases greatly attenuated. Moreover, extracts from CLso-infected tubers rapidly catabolized proteins purified from healthy tubers (40 kDa patatin, 22 kDa protease inhibitors, 85 kDa potato multicystatin) when subjected to proteolysis individually. In contrast, crude extracts from non-infected tubers effectively inhibited the proteolytic activity from ZC-afflicted tubers. These results suggest that the altered protein profile of ZC afflicted tubers is largely due to loss of ser- and cys-type protease inhibitors. Further analysis revealed a novel PMSF-sensitive (ser) protease (ca. 80-120 kDa) in CLso infected tubers. PMSF abolished the proteolytic activities responsible for degrading patatin, the 22 kDa protease inhibitor(s) and potato multicystatin by CLso infected tubers. The disease-induced loss of patatin and protease inhibitors therefore appears to be modulated by ser-type protease(s). The selective catabolism of proteins in ZC-afflicted tubers undoubtedly affects downstream aspects of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, which is ultimately reflected by the accumulation of reducing sugars, free amino acids and reduced sprouting capacity.

  12. Mapping Loci That Control Tuber and Foliar Symptoms Caused by PVY in Autotetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosumL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Washington L; Ingram, Jason; Hackett, Christine A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David; Bryan, Glenn J; De Jong, Walter; Gray, Stewart

    2017-11-06

    Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY NTN ). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability, and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY NTN symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F 1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY NTN isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 potato SNPs. Foliar symptom type and severity were monitored for 10 wk, while tubers were evaluated for PTNRD expression at harvest and again after 60 d in storage. Pairwise correlation analyses indicate a strong association between PTNRD and vein necrosis (τ = 0.4195). QTL analyses revealed major-effect QTL on chromosomes 4 and 5 for mosaic, 4 for PTNRD, and 5 for foliar necrosis symptoms. Locating QTL associated with PVY-related symptoms provides a foundation for breeders to develop markers that can be used to eliminate potato clones with undesirable phenotypes, e.g. , those likely to develop PTNRD or to be symptomless carriers of PVY. Copyright © 2017 Silva et al.

  13. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized

  14. Analysis of biologically active compounds in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), and jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2004-10-29

    Potatoes and tomatoes, members of the Solanaceae plant family, serve as major, inexpensive low-fat food sources providing for energy, high-quality protein, fiber, vitamins, pigments, as well as other nutrients. These crops also produce biologically active secondary metabolites, which may have both adverse and beneficial effects in the diet. This limited overview, based largely on our studies with the aid of HPLC, TLC, ELISA, GC-MS, and UV spectroscopy, covers analytical aspects of two major potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, and their hydrolysis products (metabolites) with two, one, and zero carbohydrate groups; the potato water-soluble nortropane alkaloids calystegine A3 and B2; the principal potato polyphenolic compound chlorogenic acid; potato inhibitors of digestive enzymes; the tomato tetrasaccharide glycoalkaloids dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine and hydrolysis products; the tomato pigments beta-carotene, lycopene, and chlorophyll; and the anticholinergic alkaloids atropine and scopolamine present in Datura stramonium (jimson weed) seeds that contaminate grain and animal feed. Related studies by other investigators are also mentioned. Accurate analytical methods for these food ingredients help assure the consumer of eating a good-quality and safe diet.

  15. Yield and Nitrogen Assimilation of Potato Varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.) as Affected by Saline Water Irrigation and Organic Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, A.; Gadalla, A.M.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Ismail, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in lysimeter under controlled greenhouse conditions. Saline water was applied in different levels, i.e. fresh water, 3 and 6 dS/m. Organic manure were applied to soil at rates of 0, 2.6 and 5.2 kg/m2. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labelled urea (10% a.e.) was applied at rate of 200 kg N/ha. 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer efficiency. Comparison held between the two potato varieties indicated that higher reduction in shoot dry weight was recorded with Nicola variety than Spunta one which irrigated with 6 dS/m water salinity level. Addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 organic rate induced an increase in N uptake with fresh water and 3 dS/m salinity then tended to decrease with 6 dS/m level as compared to the untreated control. Concerning the nitrogen fertilization, data of 15 N analysis showed that, water salinity levels combined with organic addition rates were frequently affected the nitrogen derived from fertilizer and consequently the fertilizer use efficiency. Most of nitrogen was derived from the applied nitrogen fertilizer with maximum accumulation in tuber rather than shoots or roots of both potato varieties. Gradual increase of tuber starch with increasing salinity levels was noticed with addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 of organic matter. In general, Spunta variety showed some superiority in tuber starch over those of Nicola variety tuber

  16. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs

  17. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  18. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  19. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months have been studied. By immediate effect of gamma radiation, an increase in the oxigen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers has been observed. Such increase persits even four months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated ''in vitro'' the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues.(author) [es

  20. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szalonek, M.; Sierpien, B.; Rymaszewski, W.; Gieczewska, K.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Dobrev, Petre; Szczesny, P.; Marczewski, W.; Krusiewicz, D.; Strzelczyk-Zyta, D.; Konopka-Postupolska, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2015), e0132683 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS * VIOLAXANTHIN DE-EPOXIDASE * BRASSICA-JUNCEA ANNEXIN-3 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  1. The combined effect of CO2 and ethylene sprout inhibitor on the fry colour of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the darkening of potato processing colour attributable to a trace concentration of ethylene gas is more severe when CO2 is also elevated. In view of the increasing use of ethylene gas for sprout suppression in potato storage facilities, it was considered important to

  2. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2012-06-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P pigeon pea starch respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosities increased with increasing levels of pigeon pea starch while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. The sensory attributes of stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics.

  3. Molecular and biological characterisation of two novel pomo-like viruses associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum) fields in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jose Fernando; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-06-01

    Potato is the fourth most important crop worldwide that is used as a staple food, after rice, wheat and maize. The crop can be affected by a large number of pathogens, including fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and viruses. Diseases caused by viruses are among the most important factors contributing to reduced quality and yield of the crop. Potato mop-top virus (genus Pomovirus) induces necrotic flecks in the tuber flesh and skin of potato in temperate countries. Spongospora subterranea is the vector of PMTV. Both the virus and its vector cause disease in potato. In Colombia, PMTV has been detected throughout the country together with a novel pomo-like virus in the centre (Cundinamarca and Boyacá) and south west (Nariño) of the country. We studied the molecular and biological characteristics of this novel virus. Its genome resembles those of members of the genus Pomovirus, and it is closely related to PMTV. It induces mild systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana (mosaic, branch curling), but no symptoms in N. tabacum, N. debneyi and Chenopodium amaranticolor. The proposed name for the virus is "Colombian potato soil-borne virus" (CPSbV). Additionally, another pomo-like virus was identified in Nariño. This virus induces severe systemic stem declining and mild mosaic in N. benthamiana. The tentative name "soil-borne virus 2" (SbV2) is proposed for this virus. No vectors have been identified for these viruses despite several attempts. This work focused on the characterisation of CPSbV. The risk posed by these viruses if they are introduced into new territories is discussed.

  4. Growth and stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Glycine max, Solanum tuberosum and Brassica napus cultivated under polychromatic LEDs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Martin; Navrátil, Oldřich; Haisel, Daniel; Jindřichová, Barbora; Fousek, Jan; Burketová, Lenka; Čeřovská, Noemi; Moravec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, MAY 3 (2015) ISSN 1746-4811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26798S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1942; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1761; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10768S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LED * Fluorescent tubes * Plant physiology Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  5. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GIBERELIN TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIBIT KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CV. GRANOLA UKURAN M (31 - 60 GRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to increase the production of seed potato size 31 - 60 grams by applying gibberellic acid (GA3. Seeds that passed their dormancy period were dipped in gibberellic acid solutions (10, 15 and 20 mg/L for 15 minutes a day before planting. Control seeds were dipped in water. Seeds were then air dried for 24 hours. Seeds were planted in plots with length, width and height of 150 x 100 x 30 cm respectively with planting space 20 cm and planting depth 15 cm. The design was randomized block with four replications. The results showed that gibberellic acid enhanced shoot emergence. Gibberellic acid increased stem number, tuber number and yield per plant. Tuber number and yield of size M (31 ? 60 g increased, whereas tuber number and yield of size LL decreased drastically. The optimum concentration of gibberellin for these increases was 15 mg/L. Plant height was not influenced by gibberellic acid.

  6. Impact of foliar application of seaweed extract on growth, yield and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasim Haider, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Habat Ullah Asad, Abdul Manan, Syed Ali Raza and Irfan Ashraf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out in 2010 to investigate the effect of foliar application of seaweed extract “Primo” as an organic biostimulant on potato cv. ‘Sante’. Foliar application of seaweed extract was carried out at different growth stages of the crop (i.e. 30 days; 45 days; 60 days; 30 and 45 days; 30 and 60 days; 45 and 60 days; 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing. Control plants were sprayed with water without seaweed extract. A significant improvement in growth, yield and tuber quality of potato was observed where treatment was applied. The highest tuber yield was recorded with applications of seaweed extract at 30 + 60 days interval after planting. The treatment also improved nitrogen, total soluble solids and protein contents of the potato tubers. The results of the study concluded a positive response of potato plant growth and yield to the foliar application of seaweed extract.

  7. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  8. Phenotypic performance of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants with pyramided rice cystatin genes (OCI and OCII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evaluation of transgenic plants commonly carried out under controlled conditions in culture rooms and greenhouses can give valuable information about the influence of introduced genes on transgenic plant phenotype. However, an overall assessment of plant performance can only be made by testing t...

  9. Phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity of the native Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum L. Huagalina variety in La Libertad - Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojas-Padilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato is grown and consumed throughout the world for their particular calori fi c nutritional value and vitamin C, but it also contai ns phytochemicals (secondary metabolites that have been studied and found to have positive effects in preventing degenerative diseases in human health, such as hypertensive activity , and also atherosclerosis , type 2 diabetes, liver fibrosis, Alzheimer's d isease, macular degeneration and cancer. We aimed to identify and quantify p henolic compounds in potatoes grown on El Zuro (EZ and Huayatan Alto (HA in Santiago de Chuco, La Libertad, Peru. The field trials were carried out in EZ (altitude 3750 m.a.s.l. and HA (altitude 3150 m.a.s.l. employing organic and inorganic fertilization respectively. Ext raction from the peel and flesh was obtained separately , with the following solution: 50% methanol, 50% deionized water and 0.5% acetic acid. The sample was inj ected into the system UPLC - MS / MS, using ESI ionization ( Electrospray Ionization and fifteen external reference standards. Thirteen metabolites were detected in the flesh and potato peel. The highest content of secondary metabolites (mg/100 g DW were: Chlorogenic acid (476.82 ± 63.58, neochlorogenic acid (87.90 ± 19.42 caffeic acid (77.53 ± 14.49 and vanillin (11.52 ± 1.38. The PCA ( Principal Components Analysis scores show that the highest concentration of metabolites was found in the peel of bot h cultivars. We concluded that the native potato Huagalina contains the genes expressed in different biosynthetic pathways of the metabolites found in this study .

  10. Effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation pf potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) during the storing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation of potato tubers stored during a period of six months is described by evaluating the loss by sprouting, transpiration and infections. The dose of 9 Krad inhibits sprouting with independence of the epoch in wich the treatment is made, on the other hand a dose of 6 Krad inhibits sprouting only if the tubers are irradiated during the resting period. The treatment with IPC gave similar results to those obtained with a dose of 9 Krad. (author) [es

  11. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  12. Cultivation of hitherto-uncultured bacteria belonging to the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Andreote, Fernando Dini; de Azevedo, Joao Lucio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leo S.; Andreoti, F.D.

    The role of dominant bacterial groups in the plant rhizosphere, e.g., those belonging to the phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, has, so far, not been elucidated, and this is mainly due to the lack of culturable representatives. This study aimed to isolate hitherto-uncultured bacteria from the

  13. Cultivation of hitherto-uncultured bacteria belonging to the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, da U.N.; Andreote, F.D.; Azevedo, J.L.; Elsas, van J.D.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of dominant bacterial groups in the plant rhizosphere, e.g., those belonging to the phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, has, so far, not been elucidated, and this is mainly due to the lack of culturable representatives. This study aimed to isolate hitherto-uncultured bacteria from the

  14. Data integration and knowledge management to facilitate research on plant-pathogen interactions: case study Solanum tuberosum – Verticillium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt is an important disease causing considerable economic losses in potato production globally. Soil and environmental conditions affect symptom expression and the effect of the disease on yield. A ten year field trial has been conducted in order to better understand the dynamics of wi...

  15. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends

    OpenAIRE

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2011-01-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein...

  16. Effects of storage temperatures and annealing conditions on the structure and properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, R F; Ansell, R; Snape, C E; Yusuph, M

    2005-07-01

    Starches were extracted from freshly harvested potatoes (12 cultivars, grown in Perthshire) and the properties of the starches of six cultivars were compared with starches extracted from the same samples but stored at 5, 25 or 55 degrees C for 7 days before extraction. The amylose (total) content of the freshly extracted starches from tubers stored at 5, 25 or 55 degrees C was on average 27.9+/-2.3, 28.3+/-1.7, 29.2+/-2.2 and 28.8+/-1.5%, respectively, with corresponding phosphorus representing 60+/-16, 64+/-9, 61+/-5 and 63+/-9 mg 100 g(-1). The unit chain distribution by chromatography of the amylopectin molecules from the starches extracted from the different conditions was very similar with an average degree of polymerisation (DP) of 26+/-2 where the two major fractions (F1 and F2) represented 54+/-2 and 19+/-1, respectively. Peak gelatinisation temperatures (Tp) and enthalpies (DeltaH) for the freshly extracted starches and from tubers stored at 5 or 25 degrees C were very similar (63.3+/-1.5 degrees C and 18.6+/-0.8 J g(-1); 63.1+/-1.0 degrees C and 17.7+/-1.5 J g(-1) and; 62.9+/-0.7 degrees C and 18.7+/-1.1 J g(-1), respectively) although starches stored at 55 degrees C were annealed, where Tp represented 71.1+/-1.1 degrees C and DeltaH 18.1+/-1.4 J g(-1). These in situ-annealed starches were comparable in terms of gelatinisation characteristics to annealed freshly extracted starches where on average, T(p) represented 72.7+/-1.0 degrees C and DeltaH 20.8+/-1.0 J g(-1). Annealing of tubers in situ prior to processing might be beneficial with respect to developing new potato-based products.

  17. ESTUDIO DE LAS POBLACIONES MICROBIANAS DE LA RIZÓSFERA DEL CULTIVO DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum) EN ZONAS ALTOANDINAS

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Vélez, Pamela; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Reymundo Meneses, Luis; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Zúñiga Dávila, Doris; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2008-01-01

    Se evaluaron las poblaciones de microorganismos en la rizósfera del cultivo de papa en dos diferentes regiones Altoandinas. Se encontró que la población de bacterias totales en la rizósfera de las regiones muestreadas siempre fue mayor que la población de hongos; Puno registra mayores poblaciones de bacterias totales, lo que se puede deber entre otros factores al pH del suelo que es más alcalino que en Huancavelica. Se observa que las poblaciones de Actinomicetos y Azotobacter spp. están infl...

  18. Caractérisation physiologique et biochimique du processus de vieillissement du tubercule de pomme de terre (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Delaplace, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Potato seed tuber is considered as a model organ to study plant ageing. Besides, its physiological age greatly influences germination pattern and thus agronomical performance. In order to unravel the biochemical processes underlying ageing, potato seed tubers (cv. Bintje and Désirée) were stored at 4°C for 7 months and regularly sampled to assess both physiological and biochemical parameters. Physiological age markers (PAI, incubation period) evolution was measured and allowed us to define a ...

  19. Effect of Application Methods of Vermicompost and Chemical Fertilizers on Tuber Yield and Some Morphological Traits of Potato (Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Monaghash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of vermicompost, chemical fertilizers and their application methods on tuber yield and some morphological traits of potato (Agria cultivar an experiment was carried out in Mahidasht Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in Kermanshah Province during 2012-2013 cropping season. The experiment was carried out in a split plot factorial using a randomized complete block design with four replications. Levels of vermicompost (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 t/ha were assigned to main plots, and chemical fertilizers with three levels (0, 50 and 100 % chemical fertilizer recommended of the amount of 225 kg/ha of urea, 150 kg/ha of potassium sulfate, 105 kg/ha of triple super phosphate and 52 kg/ha zinc sulfate and on 50% level respectively 112.5, 75, 52.5 and 26 kg/ha and fertilizer application methods at 3 levels (broadcast, one band and two band application to subplots. The results showed that increasing the amount of vermicompost about 3.5 t/ha and reducing chemical fertilizer by 50% and applying it in two band increased plant height, number of stems per plant and tuber yield. The highest tuber yield was obtained from application of 3.5 t/ha of vermicompost, 50% chemical fertilizer and two band fertilizer applications (37 t/ha. This study indicated the positive effect of vermicompost on potato tuber yield. Thus, it can be suggested that combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers may reduce chemical fertilizers usage and reduce also the environmental pollutions.

  20. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkabwa L.K. Manoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place S. umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits.

  1. Hydroxycinnamic acids in cooked potato tubers fromSolanum tuberosumgroup Phureja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros-Niño, Clara; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C; Mosquera, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids are phenolic compounds and are considered to have health promotion properties due to their antioxidant activity. Potato tubers of 113 genotypes of Solanum tuberosum group Phureja belonging to the Colombian Central Collection, landraces of potatoes, and commercial cultivars were evaluated for their hydroxycinnamic acids content. The composition of these compounds was analyzed using cooked tubers in two different agro-climatic conditions. The genotypes were analyzed for chlorogenic acid, neo -chlorogenic acid, crypto -chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Chlorogenic acid was the major representative and varied between 0.77 to 7.98 g kg -1  DW (dry weight) followed by crypto -chlorogenic acid (from 0.09 to 1.50 g kg -1  DW). Under moorland agro-climatic conditions even though the chlorogenic acid levels increased with respect to flatland agro-climatic conditions, the related isomer neo -chlorogenic acid decreased as compared to flatland conditions. The correlation between chlorogenic acid with the isomers, and with caffeic acid was positive. This study demonstrated that there is a wide variation in hydroxycinnamic acids contents in the germplasm studied, which can be exploited in breeding programs to contribute to human health.

  2. Polpa de batata residual acidificada desidratada: aplicação em biscoitos tipo rosquinha

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Mariana Patricio de

    2014-01-01

    O descarte de resíduos provenientes do processamento da batata frita no meio ambiente pode trazer problemas de poluição. A reutilização desses resíduos traz uma redução gradual no custo de produção de produtos de consumo. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a viabilidade física, química, tecnológica, microbiológica e sensorial de substituir parcialmente a farinha de trigo por polpa de batata residual acidificada desidratada proveniente da industrialização de batata frita na formulação de...

  3. Spirostanol steroids from the roots of Allium tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Shan; Cai, Le; Li, Ying; Wang, Jia-Peng; Xiao, Huai; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-08-01

    Three new spirostanol saponins named tuberosines A-C (1-3), together with three known ones tuberoside O (4), 25(S)-Schidigera-saponin D5 (5), and shatavarin IV (6) were isolated from the roots of Allium tuberosum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Whereas compounds 5 and 6 exhibited potent antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis (32 μg/mL) and Escherichia coli (16 μg/mL), the new saponin 2 showed only moderate antibacterial activities against these pathogens. The relationship between the antibacterial activities and the structures of these saponins are described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural antifungal compounds from the peels of Ipomoea batatas Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyori, Abimbola P; Shaw, Arun Kumar; Preeti, Rastogi; Reddy, Sammajay; Atolani, Olubunmi; Olatunji, Gabriel A; Fabiyi, Oluwatoyin A

    2016-09-01

    Three antifungal compounds have been isolated for the first time from the peels of Ipomoea batatas Lam. Their structures were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra data as well as ESI-MS and IR analysis. Urs-13(18)-ene-3β-yl acetate was found to possess a weak activity against Sporothrix schenckii and Trichophyton metagrophytes fungi with an MIC value of 50 μg/mL each. Stigmasterol and 3-friedelanol were equally active against T. metagrophytes.

  5. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, A.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs

  6. Wound healing activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Sonkamble

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. from the family Convolvulaceae is the world’s sixth largest food crop. The tubers of Ipomoea batatas commonly known as sweet potato are consumed as a vegetable globally. The tubers contain high levels of polyphenols such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids and vitamins A, B and C, which impart a potent antioxidant activity that can translate well to show wound healing effects. To check their effects on wound healing, the peels and peel bandage were tested on various injury models in rats in the present study.Methods: The methanolic extracts of the peels and peel bandage of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato were screened for wound healing by excision and incision wound models on Wistar rats. Three types of gel formulations were prepared, viz., gel containing 3.0% (w/w peel extract, gel containing 6.0% (w/w peel extract and gel containing 10% (w/w peel extract. Betadine (5% w/w povidone iodine cream was used as a reference standard. In the incision wound model, Tensile strength of the skin was measured. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in the excision wound model.Results: In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the wounded skin was observed in animals treated with the peel extract gels and the peel bandage when compared with wounded control animals. The increase in tensile strength indicates the promotion of collagen fibers and that the disrupted wound surfaces are being firmly knit by collagen. In the excision wound model, significant wound closure was observed on the 4th day in rats treated with all three gel formulations when compared with the wounded control rats. A significant increase inFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:403-415hydroxyproline and ascorbic acid content in the gel-treated animals and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content in the

  7. A genome-wide BAC-end sequence survey provides first insights into sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genome composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zengzhi; Du, Bing; Huo, Jinxi; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang; Zhai, Hong

    2016-11-21

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is an important food crop widely grown in the world. However, little is known about the genome of this species because it is a highly heterozygous hexaploid. Gaining a more in-depth knowledge of sweetpotato genome is therefore necessary and imperative. In this study, the first bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of sweetpotato was constructed. Clones from the BAC library were end-sequenced and analyzed to provide genome-wide information about this species. The BAC library contained 240,384 clones with an average insert size of 101 kb and had a 7.93-10.82 × coverage of the genome, and the probability of isolating any single-copy DNA sequence from the library was more than 99%. Both ends of 8310 BAC clones randomly selected from the library were sequenced to generate 11,542 high-quality BAC-end sequences (BESs), with an accumulative length of 7,595,261 bp and an average length of 658 bp. Analysis of the BESs revealed that 12.17% of the sweetpotato genome were known repetitive DNA, including 7.37% long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, 1.15% Non-LTR retrotransposons and 1.42% Class II DNA transposons etc., 18.31% of the genome were identified as sweetpotato-unique repetitive DNA and 10.00% of the genome were predicted to be coding regions. In total, 3,846 simple sequences repeats (SSRs) were identified, with a density of one SSR per 1.93 kb, from which 288 SSRs primers were designed and tested for length polymorphism using 20 sweetpotato accessions, 173 (60.07%) of them produced polymorphic bands. Sweetpotato BESs had significant hits to the genome sequences of I. trifida and more matches to the whole-genome sequences of Solanum lycopersicum than those of Vitis vinifera, Theobroma cacao and Arabidopsis thaliana. The first BAC library for sweetpotato has been successfully constructed. The high quality BESs provide first insights into sweetpotato genome composition, and have significant hits to the genome

  8. DHN10 dehydrin is not expressed in transgenic Solanum species plants when the Dhn10 gene is fused to a glucosyl transferase promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, Izabela; Grygorowicz, Wojciech J; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2004-01-01

    A gene fusion system was used to study the expression pattern of the Dhn10 gene, encoding the DHN10 dehydrin protein in transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants carrying a combined GT-Dhn10 transgen in which the glucosyl transferase (GT) promoter region was fused to the coding sequence of the Dhn10 gene. Expression of the native Dhn10 gene and the GT-Dhn10 constructs was analysed in regenerated S. tuberosum transgenic plants, both at the transcript accumulation and protein levels. We showed that the expression of both the GT-Dhn10 transgen and the Dhn10 gene was regulated in the regenerated plants at the transcriptional level in an independent way, but only the protein product of the native Dhn10 expression was detected. The transcription product of the GT-Dhn10 transgen did not affect the expression of the Dhn10 gene either at the transcription level or at the protein level. The GT-Dhn10 plants did not show changes in freezing capacity compared to the control, non-transgenic ones.

  9. Associação entre isoenzimas e matéria seca em batata silvestre Isoenzymes and dry matter content in wild potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ HELENA GOMES ROCHA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Clones de batata silvestre (Solanum spp. foram analisados quanto aos teores de matéria seca em tubérculos e isoenzimas de aspartato transaminase e isocitrato desidrogenase em folhas, com o objetivo de identificar associação entre estas características. Os resultados obtidos em uma amostra de 50 clones indicam grande variabilidade do teor de matéria seca. Clones de S. commersonii malmeanum apresentaram maior teor que os de S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri e de outros cuja espécie não foi identificada. Os padrões isoenzimáticos de folhas de 38 clones da amostra mostraram 15 variantes eletroforéticas de aspartato transaminase e sete de isocitrato desidrogenase. Comparações efetuadas através de tabelas de contingência 2 x 2, usando o teste de chi², com correção para continuidade, permitiram concluir que existe associação significativa entre o teor de matéria seca e as bandas de mobilidade relativa 1,00 de aspartato transaminase e de isocitrato desidrogenase.Wild potato clones (Solanum spp. were analysed for tuber dry matter content, leaf aspartate transaminase and leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in order to identify association between these characteristics. The results indicate that there is great variability for dry matter content among 50 clones analysed. S. commersonii malmeanum clones had higher dry matter levels than S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri and the clones whose species were not identified. Fifteen aspartate transaminase and seven isocitrate dehydrogenase bands were observed in the gels of 38 clones. Tests of chi², using 2 x 2 contingency table, revealed a significant association between dry matter content and the bands of relative mobility 1.00 of both aspartate transaminase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

  10. Chemical and nutrient characterization of Solanum pseudocapsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of pharmaceutical and biodegradable industrial raw material is discussed. Key words: Solanum pseudocapsicum, berries, chemical composition, alkaloids nutrients. .... preservative and in the production of fabrics and plastics. Majority of the compounds identified in these berries are reported to have pharmacological and ...

  11. Preservation of Solanum pimpinellifolium genomic fragments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CC 14 S2125ZAA, Zavalla (Santa Fe), Argentina. Abstract. Five recombinant inbred lines obtained from the F2 generation of an interspecific cross between cultivar, Caimanta (Cai,. Solanum lycopersicum) and wild accession, LA722 (P, S. pimpinellifolium) ...

  12. Preservation of Solanum pimpinellifolium genomic fragments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five recombinant inbred lines obtained from the F2 generation of an interspecific cross between cultivar, Caimanta (Cai, Solanum lycopersicum) and wild accession, LA722 (P, S. pimpinellifolium) were crossed to obtain the second cycle hybrids (SCH). Eleven fruit quality traits were assessed in evaluating phenotypic ...

  13. Mechanism and control of Solanum lycocarpum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, L.V.A.; Silva, Da E.A.A.; Davide, A.C.; Mendes de Jesus, V.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Solanaceae seed morphology and physiology have been widely studied but mainly in domesticated crops. The present study aimed to compare the seed morphology and the physiology of germination of Solanum lycocarpum, an important species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, with two species with

  14. Phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of Solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of leaves, stem bark, roots and fruits of Solanum macranthum Dunal were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the presence of plant secondary metabolites and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal studies respectively. The results of the preliminary investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, the ...

  15. Preservation of Solanum pimpinellifolium genomic fragments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    483–505. Sociedad Española de Ciencias Hortícolas, Madrid,. Spain. Pratta G. R., Rodriguez G. R., Zorzoli R., Valle E. M. and Picardi. L. A. 2011 Phenotypic and molecular characterization of selected tomato recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Solanum lycopersicum × S. pimpinellifolium. J. Genet. 90, 229–237 ...

  16. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed ...

  17. The resin glycosides from the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. LAM.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naoki; Horiuchi, Yoshinori

    2008-11-01

    Four new and two known ether-soluble resin glycosides were isolated from popular sweet potato (the roots of Ipomoea batatas L. LAM., Kokei 14 go, Convolvulaceae) in Japan. Unlike ester-type dimers, batatins I and II, obtained from other sweet potato (Ipomoea batabas var. batatas), the glycosides were tetra or pentasaccharide monomers in which the sugar moieties are partially acylated by organic acids and combine with the aglycone, jalapinolic acid, to form a macrocyclic ester.

  18. Sensorial, physical and chemical evaluation of bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas

    OpenAIRE

    Mara N.G. Santos; Joice V.C. Orsine; Alexandre I. de A. Pereira; Roberto Cañete; María R.C.G. Novaes

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck (BDB) in nature and processed. Method...

  19. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  20. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  1. Protein (Viridiplantae): 816755 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e Solanum tuberosum MAQHYKLSSILLLAFIYFIHDHMITTITARRILQTPSFSTPTTPSFSMPTTPSFSKSPGVSKPASPSFSNSPSLSKPET...PSFSKSETLSFSKPETPSFSTSETPSFSKPETPSFSKPETPSFSKPEIPSFSKPETPSSPRLETPIFIKPETPTFSKPETPTFSKPKTPSLLKPETPSSQKPETPTFSKPET...PIFSKSETHSFSKPETPTSPNPETPTFSKPETPSSPKPETPSFSKPETSSFSKPETPTFSKPETPSSPKSETPSFSKPETPTFSKPET...PSSPKSETPTFPKPKIPSSLKPETPSSPNLETPSFLKPETPIFSKPETPSFSKPEMPSSTKPETPIPQSPRPLLSQSLKSQILQTPRPQLETSSFSKPET...PSFSKPETPSSSKPEAPSSPTPEMQSFTKPETPSFSKPETPNSPKPETPSFPKPETSTFSKPQTSNSPKSETSSSPKPETSSFSKSETPSFSKPEMPSSPTPETPNFSKPET

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 816753 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e Solanum tuberosum MIDEVKEEWPETPSFLNPETPNSQNPETPTFSNPESPTFSKSETPTFSMPETPTFSKPETPSFSKPETPSFSKPET...PSSQKLEASTFSKTETPTFSKLETPSFSKLETPISPNPETPTFSKPKTPSFSKPEIPSFSKPKTPSFSKSETPTLSKPETPSSPKPETPNSPKIEAPSFSKPETPSFSKPET...PTFSNPETLSSPKSETLTFQKPEIPSSPKLETQSSSKPETPSFSKPETPTFSKSKTPSSSKPEMPSSPKPETPSFSKPEILTFSKPKTPSFSKPETPSFSKPETPSFSRPET...PSFSNPETPSSSKPEPETLSSPKPKTPSSAKLETPSFSKLETPSFSKPETPSSLKPETPSFSKPET...PSSPNPKTPSSPKSETPSFSKPKTPSFSKPETPSSSKLETPNFLKPETPSSLKLEAPPTFLKPETSSSTKPKTPSFSTPETPTFSKPETPTFSKSETPSFSKSETPSSFKPETPSFSKPETPSSPKFETPSSPKPETPSSPKT

  3. Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.: a rich source of lipophilic phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Freitas, Nélia; Faria, Marisa; Gouveia, Manuela

    2013-12-18

    The lipophilic extracts from the storage root of 13 cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the aim to valorize them and offer information on their nutritional properties and potential health benefits. The amount of lipophilic extractives ranged from 0.87 to 1.32% dry weight. Fatty acids and sterols were the major families of compounds identified. The most abundant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid (182-428 mg/kg) and octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (133-554 mg/kg), respectively. β-Sitosterol was the principal phytosterol, representing 55.2-77.6% of this family, followed by campesterol. Long-chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also detected but in smaller amounts. The results suggest that sweet potato should be considered as an important dietary source of lipophilic phytochemicals.

  4. Chemical constituents of Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Torres, Maria da conceicao M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the stem EtOH extract of S. buddleifolium resulted in the isolation of terpenoids, amides, lignans and a steroidal alkaloid. Based on HRMS, IR and 1 H and 13 C NMR data analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as: 13-hydroxysolavetivone, betulinic acid, N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyldopamine, N-trans-p-cumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl- 3’-O-methoxydopamine, alangilignoside C, isolariciresinol, polistachiol, (+)-(8R,7’S,8’S)-3α-O-(β-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol, (-)-(8S,7’R,8’R)-3α-O-(β-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol and solamargine. The occurrence of terpenoids and amides is common in Solanum, unlike lignans which are rare. The isolated lignans described in this work are reported for the first time in the genus Solanum. (author)

  5. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg(-1) d(-1)), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg(-1) d(-1)) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.

  6. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass. PMID:21562638

  7. Persilangan Interspesifik Ipomoea Batatas (L.) Lam. Dengan Ipomoea Trifida (H.b.k.) G. Don. Berumbi Asal Citatah Jawa Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawati, Tia; Karuniawan, Agung; Supriatun, Titin; Karyono, Karyono

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea trifida merupakan kerabat liar ubi jalar (I. batatas) yang sangat berpotensi sebagai sumber gen dalam pemuliaan untuk memperbaiki karakter daya hasil, kadar bahan kering, pati, protein, ketahanan terhadap hama, dan penyakit tertentu. Persilangan interspesifik merupakan salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan keragaman genetik dalam program pemuliaan tanaman, sehingga kajian mengenai persilangan interspesifik antara I. batatas dengan I. trifida menjadi sangat penting dilakukan. Tujuan pene...

  8. Enhanced Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Potato Through Expression of Arabidopsis EFR and Introgression of Quantitative Resistance from Solanum commersonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federico; Schvartzman, Claudia; Murchio, Sara; Ferreira, Virginia; Siri, Maria I; Galván, Guillermo A; Smoker, Matthew; Stransfeld, Lena; Zipfel, Cyril; Vilaró, Francisco L; Dalla-Rizza, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is responsible for substantial losses in cultivated potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) crops worldwide. Resistance genes have been identified in wild species; however, introduction of these through classical breeding has achieved only partial resistance, which has been linked to poor agronomic performance. The Arabidopsis thaliana (At) pattern recognition receptor elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) recognizes the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern EF-Tu (and its derived peptide elf18) to confer anti-bacterial immunity. Previous work has shown that transfer of AtEFR into tomato confers increased resistance to R. solanacearum . Here, we evaluated whether the transgenic expression of AtEFR would similarly increase BW resistance in a commercial potato line (INIA Iporá), as well as in a breeding potato line (09509.6) in which quantitative resistance has been introgressed from the wild potato relative Solanum commersonii. Resistance to R. solanacearum was evaluated by damaged root inoculation under controlled conditions. Both INIA Iporá and 09509.6 potato lines expressing AtEFR showed greater resistance to R. solanacearum , with no detectable bacteria in tubers evaluated by multiplex-PCR and plate counting. Notably, AtEFR expression and the introgression of quantitative resistance from S. commersonii had a significant additive effect in 09509.6-AtEFR lines. These results show that the combination of heterologous expression of AtEFR with quantitative resistance introgressed from wild relatives is a promising strategy to develop BW resistance in potato.

  9. Characterization of the multiple resistance traits of somatic hybrids between Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. and two commercial potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Nachtigall, Marion; Schubert, Jörg; Hammann, Thilo; Antonova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific somatic hybrids between commercial cultivars of potato Solanum tuberosum L. Agave and Delikat and the wild diploid species Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (cph) were produced by protoplast electrofusion. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by flow cytometry, simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) markers and morphological analysis. Somatic hybrids were assessed for their resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) using a laboratory bioassay, to Potato virus Y (PVY) by mechanical inoculation and field trials, and foliage blight in a greenhouse and by field trials. Twenty-four and 26 somatic hybrids of cph + cv. Agave or cph + cv. Delikat, respectively, showed no symptoms of infection with PVY, of which 3 and 12, respectively, were also resistant to foliage blight. One hybrid of cph + Agave performed best in CPB and PVY resistance tests. Of the somatic hybrids that were evaluated for their morphology and tuber yield in the field for 3 years, four did not differ significantly in tuber yield from the parental and standard cultivars. Progeny of hybrids was obtained by pollinating them with pollen from a cultivar, selfing or cross-pollination. The results confirm that protoplast electrofusion can be used to transfer the CPB, PVY and late blight resistance of cph into somatic hybrids. These resistant somatic hybrids can be used in pre-breeding studies, molecular characterization and for increasing the genetic diversity available for potato breeding by marker-assisted combinatorial introgression into the potato gene pool.

  10. Enhanced Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Potato Through Expression of Arabidopsis EFR and Introgression of Quantitative Resistance from Solanum commersonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Boschi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt (BW caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is responsible for substantial losses in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum crops worldwide. Resistance genes have been identified in wild species; however, introduction of these through classical breeding has achieved only partial resistance, which has been linked to poor agronomic performance. The Arabidopsis thaliana (At pattern recognition receptor elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu receptor (EFR recognizes the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern EF-Tu (and its derived peptide elf18 to confer anti-bacterial immunity. Previous work has shown that transfer of AtEFR into tomato confers increased resistance to R. solanacearum. Here, we evaluated whether the transgenic expression of AtEFR would similarly increase BW resistance in a commercial potato line (INIA Iporá, as well as in a breeding potato line (09509.6 in which quantitative resistance has been introgressed from the wild potato relative Solanum commersonii. Resistance to R. solanacearum was evaluated by damaged root inoculation under controlled conditions. Both INIA Iporá and 09509.6 potato lines expressing AtEFR showed greater resistance to R. solanacearum, with no detectable bacteria in tubers evaluated by multiplex-PCR and plate counting. Notably, AtEFR expression and the introgression of quantitative resistance from S. commersonii had a significant additive effect in 09509.6-AtEFR lines. These results show that the combination of heterologous expression of AtEFR with quantitative resistance introgressed from wild relatives is a promising strategy to develop BW resistance in potato.

  11. Molecular diversity among seven Solanum (eggplant and relatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven Solanum species (eggplants) were investigated for molecular diversity. Besides its widespread cultivation, nutritional and economic importance, its genome has not been extensively researched. 39 Solanum accessions, a landrace and tomato variety (LBR 48) were molecularly analyzed by simple sequence repeat ...

  12. Tumor formation in hybrids between Solanum lycopersicum and S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic tumors are neoplastic growths that arise spontaneously in particular genotypes in plants. In the present study, we observed the occurrence of tumors in interspecific hybrids between Solanum lycopersicum L. and Solanum habrochaites S. Knapp and D. M. Spooner. The hybridity of these plants was confirmed based ...

  13. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  14. A CULTURA DA BATATA-DOCE: CULTIVO, PARENTESCO E RITUAL ENTRE OS KRAHÔ

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Morim de

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O artigo tematiza as relações de parentesco cotidianas e rituais entre humanos e plantas por meio de uma etnografia do ciclo de vida da batata-doce, cultivada pelos Krahô: desde o plantio, passando pelo crescimento, até a colheita, quando ocorre a “Festa da Batata”. O “aparentamento” mútuo entre as batatas e seus donos humanos envolve engajamentos corporais, afetivos e estéticos, implicando relações sociais de criação, troca, predação, transmissão de conhecimento xamânico e ritual. As ...

  15. Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Ademar Pereira de; Barbosa,Arthur Hennys Diniz; Cavalcante,Lourival Ferreira; Pereira,Walter Esfraim; Oliveira,Arnaldo Nonato Pereira de

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante, conduziu-se um experimento no período de Janeiro a Junho de 2004, em NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO, psamítico típico, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1) e ausê...

  16. A NOVEL GLYCOSIDIC STEROIDAL ALKALOID FROM SOLANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    isolated from Solanum species [5, 8, 9]. The 1H NMR indicated four characteristic steroidal aglycone methyls signals at δ 0.85 (3H, s),. 1.05 (3H, s), 0.98 (3H, d J = 6.6 Hz) and 1.18 (3H, d J = 7.3 Hz). A multiplet at δ 1.28 was due to methyls of two rhamnoses while a doublet (J = 4.8 Hz) at δ 5.36 was due to an olefinic proton ...

  17. Caracterización postcosecha y composición química de la batata (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamb. variedad Topera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García-Méndez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la composición química y calidad postcosecha de la batata variedad Topera proveniente de una producción semi-mecanizada con buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA. El estudio se realizó en el Laboratorio de Procesamiento Primario de Productos Agrícolas y Bioquímica de Alimentos de la Facultad de Agronomía (FAGRO de la Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV durante el año 2014. La metodología permitió determinar algunas características físicas, texturales y composición química por los métodos de AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Se obtuvieron batatas con un menor coeficiente de variabilidad en el peso (CV: 20,12%, forma (CV: 5,63% y tamaño (CV: 12,80%. Esta respuesta permitió establecer tres categorías de calidad con una baja incidencia de defectos (2,15% y daños físico-mecánicos (30,25%, esta última asociada a la alta resistencia del material (6,25+0,05 kgf/mm. Las batatas presentaron contenidos de azúcares reductores de 9,88%, fibra de 6,19% y proteína de 4,13%; estas características nutricionales sugieren su uso como suplemento alimenticio. La producción semi-mecanizada con la implementación de las técnicas de las BPA, permitió obtener batatas con características de importancia para la agroindustria procesadora de alimentos IV Gama y, a nivel del consumidor, con una calidad física homogénea.

  18. Chemical constituents of Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn; Constituintes quimicos de Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Torres, Maria da conceicao M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L., E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Ondina, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Botanica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical investigation of the stem EtOH extract of S. buddleifolium resulted in the isolation of terpenoids, amides, lignans and a steroidal alkaloid. Based on HRMS, IR and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as: 13-hydroxysolavetivone, betulinic acid, N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyldopamine, N-trans-p-cumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl- 3'-O-methoxydopamine, alangilignoside C, isolariciresinol, polistachiol, (+)-(8R,7'S,8'S)-3{alpha}-O-({beta}-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol, (-)-(8S,7'R,8'R)-3{alpha}-O-({beta}-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol and solamargine. The occurrence of terpenoids and amides is common in Solanum, unlike lignans which are rare. The isolated lignans described in this work are reported for the first time in the genus Solanum. (author)

  19. Four new resin glycosides, murasakimasarins I-IV, from the tuber of Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Teramoto, Sena; Naito, Saori; Takahashi, Asuka; Yoneda, Akito; Shinkai, Masato; Taga, Naoki; Yasuda, Sin; Tsuchihasi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2018-03-05

    Four new resin glycosides having macrolactone structures (jalapins), murasakimasarins I-IV, were isolated from the tubers of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. ('Murasakimasari', Convolvulaceae), along with three known glycosides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence. Murasakimasarin III is the first representative of a resin glycoside with 10-methylundecanoic acid as the component organic acid.

  20. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Kurniawan, D.; Wahab, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals

  1. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  2. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) tuber - potential oral anti-diabetic agent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes is one of the ailments that traditional healers had claimed cure capabilities by the use of some medicinal plants. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) is one of such plants in which much claims had been made. However, this claim has not previously been scientifically validated and experimentally assessed.

  3. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  4. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Halide, H., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Kurniawan, D. [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Wahab, A. W. [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  5. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato ( ipomoea batatas lam ) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for inoculation of fresh ...

  6. AMIDO DE BATATA DOCE (Ipomoea batatas L, Lam: II – CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA E ESTUDO DE ALGUMAS PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paschoal BATISTUTI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfologicamente e estudar a relação estrutura: função do grânulo de amido extraído de tubérculos, de diferentes cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L, Lam. Nas condições do experimento e mediante os resultados obtidos, observou-se que o amido dos diferentes cultivares estudados mostrou diferenças acentuadas na sua morfologia. Foram observadas, também, diferenças nas propriedades viscoamilográficas, devidas particularmente à heterogeneidade de forças envolvidas na manutenção da estrutura do grânulo. O amido obtido, dos cultivares estudados, mostrou maior resistência à desintegração mecânica, durante a gelatinização, quando comparado aos padrões comerciais testados. Apenas um cultivar mostrou pico de viscosidade máxima. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Batata-doce; amido; funcionalidade; morfologia.

  7. Cardio Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Linn. in Isoproterenol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardio Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Linn. in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rat. Sameer Amjad Shaik, Shivaprasad Huded, Asra Fathima, K.H. Preran, Syeda Juveriya Fathima, Farhath Khanum ...

  8. Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions. Stephanie Johana Numa Vergel, Lorena Rodríguez Coy, Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo, Ericsson Coy-Barrera ...

  9. Een nieuwe variëteit van Solanum triflorum Nutt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1966-01-01

    A note on a new variety of Solanum triflorum Nutt., viz. var. dentatum Ooststr., found in 1938 near Nijmegen, prov. Gelderland. SANDWITH (2, p. 346) mentions a plant from Bristol, which is identical with this.

  10. Characterization and expression of Rubisco activase genes in Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yusong; Wang, Jianxi; Tao, Xiang; Zhang, Yizheng

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis, coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS, was used to identify differentially expressed proteins between young and mature leaves of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. The results showed that there were 25 differential proteins between young and mature leaves. The Rubisco activase (RCA) that catalyzes the activation of Rubisco in vivo and plays a crucial role in photosynthesis was among these 25 proteins. So far, little was known about the molecular biology of RCA in sweet potato. Here, this research reports the cloning and characterization of two genes encoding the short isoform and the long isoform of sweet potato RCAs. Analysis of DNA sequences of RCA suggested that the corresponding mRNAs were transcribed from two different genes. To study the roles of these two RCA isoforms in photosynthesis, we investigated the expression patterns of these RCA genes at the mRNA and protein levels every 2 h in a photoperiod and under different temperatures conditions. The results indicated that these two RCA isoforms may play different roles in regulating photosynthesis and they may be regulated by light, heat or both. In addition, there were interactions between Rubisco large subunit (RBCl) and short isoform RCA (RCAs) as well as RCAs and long isoform RCA (RCAl), but no interaction between RBCl and RCAl, implying they might form a sandwich-like structure (RBCl-RCAs-RCAl), at least in yeast cells. These results provided new information on the modulation of RCA genes in sweet potato, which could be useful in improving photosynthesis and plant growth in sweet potato.

  11. Pemakaian Prebiotik Ubi Jalar Kuning (Ipomoea Batatas L) Dan Probiotik Lactobacillus Casei Pada Pembuatan Susu Fermentasi Sinbiotik

    OpenAIRE

    FAJAR, NAJMIATUL; Indriati, Gustina

    2010-01-01

    This research study about use of prebiotic Ipomea batatas L. and probiotic Lactobacillus casei at milk fermentation. The USAge of simbiotic increase, recentely, especially, for husbandarys products, such as milk fermentation the purpose of this study was to find out the best composition of prebiotic Ipomoea batatas L and probiotic Lactobacillus casei given in the process of simbiotic milk fermentation. The method used for this experiment was random cluster, factorial 4 x 3 with 3 times of r...

  12. Demographic comparison of sweetpotato weevil reared on a major host, Ipomoea batatas, and an alternative host, I. triloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Chi, Hisn

    2015-07-09

    In this study, we collected life table data for the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius, grown on Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea triloba, and analyzed them using an age-stage, two-sex life table. We also demonstrated the growth potential of C. formicarius on these two host plants by using population projection. These data will be useful to the growers to the selection or eradication of host plants in an integrated control strategy for C. formicarius for the entire area of the targeted areas. We found that C. formicarius developed faster on I. batatas than on I. triloba. The developmental times of the larval and pupal stages on I. batatas than on I. triloba were 37.01 and 8.3 days. The adult females emerged before and began to produce eggs at 42 days earlier when reared on I. batatas. The fecundity of females was 90.0 eggs on I. batatas significantly higher than the mean fecundity of 68.5 eggs on I. triloba. Although this insect has a higher intrinsic rate of increase on I. batatas, the study indicated that C. formicarius can successfully survive and reproduce on both host plants.

  13. Demographic comparison of sweetpotato weevil reared on a major host, Ipomoea batatas, and an alternative host, I. triloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Chi, Hisn

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we collected life table data for the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius, grown on Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea triloba, and analyzed them using an age-stage, two-sex life table. We also demonstrated the growth potential of C. formicarius on these two host plants by using population projection. These data will be useful to the growers to the selection or eradication of host plants in an integrated control strategy for C. formicarius for the entire area of the targeted areas. We found that C. formicarius developed faster on I. batatas than on I. triloba. The developmental times of the larval and pupal stages on I. batatas than on I. triloba were 37.01 and 8.3 days. The adult females emerged before and began to produce eggs at 42 days earlier when reared on I. batatas. The fecundity of females was 90.0 eggs on I. batatas significantly higher than the mean fecundity of 68.5 eggs on I. triloba. Although this insect has a higher intrinsic rate of increase on I. batatas, the study indicated that C. formicarius can successfully survive and reproduce on both host plants. PMID:26156566

  14. Determinación cuantitativa de vitamina C y pigmentos y procesamiento de la papa criolla, variedad yema de huevo (Solanum phureja Juz et Buck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alvarez G.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Empleando papa pardo'pastusa (Solanum tuberosum como control, se determinó el contenido de Vitamina C total en la papa criolla, variedad Yema de Huevo (Solanum phureja, Juz et Buck y se evaluaron las pérdidas durante la cocción y el freído. Se utilizaron los métodos colorimétrico y densitométrico: el primero dio resultados altos debido a sustancias interferentes; el segundo reportó los siguientes valores: criolla 21 mg/100 g, pardo-pastusa 18 mg/100 g (para muestra fresca. Las pérdidas de Vitamina C de papa criolla con piel fueron durante la cocción {92°C durante 25' de 1 9 % y en el freído (175°C por 3' de 30%. También se analizaron los carotenos y xantofilas dando: carotenos en papa criolla, 1.5 mg/100 g, en pardo-pastusa 0.5 mg/100 g (muestra fresca y xantofilas en papa criolla 0.6 mg/100 g, en pardo-pastusa 0.13 mg/100 g. Se procesó en las siguientes formas no tradicionales: en harinas compuestas aceptadas por ios consumidores, en una sustitución del 2 0% con puré; frita en tajadas con piel y pasabocas de puré. El tiempo de vida fue para frita tres semanas a 16°C V más de una semana a 25°C; para pasabocas cinco semanas y media a 16 C y un mes a 30°C.

  15. Corte de tubérculos de batatinha (Solatium tuberosum L.: parte I - Estudos comparativos sôbre plantio de tubérculos inteiros, e cortados em "ápice" e "base"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo J. Boock

    1947-01-01

    Full Text Available Several trials were conducted with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. to study the relative value of the apical and basal sets, as compared to whole seed tubers, since cutting potatoes before planting has been a matter of discussion. The experiments have been carried out on a high and on a low districts, say, respectively, at Joanópolis mountainous region, and at Taubaté flat lands, the latter on the right bank of Paraíba river, both in the State of São Paulo. Results have shown that on high lands, over 1,000 meters above sea level, the cutting process may be accomplished, though the basal sets have yielded less than apical ones, and whole tubers. Apical sets produced as well as whole tubers. At Taubaté district, aproximately 500 meters above sea level, where potato crop is usually grown from May to September in the dry season, on irrigated flat lands, after rice has been harvested, best results were secured from whole seed tubers. Apical and basal sets decayed easily, due probably to irrigation water ; for this reason they are not to be used.

  16. Listado anotado de Solanum L. (Solanaceae) en el Perú

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Baden, Maria; Gonzáles, Paúl

    2015-01-01

    The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 275 species of Solanum L., of which 252 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 73 Solanum species (29% of native...

  17. Karyotype analysis of three Solanum plants using combined PI-DAPI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... In this study, mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Solanum surattense Burm., Solanum lyratum Thunb. and Solanum photeinocarpum Nakam. were well prepared using an advanced chromosome preparation method. The chromosomes were distinguished by combined PI-DAPI (CPD) staining and double.

  18. Ocorrência da broca do coleto (Megastes spp. no banco de germoplasma de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam do SMGP-CECA/UFAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Tenório Cavalcante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência da Broca do Coleto (Megastes spp. no banco de germoplasma de batata doce (Ipomea batatas (L.Lam.  do Setor de Melhoramento Genético de Plantas do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Alagoas (SMPG/CECA/UFAL, no município de Rio Largo – AL, no ano de 2011. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 14 tratamentos, em duas épocas de plantio (estação chuvosa e estação seca e com cinco avaliações (aos 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90 dias após o plantio - DAP. Os genótipos avaliados foram: 12 clones obtidos pelo SMGP e duas variedades: Sergipana e Rainha de Penedo. As avaliações foram realizadas após o trigésimo dia do plantio através de escala de notas segundo a metodologia idealizada por Azevedo et. al., (1996. Os resultados permitiram concluir que há um ataque mais intenso da broca durante a época estação seca, a maior ocorrência aos 90 dias após o plantio, certamente não causará redução significativa na produção de raízes tuberosas, pois nesta fase a cultura praticamente já se encontra em condições de colheita. Os clones 2, 4, 6 e 14 e as variedades Sergipana e Rainha de Penedo, são de grande valia para o programa de melhoramento genético da cultura da batata-doce. 

  19. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.

  20. Decrease in spermatic parameters of mice treated with hydroalcoholic extract Tropaeolum tuberosum “mashua”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Vásquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we provided a Tropaeolum tuberosum hydroalcoholic extract to male mice (780 mg kg-1 for 7, 14 and 21 days treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, testes, epididymides and prostate weight (p> 0.05, nevertheless progressive motility decreased and immobile sperm count increased significantly after 21 days treatment (p <0.05. The sperm count in the epididymis cauda decreased in the 3 three assessments, concentration on 21 days treatment was significantly lower than those of 7 and 14 days treatments (p <0.05. Our results suggest, that T. tuberosum has a direct action on the male reproductive system decreasing spermatic parameters without exerting toxic effects on mice.

  1. Efectos del Almacenamiento y de la Cocción sobre el Contenido de Glicoialcaloides en Papa (Solanum Iuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Marín Héctor

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Los glicoalcaloides son O-glicósidos derivados de alcaloides 3 hidroxi-esteroides. Son bases débiles, ligeramente solubles en agua, solubles en ácidos débiles y alcoholes acidificados. Los que se encuentran en la papa (Solanum tuberosum son α-solanina y α-chaconina. A partir de ciertas concentraciones pueden manifestarse como mutagénicos, teratogénicos y carcinogénicos. Valores superiores a 1O mg/1OOg de tubérculo fresco imparten un sabor amargo. Contenidos de 20 mg/1OOg o más, dan sensación de quemadura. Se han reportado muertes a niveles de 30 mg/1OOg. Se estudiaron los efectos del almacenamiento y de la cocción sobre el contenido de glicoalcaloides totales (cuantitativo y el sabor amargo (cualitativo, en las dos variedades de papa de mayor consumo en Antioquia: ICA puracé y DIACOL capiro, bajo las condiciones de temperatura 16 y 21.5 °C. Los contenidos de glicoalcaloides totales fueron: 1.5 mg/1OOg en el tubérculo fresco variedad DIACOL capiro y 2.6 mg/1OOg para la variedad ICA puracé. Al pasar de 15 a 30 días el almacenamiento de las dos variedades a ambas temperaturas, se incrementaron los glicoalcaloides totales. No obstante, estos valores están por debajo de los niveles que inciden en el sabor amargo y más distantes aún de los considerados tóxicos. Con respecto a la cocción, hubo una clara reducción en el contenido de los glicoalcaloides. Para la variedad ICA puracé, hubo menores niveles de glicoalcaloides a la temperatura 21.5 °C, pero la variedad DIACOL capiro no mostró esa diferencia.

  2. Estimativa das temperaturas cardinais e modelagem do desenvolvimento vegetativo em batata-doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Erpen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar as temperaturas cardinais da batata-doce e comparar a simulação da emissão de nós com o modelo do plastocrono (linear e com o modelo de Wang e Engel (não linear além da melhor forma de entrada da temperatura do ar nos modelos. A calibração e o teste dos modelos foram feitos pelos dados de número de nós na haste principal de plantas de batata-doce, cultivar Princesa, coletados em experimentos conduzidos em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, em sete épocas de plantio, nos anos 2010, 2011 e 2012. Melhor predição dos modelos foi obtida com o uso das temperaturas cardinais 12, 30 e 40 ºC. Os modelos plastocrono e Wang e Engel apresentaram desempenho semelhante. A versão com a temperatura média foi superior às temperaturas mínima e máxima, em ambos os modelos. Os dois modelos podem ser utilizados para simular o desenvolvimento vegetativo da batata-doce quando cultivada na época recomendada. Sugere-se, fora deste período, o uso do modelo de Wang e Engel.

  3. Characterization of Secondary Metabolites from Purple Ipomoea batatas Leaves and Their Effects on Glucose Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Lee, Shou-Lun; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Kao, Ming-Ching; Liu, Chuan-Hao; Chen, Jau-Yang; Lai, Yen-Ting; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-06-08

    Ipomoea batatas has long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycemia or as a food additive for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, neither the plant extract nor its active components have been evaluated systematically. In this work four crude extracts, including n-hexane- (IBH), 95% MeOH- (IBM), n-BuOH- (IBB), and H₂O-soluble (IBW) fractions, were prepared by fractionation of a methanolic extract of purple I. batatas leaves. Twenty-four pure compounds 1-24 were then isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures identified from NMR and MS data. Glucose uptake assays in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rat primary hepatocytes, as well as western blot analysis, were carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of this species. The IBH crude fraction, with methyl decanoate (22) as a major and active compound, showed the greatest effect on glucose uptake, most likely via activation of Glut4 and regulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Quercetin 3-O-β-d-sophoroside (1), quercetin (3), benzyl β-d-glucoside (10), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (12), and methyl decanoate (22) could be important components contributing to the antidiabetic effects. We conclude that purple I. batatas leaves have potential as an antidiabetic plant source and the active constituents 1, 3, 10, 12, and 22 are promising lead candidates for future investigation.

  4. Desempenho de cultivares nacionais de batata para produtividade de tubérculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Olegario da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desempenho dos cultivares de batata nacionais BRS Ana e BRS Clara, em comparação com os cultivares importados Ágata e Asterix, em relação à produtividade de tubérculos. Os experimentos foram realizados no município de Canoinhas, SC. Foram avaliados quatro cultivares de batata: BRS Ana, BRS Clara, Asterix e Ágata. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As parcelas continham quatro linhas com 20 plantas em cada linha. Cento e dez dias após o plantio foi realizada a colheita e, os tubérculos de cada parcela, avaliados para caracteres relacionados com a produtividade de tubérculos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e agrupamento de médias, por Skott & Knott, a 5% de probabilidade. Os cultivares de batata nacionais BRS Ana e BRS Clara foram mais produtivos do que os importados Asterix e Ágata; no entanto, são mais tardios, quanto ao ciclo vegetativo.

  5. A new phenylpropanoid glucoside and a chain compound from the roots of Allium tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Shan; Liu, Shi-Xi; Ma, Ying-Cong; Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2017-01-01

    A new phenylpropanoid glucoside tuberosinine D (1) and a chain compound (Z)-11R,12S,13S-trihydroxy-9-octadecenoate (2) were isolated from the roots of Allium tuberosum. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparing of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism. The absolute configuration of 2 was determined using the modified Mosher's method for the first time.

  6. Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Farruggia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles S. crinitum and S. lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to S. sycophanta but differs from the latter inprominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to S. sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador.

  7. Quality of seed potato tubers treated with paraquat and the development of a simplified methodology for paraquat residue detection

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Welington; Dantas, Raquel L.

    1995-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente (Solanum tuberosum) tratados com paraquat e desenvolver uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduos de herbicida. Dois ensaios foram realizados no Laboratório da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas do Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de hortaliças, Brasília, DF. No experimento, tubérculos das cultivares Achat e Baronesa foram submersos em soluções de 0 e 200 ppm de paraquat ou injetados com 0,5 ml de soluções de 0...

  8. Recursos genéticos del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. en Cuba. Especies silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Leopoldo Parrado Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presentan los resultados de la valoración de los recursos genéticos del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam a partir del estudio de material de herbario y fuentes bibliográficas teniendo en consideración el criterio de grupo taxón de Maxted de acuerdo con el cual en Cuba se reporta la presencia de los grupos siguientes: Grupo Taxón 2 – misma serie o sección que el cultivo (7 especies; Grupo Taxón 3 – mismo subgénero que el cultivo Eriospermum (45 especies dentro de este grupo se encuentran 21 especies endémicas y el Grupo Taxón 4 – mismo género que el cultivo (57 especies lo que potencia a Cuba como un centro de diversidad importante para Ipomoea batatas en Latinoamérica y el Caribe . Se ofrece una descripción sucinta de las especies tratadas que incluye distribución, fenología, datos etnobotánicos y el material de herbario consultado. Genetic resources of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. lam. in Cuba. Wild species. ABSTRACT The results of the evaluation of the genetic resources of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam are presented from the study of herbarium material and bibliographic sources taking into account the criterion of Maxted´s taxon group according to which in Cuba is reported the presence of the following groups : Taxon group 2 - same series or section cultivation (7 species Taxon group 3 - same subgenus Eriospermum the crop (45 species within this group are 21 endemic species and Taxon group 4 - same genus as the crop (57 species that fact potenciate to Cuba as an important center of diversity for Ipomoea batatas in Latin America and the Caribbean. A brief description of the treated species including distribution, phenology, ethnobotanical data and herbarium material consulted is provided. A brief description of the treated species including distribution, phenology, ethnobotanical data and herbarium material consulted is provided.

  9. Efecto de la temperatura sobre el crecimiento de plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L., variedades atlantic y 1625 frito lay, crecidas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Orozco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, se estudio el efecto que causa sobre el crecimiento vegetativo de dos variedades de papa (1625 Frito Lay y Atlantic, el aumento de la temperatura en condiciones in vitro, para lo cual se usaron dos valores de temperatura (30/26 °C y 27/25 °C dia/noche. El medio de cultivo utilizado fue el MS (1962 de laboratorios Gibco, el cual se usó a razón de 17 g/L y se suplementó con vitaminas y aminoácidos del mismo medio. En ambas variedades la alta temperatura (30/26 °C causó una disminución en el diámetro del tallo y en el número de nudos por planta, así como un incremento en la longitud internodal y en la altura de la planta. Por otro lado, la alta temperatura disminuyó significativamente (P < 0,05 la longitud de la raíz en la variedad Frito Lay mientras que la variedad Atlantic mostró un incremento no significativo.

  10. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  11. Studies regarding the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil treatments in healthy and potato virus Y (PVY infected plants Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Liliana BĂDĂRĂU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato virus Y cause loss in yield and quality of tubers. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid present in oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants are implicated in signaling against stress. The effects of these chemicals on tuber yield and pigments content were evaluated in plants testing positive after virus mechanical infection. Without chemical treatment, positive plants showed significant reductions in leaf pigments content and tuber weights compared to uninfected controls. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and oil treatments of PVY infected plants significantly reduced the number of minitubers, enhancing their weights, while leaf pigment content also increased. This research demonstrates potential benefits of treatments with oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid in enhancing the yield and quality of tubers.

  12. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of antioxidant compounds in potato tubers, with subsequent increase on their antioxidant capacity.

  13. Influence of heat treatment on the sensory and physical characteristics and carbohydrate fractions of french-fried potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Carvalho Montenegro de VASCONCELOS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the impact that heat treatment with salts and freezing processes on the sensory, instrumental, and physico-chemical characteristics of fried potatoes of the Monalisa cultivar. The potatoes were blanched in distilled water (P; sodium chloride solution (B1; calcium chloride solution (B2, and a solution with both of these salts (B3. They were then pre-cooked and frozen for 24 hours and for 30 days. After frying, sensory characteristics were analyzed (color, texture, flavor, oiliness, along with overall preference and instrumental determinations of texture, color, and oil content. Further tests were conducted on the sample with the best results in the sensory analysis (B1, along with sample P as a control, to determine granule microstructure, carbohydrate fractions, glycemic index, and glycemic load. Blanching B3, despite reducing oil absorption and providing less oiliness, obtained lesser overall preference. Freezing for 30 days increased the lightness, except for when sodium chloride was used, which intensified the color yellow. The use of sodium chloride did not interfere with the type of starch granules, nor with the formation of resistant starch; however, longer freezing time reduced the glycemic index and concentrated the dietary fiber content. All samples exhibited low glycemic index and moderate glycemic loads.

  14. Evaluation of Water Deficit Tolerance of 10 Potato Cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.Based on some Physiological Traits and Tuber Yield in Ardabil Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the physiological traits affecting the yield of 10 different potato cultivars under water deficit conditions in a two-years study (2013 and 2014 in Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station. The study was performed in a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main-plots were three levels of irrigations (irrigation with 100%, 80% and 60% required water and sub-plots consisted of 10 commercial potato cultivars (Khavaran, Savalan, Luca, Satina, Sante, Marfona, Caeser, Agria, Aula and Draga released in the last 30 years. During the growing season, some physiological traits including relative water content, electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll content of the leaves were measured at their five different growth stages. Combined analysis of variance of traits showed that there were significant differences cultivars between years, and cultivars × water deficit stress interaction in all growth stages in terms of relative water content, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll content and tuber yield. In terms of electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll content of the leaves, there were significant differences between years, different water stress levels, cultivars and cultivars × water stress level. In addition, in terms of tuber yield there were significant differences between years, water stress levels, cultivars and year × water stress level, cultivar × water stress level, cultivar × year.  There were significant differences in chlorophyll content of the leaves under different irrigation conditios in the first, second, third and fifth growth stages of the potato. According to the results, under normal irrigation condition, cultivars Khavaran and Satina had higher relative water content, lower electrolyte leakage, higher chlorophyll content of the leaves and higher tuber yield. Under mild water stress condition, cultivars Caeser, Draga and Khavaran and under severe stress condition, cultivars Agria and Draga maintained higher relative water content and higher tuber yield; whereas cultivars Savalan, Luca, Satina and Marfona showed lower electrolyte leakage and higher tuber yield; and cultivar Savalan showed the highest chlorophyll content of the leaves and higher tuber yield under severe stress condition and thus were selected as tolerant cultivars to water deficit conditions.

  15. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan

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    Hiroaki Sato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars (‘Toyoshiro’, ‘Kitahime’, ‘Snowden’ and ‘Poroshiri’ were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  16. The Growth Response of Several Potato Genotypes (Solanum tuberosum L. to Induced Water Stress Using Sorbitol and Polyethylene Glycol

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    Mihaela A. CIOLOCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aimed to study the in vitro response of potato genotypes to water stress induced by adding sorbitol and polyethylene glycol in the culture medium. The biological material analysed in the experiment was represented by a Romanian line ‘LP 11-1525/1’ and two isogenic lines ‘LI 101’ and ‘LI 102’. For cultures initiation, the line ‘LP 11-1525/1’ was started from meristems and for the other two genotypes true potato seeds were used. The studied potato genotypes behaved differently depending on the analysed parameters and on the treatment applied for drought tolerance. It was noted that the line ‘LP 11-1525/1’ achieved good results for most of the growth parameters studied, and also the lines derived from true potato seeds behaved well, in some cases even exceeding the line derived from meristems. Of the lines derived from true potato seeds, the best performance was noted for line ‘LI 101-6’ in all the analysed parameters, both on sorbitol and PEG medium. In addition, lines ‘LI 101-7’ and ‘LI 102-4’ achieved good results on both variants of medium used to mediate water stress. Therefore, establishing drought tolerance individuals within populations derived from true potato seeds using sorbitol and polyethylene glycol might be applied.

  17. Preliminary study on the effect of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the conservation of potato tubers for consumption (Solanum tuberosum l.), during the storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montepeque Roldan, R.

    1984-03-01

    The object of the thesis is the study of the inhibiting effect of the sprouting of potato tubers, variety Loman, after Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (with doses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Krads) as well as after treatment with the chemical inhibitor Isopropyl-N-Phenyl Carbonate (IPC). These treatments were applied to different groups of tubers, after 15 and 45 days from harvesting, stored under two illumination conditions: darkness (closed room), and indirect light (straw hut). The number, length and thickness of the sprouts, as well as the weight, humidity contents and infection of the tubers were recorded twice a month. A random 2x2x7x4 multifactorial design, with 3 repetitions, was used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. Variance and multiple regression analysis, as well as Tukey tests were performed on the IBM/370 computer of the San Carlos University (Guatemala). It was found that both the 4 and 6 Krad doses and the IPC treatments have no effect on the sprouting inhibition. The irradiation with the 8, 10, and 12 Krad doses inhibited the sprouting in an irreversible way, with insignificant loss of weight and moisture, regardless of the irradiation epoch and light condition. However, the tubers stored in darkness, showed ideal characteristics for consumption, and the 8 Krad dose, applied at 15 days after harvesting is concluded to be the best

  18. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of reinforce bread with partial replacement of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum) by corn (Zea mays) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) flours

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón, Antonio; Centro Latinoamericano de Enseñanza e Investigación en Bacteriología Alimentaria - CLEIBA. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Contreras, Eliana; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Muñoz, Ana María; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ayquipa, Rita; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Fernández, Wendy; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    It was realized the sensorial evaluation and were studied the chemical composition and nutritional value of iron-fortified bread, with partial replacement of 10% of its wheat flour content by potato and corn flour, obtaining a bread with soft texture, palatable and very good acceptability for children of school age. The elaborated bread contains protein 13,10%; fat 9,80% and carbohydrates 50,32%, with an energy value of 341,88 kcal/100 g and an iron content 10,13 mg/100 g, that satisfies the ...

  19. FERTILIZACIÓN NITROGENADA DE LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) EN LA PROVINCIA DE HOLGUÍN. DOSIS ÓPTIMA DE NITRÓGENO

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ramírez; A. Cabrera; J. Corbera

    2004-01-01

    En la actualidad, en la provincia de Holguín se plantan más de 1 300 ha de papa, generalmente sobre suelo Pardo Mullido sin carbonatos y la fertilización se lleva a cabo sin tomar en consideración las particularidades edafoclimáticas de la localidad. Para conocer este requisito indispensable, se desarrollaron dos experimentos con dosis de N entre 50 y 200 kg.ha-1, en los años 1996-1997 y 1997-1998. La altura de las plantas guardó una relación lineal positiva con las dosis de N aplicadas y el ...

  20. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Granstedt, Artur

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  1. Evaluation of an organic package of practice towards integrated management of Solanum tuberosum and its comparison with conventional farming in terms of yield, quality, energy efficiency and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Seal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken up during 2014-16 for evaluating the potential of an organic package of practice towards integrated crop production (green farming in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice in West Bengal, India. Under green farming, compost was integrated with chemical fertilizer for soil management while organic plant/ pest management was undertaken utilizing Inhana Rational Farming (IRF Technology. The study indicated higher yield (9.7 %, higher nutrient use efficiency and economic sustainability under green farming irrespective of study area or potato variety. Higher qualitative expression in terms of starch content, pulp pH, vitamin C etc. under green farming might be due to the organic plant management aimed at energization of plant biochemical functions. Soil quality development as noted under green farming might have been influenced by the on-farm produced compost containing rich self- generated micro flora (in order of 1016 per colony forming unit.. The study indicated that green farming may serve as an efficient substitute of conventional farming towards yield sustenance, abatement of food toxicity and quality end product; through higher use of renewable energy and activation of plant physiological functions.

  2. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L. Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kjellenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA, consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production in the Farming Sectors that Emerged from Zimbabwe’s Radical Land Reform of 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 European Association for Potato ResearchIrish potato production in Zimbabwe can be traced back to the early 1900s. Large-scale commercial farmers dominated production until the early 2000s. Potato is the most important horticultural crop and has been declared a strategic national food

  4. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (pfarming. The farming type has no significant effect (p>0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Complementation of the amylose-free starch mutant of potato (Solanum tuberosum.) by the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, E.R.; Visser, R.G.E.; OOSTERHAVEN, K; VANDERKOP, DAM; Jacobsen, E.; Feenstra, W.

    1991-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated introduction of the wild-type allele of the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) into the amylose-free starch mutant amf of potato leads to restoration of GBSS activity and amylose synthesis, which demonstrates that Amf is the structural gene for GBSS.

  6. Efecte dels ultrasons i solucions àcides en l'enfosquiment enzimàtic de la patata (Solanum tuberosum )

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Anento, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic browning in fresh vegetables (rich in phenolic compounds), is caused by the action of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes. The aim of the present work has been to determine the effect of ultrasound and different acid solutions on enzymatic browning inhibition in cut potato. An ultrasonic bath of 42Khz of frequency and 120W of power, has been used at different times (2, 5, 10 and 20 minutes) together with solutions (1%) of citric acid, ascorbic acid and both mixture...

  7. Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huigun; Xiao, Langtao; Tong, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    activity. Results showed that 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in potato leaves. These treatments also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves. A positive linear relationship...

  8. Comparative assessment of genetic and epigenetic variation among regenerants of potato (Solanum tuberosum) derived from long-term nodal tissue-culture and cell selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Alison L; Wilson, Calum R

    2011-04-01

    Three long-term nodal tissued cultured Russet Burbank potato clones and nine thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines, derived from the nodal lines, were assessed for genetic and epigenetic (in the form of DNA methylation) differences by AFLP and MSAP. The treated regenerant lines were originally selected for superior resistance to common scab disease and acceptable tuber yield in pot and field trials. The long-term, tissue culture clone lines exhibited genetic (8.75-15.63% polymorphisms) and epigenetic (12.56-26.13% polymorphisms) differences between them and may represent a stress response induced by normal plant growth disruption. The thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines exhibited much higher significant (p disease resistance. However, linking phenotypic differences that could be of benefit to potato growers, to single gene sequence polymorphisms in a tetraploid plant such as the potato would be extremely difficult since it is assumed many desirable traits are under polygenic control.

  9. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  10. Confrontación entre un agrupamiento a priori de germoplasma de papa Solanum tuberosum subespecie andigena y un agrupamiento no jerárquico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Ángela María

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el fin de establecer patrones de similitud entre las accesiones para facilitar la identificación de cruzamientos potenciales, se realizó el agrupamiento a priori de la Colección Central Colombiana de papa subespecie andigena por características de color de piel y carne del tubérculo. La necesidad de incluir otras variables de tubérculo y realizar una clasificación basada en métodos estadísticos aumentó con el tiempo y con la evolución de las técnicas multivariadas de datos. En este trabajo se realizó el agrupamiento no jerárquico de la Colección, mediante un análisis de partición que utiliza el algoritmo de k-medias, luego de la caracterización morfológica de 435 accesiones sólo por características del tubérculo. Al comparar ambos agrupamientos se encontró la no correspondencia entre uno y otro, así como la necesidad de mejorar la objetividad en la caracterización de recursos genéticos. Las caracterizaciones tuvieron lugar en el Centro de Investigación Tibaitatá de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica, en   Mosquera (Cundinamarca, donde se conserva la Colección Central Colombiana de papa.

  11. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  12. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greehouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.) and peas (Pisum sataivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and exp...

  13. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  14. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Richael, Craig; Chamberlain, Patrick; Busse, James S; Bussan, Alvin J; Jiang, Jiming; Bethke, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv) expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  15. Vacuolar Invertase Gene Silencing in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Improves Processing Quality by Decreasing the Frequency of Sugar-End Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Richael, Craig; Chamberlain, Patrick; Busse, James S.; Bussan, Alvin J.; Jiang, Jiming; Bethke, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and ac...

  16. A Three-Way Transcriptomic Interaction Study of a Biocontrol Agent (Clonostachys rosea), a Fungal Pathogen (Helminthosporium solani), and a Potato Host (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysøe, Erik; Dees, Merete W; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-08-01

    Helminthosporium solani causes silver scurf, which affects the quality of potato. The biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea greatly limited the severity of silver scurf symptoms and amount of H. solani genomic DNA in laboratory experiments. Transcriptomic analysis during interaction showed that H. solani gene expression was highly reduced when coinoculated with the biocontrol agent C. rosea, whereas gene expression of C. rosea was clearly boosted as a response to the pathogen. The most notable upregulated C. rosea genes were those encoding proteins involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, proteases, G-protein signaling, and the methyltransferase LaeA. The most notable potato response to both fungi was downregulation of defense-related genes and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. At a later stage, this shifted, and most potato defense genes were turned on, especially those involved in terpenoid biosynthesis when H. solani was present. Some biocontrol-activated defense-related genes in potato were upregulated during early interaction with C. rosea alone that were not triggered by H. solani alone. Our results indicate that the reductions of silver scurf using C. rosea are probably due to a combination of mechanisms, including mycoparasitism, biocontrol-activated stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, microbial competition for nutrients, space, and antibiosis.

  17. Oxygen Availability Influences Expression of Dickeya solani Genes Associated With Virulence in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Lisicka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dickeya solani is a Gram-negative necrotrophic, plant pathogenic bacterium able to cause symptoms in a variety of plant species worldwide. As a facultative anaerobe, D. solani is able to infect hosts under a broad range of oxygen concentrations found in plant environments. However, little is known about oxygen-dependent gene expression in Dickeya spp. that might contribute to its success as a pathogen. Using a Tn5 transposon, harboring a promoterless gusA reporter gene, 146 mutants of D. solani IPO2222 were identified that exhibited oxygen-regulated expression of the gene into which the insertion had occurred. Of these mutants 114 exhibited higher expression under normal oxygen conditions than hypoxic conditions while 32 were more highly expressed under hypoxic conditions. The plant host colonization potential and pathogenicity as well as phenotypes likely to contribute to the ecological fitness of D. solani, including growth rate, carbon and nitrogen source utilization, production of pectinolytic enzymes, proteases, cellulases and siderophores, swimming and swarming motility and the ability to form biofilm were assessed for 37 strains exhibiting the greatest oxygen-dependent change in gene expression. Eight mutants expressed decreased ability to cause disease symptoms when inoculated into potato tubers or chicory leaves and three of these also exhibited delayed colonization of potato plants and exhibited tissue specific differences in gene expression in these various host tissues. The genes interrupted in these eight mutants encoded proteins involved in fundamental bacterial metabolism, virulence, bacteriocin and proline transport, while three encoded hypothetical or unknown proteins. The implications of environmental oxygen concentration on the ability of D. solani to cause disease symptoms in potato are discussed.

  18. Mapping and characterization of the interaction interface between two polypyrimidine-tract binding proteins and a nova-type protein of Solanum tuberosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Shah

    Full Text Available Polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB proteins are RNA-binding proteins that generally contain four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs. In potato, six cDNAs encoding full-length PTB proteins have been identified. In the present study Nova1-like protein, designated StNova1, was identified as a potential interacting partner of the StPTB proteins via yeast two-hybrid screening. Nova protein is a RNA-binding protein that contains three K-homology (KH domains. In humans, these proteins are involved in regulation of neuronal RNA metabolism but the role of Nova-like proteins in plants is poorly understood. We have validated this interaction and mapped the protein binding region on StNova1 and StPTB1 and -6 using a novel domain interaction phage display (DIPP technique. The interaction between the two RNA-binding proteins StPTB1/6 and StNova1 is mediated through linker regions that are distinctly separated from the RRMs. Furthermore, using a random 21-mer phage-peptide library, we have identified a number of peptides with the consensus sequence motif [S/G][V/I][L/V]G that recognize the StPTB proteins. One over-represented peptide that recognizes StPTB6 contains the GVLGPWP sequence that is similar to the GIGGRYP sequence in the glycine-rich linker region between the KH2 and KH3 domains of StNova1. We show, through site-specific mutations, the importance of glycine and proline residues in StNova1-StPTB interactions.

  19. Response of potato’s cultivation (Solanum tuberosum L. to the combination of the ecological fertilizer HerbaGreen with chemical fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enildo Osmani Abreu Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the ecological fertilizer foliar HerbaGreen in the cultivation of potato, Ajiba variety, combined with different levels of chemical fertilization (NPK was evaluated. The research was carried out at UBPC “La Rosita”, corresponding to the “Vladimir Ilich Lenin” Crop Company, in the municipality of Jovellanos, Matanzas province. Four fertilization treatments were established (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the NPK dose plus the application of the HerbaGreen product at a dose of 1 kg ha-1 in 200 L of water, in addition to the control (100 % NPK Without the ecological fertilizer. Three applications were made during the biological cycle of the crop. From the leaves, stems and roots, was determined the concentration of starch, carbohydrates and total soluble protein and starch concentrations in tuber yield and its components. The use of the HerbaGreen allowed reducing the amounts of chemical fertilizer in the potato crop. The treatment of 100 % of NPK plus the HerbaGreen product showed significantly higher yields than the other treatments.

  20. The viability of lytic bacteriophage ΦD5 in potato-associated environments and its effect on Dickeya solani in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarska, Anna; Ozymko, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Dickeya solani is one of the most important pectinolytic phytopathogens responsible for high losses in potato, especially in seed potato production in Europe. Lytic bacteriophages can affect the structure of the host population and may influence spread, survival and virulence of the pathogen and in consequence, infection of the plant. In this study, we aimed to acquire information on the viability of the broad host lytic bacteriophage ΦD5 on potato, as well as to apprehend the specific effect of this bacteriophage on its host D. solani type-strain in different settings, as a preliminary step to target co-adaptation of phages and host bacteria in plant environment. Viability of the ΦD5 phage in tuber extract, on tuber surface, in potting compost, in rainwater and on the leaf surface, as well as the effect of copper sulfate, were examined under laboratory conditions. Also, the interaction of ΦD5 with the target host D. solani in vitro and in compost-grown potato plants was evaluated. ΦD5 remained infectious in potato tuber extract and rain water for up to 72 h but was inactivated in solutions containing 50 mM of copper. The phage population was stable for up to 28 days on potato tuber surface and in potting compost. In both, tissue culture and compost-grown potato plants, ΦD5 reduced infection by D. solani by more than 50%. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:28800363

  1. Use of Gentamicine sulfate for the control of Pantoea agglomerans, contaminant of the Solanum tuberosum L cv. Desirée in vitro multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination is one of the principal problems of plant tissue culture. The use of natural or synthetic antimicrobial substances represent an alternative for it solution. In potato micropropagation bacterial contamination produce serious damages. In this paper the effect of Gentamicine sulfate on control of high frequently contaminant was evaluated. The microorganism was isolated from media culture of potato cv. Desirée in vitro plants in multiplication stage. Traditional tintorial, bioquemical and physiological test were performed for bacteria identification together with BIOLOG bacteria identification system. Besides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of Gentamicine sulfate were determined and it antimicrobial and phytotoxic effect in multiplication stage were evaluated too. Pantoea agglomerans was identificated as potato contaminant and show sensibility to Gentamicine sulfate. The MIC was 0.625 mg.l-1 and the MBC was 1.25 mg.l-1. The antibiotics controlled the contamination in the 80% of contaminated explants without phytotoxicity at 2.5 mg.l-1. Key words: bacteria, in vitro culture, microbial contamination, potato

  2. INFLUENCE DE LA DIMENSION DES PLANTS-MERES SUR LE RENDEMENT FINAL ET CELUI DES DIFFERENTS CALIBRES CHEZ QUATRE VARIETES DE POMME DE TERRE (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BENNIOU

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Le calibre de plantation est un paramètre qui conditionne d’une manière importante la production et la dimension des tubercules-fils de la pomme de terre. A travers notre étude menée sur deux années (1991/92 et 1993/94, nous avons cherché à mettre en relief l’effet du calibre de plantation sur le rendement et la répartition de la production par classe des tubercules selon leur diamètre. Dans ce contexte, nous avons combiné les effets du calibre de plantation à trois niveaux (45/55, 35/45 et 28/35 chez quatre variétés (Desirée, Diamant, Nicola et Chieftain, dans les conditions agro-climatiques de la région de Sétif. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le calibre de plantation a un effet favorable sur le rendement final et sur le répartition des tubercules- fils. Le calibre (28/35 a tendance à produire des gros tubercules (> 55 mm, fraction destinée à la consommation. Par contre, les calibres (45/55 et (35/45 ont tendance à produire des moyens et petits tubercules (< 45 mm; cette fraction est destinée, d’une manière générale, à la semence, à l’exception des petits tubercules inférieurs à 28 mm, qui sont appréciés également à la consommation. De ce fait, le calibre de plantation pourrait être un moyen de contrôle de rendement et de la qualité physique des tubercules-fils, à savoir sa grosseur.

  3. Prediction of Starch, Soluble Sugars and Amino Acids in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Dielectric and LF-NMR Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2016-01-01

    for prediction of several amino acids, including asparagine, which showed particularly promising predictions in the hyperspectral analyses of intact potatoes. The presented screening study enabled us to perform robust choices for the further development and optimization of the methods and instruments...

  4. Gas-exchange, water use efficiency and yield responses of elite potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    time increase in tuber yield, perhaps indicating less overall inhibition of photosynthesis by sugar accumulation. At all temperature levels WUE was significantly larger at high [CO2]. This was the result of increased net photosynthesis rate (at low temperature), decreased transpiration rate...... photosynthetic water use efficiency (pWUE) by stimulation in net photosynthesis rate (62 and 43% increase of An) with coincident decline in both stomatal conductance (21 and 43% decrease of gs) and leaf transpiration rate (19 and 40% decrease of E) resulting in pWUE increments of 89 and 147%. Furthermore...... and 280C). This procedure provided for investigation of WUE dependence of temperature at different [CO2]. At leaf-level, a consistent increase in pWUE of 28% across the three temperature levels was observed, caused by a significant stimulation in net photosynthesis rate (16%), and a significant decreased...

  5. Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

    2012-01-01

    Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop technology in the world (James 2010). However, the complexity of the Agrobacterium patent landscape remains a challenge for non-patent holders who...... wish to generate novel varieties for a commercial purpose. The potential of non-Agrobacterium strains (Transbacter™) to modify a plant genome has previously been described. However, they are unlikely to be widely used without significant adjustments in transformation protocols in order to improve...... isolated a collection (n=751) of plant-associated bacteria from the rhizosphere of commercially grown crops. Based on various screens, including plant transformation with the open-source vector pCAMBIA5105, we identified a strain of the bacterium Ensifer adhaerens with the capacity to transform both...

  6. Genome analysis methods: Solanum tuberosum [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th ab initio gene predictions, protein similarity and transcripts to build optimal gene models. 39,031 PGSC; http://potato.plantbiolo...gy.msu.edu/index.shtml v4.03 v4.03 10.1038/nature10158 21743474 ...

  7. Genética de la resistencia de la papa (Solanum tuberosum a patógenos. Estado de arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosquera Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo presenta una revisión de la resistencia en papa a patógenos, en cuanto a genes mapeados y clonados, y loci de rasgos cuantitativos (QTL mapeados, en la que se resaltan las relaciones entre resistencia cuantitativa y cualitativa en el caso P. infestans. El conocimiento logrado ha permitido generar un mapa funcional sobre el cual se localizan QTL para resistencia a patógenos. Se han mapeado 20 genes R de resistencia a virus, hongos, nematodos y oomicetos, utilizando marcadores moleculares. La mayoría de estos genes R fueron introducidos de especies silvestres. Catorce de ellos se encuentran en hot spots para resistencia y confieren resistencia a varios patógenos. A la fecha se han identificado cinco clusters de resistencia. La resistencia monogénica envuelve dos procesos básicos: percepción del ataque del patógeno, seguida de una respuesta para limitar la enfermedad. La percepción implica receptores específicos para cepas patogénicas, que son decodificadas por genes de resistencia. En una planta se encuentra un gran repertorio de genes de resistencia R, ubicados en diferentes sitios del genoma. Estos genes expresan diferentes proteínas que pueden ser agrupadas en varias familias. La mayoría de proteínas R contienen repeticiones en grupos, ricas en leucina (LRR. Se plantea la colocalización de genes R y QTL en diferentes cromosomas. Una hipótesis señala que los QTL son variantes alélicas con efecto menos extremo que los genes R y una segunda hipótesis plantea que los QTL de resistencia mapean en regiones del genoma que contienen genes de función conocida involucrados en la respuesta general al ataque de patógenos.

  8. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and fungi on enhancement of growth and minituber production of tissue-cultured potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otroshy, M.; Naeem, A.H.; Soleymani, A.; Bazrafshan, A.H.; Khodaee, S.M.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbucular mychorizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and minituber yield of micropropagated potato cultivars (Agria, Arinda and Marfona) were investigated under organic conditions. The experiment design was completely randomized design with 5

  9. Efeito do nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na adubação da batatinha - Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1950-08-01

    Full Text Available Five potatoes fertilizers trials were carried out. in diffeient soil types of the State of São Paulo with the purpose to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, on tuber production. It was found that nitrogen increased plant growth, intensified green color of foliage and retarded maturity. Nitrogen also increased susceptibility to fungus diseases. Phosphoric acid increased yield and shortened the vegetative period. Potassium induced a light -green color of the foliage, but otherwise had almost no influence on plant development. Phosphoric acid was the most important factor in increasing tuber production : nitrogen was second and potassium, third. A response to potassium was noticed only when this element was applied together with phosphorus and nitrogen.

  10. Effect of bacterial inoculation, plant genotype and developmental stage on root-associated and endophytic bacterial communities in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, F.D.; Rocha, da U.N.; Araujo, W.L.; Azevedo, J.L.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial bacteria interact with plants by colonizing the rhizosphere and roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues, resulting in endophytic colonization. The major factors contributing to these interactions are not always well understood for most bacterial and plant species. It is

  11. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...... was found, but more than the 8% threshold value. Even in plots where systemic neonicotinoids were applied and very few aphids were recorded, no significant reduction in infestation level of PVY was found. The present experiment shows that mineral oil and insecticides applied to potato crops each week...

  12. Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepedonicus: UNA ENFERMEDAD BACTERIANA EN EL CULTIVO DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L. EN SONORA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial la papa junto con el arroz, el maíz y el trigo, constituyen los cuatro cultivos más importantes para la alimentación humana. En años recientes se ha detectado en algunas regiones de Estados Unidos (EUA y Canadá, la bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepedonicus (Cms la cual provoca la enfermedad denominada podredumbre anular (PA en el cultivo de papa. Esta bacteria ocasiona una pudrición en el tubérculo, tallos y hojas de este cultivo y tiene la particularidad de diseminarse por semilla. Dada la cercanía con los EUA y Canadá, y siendo México un país importador de semilla de esos países, las probabilidades de una eventual introducción de esta enfermedad son significativas, especialmente en áreas con amplias extensiones de papa. El estado de Sonora es una de las regiones más importantes en relación a la producción de papa y otros cultivos en México. Por lo anterior, se realizó la presente investigación, teniendo como objetivos conocer la situación actual de Cms en las zonas agrícolas donde se desarrolla el cultivo de papa en el estado de Sonora, en material vegetativo de importación y aquel de procedencia nacional considerado semilla por los productores. La investigación se llevó acabo en la Universidad de Sonora, Campus Santa Ana; el desarrollo del estudio consistió en la obtención de semilla procedente del extranjero y aquella nacional que utilizan algunos productores paperos para su siembra. Asimismo se desarrolló una toma de muestra vegetativa en las etapas de plántula, floración y madurez fisiológica. Para su diagnóstico se consideraron medios específicos, conjugación de anticuerpos específicos con la bacteria en estudio, formación de capas de inmunocomplejos, revelados enzimáticos y pruebas de patogenicidad. Los resultados muestran positiva la presencia de Cms en tubérculo de consumo (Navojoa, Hermosillo y Agua Prieta mientras que en aquella de importación los resultados indican negativa su presencia. En las etapas vegetativas de plántula, floración y fructificación y aquella semilla de origen extranjero resultó ser nulo su diagnóstico.

  13. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Fischer, M.; Holm, J.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Boeriu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm

  14. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture, and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Cees; Fischer, Monica; Holm, Jörgen; Beekhuizen, Jan-Gerard; Stolle-Smits, Trinette; Boeriu, Carmen

    2002-08-28

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm cooking potato (cv. Nicola), a mealy cooking potato (cv. Irene), and a cultivar (cv. Bintje) with intermediate cooking properties, were classified on the basis of three size categories. For each size category and cultivar a DM distribution was determined on the basis of the underwater weight of the individual potatoes. Each DM distribution was divided into three subcategories based on low, medium, and high DM contents. This categorization was performed for freshly harvested potatoes and for potatoes stored for 3 and 6 months, respectively. In total, this resulted in 27 DM distributions, of which 16 were non-normally distributed, and 81 samples. Linear relationships were established between the DM content, as determined by either underwater weight analysis or oven-drying, and the starch content. On the basis of partial least-squares regression (PLSR), statistical models were developed relating sensory-based texture descriptors with the DM matter content of the samples. It was also shown, by applying PLSR, that the NIR spectra, originating from the potato samples, could be related to the DM content and to the sensory-perceived texture. From the relationships between DM content and sensory-perceived texture, on the one hand, and from the DM content and NIR spectra, on the other, it was concluded that the DM content rather than the cultivar determines the sensory-perceived texture of steam-cooked potatoes. Cultivar-specific elements may also contribute to the perceived texture but are overruled by the DM content. Storage did not affect the mutual relationships between the DM content, the sensory properties, and the NIR spectra.

  15. Inhibition of Erwinia chrysanthemi growth to different concentrations of folic acid: possible use of folic acid as bacteriostatic agent and fortifying of Solanum tuberosum potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marcelo Correa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The enterobacteria of the Erwinia spp genus produce disease in potatoes, which is a tuber of mass consumption. The regulation of DNA methylation can regulate the proliferation of Erwinia in such a way that the concentrations of folic acid may have an effect on the microorganism pathogenic ability. On the other hand, the folic acid prevents the appearance of neural tube defects in humans. Objective: To evaluate folic acid as a bacteriostatic agent of Erwinia and, at the same time, as part of the fortification of mass consumption food such as the potatoes. Materials and methods: The biochemical characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi was carried out and its growth compared to different concentrations of folic acid was studied. Results: When increasing the concentrations of the vitamin from 0.3 µg/L up to 6.8 µg/L, the bacterial growth of Erwinia chrysanthemi is inhibited. The vitamin inhibits the growth in cultivation of Erwinia chrysanthemi and acts as a bacteriostatic agent. This aspect is of great importance given that, theoretically, if potatoes were fortified with micro-nutrient, this would act against the infectious agent and, at the same time, contribute to the adequate intake of the vitamin in the general population.

  16. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  17. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  18. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp. (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Boer, de W.J.; Veen, van J.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  19. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  20. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negichi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate) of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars ('Toyoshiro', 'Kitahime', 'Snowden' and 'Poroshiri') were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.