Genevieve Spanjer Wright
Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.
Surlykke, Annemarie; Ghose, Kaushik; Moss, Cynthia F
Echolocation allows bats to orient and localize prey in complete darkness. The sonar beam of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, is directional but broad enough to provide audible echo information from within a 60-90 deg. cone. This suggests that the big brown bat could interrogate a natural scene...
Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.
Echolocation signals were recorded from big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, flying in the field and the laboratory. In open field areas the interpulse intervals ~IPI! of search signals were either around 134 ms or twice that value, 270 ms. At long IPI’s the signals were of long duration ~14 to 18...
April D Davis
Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.
Craig L Frank
Full Text Available White-nose Syndrome (WNS is the primary cause of over-winter mortality for little brown (Myotis lucifugus, northern (Myotis septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is due to cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans (Pd. Cutaneous infection with P. destructans disrupts torpor patterns, which is thought to lead to a premature depletion of body fat reserve. Field studies were conducted at 3 WNS-affected hibernation sites to determine if big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are resistant to Pd. Radio telemetry studies were conducted during 2 winters to determine the torpor patterns of 23 free-ranging E. fuscus hibernating at a site where Pd occurs. The body fat contents of free-ranging E. fuscus and M. lucifugus during hibernation at 2 different WNS-affected sites were also determined. The numbers of bats hibernating at the same site was determined during both: a 4-7 years prior to the arrival of Pd, and, b 2-3 years after it first appeared at this site. The torpor bouts of big brown bats hibernating at a WNS-affected site were not significantly different in length from those previously reported for this species. The mean body fat content of E. fuscus in February was nearly twice that of M. lucifugus hibernating at the same WNS-affected sites during this month. The number of M. lucifugus hibernating at one site decreased by 99.6% after P. destructans first appeared, whereas the number of E. fuscus hibernating there actually increased by 43% during the same period. None of the E. fuscus collected during this study had any visible fungal growth or lesions on their skin, whereas virtually all the M. lucifugus collected had visible fungal growth on their wings, muzzle, and ears. These findings indicate that big brown bats are resistant to WNS.
Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, James A.
The big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) is an aerial-feeding insectivorous species that relies on echolocation to avoid obstacles and to detect flying insects. Spatial perception in the dark using echolocation challenges the vestibular system to function without substantial visual input for orientation. IR thermal video recordings show the complexity of bat flights in the field and suggest a highly dynamic role for the vestibular system in orientation and flight control. Laboratory studies of flight behavior under illuminated and dark conditions in both static and rotating obstacle tests were carried out while administering heavy water (D2O) to bats to impair their vestibular inputs. Eptesicus carried out complex maneuvers through both fixed arrays of wires and a rotating obstacle array using both vision and echolocation, or when guided by echolocation alone. When treated with D2O in combination with lack of visual cues, bats showed considerable decrements in performance. These data indicate that big brown bats use both vision and echolocation to provide spatial registration for head position information generated by the vestibular system.
Chiu, Chen; Moss, Cynthia
Echolocating bats produce ultrasonic vocal signals and utilize the returning echoes to detect, localize and track prey, and also to avoid obstacles. The pinna and tragus, two major components of the bats external ears, play important roles in filtering returning echoes. The tragus is generally believed to play a role in vertical sound localization. The purpose of this study is to further examine how manipulation of the tragus affects a free-flying bat's prey capture and obstacle avoidance behavior. The first part of this study involved a prey capture experiment, and the bat was trained to catch the tethered mealworms in a large room. The second experiment involved obstacle avoidance, and the bat's task was to fly through the largest opening from a horizontal wire array without touching the wires. In both experiments, the bat performed the tasks under three different conditions: with intact tragus, tragus-deflection and recovery from tragus-deflection. Significantly lower performance was observed in both experiments when tragi were glued down. However, the bat adjusted quickly and returned to baseline performance a few days after the manipulation. The results suggest that tragus-deflection does have effects on both the prey capture and obstacle avoidance behavior. [Work supported by NSF.
Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.
Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.
Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys
Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ( 3 H-E 2 ) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with 3 H-E 2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ( 3 H-P 4 ) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered 3 H-P 4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with 3 H-E 2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moss, Cynthia F.; Sinha, Shiva R.; Ghose, Kaushik
Echolocating bats probe the environment with sonar signals that change as they seek, pursue and intercept insect prey on the wing. Coordinating its sonar vocalizations with flight dynamics in response to changing echo information, the bat exhibits a dazzling display of sensorimotor integration. Our work aims at understanding the mechanisms supporting audiomotor integration for echolocation in the FM-bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Behavioral studies measure adaptive responses of free-flying bats engaged in complex spatial tasks. The directional aim of the bat's sonar beam and temporal patterning of cries provide explicit data on the motor commands that feed directly back to the auditory system for spatially-guided behavior. Neural studies focus on the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure implicated in species-specific orienting behaviors. A population of SC neurons shows echo-delay tuning, a response property believed to play a role in target range coding. Microstimulation of the SC elicits head and pinna movements, along with sonar vocalizations. SC recordings from tethered, vocalizing bats reveal bursts of neural activity preceding each sonar cry. Collectively, these results suggest that the bat SC plays a functional role in the auditory information processing and orienting behaviors that operate together in echolocation. [Work supported by NSF, NIMH and Whitehall Foundation.
Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Brabb, Thea; Miller, Kimberly E; Covey, Ellen; Lencioni, Karen L
During a nearby construction project, a sudden decrease in food intake and guano production occurred in an outdoor colony of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and one animal was found dead. Investigation revealed that the project was generating a large amount of noise and vibration, which disturbed the bats' feeding. Consequently the bats were moved into an indoor enclosure away from the construction noises, and the colony resumed eating. Over the next 3 wk, additional animals presented with clinical signs of lethargy, weight loss, ecchymoses, and icterus and were necropsied. Gross necropsy of the affected bats revealed large, pale yellow to tan, friable livers with rounded edges that floated when placed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. Some bats had ecchymoses on the webbing and skin and gross perirenal hemorrhage. Histologic examination showed hepatic and renal tubular lipidosis. The clinical and pathologic signs of hemorrhage and icterus were suggestive of hepatic failure. Hepatic lipidosis was attributed to stress and inappetence associated with environmental perturbations. Once the environmental stressor was removed, the colony morbidity and mortality decreased. However, 2 y later, a series of new environmental stressors triggered additional deaths associated with hepatic lipidosis. Over a 9-y period, 21 cases of hepatic lipidosis were diagnosed in this bat colony.
Full Text Available For echolocating bats, hearing is essential for survival. Specializations for detecting and processing high frequency sounds are apparent throughout their auditory systems. Recent studies on echolocating mammals have reported evidence of parallel evolution in some hearing-related genes in which distantly related groups of echolocating animals (bats and toothed whales, cluster together in gene trees due to apparent amino acid convergence. However, molecular adaptations can occur not only in coding sequences, but also in the regulation of gene expression. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of hearing-related genes in the inner ear of developing big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, during the period in which echolocation vocalizations increase dramatically in frequency. We found that seven genes were significantly upregulated in juveniles relative to adults, and that the expression of four genes through development correlated with estimated age. Compared to available data for mice, it appears that expression of some hearing genes is extended in juvenile bats. These results are consistent with a prolonged growth period required to develop larger cochlea relative to body size, a later maturation of high frequency hearing, and a greater dependence on high frequency hearing in echolocating bats.
Richardson, Christopher S; Heeren, Tim; Kunz, Thomas H
In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T 3 ), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase). We hypothesized that all three hormones are seasonally primarily metabolic hormones and secondarily thermogenic hormones. In males, only BMR significantly changed seasonally. In females, all five variables significantly changed seasonally. The seasonal pattern of plasma leptin and cortisol levels correlated with the seasonal pattern of BMR, with an initial increase followed by a decrease, suggesting that leptin and cortisol are primarily metabolic hormones. The seasonal pattern of plasma T 3 levels generally paralleled the basic seasonal pattern of RNST, with both increasing at the second half of the season, suggesting that T 3 is primarily a thermogenic hormone. The observed decrease in plasma leptin levels may be necessary to allow for the observed seasonal decrease in BMR, with the similar cortisol pattern important for leptin regulation. While T 3 is needed to maintain BMR, it may play a more critical role in the seasonal regulation of RNST than of BMR.
Sändig, Sonja; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette
Four big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were challenged in an obstacle avoidance experiment to localize vertically stretched wires requiring progressively greater accuracy by diminishing the wire-to-wire distance from 50 to 10 cm. The performance of the bats decreased with decreasing gap size. The avoidance task became very difficult below a wire separation of 30 cm, which corresponds to the average wingspan of E. fuscus. Two of the bats were able to pass without collisions down to a gap size of 10 cm in some of the flights. The other two bats only managed to master gap sizes down to 20 and 30 cm, respectively. They also performed distinctly worse at all other gap sizes. With increasing difficulty of the task, the bats changed their flight and echolocation behaviour. Especially at gap sizes of 30 cm and below, flight paths increased in height and flight speed was reduced. In addition, the bats emitted approach signals that were arranged in groups. At all gap sizes, the largest numbers of pulses per group were observed in the last group before passing the obstacle. The more difficult the obstacle avoidance task, the more pulses there were in the groups and the shorter the within-group pulse intervals. In comparable situations, the better-performing bats always emitted groups with more pulses than the less well-performing individuals. We hypothesize that the accuracy of target localization increases with the number of pulses per group and that each group is processed as a package. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Hartley, D J
Previous research on echo detection in bats has suggested that the effective threshold is a function of the acoustic clutter in the experimental environment, as might be expected given the low ambient noise levels typical of such psychophysical research. This paper demonstrates that theory of signal detectability (TSD) methodology is applicable to bats and uses it to show that an important element of clutter limiting in Eptesicus fuscus and Noctilio leporinus is backward masking of phantom targets by the real echo from the loudspeakers used to generate them. This information suggests that a previous estimate of the magnitude of automatic gain control (AGC) is too high, due to variable backward masking inherent in the experimental method used. A re-examination of gain control using a masking-free method shows that it reduces auditory sensitivity by 6 to 7 dB per halving of target range, rather than 11 dB as previously thought.
O’Shea, Thomas J.; Bowen, Richard A.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Shankar, Vidya; Rupprecht, Charles E.
In 2001–2005 we sampled permanently marked big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at summer roosts in buildings at Fort Collins, Colorado, for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA). Seroprevalence was higher in adult females (17.9%, n = 2,332) than males (9.4%, n = 128; P = 0.007) or volant juveniles (10.2%, n = 738; Prabies viral RNA in oropharyngeal secretions of 261 seropositive bats or in organs of 13 euthanized seropositive bats. Survival of seropositive and seronegative bats did not differ. The presence of RVNA in serum of bats should not be interpreted as evidence for ongoing rabies infection.
Buchweitz, John P; Carson, Keri; Rebolloso, Sarah; Lehner, Andreas
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an insecticidal organochlorine pesticide with; known potential for neurotoxic effects in wildlife. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) registration for this pesticide has been cancelled and there are currently no federally active products that contain this ingredient in the U.S. We present a case of a colony of big brown bats (E. Fuscus) found dead in the attic roost of an administrative building; in the city of Hamilton, Montana from unknown cause. DDT and its metabolites; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) were detected in bat tissues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by gas chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Concentrations of 4081 ppm DDT and 890 ppm DDE wet weight were found in the brain of one bat and are the highest reported concentrations in such a mortality event to date. This case emphasizes the importance of testing wildlife mortalities against a comprehensive panel of toxicologic agents including persistent organic pollutants in the absence of other more common disease threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stading, Ben; Ellison, James A; Carson, William C; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli Subbian; Rocke, Tonie E; Osorio, Jorge E
Rabies is an ancient neglected tropical disease that causes tens of thousands of human deaths and millions of cattle deaths annually. In order to develop a new vaccine for potential use in bats, a reservoir of rabies infection for humans and animals alike, an in silico antigen designer tool was used to create a mosaic glycoprotein (MoG) gene using available sequences from the rabies Phylogroup I glycoprotein. This sequence, which represents strains more likely to occur in bats, was cloned into raccoonpox virus (RCN) and the efficacy of this novel RCN-MoG vaccine was compared to RCN-G that expresses the glycoprotein gene from CVS-11 rabies or luciferase (RCN-luc, negative control) in mice and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Mice vaccinated and boosted intradermally with 1 x 107 plaque forming units (PFU) of each RCN-rabies vaccine construct developed neutralizing antibodies and survived at significantly higher rates than controls. No significant difference in antibody titers or survival was noted between rabies-vaccinated groups. Bats were vaccinated either oronasally (RCN-G, RCN-MoG) with 5x107 PFU or by topical application in glycerin jelly (RCN-MoG, dose 2x108 PFU), boosted (same dose and route) at 46 days post vaccination (dpv), and then challenged with wild-type big brown variant RABV at 65 dpv. Prior to challenge, 90% of RCN-G and 75% of RCN-MoG oronasally vaccinated bats had detectable levels of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies. Bats from the RCN-luc and topically vaccinated RCN-MoG groups did not have measurable antibody responses. The RCN-rabies constructs were highly protective and not significantly different from each other. RCN-MoG provided 100% protection (n = 9) when delivered oronasally and 83% protection (n = 6) when delivered topically; protection provided by the RCN-G construct was 70% (n = 10). All rabies-vaccinated bats survived at a significantly (P ≤ 0.02) higher rate than control bats (12%; n = 8). We have demonstrated the efficacy of
Stading, Ben; Ellison, James A.; Carson, William C.; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli Subbian; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.
Rabies is an ancient neglected tropical disease that causes tens of thousands of human deaths and millions of cattle deaths annually. In order to develop a new vaccine for potential use in bats, a reservoir of rabies infection for humans and animals alike, an in silico antigen designer tool was used to create a mosaic glycoprotein (MoG) gene using available sequences from the rabies Phylogroup I glycoprotein. This sequence, which represents strains more likely to occur in bats, was cloned into raccoonpox virus (RCN) and the efficacy of this novel RCN-MoG vaccine was compared to RCN-G that expresses the glycoprotein gene from CVS-11 rabies or luciferase (RCN-luc, negative control) in mice and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Mice vaccinated and boosted intradermally with 1 x 107 plaque forming units (PFU) of each RCN-rabies vaccine construct developed neutralizing antibodies and survived at significantly higher rates than controls. No significant difference in antibody titers or survival was noted between rabies-vaccinated groups. Bats were vaccinated either oronasally (RCN-G, RCN-MoG) with 5x107 PFU or by topical application in glycerin jelly (RCN-MoG, dose 2x108 PFU), boosted (same dose and route) at 46 days post vaccination (dpv), and then challenged with wild-type big brown variant RABV at 65 dpv. Prior to challenge, 90% of RCN-G and 75% of RCN-MoG oronasally vaccinated bats had detectable levels of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies. Bats from the RCN-luc and topically vaccinated RCN-MoG groups did not have measurable antibody responses. The RCN-rabies constructs were highly protective and not significantly different from each other. RCN-MoG provided 100% protection (n = 9) when delivered oronasally and 83% protection (n = 6) when delivered topically; protection provided by the RCN-G construct was 70% (n = 10). All rabies-vaccinated bats survived at a significantly (P ≤ 0.02) higher rate than control bats (12%; n = 8). We have demonstrated the
Clark, D.R. Jr.; Prouty, R.M.
Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppM DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppM Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their controls, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats.
In a previous study (CLARK and LAMONT 1976), 26 pregnant big brown bats were captured, caged, and fed uncontaminated mealworms until their litters were born. Immediately after parturition, female bats and litters were frozen. Five litters included at least one dead young, and these five litters contained significantly more of the PCB, Aroclor 1260, than did the 21 litters with only living young....The present study attempted to verify that Aroclor 1260 could cause stillbirths. I fed 18 of 36 pregnant big brown bats mealworms containing 6.36 ppm of Aroclor 1260 prior to birth of their litters. Both carcasses and litters of dosed females contained approximately 10 times more PCB than their respective controls, but no additional stillbirths resulted. Three of 18 control litters included dead young, whereas the comparable ratio among litters from dosed females was one of 18. Additional comparisons involving means of litter weight, adult female weight, parturition date, days in captivity, tooth wear, and percentage fat also failed to show any effect of the PCB....The association found earlier between PCB and dead young (CLARK and LAMONT 1976) was not one of cause and effect. In both studies, bats that had not been dosed showed greater PCB residues among younger females. Among control bats in the present series, females that produced dead young were significantly younger (that is, showed significantly less tooth wear) than other females. In sum, whereas dead young seemed to have been caused by greater residues, these two factors were actually independent of each other but associated with a third factor--age of the female parent bat.
O’Shea, Thomas J.; Bowen, Richard A.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Shankar, Vidya; Rupprecht, Charles E.
In 2001–2005 we sampled permanently marked big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at summer roosts in buildings at Fort Collins, Colorado, for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA). Seroprevalence was higher in adult females (17.9%, n = 2,332) than males (9.4%, n = 128; P = 0.007) or volant juveniles (10.2%, n = 738; Plogistic regression, the only ranking model in our candidate set of explanatory variables for serological status at first sampling included year, day of season, and a year by day of season interaction that varied with relative drought conditions. The presence or absence of antibodies in individual bats showed temporal variability. Year alone provided the best model to explain the likelihood of adult female bats showing a transition to seronegative from a previously seropositive state. Day of the season was the only competitive model to explain the likelihood of a transition from seronegative to seropositive, which increased as the season progressed. We found no rabies viral RNA in oropharyngeal secretions of 261 seropositive bats or in organs of 13 euthanized seropositive bats. Survival of seropositive and seronegative bats did not differ. The presence of RVNA in serum of bats should not be interpreted as evidence for ongoing rabies infection.
Monroy, Jenna A; Carter, Matthew E; Miller, Kimberly E; Covey, Ellen
Big brown bats form large maternity colonies of up to 200 mothers and their pups. If pups are separated from their mothers, they can locate each other using vocalizations. The goal of this study was to systematically characterize the development of echolocation and communication calls from birth through adulthood to determine whether they develop from a common precursor at the same or different rates, or whether both types are present initially. Three females and their six pups were isolated from our captive breeding colony. We recorded vocal activity from postnatal day 1 to 35, both when the pups were isolated and when they were reunited with their mothers. At birth, pups exclusively emitted isolation calls, with a fundamental frequency range 30 ms. By the middle of week 1, different types of vocalizations began to emerge. Starting in week 2, pups in the presence of their mothers emitted sounds that resembled adult communication vocalizations, with a lower frequency range and longer durations than isolation calls or echolocation signals. During weeks 2 and 3, these vocalizations were extremely heterogeneous, suggesting that the pups went through a babbling stage before establishing a repertoire of stereotyped adult vocalizations around week 4. By week 4, vocalizations emitted when pups were alone were identical to adult echolocation signals. Echolocation and communication signals both appear to develop from the isolation call, diverging during week 2 and continuing to develop at different rates for several weeks until the adult vocal repertoire is established.
deCatanzaro, Denys; Pollock, Tyler; Greville, Lucas J; Faure, Paul A
The powerful estrogen, 17β-estradiol, has been found to pass from male excretions to the reproductive organs, brain, and other tissues of cohabiting females in laboratory mice. The current studies were designed to examine whether this phenomenon also occurs in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), a mammal appropriate for testing cross-species generality because of its phylogenetic distance from mice. When tritiated estradiol ((3)H-E2) was administered directly on the nasal area of adult female bats, radioactivity was reliably observed in the uterus and ovaries, and also in the brain and other tissues. When (3)H-E2 was applied to the skin, radioactivity was observed in reproductive and other peripheral tissues. We injected male bats with minute quantities of (3)H-E2 and housed each of them directly with groups of adult females for 48h. We then measured radioactivity in male and female bat tissues. In each of several replications of one male housed with three females, radioactivity was reliably observed in the uterus of all females, and in many other tissues in almost every female. Measurement in the organs of males directly exposed to (3)H-E2 showed high levels of radioactivity in the testes and especially the epididymides. These data indicate that estradiol is transferred from males to females, likely via absorptions from males' excretions and potentially also via intravaginal exposure during mating. Given the potency of estradiol in regulating female reproductive physiology and behavior, our data strongly suggest the potential for pheromonal action whereby male mammals induce sexual receptivity and ovulation in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clare, Elizabeth L; Symondson, William O C; Fenton, Melville Brockett
Generalist species with numerous food web interactions are thought to provide stability to ecosystem dynamics; however, it is not always clear whether habitat generality translates into dietary diversity. Big brown bats are common across North America and employ a flexible foraging strategy over water, dense forests, forest edges and rural and urban settings. Despite this generalist use of habitat, they are paradoxically characterized as beetle specialists. However, hard carapaces may preferentially survive digestion leading to over-representation during morphological analysis of diet. This specialization has not been evaluated independently using molecular analysis and species-level identification of prey. We used next-generation sequencing to assess the diet of big brown bats. Beetles were consumed in the highest frequency but Lepidoptera species richness was highest among identified prey. The consumption of species showed strong seasonal and annual variation. While Coleoptera consumption varied, Lepidoptera and Ephemeroptera were relatively constant dietary components. Dietary diversity increased in late summer when insect diversity decreases. Our results indicate that big brown bats are dietary generalists and, while beetles are an important component of the diet, Lepidoptera are equally important, and Lepidoptera and Ephemeroptera are the only stable prey resource exploited. As resources become limited, big brown bats may respond by increasing the species richness of prey and thus their connectedness in the ecosystem. This characterization of diet corresponds well with a generalist approach to foraging, making them an important species in encouraging and maintaining ecosystem stability.
Bates, Mary E.; Simmons, James A.
Big brown bats emit FM biosonar sounds containing two principal harmonics (FM1∼55–22 kHz;FM2∼105–45 kHz). To examine the role of harmonics, they were selectively filtered from stimuli in electronic-echo delay discrimination experiments. Positive stimuli were delayed by 3.16 ms (55 cm simulated target range); negative stimuli were by delayed by 3.96 ms (68 cm). This large 800-μs delay difference (nearly 14 cm) was easily discriminated for echoes containing equal-strength FM1 and FM2. Performance gradually decreased as highpass filters removed progressively larger segments from FM1. For echoes with FM2 alone, performance collapsed to chance, but performance remained good for lowpass echoes containing FM1 alone. Attenuation of FM2 by 3 dB relative to FM1 also decreased performance, but shortening electronic delay of the attenuated FM2 by 48 μs counteracted amplitude-latency trading and restored performance. Bats require the auditory representations of FM1 and FM2 to be in temporal register for high delay acuity. Misalignment of neuronal responses degrades acuity, but outright removal of FM2, leaving only FM1, causes little loss of acuity. Functional asymmetry of harmonics reflects lowpass effects from beaming and atmospheric propagation, which leave FM1 intact. It may cooperate with latency shifts to aid in suppression of clutter. PMID:20707464
Koblitz, Jens C; Stilz, Peter; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich
Recordings of the echolocation signals of landing big brown bats with a two-dimensional 16-microphone array revealed that the source level reduction of 7 dB per halving of distance is superimposed by a variation of up to 12 dB within single call groups emitted during the approach. This variation correlates with the wingbeat cycle. The timing of call emission correlates with call group size. First pulses of groups containing many calls are emitted earlier than first calls in groups with fewer calls or single calls. This suggests that the emission of pulse groups follows a fixed motor pattern where the information gained from the preceding pulse group determines how many calls will be emitted in the next group. Single calls and call groups are centred at the middle of the upstroke. Expiration is indicated by call emission. The pause between groups is centred at the middle of the downstroke and indicates inspiration. The hypothesis that the source level variation could be caused by changes in the subglottic pressure due to the contraction of the major flight muscles is discussed.
Warnecke, Michaela; Chiu, Chen; Engelberg, Jonathan; Moss, Cynthia F
In their natural environment, big brown bats forage for small insects in open spaces, as well as in vegetation and in the presence of acoustic clutter. While searching and hunting for prey, bats experience sonar interference, not only from densely cluttered environments, but also from calls of conspecifics foraging in close proximity. Previous work has shown that when two bats compete for a single prey item in a relatively open environment, one of the bats may go silent for extended periods of time, which can serve to minimize sonar interference between conspecifics. Additionally, pairs of big brown bats have been shown to adjust frequency characteristics of their vocalizations to avoid acoustic interference in echo processing. In this study, we extended previous work by examining how the presence of conspecifics and environmental clutter influence the bat's echolocation behavior. By recording multichannel audio and video data of bats engaged in insect capture in open and cluttered spaces, we quantified the bats' vocal and flight behaviors. Big brown bats flew individually and in pairs in an open and cluttered room, and the results of this study shed light on the different strategies that this species employs to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The reproductive biology of the Cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis, was investigated histologically. The study was based on 67 specimens collected over a six-year period. This species is seasonally monoestrous, normally giving birth to twins during November. Spermatogenesis peaks during autumn (March-May) when ...
Polytocy is described in the Cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis,and discussed in relation to the occurrence of multiple births in other microchiropteran bat species in the southern African subregion. Although twins appear to be characteristic of the Cape serotine bat, triplets and even the occasional quadruplets occur.
Marilene Fernandes de Almeida
Full Text Available Some bat species have adapted to the expanding human population by acquiring the ability to roost in urban buildings, increasing the exposure risk for people and domestic animals, and consequently, the likelihood of transmitting rabies. Three dead bats were found in the yard of a house in an urban area of Jundiaí city in the state of São Paulo in southeast Brazil. Two of the three bats tested positive for rabies, using Fluorescent Antibody and Mouse Inoculation techniques. A large colony of Eptesicus furinalis was found in the house's attic, and of the 119 bats captured, four more tested positive for rabies. The objectives of this study were to report the rabies diagnosis, characterize the isolated virus antigenically and genetically, and study the epidemiology of the colony.
BalS: a Nalural History. University of Tcxas Press. Austin. LYNCH. CO. 1989. The Mammals of the north-ea. .. tern Cape. Province. Mem. MS. Mus .. Bloemfontein 25: 1-116. MORI. T. & UCHIDA. T.A. 1980. Sperm Slorage in Ihe reproductive tract of the female Japanese long-fingered bat,. Miniopterus schreibersiifuliginosus.
Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill
Although Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat) has been widely studied, information on tree-roosting in forests by males is rare, and little information is available on tree roosting in the southeastern United States. Our objectives were to characterize diurnal summer roosts, primarily for male Big Brown Bats, and to determine relationships between forest...
mealworm offered in forceps for each correct response (arrow), which consisted of crawling forward onto the left or right arm of the platform-- whichever...determined by its current body weight and the quantity of mealworms consumed after correct trials. Each day’s run constituted a block of trials for one
Petrželková, Klára Judita; Zukal, Jan
Roc. 51, č. 4 (2001), s. 395-414 ISSN 0028-2960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAC6087502; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Eptesicus serotinus * emergence * predation risk Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2001
Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.
Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....
A study of bat populations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico: FY95--97 report to Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument
Bogan, M.A.; O`Shea, T.J.; Cryan, P.M.; Ditto, A.M.; Schaedla, W.H.; Valdez, E.W.; Castle, K.T.; Ellison, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
In 1995, a three-year study was initiated to assess the current status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites of bats. The authors captured and released 1532 bats of 15 species (Myotis californicus, M. ciliolabrum, M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Corynorhinus townsendii, Antrozous pallidus, Tadarida brasiliensis, and Nyctinomops macrotis) and followed 32 bats of eight species (M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, E. fuscus, E. maculatum, C. townsendii, A. pallidus, and N. macrotis) to 51 active diurnal roosts. The most abundant species were L. noctivagans, E. fuscus, L. cinereus, M. evotis, M. volans, and M. ciliolabrum. Most of these species are typical inhabitants of ponderosa pine-mixed coniferous forests.
Czaplewski, Nicholas J
Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus . The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus . Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.
Nicholas J. Czaplewski
Full Text Available Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus. The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus. Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.
Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1: Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.
Full Text Available This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1 antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status. Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers
April D Davis
Full Text Available Silver-haired bats, (Lasionycteris noctivagans are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. Despite the species rarity, the L. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (RABV in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the US. Unlike big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus and little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, L. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. It is unknown if RABV can overwinter in hibernating L. noctivagans or is only maintained in members of this taxa that migrate to warmer climates. To better understand RABV overwintering in this species, L. noctivagans were inoculated intramuscularly with either a homologous RABV (L. noctivagans Virus 1 or one of two heterologous RABV (Eptesicus fuscus Virus 2 and Myotis lucifugus Virus 1. Five days following inoculation, L. noctivagans were placed in a hibernation chamber for 6 weeks. Our results demonstrate that rabies virus can overwinter in L. noctivagans yet the incubation period was extended 6 weeks when compared to bats maintained at ambient temperatures. Additionally, we found that the longer the incubation period, the greater the viral dissemination to the salivary glands. Similar to our previous studies, L. noctivagans were most susceptible to a homologous variant. In summary, we found that RABV incubation is extended following a subcutaneous exposure or maintenance in hibernation and longer incubation times increase dissemination and potential for transmission.
Kara L. Marshall
Full Text Available Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.
M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards
The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.
Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E
The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.
Pérez-Jordá, Juan L.; Ibáñez, Carlos; Muñoz-Cervera, Marina; Tellez, Antonio
To determine the prevalence of European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBL1), antibodies plasma samples were obtained from 175 serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) from four colonies in southern Spain between September of 1991 and September 1992. Five bats were detected with EBL1 virus in one colony in 1989. The prevalence of antibodies rose to 74% in one of the colonies studied (Villarrasa) in the spring of 1992. After a few months the prevalence declined to under 10%. Individuals with a high antibody lev...
Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina
Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.
Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F
To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.
Kváč, Martin; Hořická, Anna; Sak, Bohumil; Prediger, Jitka; Salát, Jiří; Širmarová, Jana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Clark, Mark; Chelladurai, Jeba Rose Jennifer Jesudoss; Gillam, Erin; McEvoy, John
Bats from the families Rhinolophidae (n = 90) and Vespertilionidae (n = 191) in the USA and Czech Republic were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by microscopic and molecular analysis of faecal samples collected from rectum of dissected animals and from the ground beneath roosting sites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 281 faecal specimens examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Nested PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA and actin genes were used to identify isolates and infer evolutionary relationships. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in a western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) from the USA and a common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from the Czech Republic. Two novel genotypes were identified and named Cryptosporidium bat genotype III and IV. Bat genotype III was found in two big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from the USA. Bat genotype IV was detected in two common pipistrelle bats from the Czech Republic.
Bowen, Richard A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Shankar, Vidya; Neubaum, Melissa A.; Neubaum, Daniel J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.
We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County. We also sampled hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) captured while drinking or foraging over water in Bernalillo County, New Mexico and at various locations in Larimer County. Big brown bats, little brown bats, long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis), and fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) were also sampled over water in Larimer County. All species except long-eared myotis included individuals with RVNA, with prevalences ranging from 7% in adult female silver-haired bats to 32% in adult female hoary bats. None of the bats had detectable rabies-virus RNA in oropharyngeal swabs, including 51 bats of 5 species that had RVNA in serum. Antibody-positive bats were present in nine of the 10 maternity colonies sampled. These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to progress to clinical disease.
George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.
Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.
Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Oko, Lauren M.; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H.; Berglund, Andrew D.; Klavetter, Mead L.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Montgomery, Joel Mark
Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.
Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus, 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans, 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis, 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10% and known to have direct contact with people (19%, suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.
Braunstein, S.; Cheng, T.
The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) causes the disease White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats and is estimated to have killed millions of bats since its emergence in North America in 2006. Gd is predicted to cause the local extinction of at least three bat species if rates of decline continue unabated. Given the devastating impacts of Gd to bat populations, identifying a viable method for controlling the pathogen is pertinent for conservation of affected bat species. Our work focuses on identifying naturally-occurring skin bacteria on bats that are antagonistic to Gd that could potentially be used as a biocontrol. We cultured bacteria from skin swabs taken from wild bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis sodalis, Perimyotis subflavus). We conducted challenge experiments to identify bacterial strains that inhibited Gd growth. Bacteria that exhibited antifungal properties were identified using 16S and gyrB markers. Our methods identified several bacteria in the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex as potential biocontrol agents. Future work will continue to test the viability of these bacteria as biocontrol agents via experimental treatments with live captive bats. The failure of previous non-biocontrol methods highlights the importance of developing these bacteria as a biologically-friendly method for controlling Gd. A bat infected with Geomyces destructans. Photo by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Bacterial culture from the swab of a bat's wings
Li, Han; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina
Many local scale studies have shown that bats respond to water quality degradation or urbanization in a species-specific manner. However, few have separated the effects of urbanization versus water quality degradation on bats, in single city or single watershed case studies. Across North Carolina, USA, we used the standardized North American Bat Monitoring Program mobile transect protocol to survey bat activity in 2015 and 2016 at 41 sites. We collected statewide water quality and urban land cover data to disentangle the effects of urbanization and water quality degradation on bats at the landscape scale. We found that statewide, water quality degradation and urbanization were not correlated. We found that bats responded to water quality degradation and urbanization independently at the landscape scale. Eptesicus fuscus and Lasiurus cinereus negatively responded to water quality degradation. Lasiurus borealis and Perimyotis subflavus positively responded to water quality degradation. Lasionycteris noctivagans did not respond to water quality degradation but was more active in more urbanized areas. Tadarida brasiliensis positively responded to urbanization and was less active in areas with degraded water quality. We show that bat-water quality relationships found at the local scale are evident at a landscape scale. We confirm that bats are useful bioindicators for both urbanization and water quality degradation. We suggest that water quality can be used to predict the presence of bat species of conservation concern, such as P. subflavus , in areas where it has not been studied locally.
Gallo, Travis; Lehrer, Elizabeth W; Fidino, Mason; Kilgour, R Julia; Wolff, Patrick J; Magle, Seth B
For over a century there have been continual efforts to incorporate nature into urban planning. These efforts (i.e., urban reconciliation) aim to manage and create habitats that support biodiversity within cities. Given that species select habitat at different spatial scales, understanding the scale at which urban species respond to their environment is critical to the success of urban reconciliation efforts. We assessed species-habitat relationships for common bat species at 50-m, 500-m, and 1 km spatial scales in the Chicago (U.S.A.) metropolitan area and predicted bat activity across the greater Chicago region. Habitat characteristics across all measured scales were important predictors of silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) activity, and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) activity was significantly lower at urban sites relative to rural sites. Open vegetation had a negative effect on silver-haired bat activity at the 50-m scale but a positive effect at the 500-m scale, indicating potential shifts in the relative importance of some habitat characteristics at different scales. These results demonstrate that localized effects may be constrained by broader spatial patterns. Our findings highlight the importance of considering scale in urban reconciliation efforts and our landscape predictions provide information that can help prioritize urban conservation work. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.
Melissa R Ingala
Full Text Available White Nose Syndrome (WNS greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus, Indiana (M. sodalis, northern (M. septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E. fuscus, 4 of which (myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids inhibit Pd growth. The amounts of myristic and linoleic acids in the epidermis of M. lucifugus decrease during hibernation, thus we predicted that the epidermal fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit Pd growth. Laboratory Pd growth experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results demonstrated that the fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus wing epidermis during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit the growth of Pd. Additional Pd growth experiments revealed that: a triacylglycerols composed of known anti-Pd fatty acids do not significantly affect growth, b pentadecanoic acid inhibits Pd growth, and c 1-oleoglycerol, which is found in the wing epidermis of E. fuscus, also inhibits the growth of this fungus. Analyses of white adipose from M. lucifugus also revealed the selective retention of oleic and linoleic acids in this tissue during hibernation.
Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Razak, Norizham Abdul; Verstraelen, Edouard; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Dimitriadis, Greg
At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat's morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads.
Hom, Kelsey N; Linnenschmidt, Meike; Simmons, James A; Simmons, Andrea Megela
Echolocating bats emit trains of intense ultrasonic biosonar pulses and listen to weaker echoes returning from objects in their environment. Identification and categorization of echoes are crucial for orientation and prey capture. Bats are social animals and often fly in groups in which they are exposed to their own emissions and to those from other bats, as well as to echoes from multiple surrounding objects. Sound pressure levels in these noisy conditions can exceed 110 dB, with no obvious deleterious effects on echolocation performance. Psychophysical experiments show that big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) do not experience temporary threshold shifts after exposure to intense broadband ultrasonic noise, but it is not known if they make fine-scale adjustments in their pulse emissions to compensate for any effects of the noise. We investigated whether big brown bats adapt the number, temporal patterning or relative amplitude of their emitted pulses while flying through an acoustically cluttered corridor after exposure to intense broadband noise (frequency range 10-100 kHz; sound exposure level 152 dB). Under these conditions, four bats made no significant changes in navigation errors or in pulse number, timing and amplitude 20 min, 24 h or 48 h after noise exposure. These data suggest that big brown bats remain able to perform difficult echolocation tasks after exposure to ecologically realistic levels of broadband noise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Full Text Available The flight membranes of bats serve a number of physiological functions important for survival. Although flight membrane injuries are commonly observed in wild-caught bats, in most cases the damage heals completely. Previous studies examining wound healing in the flight membranes of bats have not taken into consideration energy constraints that could influence healing times. Wound healing results in increased energy demands, therefore we hypothesized that wound healing times would be slower during periods of energy conservation and/or energy output. In this study we used an 8 mm diameter circular punch tool to biopsy the wing membranes of healthy adult female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus from a captive research colony to test the hypothesis that healing times will vary with seasonal temperature changes between the summer and winter seasons, and with reproductive condition between lactating and non-reproductive females. As expected, membrane biopsies took significantly longer to heal during the winter when bats were hibernating compared to the summer when bats were active. Surprisingly, no difference in healing time was observed between lactating and non-reproductive females. The wings of most bats fully healed, although some individuals showed wound expansion demonstrating that impaired healing is occasionally observed in otherwise healthy subjects.
Marie A Gadziola
Full Text Available Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller.
Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Moss, Cynthia F
Echolocating bats emit sonar pulses and listen to returning echoes to probe their surroundings. Bats adapt their echolocation call design to cope with dynamic changes in the acoustic environment, including habitat change or the presence of nearby conspecifics/heterospecifics. Seven pairs of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were tested in this study to examine how they adjusted their echolocation calls when flying and competing with a conspecific for food. Results showed that differences in five call parameters, start/end frequencies, duration, bandwidth and sweep rate, significantly increased in the two-bat condition compared with the baseline data. In addition, the magnitude of spectral separation of calls was negatively correlated with the baseline call design differences in individual bats. Bats with small baseline call frequency differences showed larger increases in call frequency separation when paired than those with large baseline call frequency differences, suggesting that bats actively change their sonar call structure if pre-existing differences in call design are small. Call design adjustments were also influenced by physical spacing between two bats. Calls of paired bats exhibited the largest design separations when inter-bat distance was shorter than 0.5 m, and the separation decreased as the spacing increased. All individuals modified at least one baseline call parameter in response to the presence of another conspecific. We propose that dissimilarity between the time-frequency features of sonar calls produced by different bats aids each individual in segregating echoes of its own sonar vocalizations from the acoustic signals of neighboring bats.
O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Cryan, P.M.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Pape, W.J.; Bowen, R.A.
We describe use of Fort Collins, Colorado, and nearby areas by bats in 2001-2005, and link patterns in bat ecology with concurrent public health surveillance for rabies. Our analyses are based on evaluation of summary statistics, and information-theoretic support for results of simple logistic regression. Based on captures in mist nets, the city bat fauna differed from that of the adjacent mountains, and was dominated by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Species, age, and sex composition of bats submitted for rabies testing locally and along the urbanizing Front Range Corridor were similar to those of the mist-net captures and reflected the annual cycle of reproduction and activity of big brown bats. Few submissions occurred November- March, when these bats hibernated elsewhere. In summer females roosted in buildings in colonies and dominated health samples; fledging of young corresponded to a summer peak in health submissions with no increase in rabies prevalence. Roosting ecology of big brown bats in buildings was similar to that reported for natural sites, including colony size, roost-switching behavior, fidelity to roosts in a small area, and attributes important for roost selection. Attrition in roosts occurred from structural modifications of buildings to exclude colonies by citizens, but without major effects on long-term bat reproduction or survival. Bats foraged in areas set aside for nature conservation. A pattern of lower diversity in urban bat communities with dominance by big brown bats may occur widely in the USA, and is consistent with national public health records for rabies surveillance. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).
Maslo, Brooke; Valentin, Rafael; Leu, Karen; Kerwin, Kathleen; Hamilton, George C; Bevan, Amanda; Fefferman, Nina H; Fonseca, Dina M
Invasive insect pests cost the agricultural industry billions of dollars annually in crop losses. Timely detection of pests is critical for management efficiency. Innovative pest detection strategies, such as environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques, combined with efficient predators, maximize sampling resolution across space and time and may improve surveillance. We tested the hypothesis that temperate insectivorous bats can be important sentinels of agricultural insect pest surveillance. Specifically, we used a new high-sensitivity molecular assay for invasive brown marmorated stink bugs (Halyomorpha halys) to examine the extent to which big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) detect agricultural pests in the landscape. We documented consistent seasonal predation of stink bugs by big brown bats. Importantly, bats detected brown marmorated stink bugs 3-4 weeks earlier than the current standard monitoring tool, blacklight traps, across all sites. We highlight here the previously unrecognized potential ecosystem service of bats as agents of pest surveillance (or chirosurveillance). Additional studies examining interactions between other bat and insect pest species, coupled with comparisons of detectability among various conventional monitoring methods, are needed to verify the patterns extracted from this study. Ultimately, robust economic analyses will be needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of chirosurveillance as a standard strategy for integrated pest management.
Yovel, Yossi; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Ulanovsky, Nachum
Echolocating bats of the genus Rousettus produce click sonar signals, using their tongue (lingual echolocation). These signals are often considered rudimentary and are believed to enable only crude performance. However, the main argument supporting this belief, namely the click's reported long duration, was recently shown to be an artifact. In fact, the sonar clicks of Rousettus bats are extremely short, ~50-100 μs, similar to dolphin vocalizations. Here, we present a comparison between the sonar systems of the 'model species' of laryngeal echolocation, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), and that of lingual echolocation, the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). We show experimentally that in tasks, such as accurate landing or detection of medium-sized objects, click-based echolocation enables performance similar to laryngeal echolocators. Further, we describe a sophisticated behavioral strategy for biosonar beam steering in clicking bats. Finally, theoretical analyses of the signal design--focusing on their autocorrelations and wideband ambiguity functions--predict that in some aspects, such as target ranging and Doppler-tolerance, click-based echolocation might outperform laryngeal echolocation. Therefore, we suggest that click-based echolocation in bats should be regarded as a viable echolocation strategy, which is in fact similar to the biosonar used by most echolocating animals, including whales and dolphins.
Coleman, Laci S.; Ford, W. Mark; Dobony, Christopher A.; Britzke, Eric R.
Concomitant with the emergence and spread of white-nose syndrome (WNS) and precipitous decline of many bat species in North America, natural resource managers need modified and/or new techniques for bat inventory and monitoring that provide robust occupancy estimates. We used Anabat acoustic detectors to determine the most efficient passive acoustic sampling design for optimizing detection probabilities of multiple bat species in a WNS-impacted environment in New York, USA. Our sampling protocol included: six acoustic stations deployed for the entire duration of monitoring as well as a 4 x 4 grid and five transects of 5-10 acoustic units that were deployed for 6-8 night sample durations surveyed during the summers of 2011-2012. We used Program PRESENCE to determine detection probability and site occupancy estimates. Overall, the grid produced the highest detection probabilities for most species because it contained the most detectors and intercepted the greatest spatial area. However, big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and species not impacted by WNS were detected easily regardless of sampling array. Endangered Indiana (Myotis sodalis) and little brown (Myotis lucifugus) and tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) showed declines in detection probabilities over our study, potentially indicative of continued WNS-associated declines. Identification of species presence through efficient methodologies is vital for future conservation efforts as bat populations decline further due to WNS and other factors.
Konow, Nicolai; Cheney, Jorn A; Roberts, Thomas J; Iriarte-Díaz, Jose; Breuer, Kenneth S; Waldman, J Rhea S; Swartz, Sharon M
Animals respond to changes in power requirements during locomotion by modulating the intensity of recruitment of their propulsive musculature, but many questions concerning how muscle recruitment varies with speed across modes of locomotion remain unanswered. We measured normalized average burst EMG (aEMG) for pectoralis major and biceps brachii at different flight speeds in two relatively distantly related bat species: the aerial insectivore Eptesicus fuscus , and the primarily fruit-eating Carollia perspicillata These ecologically distinct species employ different flight behaviors but possess similar wing aspect ratio, wing loading and body mass. Because propulsive requirements usually correlate with body size, and aEMG likely reflects force, we hypothesized that these species would deploy similar speed-dependent aEMG modulation. Instead, we found that aEMG was speed independent in E. fuscus and modulated in a U-shaped or linearly increasing relationship with speed in C. perspicillata This interspecific difference may be related to differences in muscle fiber type composition and/or overall patterns of recruitment of the large ensemble of muscles that participate in actuating the highly articulated bat wing. We also found interspecific differences in the speed dependence of 3D wing kinematics: E. fuscus modulates wing flexion during upstroke significantly more than C. perspicillata Overall, we observed two different strategies to increase flight speed: C. perspicillata tends to modulate aEMG, and E. fuscus tends to modulate wing kinematics. These strategies may reflect different requirements for avoiding negative lift and overcoming drag during slow and fast flight, respectively, a subject we suggest merits further study. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Richard A Holland
Full Text Available While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a "compass organelle" containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe(3O(4. Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic cues for compass orientation but the method by which they detect the Earth's magnetic field remains unknown. Here we use the classic "Kalmijn-Blakemore" pulse re-magnetization experiment, whereby the polarity of cellular magnetite is reversed. The results demonstrate that the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus uses single domain magnetite to detect the Earths magnetic field and the response indicates a polarity based receptor. Polarity detection is a prerequisite for the use of magnetite as a compass and suggests that big brown bats use magnetite to detect the magnetic field as a compass. Our results indicate the possibility that sensory cells in bats contain freely rotating magnetite particles, which appears not to be the case in birds. It is crucial that the ultrastructure of the magnetite containing magnetoreceptors is described for our understanding of magnetoreception in animals.
Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)
Accomando, Alyssa W.; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E.; Simmons, James A.
Bats emit biosonar pulses in complex temporal patterns that change to accommodate dynamic surroundings. Efforts to quantify these patterns have included analyses of inter-pulse intervals, sonar sound groups, and changes in individual signal parameters such as duration or frequency. Here, the similarity in temporal structure between trains of biosonar pulses is assessed. The spike train similarity space (SSIMS) algorithm, originally designed for neural activity pattern analysis, was applied to determine which features of the environment influence temporal patterning of pulses emitted by flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. In these laboratory experiments, bats flew down a flight corridor through an obstacle array. The corridor varied in width (100, 70, or 40 cm) and shape (straight or curved). Using a relational point-process framework, SSIMS was able to discriminate between echolocation call sequences recorded from flights in each of the corridor widths. SSIMS was also able to tell the difference between pulse trains recorded during flights where corridor shape through the obstacle array matched the previous trials (fixed, or expected) as opposed to those recorded from flights with randomized corridor shape (variable, or unexpected), but only for the flight path shape in which the bats had previous training. The results show that experience influences the temporal patterns with which bats emit their echolocation calls. It is demonstrated that obstacle proximity to the bat affects call patterns more dramatically than flight path shape. PMID:29472848
Gaudette, Jason E; Kloepper, Laura N; Warnecke, Michaela; Simmons, James A
Measurements of the transmit beam patterns emitted by echolocating bats have previously been limited to cross-sectional planes or averaged over multiple signals using sparse microphone arrays. To date, no high-resolution measurements of individual bat transmit beams have been reported in the literature. Recent studies indicate that bats may change the time-frequency structure of their calls depending on the task, and suggest that their beam patterns are more dynamic than previously thought. To investigate beam pattern dynamics in a variety of bat species, a high-density reconfigurable microphone array was designed and constructed using low-cost ultrasonic microphones and custom electronic circuitry. The planar array is 1.83 m wide by 1.42 m tall with microphones positioned on a 2.54 cm square grid. The system can capture up to 228 channels simultaneously at a 500 kHz sampling rate. Beam patterns are reconstructed in azimuth, elevation, and frequency for visualization and further analysis. Validation of the array measurement system and post-processing functions is shown by reconstructing the beam pattern of a transducer with a fixed circular aperture and comparing the result with a theoretical model. To demonstrate the system in use, transmit beam patterns of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, are shown.
Pitt, William C; Witmer, Gary W; Jojola, Susan M; Sin, Hans
We examined potential exposure of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) to citric acid, a minimum risk pesticide registered for control of invasive Eleutherodactylus frog populations. Hoary bats are nocturnal insectivores that roost solitarily in foliage, federally listed as endangered, and are endemic to Hawaii. Oral ingestion during grooming of contaminated fur appears to be the principal route by which these bats might be exposed to citric acid. We made assessments of oral toxicity, citric acid consumption, retention of material on fur, and grooming using big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) as a surrogate species. We evaluated both ground application and aerial application of 16 % solutions of citric acid during frog control operations. Absorbent bat effigies exposed to ground and aerial operational spray applications retained means of 1.54 and 0.02 g, respectively, of dry citric acid, although retention by the effigies was much higher than bat carcasses drenched in citric acid solutions. A high dose delivered orally (2,811 mg/kg) was toxic to the big brown bats and emesis occurred in 1 bat dosed as low as the 759 mg/kg level. No effect was observed with the lower doses examined (≤ 542 mg/kg). Bats sprayed with 5 ml of 16 % (w/w) citric acid solution showed no evidence of intoxication. In field situations, it is unlikely that bats would be sprayed directly or ingest much citric acid retained by fur. Based on our observations, we believe Hawaiian hoary bats to be at very low risk from harmful exposure to a toxic dose of citric acid during frog control operations.
Heather W. Mayberry
Full Text Available Using a within subjects design, we documented morphological, bioacoustical and behavioral developmental changes in big brown bats. Eptesicus fuscus pups are born naked and blind but assume an adult-like appearance by post-natal day (PND 45 and flight by PND 30. Adult females use spatial memory, acoustic and olfactory cues to reunite with offspring, but it is unclear if pups can recognize maternal scents. We tested the olfactory discrimination abilities of young E. fuscus pups and found they exhibited no odor preferences. Pups also emit distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (i-calls that facilitate mother-offspring reunions, but how pups shift their vocalizations from i-calls to downward frequency modulated (FM sweeps used in echolocation remains unclear. Between PND 0–9, pups emitted mainly long duration, tonal i-calls rich in harmonics, but after they switched to short duration, downward FM sweeps with fewer harmonics. Call maximum frequency and repetition rate showed minor changes across development. Signal duration, bandwidth, and number of harmonics decreased, whereas the maximum, minimum and bandwidth of the fundamental, and peak spectral frequency all increased. We recorded vocalizations during prolonged maternal separation and found that isolated pups called longer and at a faster rate, presumably to signal for maternal assistance. To assess how PND 13 pups alter their signals during interactions with humans we compared spontaneous and provoked vocalizations and found that provoked calls were spectrally and temporally more similar to those of younger bats suggesting that pups in distress emit signals that sound like younger bats to promote maternal assistance.
Secord, Anne L; Patnode, Kathleen A; Carter, Charles; Redman, Eric; Gefell, Daniel J; Major, Andrew R; Sparks, Daniel W
We analyzed bat carcasses (Myotis lucifugus, M. sodalis, M. septentrionalis, and Eptesicus fuscus) from the northeastern United States for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and pharmaceuticals and personal care products. The CECs detected most frequently in samples were PBDEs (100 %), salicylic acid (81 %), thiabendazole (50 %), and caffeine (23 %). Other compounds detected in at least 15 % of bat samples were digoxigenin, ibuprofen, warfarin, penicillin V, testosterone, and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). The CECs present at the highest geometric mean wet weight concentrations in bat carcasses were bisphenol A (397 ng/g), ΣPDBE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154 (83.5 ng/g), triclosan (71.3 n/g), caffeine (68.3 ng/g), salicylic acid (66.4 ng/g), warfarin (57.6 ng/g), sulfathiazole (55.8 ng/g), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (53.8 ng/g), and DEET (37.2 ng/g). Bats frequently forage in aquatic and terrestrial habitats that may be subjected to discharges from wastewater-treatment plants, agricultural operations, and other point and nonpoint sources of contaminants. This study shows that some CECs are accumulating in the tissue of bats. We propose that CECs detected in bats have the potential to affect a number of physiological systems in bats including hibernation, immune function, and response to white-nose syndrome, a fungal disease causing population-level impacts to bats.
Valdez, Ernest W.
From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.
Schunk, Cosima; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.
While pseudo-volumetric reconstructions of the wakes of flying animals, based on transverse (Trefftz) wake measurements, have become a well-established tool in the study of animal aerodynamics in recent years, there are a number of concerns that persist regarding their use in estimating drag and flight efficiency. Here we report on stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements behind freely flying bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in both the transverse and streamwise planes. The streamwise plane measurements are taken on the wing as well as in the near and far wake region up to eight chord lengths behind the bat. By organizing the data according to the flight speed, wingbeat phase and the spanwise position of the laser sheet on the wing we are able to connect specific features of the wing and body geometry with observed wake structures and thereby construct a detailed time-space map of the wake. Furthermore, we can quantitatively assess wake distortion and assess the validity of lift and drag estimates based on transverse wake measurements. Supported by AFOSR.
Full Text Available Bats use frequency-modulated echolocation to identify and capture moving objects in real three-dimensional space. The big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, emits linear period modulation sound, and is capable of locating static objects with a range accuracy of less than 1 microsecond. A previously introduced model can estimate ranges of multiple, static objects using linear frequency modulation sound and Gaussian chirplets with a carrier frequency compatible with bat emission sweep rates. The delay time for a single object was estimated with an accuracy of about 1.3 microsecond by measuring the echo at a low signal-to-noise ratio. This model could estimate the location of each moving object in two-dimensional space. In this study, the linear period modulation sounds, mimicking the emitting pulse of big brown bats, were introduced as the emitted signals. Echoes were measured from moving objects at two receiving points by intermittently emitting these sounds. It was clarified that this model could localize moving objects in two-dimensional space by accurately estimating the object ranges.
Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriél, Mariann; Baagøe, Hans J.
European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is considered to be endemic in the Danish bat populations, but limited information exists about the types of EBLV strains currently in circulation. EBLV type 1 (EBLV-1) is seen as the predominant type in the Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with the latest case...
backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus ring recovery from Tanzania. Considered by some to be a discrete population and named the Baltic Gull. Larus fuscus (Olsen & Larsson 2003) the Lesser Black-backed Gull L. fuscus fuscus is well known to winter ...
Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.
Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.
Coleman, Laci S.; Ford, W. Mark; Dobony, Christopher A.; Britzke, Eric R.
In the summers of 2011 and 2012, we compared passive and active acoustic sampling for bats at 31 sites at Fort Drum Military Installation, New York. We defined active sampling as acoustic sampling that occurred in 30-min intervals between the hours of sunset and 0200 with a user present to manipulate the directionality of the microphone. We defined passive sampling as acoustic sampling that occurred over a 12-h period (1900–0700 hours) without a user present and with the microphone set in a predetermined direction. We detected seven of the nine possible species at Fort Drum, including the federally endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, the proposed-for-listing northern bat M. septentrionalis, the little brown bat M. lucifugus, and the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus, which are impacted by white-nose syndrome (WNS); and the eastern red bat Lasiurus borealis, the hoary bat L. cinereus, and the silver-haired bat Lasionycteris noctivagans, which are not known to be impacted by WNS. We did not detect two additional WNS-impacted species known to historically occur in the area: the eastern small-footed bat Myotis leibii and the tri-colored bat Perimyotis subflavus. Single-season occupancy models revealed lower detection probabilities of all detected species using active sampling versus passive sampling. Additionally, overall detection probabilities declined in detected WNS-impacted species between years. A paired t-test of simultaneous sampling on 21 occasions revealed that overall recorded foraging activity per hour was greater using active than passive sampling for big brown bats and greater using passive than active sampling for little brown bats. There was no significant difference in recorded activity between methods for other WNS-impacted species, presumably because these species have been so reduced in number that their “apparency” on the landscape is lower. Finally, a cost analysis of standard passive and active sampling protocols revealed that passive
Amanda F Janicki
Full Text Available White-Nose Syndrome (WNS is an epizootic disease in hibernating bats caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Surveillance for P. destructans at bat hibernacula consists primarily of visual surveys of bats, collection of potentially infected bats, and submission of these bats for laboratory testing. Cryptic infections (bats that are infected but display no visual signs of fungus could lead to the mischaracterization of the infection status of a site and the inadvertent spread of P. destructans. We determined the efficacy of visual detection of P. destructans by examining visual signs and molecular detection of P. destructans on 928 bats of six species at 27 sites during surveys conducted from January through March in 2012-2014 in the southeastern USA on the leading edge of the disease invasion. Cryptic infections were widespread with 77% of bats that tested positive by qPCR showing no visible signs of infection. The probability of exhibiting visual signs of infection increased with sampling date and pathogen load, the latter of which was substantially higher in three species (Myotis lucifugus, M. septentrionalis, and Perimyotis subflavus. In addition, M. lucifugus was more likely to show visual signs of infection than other species given the same pathogen load. Nearly all infections were cryptic in three species (Eptesicus fuscus, M. grisescens, and M. sodalis, which had much lower fungal loads. The presence of M. lucifugus or M. septentrionalis at a site increased the probability that P. destructans was visually detected on bats. Our results suggest that cryptic infections of P. destructans are common in all bat species, and visible infections rarely occur in some species. However, due to very high infection prevalence and loads in some species, we estimate that visual surveys examining at least 17 individuals of M. lucifugus and M. septentrionalis, or 29 individuals of P. subflavus are still effective to determine whether a site has
A model of the bat sensorimotor system is developed using acoustics, signal processing, and control theory to illustrate the fundamental issues in accomplishing prey capture with echolocation. This model indicates that successful nonpredictive tracking of an ideal prey can be accomplished with a very simple system. Circular apertures approximate the mouth and ears for deriving acoustic beam patterns, using the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus as a model. Fundamental and overtone frequency components in the emissions allow two simultaneous acoustic beams to be defined. A pair of nonlinear, time-variable, sampled-data controllers alter the bat's heading by applying yaw and pitch heading corrections. The yaw correction attempts to position the prey in the midsagittal plane by nulling the interaural intensity difference of the fundamental component. The pitch correction compares the intensities of the overtone and fundamental components and acts to null their difference. By initiating pitch correction when the overtone intensity first exceeds that of the fundamental, the ambiguity problem is solved and the prey is directed to the capture region. Simulations of passive prey capture indicate that the capture probability decreases as the prey speed increases. Both quick and sluggish prey are considered, with sluggish prey found to be caught with slightly better efficiency. The magnitude of the prey's lateral motion just prior to capture is observed to be an important factor determining capture. The presence of a blind stage is considered, during which the interference of the emission with the echo is assumed to disrupt any sonar information. The presence of such a blind stage is found to have negligible effect on capture efficiency.
Full Text Available Acquisition of food in many animal species depends on the pursuit and capture of moving prey. Among modern humans, the pursuit and interception of moving targets plays a central role in a variety of sports, such as tennis, football, Frisbee, and baseball. Studies of target pursuit in animals, ranging from dragonflies to fish and dogs to humans, have suggested that they all use a constant bearing (CB strategy to pursue prey or other moving targets. CB is best known as the interception strategy employed by baseball outfielders to catch ballistic fly balls. CB is a time-optimal solution to catch targets moving along a straight line, or in a predictable fashion--such as a ballistic baseball, or a piece of food sinking in water. Many animals, however, have to capture prey that may make evasive and unpredictable maneuvers. Is CB an optimum solution to pursuing erratically moving targets? Do animals faced with such erratic prey also use CB? In this paper, we address these questions by studying prey capture in an insectivorous echolocating bat. Echolocating bats rely on sonar to pursue and capture flying insects. The bat's prey may emerge from foliage for a brief time, fly in erratic three-dimensional paths before returning to cover. Bats typically take less than one second to detect, localize and capture such insects. We used high speed stereo infra-red videography to study the three dimensional flight paths of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, as it chased erratically moving insects in a dark laboratory flight room. We quantified the bat's complex pursuit trajectories using a simple delay differential equation. Our analysis of the pursuit trajectories suggests that bats use a constant absolute target direction strategy during pursuit. We show mathematically that, unlike CB, this approach minimizes the time it takes for a pursuer to intercept an unpredictably moving target. Interestingly, the bat's behavior is similar to the interception strategy
Sanderson, Mark I.; Simmons, James A.
Echolocating big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of frequency-modulated (FM) biosonar signals whose duration, repetition rate, and sweep structure change systematically during interception of prey. When stimulated with a 2.5-s sequence of 54 FM pulse-echo pairs that mimic sounds received during search, approach, and terminal stages of pursuit, single neurons (N=116) in the bat's inferior colliculus (IC) register the occurrence of a pulse or echo with an average of <1 spike/sound. Individual IC neurons typically respond to only a segment of the search or approach stage of pursuit, with fewer neurons persisting to respond in the terminal stage. Composite peristimulus-time-histogram plots of responses assembled across the whole recorded population of IC neurons depict the delay of echoes and, hence, the existence and distance of the simulated biosonar target, entirely as on-response latencies distributed across time. Correlated changes in pulse duration, repetition rate, and pulse or echo amplitude do modulate the strength of responses (probability of the single spike actually occurring for each sound), but registration of the target itself remains confined exclusively to the latencies of single spikes across cells. Modeling of echo processing in FM biosonar should emphasize spike-time algorithms to explain the content of biosonar images.
Warburton, Elizabeth M; Pearl, Christopher A; Vonhof, Maarten J
Sex-biased parasitism highlights potentially divergent approaches to parasite resistance resulting in differing energetic trade-offs for males and females; however, trade-offs between immunity and self-maintenance could also depend on host body condition. We investigated these relationships in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to determine if host sex or body condition better predicted parasite resistance, if testosterone levels predicted male parasite burdens, and if immune parameters could predict male testosterone levels. We found that male and female hosts had similar parasite burdens and female bats scored higher than males in only one immunological measure. Top models of helminth burden revealed interactions between body condition index and agglutination score as well as between agglutination score and host sex. Additionally, the strength of the relationships between sex, agglutination, and helminth burden is affected by body condition. Models of male parasite burden provided no support for testosterone predicting helminthiasis. Models that best predicted testosterone levels did not include parasite burden but instead consistently included month of capture and agglutination score. Thus, in our system, body condition was a more important predictor of immunity and worm burden than host sex.
Francl, Karen E.; Ford, W. Mark; Sparks, Dale W.; Brack, Virgil
Although it has been widely documented that populations of cave-roosting bats rapidly decline following the arrival of white-nose syndrome (WNS), longer term reproductive effects are less well-known and essentially unexplored at the community scale. In West Virginia, WNS was first detected in the eastern portion of the state in 2009 and winter mortality was documented in 2009 and 2010. However, quantitative impacts on summer bat communities remained unknown. We compared “historical” (pre-WNS) capture records and reproductive rates from 11,734 bats captured during summer (15 May to 15 August) of 1997–2008 and 1,304 captures during 2010. We predicted that capture rates (number of individuals captured/net-night) would decrease in 2010. We also expected the energetic strain of WNS would cause delayed or reduced reproduction, as denoted by a greater proportion of pregnant or lactating females later in the summer and a lower relative proportion of juvenile captures in the mid–late summer. We found a dramatic decline in capture rates of little brown Myotis lucifugus, northern long-eared M. septentrionalis, small-footed M. leibii, Indiana M. sodalis, tri-colored Perimyotis subflavus, and hoary Lasiurus cinereus bats after detection of WNS in 2009. For these six species, 2010 capture rates were 10–37% of pre-WNS rates. Conversely, capture rates of big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus increased by 17% in 2010, whereas capture rates of eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis did not change. Together, big brown and eastern red bats were 58% of all 2010 captures but only 11% of pre-WNS captures. Reproductive data from 12,314 bats showed shifts in pregnancy and lactation dates, and an overall narrowing in the windows of time of each reproductive event, for northern-long-eared and little brown bats. Additionally, the proportion of juvenile captures declined in 2010 for these species. In contrast, lactation and pregnancy rates of big brown and eastern red bats, and the
Takumi, K.; Lina, P.H.C.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Kramps, J.A.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.
We present the frequency and the nature of contact incidents of the Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, with humans and with companion animals (specifically cats and dogs), in The Netherlands between 2000 and 2005. Out of 17 bats in bite contact with humans, five tested positive for European bat
Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.
O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Reynolds, C.A.; Bowen, R.A.
We used markrecapture estimation techniques and radiography to test hypotheses about 3 important aspects of recruitment in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado: adult breeding probabilities, litter size, and 1st-year survival of young. We marked 2,968 females with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at multiple sites during 2001-2005 and based our assessments on direct recaptures (breeding probabilities) and passive detection with automated PIT tag readers (1st-year survival). We interpreted our data in relation to hypotheses regarding demographic influences of bat age, roost, and effects of years with unusual environmental conditions: extreme drought (2002) and arrival of a West Nile virus epizootic (2003). Conditional breeding probabilities at 6 roosts sampled in 2002-2005 were estimated as 0.64 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.530.73) in 1-year-old females, but were consistently high (95% CI = 0.940.96) and did not vary by roost, year, or prior year breeding status in older adults. Mean litter size was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.051.17), based on examination of 112 pregnant females by radiography. Litter size was not higher in older or larger females and was similar to results of other studies in western North America despite wide variation in latitude. First-year survival was estimated as 0.67 (95% CI = 0.610.73) for weaned females at 5 maternity roosts over 5 consecutive years, was lower than adult survival (0.79; 95% CI = 0.770.81), and varied by roost. Based on model selection criteria, strong evidence exists for complex roost and year effects on 1st-year survival. First-year survival was lowest in bats born during the drought year. Juvenile females that did not return to roosts as 1-year-olds had lower body condition indices in late summer of their natal year than those known to survive. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.
Picard-Meyer , Evelyne; Dubourg-Savage , Marie-Jo; Arthur , Laurent; Barataud , Michel; Bécu , David; Bracco , Sandrine; Borel , Christophe; Larcher , Gérald; Meme-Lafond , Benjamin; Moinet , Marie; Robardet , Emmanuelle; Wasniewski , Marine; Cliquet , Florence
Abstract Active surveillance of bats in France started in 2004 with an analysis of 18 of the 45 bat species reported in Europe. Rabies antibodies were detected in six indigenous species, mainly in Eptesicus serotinus and Myotis myotis, suggesting previous contact with the EBLV-1 rabies virus. Nineteen of the 177 tested bats were shown serologically positive in seven sites, particularly in central and south-western France. Neither infectious viral particles nor viral genomes were de...
Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Wasniewski, Marine; Gaillard, Matthieu; Borel, Christophe; Cliquet, Florence
Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France. Six juvenile bats from an E. serotinus maternity colony counting ~200 individuals were found to be infected with EBLV-1. The active surveillance of the colony by capture sessions of bats from July to September 2009 showed a high detection rate of neutralising EBLV-1 antibodies (≈ 50%) in the colony. Moreover, one out of 111 animals tested was found to shed viable virus in saliva, while lyssavirus RNA was detected by RT-PCR for five individuals. This study demonstrated that the lyssavirus infection in the serotine maternity colony was followed by a high rate of bat rabies immunity after circulation of the virus in the colony. The ratio of seropositive bats is probably indicative of an efficient virus transmission coupled to a rapid circulation of EBLV-1 in the colony.
Schatz, Juliane; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas
In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.
Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas
In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117
Freuling, Conrad; Vos, Ad; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas
Although classical rabies is one of the earliest identified and best studied infectious diseases, there is still limited knowledge about lyssaviruses and their major natural hosts, bats. Focussing on bat rabies in Europe caused by European bat lyssaviruses 1 (EBLV-1) and 2, for instance the association of EBLV-1 to Eptesicus bats and EBLV-2 to Myotis daubentonii and M. dasycneme together with an apparent clustering of cases is one question still to be answered. Furthermore, the question whether EBLVs are less virulent or bats less susceptible is the key to the understanding of the disease. Accumulating evidence from experimental studies and field observations, however, has resulted in contradicting hypotheses. Serological surveys, using tools developed for classical rabies, are often used for bat rabies surveillance. However, such surveys are hampered by the lack of validated methods applicable for bat sera. Bats seem to play a prominent role as reservoir for viral pathogens and the unique biology of bats especially the immune response may contribute to this. Considering all known aspects, bat rabies seems to form a yet unsolvable entanglement, reminiscent of the ancient tale of the Gordian knot. In this manuscript we will not be able to untangle this knot, but we hope to offer some suggestions of where to start.
Mammalia, Chiroptera, Molossidae, Molossops temminckii (Burmeister, 1854, and Vespertilionidae, Eptesicus furinalis (dOrbigny and Gervais, 1847: New locality record and distribution extension in Cordoba Province, Argentina
Castilla, M. C.
Full Text Available During a field trip to the Ramsar site “Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita” we captured three specimensof Molossops temminckii (Burmeister, 1854 and two of Eptesicus furinalis (d’Orbigny and Gervais, 1847. Molossopstemminckii has a wide distribution in Argentina, but this new record represents the second mention of the species for theCordoba Province after 13 years. The specimens of E. furinalis represent the tenth record for Cordoba and the second for RíoPrimero Department. This new information reflects the scarcity of systematic studies on bats in Cordoba Province.
Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.
Schoeman, M Corrie; Jacobs, David S
The allotonic frequency hypothesis proposes that certain insectivorous bat species can prey upon moths that can hear bat echolocation calls by using echolocation frequencies outside the sensitivity range of moth ears. The hypothesis predicts that the peak frequencies of bat echolocation calls are correlated with the incidence of moths in the diets of these bats. The aim of this study was to test this prediction on a bat community dominated by bats using low duty cycle echolocation calls, i.e. aerial foraging, insectivorous species using frequency modulated calls. The community consisted of nine species, two molossids, Sauromys petrophillus and Tadarida aegyptiaca, five vespertilionids, Eptesicus capensis, Eptesicus hottentotus, Miniopteris schreibersii, Myotis tricolor, and Myotis lesueuri, one rhinolophid, Rhinolophus clivosus, and one nycterid, Nycteris thebaica. The insect fauna in the habitat used by the bat community was suited to the testing of the allotonic frequency hypothesis because more than 90% of the moths comprising the insect fauna were tympanate. These included Pyralidae (3.8%), Geometridae (44.9%), Notodontidae (3.8%), Arctiidae (4.6%), Lymantriidae (0.8%) and Noctuidae (32.4%). As predicted, peak echolocation frequency was correlated with the incidence of moths in the diets of these nine species (r=0.98, df=7, Pecholocation frequency (t=9.91, n=129, Phistory. These results suggest that prey defences may mediate other factors structuring bat communities, e.g. competition. Competition may be reduced for those species of bats that can circumvent prey defences.
Dufkova, Lucie; Straková, Petra; Širmarová, Jana; Salát, Jiří; Moutelíková, Romana; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Bartonička, Tomáš; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel
Astroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Recently, novel groups of astroviruses were identified in apparently healthy insectivorous bats. We report the detection of diverse novel astrovirus sequences in nine different European bat species: Eptesicus serotinus, Hypsugo savii, Myotis emarginatus, M. mystacinus, Nyctalus noctula, Pipistrellus nathusii or P. pygmaeus, P. pipistrellus, Vespertilio murinus, and Rhinolophus hipposideros. In six bat species, astrovirus sequences were detected for the first time. One astrovirus strain detected in R. hipposideros clustered phylogenetically with Chinese astrovirus strains originating from bats of the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. All other Czech astrovirus sequences from vesper bats formed, together with one Hungarian sequence, a separate monophyletic lineage within the bat astrovirus group. These findings provide new insights into the molecular epidemiology, ecology, and prevalence of astroviruses in European bat populations.
Bueno, Larissa M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Comelis, Manuela T; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Studies have shown that the annual reproductive cycle of Eptesicus furinalis includes at least one period of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate their reproductive cycle ultrastructurally. The annual reproductive cycle was divided into four periods: active, regressing, regressed and recrudescence. The active period was similar to that of other bats, including the completion of spermatogenesis with three main types of spermatogonia (Ad, Ap and B) and 12 steps in the process of spermatid differentiation. However, its spermatozoa differed in that outer dense fibers 1, 5, 6 and 9 are larger than the others and due to the presence of what is likely a probably genera-specific bulging in the anterior portion. In the regressing period, Sertoli cell nuclei migrate to the basal compartment with the nuclei close to the basal lamina. The basal compartment had a more compact appearance than the adluminal compartment, with relaxed cellular connections. In the regressed period, spermatogenesis ceased; the seminiferous epithelium was composed only of Sertoli cells and three types of spermatogonia: types Ad, 1 and 2. In the recrudescence period, spermatogenesis restarted, with the process of reactivation divided into three phases: early, medial and late recrudescence. In conclusion, our study described the process of spermatogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa and confirmed the presence of a process of total testicular regression in the annual cycle of E. furinalis. We characterize distinct morphologic variations in the ultrastructure of the testicular cells during the four different periods of the annual reproductive cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fábio André Facco Jacomassa
Full Text Available Bats throughout the world are preyed upon primarily by vertebrates, but some are also attacked by invertebrates. We report two cases of bats entangled in webs of the giant-spider Nephilingis cruentata in southeastern Brazil. The first incidence occurred in December 2012, on which a female Eptesicus diminutus was found dead. The second occurred in March 2013, in which a male Tadarida brasiliensis was removed from the web alive, and later released. The animals showed no predation marks on the body, and both events were recorded after heavy rains. We suspect that the bats may have become entangled in the webs while seeking shelter from rain, or while foraging for insects. Even though the bats were not preyed upon, this spider cannot be ruled out as an opportunistic predator of small bats, as has been observed outside of Brazil.
Full Text Available Este trabajo registra por primera vez la presencia de los murciélagos Eptesicus furinalis, Glossophaga morenoi, Myotis auriculus y Platyrrhinus helleri para el estado de Hidalgo, México. Los ejemplares se obtuvieron durante los muestreos realizados entre agosto de 2008 y mayo de 2010. De cada ejemplar se proporcionan las medidas externas y craneales, la condición reproductora, así como el tipo de vegetación donde fueron encontrados.We register for the first time the presence of the bats Eptesicus furinalis, Glossophaga morenoi, Myotis auriculus and Platyrrhinus helleri for the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The bats were obtained between August 2008 and May 2010. We provide for each bat external and cranial measures, reproductive status, as well as the type of vegetation where they were found.
Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.
This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…
Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David
The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…
Han, H-J; Wen, H-L; Zhao, L; Liu, J-W; Luo, L-M; Zhou, C-M; Qin, X-R; Zhu, Y-L; Liu, M-M; Qi, R; Li, W-Q; Yu, H; Yu, X-J
Bats are considered as the reservoirs of several emerging infectious disease, and novel viruses are continually found in bats all around the world. Studies conducted in southern China found that bats carried a variety of viruses. However, few studies have been conducted on bats in northern China, which harbours a diversity of endemic insectivorous bats. It is important to understand the prevalence and diversity of viruses circulating in bats in northern China. In this study, a total of 145 insectivorous bats representing six species were collected from northern China and screened with degenerate primers for viruses belonging to six families, including coronaviruses, astroviruses, hantaviruses, paramyxoviruses, adenoviruses and circoviruses. Our study found that four of the viruses screened for were positive and the overall detection rates for astroviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses and circoviruses in bats were 21.4%, 15.9%, 20% and 37.2%, respectively. In addition, we found that bats in northern China harboured a diversity of novel viruses. Common Serotine (Eptesicus serotinu), Fringed long-footed Myotis (Myotis fimriatus) and Peking Myotis (Myotis pequinius) were investigated in China for the first time. Our study provided new information on the ecology and phylogeny of bat-borne viruses. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Nov 28, 1989 ... Smithers & Wilson 1979. Natal. Bernard 1982b. Cape Province. Herselman & Norton 1985. Fam. Rhinolophidae. Rhinolophus hildebrandtii. Northern parts. Smithers 1983 of subregion. R. fumigatus. Northern parts. Smithers 1983 of subregion. R. clivosus. Cape Province. Herselman & Norton 1985. Natal.
Short communications:A Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus ring recovery from Tanzania. N E Baker. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...
Schatz, J; Ohlendorf, B; Busse, P; Pelz, G; Dolch, D; Teubner, J; Encarnação, J A; Mühle, R-U; Fischer, M; Hoffmann, B; Kwasnitschka, L; Balkema-Buschmann, A; Mettenleiter, T C; Müller, T; Freuling, C M
In Germany, active bat rabies surveillance was conducted between 1993 and 2012. A total of 4546 oropharyngeal swab samples from 18 bat species were screened for the presence of EBLV-1- , EBLV-2- and BBLV-specific RNA. Overall, 0·15% of oropharyngeal swab samples tested EBLV-1 positive, with the majority originating from Eptesicus serotinus. Interestingly, out of seven RT-PCR-positive oropharyngeal swabs subjected to virus isolation, viable virus was isolated from a single serotine bat (E. serotinus). Additionally, about 1226 blood samples were tested serologically, and varying virus neutralizing antibody titres were found in at least eight different bat species. The detection of viral RNA and seroconversion in repeatedly sampled serotine bats indicates long-term circulation of the virus in a particular bat colony. The limitations of random-based active bat rabies surveillance over passive bat rabies surveillance and its possible application of targeted approaches for future research activities on bat lyssavirus dynamics and maintenance are discussed.
Hannah S. Davie
Full Text Available Bats represent one of the least studied mammal groups in Mongolia, and little is known about the distribution and ecology of species in the country. We surveyed bats in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, which lies at the intersection of two ecozones in Mongolia, to determine the species present and obtain preliminary data on habitat associations. We conducted mist net surveys at 9 sites, including 4 at natural springs, 2 at human-made wells, and 3 at sites without water, from June to August 2011. We captured 149 individuals representing 3 species, Myotis aurascens, Eptesicus gobiensis, and Vespertilio sp. One species, E. gobiensis , represents a new record for the reserve. We captured all three species at sites near natural springs, only one species, M. aurascens, at human-made well sites, and no bats at sites without water. We also collected basic morphometric measurements for M. aurascens and E. gobiensis . Analysis of morphometric measurements for M. aurascens indicated some sexual dimorphisms. Our results provide a baseline estimate of bats in Ikh Nart and suggest that bat diversity is greater than previously thought. Our results also validate the presence of E. gobiensis and suggest that the species we captured associate mainly with natural water sources.
Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie
Animals using sound for communication emit directional signals, focusing most acoustic energy in one direction. Echolocating bats are listening for soft echoes from insects. Therefore, a directional biosonar sound beam greatly increases detection probability in the forward direction and decreases...... off-axis echoes. However, high directionality has context-specific disadvantages: at close range the detection space will be vastly reduced, making a broad beam favorable. Hence, a flexible system would be very advantageous. We investigated whether bats can dynamically change directionality...... of their biosonar during aerial pursuit of insects. We trained five Myotis daubentonii and one Eptesicus serotinus to capture tethered mealworms and recorded their echolocation signals with a multimicrophone array. The results show that the bats broaden the echolocation beam drastically in the terminal phase...
Ma, Bing-ji; Ruan, Yuan; Liu, Ji-kai
To investigate the chemical constituents of Boletus vioaceo-fuscus. The compounds were isolated with column chromatography. The structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Six compounds were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Boletus vioaceo-fiuscus. They were identified as ergosta-5, 7, 22-triene-3beta-ol (1), dihydrofuran-2, 5-dione (2), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 6alpha-epoxyergosta-8, 22-diene-3beta, 7alpha-diol (3), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 6alpha-epoxyergosta-8 (14), 22-diene-3beta, 7alphadiol (4), cerebroside B (5) and adenosine (6), respectively. All the Compounds were obtained from the fruiting bodies of Boletus vioaceo-fiscus for the first time.
Wang, Li-Mao; Song, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Ping
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic tendency of Microtus fuscus plague during 2000 - 2008 in Sichuan province. METHODS: To investigate the plague each year according to "overall Plan of the Plague in the Whole Nation" and "Surveillance Program of Sichuan Province Plague". RESULTS: There were plague...... of fleas, Callopsylla sparsilis, Amphipsylla tutua tutua and Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina, with the overall infection rate as 0.054%. CONCLUSION: Plague among Microtus fuscus showed a continuous epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008....
Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence
Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.
Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence
Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287
Abdul Haris Mustari
Full Text Available Tarsius fuscus was reported to occur in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park and its adjacent areas. For effective conservation, a detailed knowledge of the habitat requirements and preferences of the species is needed. The presence of Tarsius fuscus population and its habitat characteristics in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park are not clearly known. The habitat quality and space have been decreasing due to the increasing human activities. This study was carried out in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park at three different sites including Pute, Parang Tembo and Pattunuang forest blocks from Desember 2009 to Pebruari 2010. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the existence of Tarsius fuscus and its habitat characteristics, and to determine habitat preferences of Tarsius fuscus in the study area. The results showed that Tarsius fuscus was found at 75 m – 360 masl from flat to steep topography with slope gradient varied from 0% to 25%. Plant diversity was significantly different in each location, with the highest density was in Pute. Based on the Neu Index Parang Tembo was more preferred than two other habitats. The distribution patterns of insects at the three different habitats were clumped, yet abundance of insects was highest in Pattunuang. Keyword: habitat characteristics, habitat preferences, Tarsius fuscus
Valdez, Ernest W.; Ritzi, Christopher M.; Whitaker, John O.
Only a single previous study has examined ectoparasites of the occult bat (Myotis occultus), from which only 2 species of fleas were identified. For our study, we examined 202 individuals, 52 fresh hosts and 150 museum specimens, from New Mexico and southern Colorado for ectoparasites. We recorded 2158 ectoparasites, 634 from fresh hosts and 1524 from museum specimens. Ectoparasites belonged to 10 families and 13 genera of insect or acari and represent new host and locality records. In general, ectoparasites collected from fresh hosts and museum specimens were represented by 4 major species of mite: Macronyssus crosbyi, Alabidocarpus calcaratus, Acanthophthirius lucifugus, and Alabidocarpus nr. eptesicus. From our study, we found fresh hosts to have significantly greater prevalence values for Myodopsylla gentilis (flea), Chiroptonyssus robustipes (mite), and Leptotrombidium myotis (chigger), whereas museum specimens had significantly greater prevalence values for A. calcaratus(mite) and A. nr. eptesicus (mite). There were no significant differences between prevalence values for 4 mites including M. crosbyi, A. lucifugus, Pteracarus nr. minutus, and Cryptonyssussp. Our study represents the only extensive study of ectoparasites on M. occultus and provides evidence for the importance of examining fresh hosts and museum specimens in future ectoparasite studies.
Zukal, Jan; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonicka, Tomas; Berkova, Hana; Brack, Virgil; Brichta, Jiri; Dolinay, Matej; Jaron, Kamil S; Kovacova, Veronika; Kovarik, Miroslav; Martínková, Natália; Ondracek, Karel; Rehak, Zdenek; Turner, Gregory G; Pikula, Jiri
Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS), in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.
Full Text Available Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS, in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.
Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.
Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney
Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.
Márcio da Silva Araújo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The main of this research was to report an atypical foraging behavior in a colony of Trachymyrmex fuscus, situated in "Cerrado" (savanna ecoregion of Goiás, Brazil. The colony foraging activity was performed only by sexual caste. Comparison of the foraging rhythm of this colony with another of the same specie where foraging was performed only by worker caste, showed that working time hours were very similar. After observations on the foraging behavior, both colonies were excavated in order to characterize them (nest size, population composition and estimating of the symbiotic fungus volume. Besides the foraging activity performed only by sexual females, other important observations were highlighted in that colony: low number of workers, presence of worker larvae and pupae (45 and 43 respectively and apparently normal growth of the symbiotic fungus. Our hypothesis is that sexual females were in charge of the entire colony maintenance. This could be a strategy of colony survival when the worker caste is reduced.
Full Text Available The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one of the ponds 13 years after its first finding in the area. This toad is also one of the most threatened species of amphibians in Europe and needs particular attention in order to be protected adequately.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. METHODS: We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection.
Piñero, Carolina; Gury Dohmen, Federico; Beltran, Fernando; Martinez, Leila; Novaro, Laura; Russo, Susana; Palacios, Gustavo; Cisterna, Daniel M.
Background Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. Methods We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. Results Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection. PMID:22590657
Background Lymnaea palustris and L. fuscus are members of the European stagnicolines (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae). The role of stagnicolines in transmission of Fasciola hepatica has been often proposed. To assess the possible relationship between these two stagnicolines and F. hepatica in Sweden, field monitoring in parallel with experimental infections of L. palustris and L. fuscus were conducted. Methods Stagnicoline snails were collected and identified on pastures grazed by either sheep or cattle on four farms suffering from fasciolosis in Sweden during 2011–2012. Field-collected L. palustris and L. fuscus were examined for F. hepatica DNA by PCR. In the laboratory, different age groups of L. palustris, L. fuscus and G. truncatula were each exposed to two F. hepatica miracidia and main infection characteristics were obtained. Results One field-collected L. palustris (out of n = 668) contained F. hepatica as determined by PCR. On the other hand, stagnicolines artificially exposed to F. hepatica miracidia resulted in successful infection with fully differentiated cercariae, but only in juvenile snails (size, 1–2 mm at exposure) and with a prevalence of 51% and 13% in L. palustris and L. fuscus, respectively. In contrast, 90% of juvenile (size, 1–2 mm) and 92% of preadult G. truncatula (size, ≥ 2-4 mm), respectively, were successfully infected. Delayed, reduced and/or no spontaneous cercarial shedding was observed in the two stagnicolines when compared to G. truncatula. However, at snail dissection most cercariae from L. fuscus and L. palustris were able to encyst similarly to those from G. truncatula. Conclusion Both L. fuscus and L. palustris can sustain larval development of F. hepatica but with an apparent level of age resistance. The finding of a single F. hepatica positive specimen of L. palustris, together with infection characteristics from the experimental infection, suggest that L. palustris is a more suitable snail vector of F. hepatica than L
Kothari, Ninad B.; Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Hulgard, Katrine
to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable...... or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained...
Pereira, Armando de Souza; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Barbosa, Taciana Fernandes Souza; Begot, Alberto Lopes; Brito, Roberto Messias Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth Salbé
Rabies is an acute, progressive zoonotic viral infection that in general produces a fatal outcome. This disease is responsible for deaths in humans and animals worldwide and, because it can affect all mammals, is considered one of the most important viral infections for public health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of rabies in bats of different species found in municipalities of the state of Pará from 2005 to 2011. The rabies virus was detected in 12 (0.39%) bats in a total of 3100 analyzed, including hematophagous, frugivorous, and insectivorous bats. Of these, eleven were characterized as AgV3, which is characteristic of the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy 1810); one insectivorous animal showed a different profile compatible with the Eptesicus pattern and may therefore be a new antigenic variant. This study identified the need for greater intensification of epidemiological surveillance in municipalities lacking rabies surveillance (silent areas); studies of rabies virus in bats with different alimentary habits, studies investigating the prevalence of AgV3, and prophylactic measures in areas where humans may be infected are also needed.
Tyson, Chris; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Loon, Van E.E.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Hintzen, N.T.
While seabird-fishery associations are well documented, this research primarily comes from ship-based surveys and consequently individual level responses to discard availability are largely unknown. As part of a long-term study on lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) in the Netherlands, the
Tyson, C.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.E.; Camphuysen, C.J.; Hintzen, N.T.
While seabird-fishery associations are well documented, this research primarily comes from ship-based surveys and consequently individual level responses to discard availability are largely unknown. As part of a long-term study on lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) in the Netherlands, the
Sanin, Camilo; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Maley, James M.; Lijtmaer, Dario A.; Tubaro, Pablo L.; Chesser, R. Terry
The Andes are a hotspot of global avian diversity, but studies on the historical diversification of Andean birds remain relatively scarce. Evolutionary studies on avian lineages with Andean–Patagonian distributions have focused on reconstructing species-level phylogenies, whereas no detailed phylogeographic studies on widespread species have been conducted. Here, we describe phylogeographic patterns in the Bar-winged Cinclodes (Cinclodes fuscus), a widespread and common species of ovenbird (Furnariidae) that breeds from Tierra del Fuego to the northern Andes. Traditionally, C. fuscus has been considered a single species composed of nine subspecies, but its long and narrow range suggests the possibility of considerable genetic variation among populations. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes revealed three discrete and geographically coherent groups of C. fuscus, occupying the southern, central, and northern Andes. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that these groups were more closely related to other species of Cinclodes than to each other. Relationships of the southern and northern C. fuscus clades to other species of Cinclodes were straightforward; in combination with available information on plumage, behavioral, and vocal variation, this suggests that each should be recognized as a distinct biological species. The central Andean group was paraphyletic with respect to C. oustaleti, and relationships among these taxa and C. olrogi were poorly resolved. We suggest that the central Andean C. fuscus should also be considered a different species, pending new information to clarify species limits in this group. These new phylogenetic data, along with recently developed methods, allowed us to review the biogeography of the genus, confirming southern South America and the central Andes as important areas for the diversification of these birds.
Classification. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 13(1): 21-+. SERDP SI-1461 Final Report 23 Dawson, M. R. W., I. Charrier and C. B. Sturdya. 2006... echolocation clicks by energy and frequency distributions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 106(3): 1579-1585. Hyvärinen, A., J. Karhunen...variation in echolocation calls of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus (Chiroptera : Vespertilionidae). Journal of Mammalogy 82(2): 339-351. Kogan, J. A
El tracto reproductivo de la hembra en Crocodylia: Estudio histológico y ultraestructural de Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Alligatoridae) El tracto reproductivo de la hembra en Crocodylia: Estudio histológico y ultraestructural de Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Alligatoridae)
Ramírez Pinilla Martha Patricia; Romero de Pérez Gloria
The histologycal features of the female reproductive system of Caiman crocodilus fuscus are described in this review, inclidung aspects not previously described for other Crocodylia species.Las características histofisiológicas del sistema reproductor femenino de Caiman crocodilus fuscus es descrito en esta revisión, algunos caracteres del sistema reproductor no descritos en otras especies de Crocodylia, son comentados.
Gloria Romero de Pérez
Full Text Available The histologycal features of the female reproductive system of Caiman crocodilus fuscus are described in this review, inclidung aspects not previously described for other Crocodylia species.
Yongquan Zhou; Jian Xie; Liangliang Li; Mingzhi Ma
Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformati...
Kakazu, Sérgio [UNESP; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F.B. [UNESP
Color patterns are strongly related to defensive strategies in anurans. Some anurans present more than one morphotype. Leptodactylus fuscus, for example, present two morphotypes (with and without vertebral white line). The proportion of each pattern in nature is different, whereby there are always more individuals without stripes. Therefore, we speculated if this difference in the observed color pattern is due to unequal predation pressures (i.e. stronger over the striped morphotype), and/or ...
Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi
Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: "bats approach their prey." Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization.
Full Text Available Bat algorithm (BA is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: “bats approach their prey.” Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization.
Spoelstra, Kamiel; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Ramakers, Jip J C; Ferguson, Kim B; Raap, Thomas; Donners, Maurice; Veenendaal, Elmar M; Visser, Marcel E
Artificial light at night has shown a remarkable increase over the past decades. Effects are reported for many species groups, and include changes in presence, behaviour, physiology and life-history traits. Among these, bats are strongly affected, and how bat species react to light is likely to vary with light colour. Different spectra may therefore be applied to reduce negative impacts. We used a unique set-up of eight field sites to study the response of bats to three different experimental light spectra in an otherwise dark and undisturbed natural habitat. We measured activity of three bat species groups around transects with light posts emitting white, green and red light with an intensity commonly used to illuminate countryside roads. The results reveal a strong and spectrum-dependent response for the slow-flying Myotis and Plecotus and more agile Pipistrellus species, but not for Nyctalus and Eptesicus species. Plecotus and Myotis species avoided white and green light, but were equally abundant in red light and darkness. The agile, opportunistically feeding Pipistrellus species were significantly more abundant around white and green light, most likely because of accumulation of insects, but equally abundant in red illuminated transects compared to dark control. Forest-dwelling Myotis and Plecotus species and more synanthropic Pipistrellus species are thus least disturbed by red light. Hence, in order to limit the negative impact of light at night on bats, white and green light should be avoided in or close to natural habitat, but red lights may be used if illumination is needed. © 2017 The Author(s).
Greenhall, Arthur M.
The soundest long-term solution for the management of bats that enter buildings and cause a nuisance problem or present a public health hazard is by batproofing the structure. Chemical toxicants do not solve house bat problems and may create worse ones. This manual describes batproofing techniques that will provide effective and acceptable alternatives for dealing with house bat problems and hazards. Recent declines in bat populations and greater appreciation of the ecological importance of bats have identified the need for sound management strategies that will encourage bat conservation while protecting human health and solving nuisance problems. One of the best deterrents against house bats is to improve the energy efficiency of the structure since bats may enter holes through which heat is lost. Heat conservation methods used for batproofing will also be eligible for Federal residential energy tax credits. The manual should be useful to homeowners, public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, conservationists, and others interested or concerned about bat interactions with humans.
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze whether Microtus fuscus in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau can be used as an animal model for Echinococcus infection. MethodsSixty wild voles (Microtus fuscus were equally divided into groups A, B, and C to undergo Echinococcus inoculation through subcutaneous injection, direct transhepatic approach, and percutaneous transhepatic approach, respectively. Three months later, the infection rate and mortality rate were determined. After the model animals were sacrificed, HE staining was performed for the infiltration zone of lesion (2-3 mm near the lesion, the area adjacent to the lesion and 50% of the lesion, the center of lesion (non-liquefied area, the liquefied area of lesion, the margin of lesion (not including the normal tissue, and 70% of the lesion, and the pathological structures of hydatid lesions were observed under a microscope. Protoscoleces were extracted from the lesions for in vitro culture. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. ResultsThe success rate of Echinococcus infection in groups A, B, and C were 60%, 80%, and 70%, respectively, with no significant difference between the three groups (χ2=4.138, P=0.126. The mortality rates of groups A, B, and C were 5%, 20%, and 15%, respectively, with no significant difference between the three groups (χ2=5.201, P=0.107. HE staining showed that the red-stained vesicles had thin, discontinuous cuticular layers, with massive inflammatory cell infiltration around the vesicles; no protoscoleces were observed in all sections. After in vitro culture and staining of the lesion tissue, a large number of live protoscoleces were observed, unstained and with motility. ConclusionThis study confirms that Microtus fuscus, an endemic species in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, can be used as an animal model for Echinococcus infection. Subcutaneous injection is an appropriate method for Echinococcus inoculation.
Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam
In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (∼90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436
Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission. Created: 11/8/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 11/17/2006.
Richard K. B. Jenkins and Paul A. Racey
Dec 1, 2008 ... preferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The national hunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitable hunting practices and high offtake represent a serious threat to bat populations in some areas. Bat bushmeat may be an important source of protein for Malagasy people during ...
Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Paiz, Laís Moraes; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio
Bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in the Americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. Antigenic and genetic studies of RABV isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. This study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 RABV isolates from central nervous system samples of non-hematophagous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera). These bats were diagnosed as RABV positive by direct fluorescent antibody and mouse inoculation tests. Antigenic characterization using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies revealed that 7 of 19 RABV isolates from these bats belonged to variant 3, for which the hematophagous bat species Desmodus rotundus is the main reservoir, and 1 of 19 RABV isolates from an insectivorous bat belonged to variant 4, which is characteristic of these bats. The remaining 11 RABV samples were divided into six non-compatible profiles. The isolates were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the N gene and partially sequenced. Genetic characterization of these isolates was performed by grouping the sequences obtained with known RABV lineages. The sequences were grouped in clusters by the phylogenetic inference neighbor-joining method, together with another 89 homologous sequences obtained from GenBank. This analysis grouped the isolates into four known lineages: Nyctinomops Brazil, Myotis Brazil, Eptesicus Brazil and D. rotundus Brazil, as well as another cluster that may define a RABV lineage not yet characterized, here named Myotis Brazil II, for which bats of the genus Myotis apparently act as reservoirs. This assumption of a new lineage is also based on the observation of amino acid substitutions, with an average intraspecific identity of 99.8%, varying from 99.6 to 100.0% for nucleotides and 100
Stephanie E. Trapp; Winston P. Smith; Elizabeth A. Flaherty
A history of timber harvest in West Virginia has reduced red spruce (Picea rubens) forests to < 10% of their historic range and resulted in considerable habitat fragmentation for wildlife species associated with these forests. The Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) has been described as a red...
CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset includes towns that contain documented hibernacula or summer range occupied by federally endangered Indiana bats. Survey data used to create this...
... genetic information. Reassortment can sometimes lead to the emergence of new flu viruses capable of infecting humans. Yellow-shouldered ... important for public health because bats represent a new animal species that may act as a source of flu ...
Pütz, Klemens; Rahbek, Carsten; Saurola, Pertti
of the other subspecies. In addition, first-year birds from cross-breeding experiments between the two subspecies (fuscus x intermedius) were also equipped with satellite transmitters. In total, eleven first-year birds were successfully tracked during their initial autumn migration, at least one from each...... study group. First-year birds from the Danish intermedius subspecies migrated either southwest along the coast of the North Sea or through central Europe to Algeria. By contrast, first-year birds from the Finnish fuscus subspecies migrated on a south-southeastern course towards Ukraine and the Bosporus......The migratory behaviour of two Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus subspecies, fuscus and intermedius, was studied using satellite telemetry. To this end, first-year birds were equipped with satellite transmitters and released either at their natal site, or after transferring to a breeding site...
Ramírez Martha Patricia; Bahamón Vanegas Ramiro Elduardo; Romero de Pérez Gloria
Se describe la histología del oviducto de 27 hembras de Caiman crocodilus fuscusdurante tresetapas del ciclo reproductivo anual (previtelogénesis, vitelogénesis y gravidez) por microscopíaóptica de alta resolución (MOAR) y, en algunas regiones, por microscopía electrónica detransmisión (MET). Con ayuda de pruebas histoquímicas (ácido peryódico de Schiff P.A.S. yazul de Alcian A.A., pH 2,4), se aproxima la función de cada una de las regiones. El oviductode C. c. fuscuses un órgano pareado, fun...
Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.
The project objective was to advance the development and testing of an Near commercial bat-deterrent system with a goal to increase the current GE deterrent system effectiveness to over 50% with broad species applicability. Additionally, the research supported by this program has provided insights into bat behavior and ultrasonic deterrent design that had not previously been explored. Prior research and development had demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial-grade, air-powered, ultrasonic bat deterrent to be between 30-50% depending upon the species of bat. However, the previous research provided limited insight into the behavioral responses of bats in the presence of ultrasonic deterrent sound fields that could be utilized to improve effectiveness. A unique bat flight room was utilized to observe the behavioral characteristics of bats in the presence of ultrasonic sound fields. Behavioral testing in the bat flight facility demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds similar to those produced by the GE deterrent influenced the activities and behaviors, primarily those associated with foraging, of the species exposed. The study also indicated that continuous and pulsing ultrasonic signals had a similar effect on the bats, and confirmed that as ultrasonic sounds attenuate, their influence on the bats’ activities and behavior decreases. Ground testing at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC and Shawnee National Forest assessed both continuous and pulsing deterrent signals emitted from the GE deterrent system and further enhanced the behavioral understanding of bats in the presence of the deterrent. With these data and observations, the existing 4-nozzle continuous, or steady, emission ultrasonic system was redesigned to a 6-nozzle system that could emit a pulsing signal covering a larger air space around a turbine. Twelve GE 1.6-100 turbines were outfitted with the deterrent system and a formal three-month field study was performed using daily carcass searches beneath the 12
... Rabies Day Rabies and Kids! Rabies Learning about bats and rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... areas where they might contact people and pets. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies ...
Stone, Emma Louise; Wakefield, Andrew; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth
Artificial light at night is a major feature of anthropogenic global change and is increasingly recognized as affecting biodiversity, often negatively. On a global scale, newer technology white lights are replacing orange sodium lights to reduce energy waste. In 2009, Cornwall County Council (UK) commenced replacement of existing low-pressure sodium (LPS) high intensity discharge (HID) street lights with new Phillips CosmoPolis white ceramic metal halide street lights to reduce energy wastage. This changeover provided a unique collaborative opportunity to implement a before-after-control-impact field experiment to investigate the ecological effects of newly installed broad spectrum light technologies. Activity of the bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus and Nyctalus/Eptesicus spp. was significantly higher at metal halide than LPS lights, as found in other studies of bat activity at old technology (i.e. mercury vapour) white light types. No significant difference was found in feeding attempts per bat pass between light types, though more passes overall were recorded at metal halide lights. Species-specific attraction of bats to the metal halide lights could have cascading effects at lower trophic levels. We highlight the need for further research on possible ecosystem-level effects of light technologies before they are installed on a wide scale. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.
Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered pu...
Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P.; Szentiványi, Tamara; Földvári, Mihály; Sándor, Attila D.; Barti, Levente; Camacho, Jasmin J.; Gort, Gerrit; Estók, Péter; Hiller, Thomas; Dick, Carl W.; Pfister, Donald H.
Background: Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own
Schatz, J.; Fooks, A.R.; McElhinney, L.M.; Horton, D.; Echevarria, J.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Kooi, E.A.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Müller, T.; Freuling, C.
Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered
Sonntag, Michael; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun
We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats. PMID:19961700
Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recover many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool
Background High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. Conclusion The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations, coming from parents infected with this parasite, resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence and intensity of snail infection. This may explain high prevalence of fasciolosis noted in several cattle-breeding farms when the common snail host of this digenean, G. truncatula, is lacking. PMID:24986589
Full Text Available Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation.
on advertisement to take products to the doorsteps of potential consumers. Consequently, local and ... ideation, encoding and presentation of visual information to target audiences in a way that breaks cultural bounds and ... BAT realises the importance of cultural attributes in ads in such a culture sensitive environment like ...
Simmons, Nancy B; Seymour, Kevin L; Habersetzer, Jörg; Gunnell, Gregg F
Laryngeal echolocation, used by most living bats to form images of their surroundings and to detect and capture flying prey, is considered to be a key innovation for the evolutionary success of bats, and palaeontologists have long sought osteological correlates of echolocation that can be used to infer the behaviour of fossil bats. Veselka et al. argued that the most reliable trait indicating echolocation capabilities in bats is an articulation between the stylohyal bone (part of the hyoid apparatus that supports the throat and larynx) and the tympanic bone, which forms the floor of the middle ear. They examined the oldest and most primitive known bat, Onychonycteris finneyi (early Eocene, USA), and argued that it showed evidence of this stylohyal-tympanic articulation, from which they concluded that O. finneyi may have been capable of echolocation. We disagree with their interpretation of key fossil data and instead argue that O. finneyi was probably not an echolocating bat.
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.
Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.
Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley
We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.
Clark, Donald R.
Although the boom days of prospectors and gold nuggets are long gone, modern technology enables gold to continue to be extracted from ore. Unfortunately, the extraction method has often been disastrous for bats and other wildlife, an issue I first became aware of in early 1989. Phone calls from Drs. Merlin Tuttle and Elizabeth Pierson, a BCI member and bat researcher from Berkeley, California, alerted me that bats were dying from apparent cyanide poisoning at gold mines in the western United States.
Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip
Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested.
Caracterização de ninhos e atividade forrageadora de Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em plantio de eucalipto Caracterization of nest and foraging activity of Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Eucalyptus stand
Márcio Silva Araújo
Full Text Available Seven nests of T. fuscus Emery, 1834 have been studied for their structure. These nests, which opened at the soil surface, had two to four chambers located one above the other. Externally all of these nests presented a heap of brownish-yellow debris that was constituted basically by remains of vegetable material. The total nest population was, on average, 1,048 individuais. The diel pattern of foraging of this species was studied for four consecuti ve months on two nests. This activity occurred predominantly in the night period, and the workers transported, mainly, dry vegetation to the nest.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.
Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispers......Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants...... and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any...... interested individuals committed to a better understanding of the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the unique adaptations of bats. Our aim is to catalog the unique genetic diversity present in all living bats to better understand the molecular basis of their unique adaptations; uncover...
Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.
Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren
Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.
The fine structure of the ears of 62 species of bats from 13 families has been studied by means of serial sections. The bats were caught alive in Britain, West Indies, Panama, Central and North Africa and were intra-vitally perfused with fixative in order to obtain perfect preservation of the
Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar
Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam
Eggert, C.; Cogalniceanu, D.; Veith, M.K.H.; Dzukic, G.; Taberlet, P.
Populations of the European Spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus) have experienced recent declines all over Europe, but these appear to be more intense in north and western Europe. Due to the toad's fossorial nature and specific habitat requirements, environmental conditions have played a major role in
Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.
A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329
Swartz, S. M; Breuer, K. S
Bats fly with astounding agility, maneuverability and efficiency. Their flight mechanics are completely different from those of insects and birds and characterized by several unique aeromechanical features including: (1...
Theodore L. Turocy
This paper applies the theory of zero-sum stochastic games to assess the validity of baseball's ancient wisdom that batting last confers a strategic advantage. Results from numerical calculation of Markov perfect equilibrium suggest that the team that bats last will have an advantage if in fact the offense has, in some sense, more useful strategic actions available than the defense. An example is provided where the advantage depends on details of the teams playing. Regardless of which team ha...
Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw
Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344
Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian
Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human-bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011-2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human-bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse.
Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P
Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.
Full Text Available Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD. BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.
Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xuan; Mu, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong
Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD). BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.
Crisco, Joseph J; Osvalds, Nikolas J; Rainbow, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed. Throughout the swing, the force applied to the bat was dominated by a component aligned with the long axis of the bat and directed away from the bat knob, while the moment applied to the bat was minimal until just prior to ball impact. These results indicate that players act to mostly "pull" the bat during their swing until just prior to ball impact, at which point they rapidly increase the moment on the bat. This kinetic analysis provides novel insight into the forces and moments used to swing baseball bats.
Ramiro Elduardo Bahamón Vanegas
Full Text Available Se describe la histología del oviducto de 27 hembras de Caiman crocodilus fuscusdurante tresetapas del ciclo reproductivo anual (previtelogénesis, vitelogénesis y gravidez por microscopíaóptica de alta resolución (MOAR y, en algunas regiones, por microscopía electrónica detransmisión (MET. Con ayuda de pruebas histoquímicas (ácido peryódico de Schiff P.A.S. yazul de Alcian A.A., pH 2,4, se aproxima la función de cada una de las regiones. El oviductode C. c. fuscuses un órgano pareado, funcional, en forma de tubo muy contorneado. Desdeel extremo proximal al caudal se reconocen histológicamente las siguientes regiones:infundíbulo anterior, infundíbulo posterior, tubo, transición tubo-útero anterior, úteroanterior, útero posterior y vagina. Tres capas conforman la pared del oviducto: una externade revestimiento (serosa con células cúbicas bajas que no presentan cambios significativosa lo largo del ciclo reproductivo, una capa muscular longitudinal externa y circular internaque cambian según el estado reproductivo y la región, y una capa mucosa más interna. Lamucosa se hipertrofia en vitelogénesis y gravidez y está revestida por cuatro tipos de células:ciliadas, no ciliadas y secretoras PAS y AA positivas las cuales producen mucosubstanciasácidas o neutras que pueden lubricar la superficie de la mucosa y/o tomar parte de huevoen formación. Glándulas tubulares simples se encuentran en la mucosa del tubo y úteroanterior, presentan actividad secretora (PAS y AA negativa durante todo el ciclo y se ramifican en vitelogénesis y gravidez. En el útero posterior hay glándulas tubulares simples sinevidencia de secreción, las células glandulares son similares a las células del útero poste-rior de Alligator mississippiensisy a las células que transportan iones y material el dilución deloviducto de las aves (Gallus domesticus; estas glándulas no se describen en el oviducto de otrosreptiles y al parecer son únicas de
Full Text Available La isla de San Andrés, en el Caribe colombiano, es una reserva de la biosfera yuna región de gran importancia biológica y cultural. Su fauna y su flora cuentan,sin embargo, con algunas especies consideradas como introducciones recientes yvoluntarias, que no han sido estudiadas y cuyos efectos deben ser evaluados conprontitud. Las babillas, Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Cope 1868, fueron introducidasa la isla en los años setenta y no se había realizado ningún trabajo previo sobre suecología en la región. En este trabajo se ubicaron las diferentes localidades dondeC. c. fuscus está presente durante la época seca en San Andrés, se estimaron losíndices de abundancia por localidad por medio de censos nocturnos, y se realizó unestudio de su dieta usando la metodología de extracción de contenidos estomacales.También se observó la relación de la comunidad isleña con la especie. El estudiose realizó durante los meses de marzo a junio del 2002, en la temporada seca.La especie fue encontrada en cuatro lagunas de agua dulce permanentes, conabundancias locales de 8, 17, 34 y 22 individuos, y no fue encontrado ninguno en losmanglares. Se capturaron veinte individuos y sus contenidos estomacales mostraronque consumen coleópteros, ortópteros, otros insectos, miriápodos, cangrejos, pecesy aves. El elemento que apareció con mayor frecuencia fue el coleóptero del géneroHydrophilus. Las babillas son utilizadas por la comunidad con fines turísticos y nose observó una explotación o extracción de animales.
With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to
Jones, Gareth; Teeling, Emma C
Recent molecular phylogenies have changed our perspective on the evolution of echolocation in bats. These phylogenies suggest that certain bats with sophisticated echolocation (e.g. horseshoe bats) share a common ancestry with non-echolocating bats (e.g. Old World fruit bats). One interpretation of these trees presumes that laryngeal echolocation (calls produced in the larynx) probably evolved in the ancestor of all extant bats. Echolocation might have subsequently been lost in Old World fruit bats, only to evolve secondarily (by tongue clicking) in this family. Remarkable acoustic features such as Doppler shift compensation, whispering echolocation and nasal emission of sound each show multiple convergent origins in bats. The extensive adaptive radiation in echolocation call design is shaped largely by ecology, showing how perceptual challenges imposed by the environment can often override phylogenetic constraints.
Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…
Bats are eaten by people throughout Madagascar and although the larger species like Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum, Rousettus madagascariensis and Hipposideros commersoni are preferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The national hunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitable
Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; e Silva, Kylvia Rocha de Castro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; de Araújo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa
To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.
Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa
To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.
O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?
Nelio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.
Kawahara, Akito Y; Barber, Jesse R
The bat-moth arms race has existed for over 60 million y, with moths evolving ultrasonically sensitive ears and ultrasound-producing organs to combat bat predation. The evolution of these defenses has never been thoroughly examined because of limitations in simultaneously conducting behavioral and phylogenetic analyses across an entire group. Hawkmoths include >1,500 species worldwide, some of which produce ultrasound using genital stridulatory structures. However, the function and evolution of this behavior remain largely unknown. We built a comprehensive behavioral dataset of hawkmoth hearing and ultrasonic reply to sonar attack using high-throughput field assays. Nearly half of the species tested (57 of 124 species) produced ultrasound to tactile stimulation or playback of bat echolocation attack. To test the function of ultrasound, we pitted big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) against hawkmoths over multiple nights and show that hawkmoths jam bat sonar. Ultrasound production was immediately and consistently effective at thwarting attack and bats regularly performed catching behavior without capturing moths. We also constructed a fossil-calibrated, multigene phylogeny to study the evolutionary history and divergence times of these antibat strategies across the entire family. We show that ultrasound production arose in multiple groups, starting in the late Oligocene (∼ 26 Ma) after the emergence of insectivorous bats. Sonar jamming and bat-detecting ears arose twice, independently, in the Miocene (18-14 Ma) either from earless hawkmoths that produced ultrasound in response to physical contact only, or from species that did not respond to touch or bat echolocation attack.
Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.
Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.
José A. Langone
Full Text Available The larvae of Leptodactylus gracilis (D’Orbigny y Bibron, 1840 and L. mystacinus Bumeister, 1861 are re-described and compared with previous descriptions noting intraspecific variation in oral disccharacteristics (arrangement of papillae and rows of cornified teeth. The external morphological analysis of larvae of the Leptodactylus fuscus group suggest that the lack of comparable descriptions among species, as well as the lack of analyses of theirintraspecific variation, limits the use of larval characteristics for diagnostic purposes.
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkl?v, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie
The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acou...
Luis E. Escobar
Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.
Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie
The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm...... and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats...... will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency...
One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship for batting coaches is to teach junior cricketers to play using a straight bat. This requires the bat to be lifted directly towards the stumps with the bat face facing downwards. No study has yet examined whether there are differences in the batting back lift techniques (BTT) of ...
Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M; Ray, David A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Myers, Eugene
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene. Despite their great numbers and diversity, many species are threatened and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any interested individuals committed to a better understanding of the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the unique adaptations of bats. Our aim is to catalog the unique genetic diversity present in all living bats to better understand the molecular basis of their unique adaptations; uncover their evolutionary history; link genotype with phenotype; and ultimately better understand, promote, and conserve bats. Here we review the unique adaptations of bats and highlight how chromosome-level genome assemblies can uncover the molecular basis of these traits. We present a novel sequencing and assembly strategy and review the striking societal and scientific benefits that will result from the Bat1K initiative.
Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses. Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 6/2/2014.
Jan Felix Drexler
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.
Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A
Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank
Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.
Bats in agroecosystems around California's Central Coast: A full quarter of California's land area is farmland. Crops account for 32.5 billion of California's GDP. Insect control is a big problem for farmers, and California bats eat only insects, saving farmers an estimated 3 to $53 billion a year. As farmers maximize crop yield, they use more pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which contaminate runoff streams that bats drink from. Also, pesticide use kills bats' sole food source: insects. My research objective was to find out how farm management practices and landscape complexity affect bat diversity and activity, and to see which one affects bat activity more. We monitored 18 sites, including conventional, organic, and low and high-complexity landscapes. We noted more bat activity at sites with high complexity landscapes and organic practices than at sites with either low-complexity landscapes or conventional farming practices. I captured and processed bats and recorded data. I also classified insects collected from light traps. I learned how to handle bats and measure forearm length and weight, as well as how to indentify their gender. I took hair clippings and fecal samples, which yield data about the bats' diet. Their diet, in turn, gives us data about which pests they eat and therefore help control. I also learned about bats' echolocation: they have a special muscle over their ears that closes when they echolocate so that they don't burst their own eardrum. Also, some insects have evolved a special call that will disrupt bats echolocation so bats can't track it.
Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro; Mattoni, Camilo Iván; Mola, Liliana María
All cytogenetically studied scorpions present male achiasmatic meiosis and lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In contrast, information about female meiosis in scorpions is scarce due to the difficulty of finding meiotic cells. The genus Zabius includes three described species and no chromosome studies have been performed on it until now. We analyzed the constitutive heterochromatin distribution, NORs and telomeric sequences in mitosis and meiosis of males and females of different populations of Zabius fuscus. All specimens presented 2n = 18 holokinetic chromosomes that gradually decreased in size. Male meiosis presented nine bivalents and a polymorphism for one reciprocal translocation in one population. Telomeric signals were detected at every terminal region, confirming also the presence of a (TTAGG) n motif in Buthidae. Constitutive heterochromatin was found in three chromosome pairs at a terminal region; moreover, NORs were embedded in the heterochromatic region of the largest pair. Chromosome size and landmarks allowed us to propose the chromosomes involved in the rearrangement. In four females, cells at different prophase I stages were analyzed. We describe a diffuse stage and the presence of ring-shaped bivalents. We discuss the possible origin of these bivalents in the framework of chiasmatic or achiasmatic female meiosis. These results contribute to increase the scarce evidence of female meiosis in scorpions and raise new questions about its mechanism.
Full Text Available Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five remnant urban populations of dusky salamanders in NYC. These genetic measures provide information on isolation, prevalence of inbreeding, long-term prospects for population persistence, and potential for evolutionary responses to future environmental change. All populations were genetically differentiated from each other, and the most isolated populations in Manhattan have maintained very little genetic variation (i.e. <20% heterozygosity. A majority of the populations also exhibited evidence of genetic bottlenecks. These findings contrast with published estimates of high genetic variation within and lack of structure between populations of other desmognathine salamanders sampled over similar or larger spatial scales. Declines in genetic variation likely resulted from population extirpations and the degradation of stream and terrestrial paths for dispersal in NYC. Loss of genetic variability in populations isolated by human development may be an underappreciated cause and/or consequence of the decline of this species in urbanized areas of the northeast USA.
Hiller, Thomas; Honner, Benjamin; Page, Rachel A; Tschapka, Marco
Bat flies (Streblidae) are diverse, obligate blood-feeding insects and probably the most conspicuous ectoparasites of bats. They show preferences for specific body regions on their host bat, which are reflected in behavioural characteristics. In this study, we corroborate the categorization of bat flies into three ecomorphological groups, focusing only on differences in hind leg morphology. As no detailed phylogeny of bat flies is available, it remains uncertain whether these morphological differences reflect the evolutionary history of bat flies or show convergent adaptations for the host habitat type. We show that the division of the host bat into three distinct habitats contributes to the avoidance of interspecific competition of bat fly species. Finally, we found evidence for density-dependent competition between species belonging to the same ecomorphological group.
Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon
Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.
Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse
Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the 'terminal buzz', has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s(-1). The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies...... its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase-buzz II-defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F(0)) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field...... tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects....
Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.
Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of
Roger W. Perry
Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...
Roger W. Perry
Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...
M. Brock FENTON
Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two), echolocation (12), roosting (six), reproduction (two) and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively), some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g....
Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C
Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.
Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer
Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
McGuiness, F. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Resources; Stewart, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada). Wildlife Section
None of the 8 species of bats in Ontario are considered as species at risk. However, all bats in Ontario are protected under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is responsible for identifying significant wildlife habitat for bats, including hibernacula and maternity roosts. The MNR's role in wind development includes environmental assessments (EA) and surveys. The MNR bat guideline includes a summary of Ontario species, a literature review of research related to wind turbines and bats, and a review of methods for assessing and monitoring bats. Guideline development includes a bat working group responsible for obtaining data on risk factors and monitoring requirements. The MNR has determined that site selection is critical for minimizing potential impacts. Wind farm proponents can use MNR data, information, and maps for their site selection process. Information requirements include bat species data; habitat data; and meteorological data. The presence of risk factors results in a sensitivity rating. The MNR is also developing a site sensitivity mapping project in order to assist proponents in making siting decisions. All proposed sites are required to conduct pre-construction site surveys. Acoustic detectors and radar are used to determine bat activity at the site. Monitoring and mitigation strategies include selective wind turbine shutdown during key periods or weather conditions. tabs., figs.
Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.
This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;
Occurrence, biology and behavior of Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Ocorrência, biologia e comportamento de Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae em Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil
Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues
Full Text Available Due to the importance of some Pleurosticti Scarabaeidae as agricultural pests allied to information absence on the species that occur in Brazilian Central-West region, on studies occurrence, biology and behavior on this group of scarabs were conducted. Biology and behavioral studies started with Liogenys fuscus Blanchard, 1850 (Melolonthinae, a very common species and were developed in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. Adult beetles were collected from light traps from February 2005 to January 2007, at the experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul in Aquidauana (UEMS. In the laboratory adults were placed in plastic containers with soil with sprouts of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Poaceae. Eggs were transferred to a climatized chamber at 26 ± 1º C with a 12hourlight, 12hour darkness photoperiod cycle. Adult flight activity occurred in August and in September to December from 06:00 pm to 06:00 am, with the largest number of individuals flying from 07:00 to 10:00 pm. Eggs measured 1 x 1.5 mm and were laid individually or in groups in soil chambers; eggs were initially white and became yellow near hatching. The embryonic period lasted 14.3 days; first, second and third instars lasted 28.5, 48.8, and 68.2 days, respectively. The prepupal period lasted 120.2 days and the prepupa stayed inactive in soil. The mean duration of pupal stage was 27.5 days and the mean longevity of adults was 23.6 days. In laboratory the calling behavior between males and females was observed; copulation lasted, in mean, 25 minutes.Devido à importância de alguns Scarabaeidae Pleurosticti como causadores de danos à agricultura, aliada à ausência de informações sobre as espécies que ocorrem na região Centro Oeste, foram desenvolvidos estudos sobre a ocorrência, biologia e comportamento sobre este grupo de escarabeídeos. Foram iniciados com Liogenys fuscus Blanchard, 1850 (Melolonthinae, espécie muito comum em Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul
Biologia reprodutiva do peixe-donzela, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, em arrecifes rochosos no nordeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the damselfish, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, in the coastal rocky reefs of northeastern Brazil
Liliane de L. G. Souza
Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva do peixe-donzela, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, 1830 (Perciforemes, Pomacentridae, foi estudada nos arrecifes rochosos da praia de Búzios, Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente, medidos, pesados, dissecados, as gônadas foram removidas, pesadas e examinadas para identificação do sexo. Avaliação macroscópica dos estádios de maturação gonadal foi realizada. Um total de 549 exemplares foi capturado durante o período de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005. Foi registrada uma maior freqüência de fêmeas (78%, em relação aos machos (22%. Foi observado que 50% da população das fêmeas e dos machos iniciaram o processo de maturação gonadal com comprimento de 6,2 cm e 7,0 cm, respectivamente. Em relação à fecundidade absoluta, o número de ovócitos vitelogênicos variou entre 1790 a 14780, com média de 6832. A análise da relação gonadossomática para ambos os sexos indicou que o período de fevereiro a agosto de 2005 foi associado a um longo período de repouso gonadal. Os peixes foram considerados aptos à reprodução a partir de janeiro e em setembro-outubro com dois picos de desova registrados nesses meses, com desova do tipo parcelada. Cinco estádios de maturação gonadal foram identificados através de análises macroscópicas das gônadas: imaturo, em maturação, maduro, esgotado e repouso.Reproductive biology of the damselfish, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, 1830 (Perciformes: Pomacentridae, was studied in the coastal rocky reefs of Búzios Beach, Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The fish were captured on a monthly basis, and were measured, weighed, dissected and the gonads were removed, weighed and examined in order to separate males and females. Macroscopic characterization of the stages of gonadal maturation was carried out. A total of 549 samples were captured from October 2004 to September 2005. A higher frequency of females (78% was registered
Reproductive biology of Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae in the subtropical climate, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva de Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae em clima subtropical, Rio Grande de Sul
Franciéle P. Maragno
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize, for the central region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, the reproductive biology of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799, based on the analysis of gonadal development of males and females, reproductive effort, size-fecundity relationships, and occurrence of sexual dimorphism in body size. Mature individuals were found from October 1996 to February 1997 and from October 1997 to December 1997. The highest input of juveniles in the population was recorded in March 1997. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of mature individuals and the mean monthly temperature. The population did not present sexual dimorphism in size. Males presented significant correlation only between snout-vent length and testes length. All females had oocytes at four different maturation stages and there were no significant correlations regarding size-fecundity variables. The correlation between ovarian size factor and females snout-vent length was not significant either. The main difference between this population and those that inhabit tropical climate was that temperature was responsible for stimulating the reproduction activity, instead of rainfall.O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar, para a região central do Rio Grande do Sul, a biologia reprodutiva de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 a partir da análise do desenvolvimento gonadal de machos e fêmeas, esforço reprodutivo, relações de tamanho-fecundidade e existência de dimorfismo sexual em relação ao tamanho corporal. Indivíduos maduros foram encontrados de outubro/1996 a fevereiro/1997 e outubro/1997 a dezembro/1997. Em março de 1997, houve o maior acréscimo de indivíduos jovens na população. Houve correlação positiva e significativa entre o número de indivíduos maduros coletados e a temperatura média mensal. A população não apresentou dimorfismo sexual. Para os machos, houve correlação significativa apenas
M. Brock Fenton
With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000) have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012). Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and dive...
Nokireki, Tiina; Sironen, Tarja; Smura, Teemu; Karkamo, Veera; Sihvonen, Liisa; Gadd, Tuija
European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was detected in Finland in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in the municipality of Inkoo (60°02'45″N, 024°00'20″E). The bat showed neurological signs and was later found dead. The laboratory analysis revealed the presence of lyssavirus, and the virus was characterized as EBLV-2. This isolation of EBLV-2 was the second time that the virus has been detected in a Daubenton's bat in Finland. This provides additional proof that EBLV-2 is endemic in the Finnish Daubenton's bat population.
Adriana Ruckert da Rosa
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This paper presents the first report of rabies in three bat species, Molossus molossus, Molossops neglectus and Myotis riparius in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Bats were diagnosed as positive for rabies using the fluorescent antibody test and mouse inoculation test. The isolates were characterized antigenically using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies. The samples were also genetically analyzed by partial sequencing of the portion of nucleoprotein gene between positions 1157 and 1445nt. RESULTS: Analysis of the results verified that the sample isolated from the species M. molossus presented antigenic variant 6, while the other two samples showed a different profile from that established in the panel, one not previously reported in the literature. The results of genetic analysis revealed that the M. molossus sample segregated with Lasiurus sp. isolates, M. neglectus segregated with a subgroup of Eptesicus furinalis isolates and the Myotis riparius sample segregated with Myotis sp. isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The cases reported in this paper emphasize the need for clarification of the circumstances in which cases of rabies in wildlife occur, principally in urban areas.
Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.
Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666
Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.
Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.
Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic vocalizations and listen to echoes reflected back from objects in the path of the sound beam to build a spatial representation of their surroundings. Important to understanding the representation of space through echolocation are detailed studies of the cues used for localization, the sonar emission patterns and how this information is assembled. This thesis includes three studies, one on the directional properties of the sonar receiver, one on the directional properties of the sonar transmitter, and a model that demonstrates the role of action in building a representation of auditory space. The general importance of this work to a broader understanding of spatial localization is discussed. Investigations of the directional properties of the sonar receiver reveal that interaural level difference and monaural spectral notch cues are both dependent on sound source azimuth and elevation. This redundancy allows flexibility that an echolocating bat may need when coping with complex computational demands for sound localization. Using a novel method to measure bat sonar emission patterns from freely behaving bats, I show that the sonar beam shape varies between vocalizations. Consequently, the auditory system of a bat may need to adapt its computations to accurately localize objects using changing acoustic inputs. Extra-auditory signals that carry information about pinna position and beam shape are required for auditory localization of sound sources. The auditory system must learn associations between extra-auditory signals and acoustic spatial cues. Furthermore, the auditory system must adapt to changes in acoustic input that occur with changes in pinna position and vocalization parameters. These demands on the nervous system suggest that sound localization is achieved through the interaction of behavioral control and acoustic inputs. A sensorimotor model demonstrates how an organism can learn space through auditory-motor contingencies
This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in tidepools. One group is remainers which stay inside the pools during lowtide, while the other is skippers, group of fish that have an ability to move outside water when it’s needed. This research also aimed to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobius fuscus of remainers group and Blenniella cyanostigma of skippers, respectively, were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin then analysed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae is occured as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In Skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capilaries were counted to investigate whether skin can be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analysed using Student’s T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skins showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capilaries compared to remainers skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills. Keywords: gills, intertidal zone, microanatomical structure, skin, remainers, skippers
Cynthia F Moss
Full Text Available To successfully negotiate a complex environment, an animal must control the timing of motor behaviors in coordination with dynamic sensory information. Here, we report on adaptive temporal control of vocal-motor behavior in an echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, as it captured tethered insects close to background vegetation. Recordings of the bat's sonar vocalizations were synchronized with high-speed video images that were used to reconstruct the bat's three-dimensional flight path and the positions of target and vegetation. When the bat encountered the difficult task of taking insects as close as 10-20 cm from the vegetation, its behavior changed significantly from that under open room conditions. Its success rate decreased by about 50%, its time to initiate interception increased by a factor of ten, and its high repetition rate "terminal buzz" decreased in duration by a factor of three. Under all conditions, the bat produced prominent sonar "strobe groups," clusters of echolocation pulses with stable intervals. In the final stages of insect capture, the bat produced strobe groups at a higher incidence when the insect was positioned near clutter. Strobe groups occurred at all phases of the wingbeat (and inferred respiration cycle, challenging the hypothesis of strict synchronization between respiration and sound production in echolocating bats. The results of this study provide a clear demonstration of temporal vocal-motor control that directly impacts the signals used for perception.
Plowright, Raina K.; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L.; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Kung, Nina Y.; McCallum, Hamish
Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474
Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat,. Pipistrellus rusticus. M. van der Merwe. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 20 September 1993; accepled 3 May 1994. Rusty bats are seasonally mono estrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns.
Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo
To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688
Full Text Available The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed whispering can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats’ dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive manoeuvres of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity and directionality of echolocation signals in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat’s perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat’s view of its acoustic scene.
Two research programs investigating bat mortalities at Vision Quest Windelectric's 68 MW Summerview Wind Farm in southern Alberta were reviewed. Field teams discovered 532 bat carcasses during the first year of routine post-construction monitoring at the wind farm. The problem appeared to be confined to the fall migration, with over 90 per cent of mortalities found during the fall. Most collisions occurred on low-wind speed nights. Thermal imaging has shown that the bats collided with moving blades. However, very little is known about the migratory patterns that bring them into contact with the wind farms. Vision Quest has provided funding for a study to examine the echolocation abilities of bats during migration, the influence of weather conditions, the wind speed of bats, and whether or not there is anything about the turbines that attracts them. Preliminary studies have suggested that machines that were on low wind shutdown had fewer collisions. It was anticipated that a comparison between activity levels at Summerview with other wind farms or sites will provide clues about the high levels of collision. In addition to the study, the United States based EcoSystems Technology will track bat behaviour during the fall migration using radar. Alberta Fish and Wildlife is currently developing a set of guidelines for siting and monitoring wind projects and has asked the Alberta Bat Action Team to develop a set of monitoring protocols to help in predicting the risk to bats prior to the construction of wind farms.
Patrick Drane; James Sherwood; Renzo Colosimo; David Kretschmann
Over the span of three months in 2008, 2232 baseball bats broke while being used during Major League Baseball (MLB) games; of which 756 were classified as Multi Piece Failures (MPFs). This rate of failure motivated Major League Baseball to explore options for potential changes in the bat regulations to reduce the rate. After a study of the information that could be...
Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill
We radiotracked nine hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and characterized 12 roosts during late spring and early summer in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas. Hoary bats generally roosted on the easterly sides of tree canopies in the foliage of white oaks (Quercus alba), post oaks (Q. stellata) and shortleaf pines (Pinus...
Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro
Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570
Joshua B. Johnson; W. Mark Ford; Jane L. Rodrigue; John W. Edwards
Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic...
L. Wunder; A.B. Carey
Of the 15 species of bats in the Pacific Northwest, 11 are known to make regular use of the forest canopy for roosting, foraging, and reproduction. This paper reviews roosting requirements, foraging, and the importance of landscape-scale factors to canopy using species in the Northwest. Many northwest bats use several different types of tree roosts. Common roosting...
Kate S. Baker
Full Text Available Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology.
Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.
The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies
Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin
The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321
Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N
Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human - bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to 'rescue' bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat's welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted 'rescue' should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis.
Zhang, Xueyong; Jian, Yingna; Li, Xiuping; Ma, Liqing; Karanis, Gabriele; Karanis, Panagiotis
Cryptosporidium is one of the most important genera of intestinal zoonotic pathogens, which can infect various hosts and cause diarrhoea. There is little available information about the molecular characterisation and epidemiological prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) and Ochotona curzoniae (wild plateau pika) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area of Qinghai Province, Northwest China. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine Cryptosporidium species/genotypes and epidemiological prevalence in these mammals by detecting the SSU rRNA gene by PCR amplification. The Cryptosporidium spp. infection rate was 8.9% (8/90) in Qinghai voles and 6.25% (4/64) in wild plateau pikas. Positive samples were successfully sequenced, and the following Cryptosporidium species were found: C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, C. canis and a novel genotype in Qinghai voles and C. parvum and a novel genotype in wild plateau pikas. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infections in M. fuscus and wild O. curzoniae in Northwest China. The results suggest the possibility of Cryptosporidium species transmission among these two hosts, the environment, other animals and humans and provide useful molecular epidemiological data for the prevention and control of Cryptosporidium infections in wild animals and the surrounding environments. The results of the present study indicate the existence of Cryptosporidium species infections that have potential public health significance. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium multi-species infections in these animal hosts.
Full Text Available In contrast to many other gull species, nominate lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus, nLBBG have shown generally decreasing population trends throughout their breeding area in northern and eastern Fennoscandia over the past decades and are now red-listed. Interspecific competition, predation, increased disturbance, organochlorine poisoning and food shortages were suggested as main reasons for the overall decrease. Here we contribute to a better understanding of population declines by comparing foraging movements of satellite tracked adult gulls in three geographical areas of Finland (West, South, and East that differ in their population trends. Our analysis examines potential differences and preferences in the feeding site behaviour of adult gulls. Our comparison of the three geographical areas showed that nLBBGs preferred feeding at fur farms in West Finland, waste dumps in South Finland, and lakes and fields in East Finland. We found individual gulls of this purportedly generalist species to be highly specialised in their foraging behaviour, particularly those that might be associated with their survival probabilities. We hypothesise that differences in foraging behaviour and food availability during the breeding season are partially responsible for differences in demographic trends between populations. Specifically, we identify potential local conservation problems such as shooting in birds visiting fur farms. Our data suggest that the effective conservation and management of endangered nLBBGs could be aided by simple actions in the breeding areas in addition to better protection throughout the annual movement cycle.
Yong, Kylie Su Mei; Ng, Justin Han Jia; Her, Zhisheng; Hey, Ying Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Wilson Wei Sheng; Irac, Sergio Erdal; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Gunawan, Merry; Foo, Randy Jee Hiang; Low, Dolyce Hong Wen; Mendenhall, Ian Hewitt; Chionh, Yok Teng; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Chen, Qingfeng; Wang, Lin-Fa
Bats are an important animal model with long lifespans, low incidences of tumorigenesis and an ability to asymptomatically harbour pathogens. Currently, in vivo studies of bats are hampered due to their low reproduction rates. To overcome this, we transplanted bat cells from bone marrow (BM) and spleen into an immunodeficient mouse strain NOD-scid IL-2R -/- (NSG), and have successfully established stable, long-term reconstitution of bat immune cells in mice (bat-mice). Immune functionality of our bat-mouse model was demonstrated through generation of antigen-specific antibody response by bat cells following immunization. Post-engraftment of total bat BM cells and splenocytes, bat immune cells survived, expanded and repopulated the mouse without any observable clinical abnormalities. Utilizing bat's remarkable immunological functions, this novel model has a potential to be transformed into a powerful platform for basic and translational research.
Corcoran, Aaron J; Hristov, Nickolay I
Bats and their insect prey rely on acoustic sensing in predator prey encounters--echolocation in bats, tympanic hearing in moths. Some insects also emit sounds for bat defense. Here, we describe a previously unknown sound-producing organ in Geometrid moths--a prothoracic tymbal in the orange beggar moth (Eubaphe unicolor) that generates bursts of ultrasonic clicks in response to tactile stimulation and playback of a bat echolocation attack sequence. Using scanning electron microscopy and high-speed videography, we demonstrate that E. unicolor and phylogenetically distant tiger moths have evolved serially homologous thoracic tymbal organs with fundamentally similar functional morphology, a striking example of convergent evolution. We compared E. unicolor clicks to that of five sympatric tiger moths and found that 9 of 13 E. unicolor clicking parameters were within the range of sympatric tiger moths. Remaining differences may result from the small size of the E. unicolor tymbal. Four of the five sympatric clicking tiger moth species were unpalatable to bats (0-20% eaten), whereas E. unicolor was palatable to bats (86% eaten). Based on these results, we hypothesize that E. unicolor evolved tymbal organs that mimic the sounds produced by toxic tiger moths when attacked by echolocating bats.
Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W
Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of 'good design' through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge.
Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W
Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105
Fenton, M. Brock
Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.
Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.
The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined
Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé
Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480
Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas
A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Drennan, Joe [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tortosa, Justin [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)
From June 15 to 18, 2015, GANDA biologist Graham Neale assisted in programming and fieldtesting of the bat monitoring equipment. The equipment was deployed in the field on a meteorological (MET) tower within Site 300 on June 18, 2015.
Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth
Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal.
Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner
Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.
Gaël D Maganga
Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.
Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich
Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning. PMID:23840190
Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich
Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning.
Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W
Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, lase...
Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki
The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.
Jones, Kate E; Purvis, Andy; Gittleman, John L
We investigated patterns and processes of extinction and threat in bats using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative approach. Of nearly 1,000 species worldwide, 239 are considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and 12 are extinct. Small geographic ranges and low wing aspect ratios are independently found to predict extinction risk in bats, which explains 48% of the total variance in IUCN assessments of threat. The pattern and correlates of extinction risk in the two bat suborders are significantly different. A higher proportion (4%) of megachiropteran species have gone extinct in the last 500 years than microchiropteran bats (0.3%), and a higher proportion is currently at risk of extinction (Megachiroptera: 34%; Microchiroptera: 22%). While correlates of microchiropteran extinction risk are the same as in the order as a whole, megachiropteran extinction is correlated more with reproductive rate and less with wing morphology. Bat extinction risk is not randomly distributed phylogenetically: closely related species have more similar levels of threat than would be expected if extinction risk were random. Given the unbalanced nature of the evolutionary diversification of bats, it is probable that the amount of phylogenetic diversity lost if currently threatened taxa disappear may be greater than in other clades with numerically more threatened species.
M. Brock FENTON
Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].
Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.
Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb
Jones, Gareth; Siemers, Björn M
Ecological constraints often shape the echolocation pulses emitted by bat species. Consequently some (but not all) bats emit species-specific echolocation pulses. Because echolocation pulses are often intense and emitted at high rates, they are potential targets for eavesdropping by other bats. Echolocation pulses can also vary within species according to sex, body size, age, social group and geographic location. Whether these features can be recognised by other bats can only be determined reliably by playback experiments, which have shown that echolocation pulses do provide sufficient information for the identification of sex and individual in one species. Playbacks also show that bats can locate conspecifics and heterospecifics at foraging and roost sites by eavesdropping on echolocation pulses. Guilds of echolocating bat species often partition their use of pulse frequencies. Ecology, allometric scaling and phylogeny play roles here, but are not sufficient to explain this partitioning. Evidence is accumulating to support the hypothesis that frequency partitioning evolved to facilitate intraspecific communication. Acoustic character displacement occurs in at least one instance. Future research can relate genetic population structure to regional variation in echolocation pulse features and elucidate those acoustic features that most contribute to discrimination of individuals.
Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.
Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084
Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe
The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...
Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.
In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an
Maganga, G. D.; Bourgarel, M.; Vallo, Peter; Dallo, T. D.; Ngoagouni, C.; Drexler, J. F.; Drosten, C.; Nakouné, E. R.; Leroy, E. M.; Morand, S.
Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), e100172 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cytochrome-b gene * fruit bats * Rousettus aegyptiacus * Eidolon helvum * species richness * Marburg virus * molecular phylogeny * infectious diseases * geographical range * neotropical bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014
Full Text Available Reportamos observaciones de individuos albinos en tres especies de aves peruanas, el Zambullidor Grande (Podiceps major, el Pelícano peruano (Pelecanus thagus y el Churrete cordillerano (Cinclodes fuscus. Los individuos eran albinos parciales casi totalmente blancos, aparentemente adultos, que mostraron un comportamiento normal entre sus conespecíficos. La supervivencia después de varios meses pudo ser comprobada para el Pelícano peruano y el Churrete cordillerano. Debido a que la información publicada sobre albinismo en aves peruanas es muy escasa, se realizó una revisión y se recopilaron registros para otras nueve especies que son también presentados.
Ruchin, A B; Chikhliaev, I V; Lukiianov, S V
The helminths fauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 has been studied at their joint habitation. The stuff was collected in 1998-2002, 2004-2006 years in several regions (republic Mordovia, Samara and Saratov areas). The processing of a stuff is conducted by a method of full helmintologic dissecting. The fauna of helminths considerably differs. For common spaedfoot only 13 species of helminths was detected which also parasitized moor frog (for moor frog 23 species) are detected. The index Jaccar demonstrated mean resemblance structure of helminths and varied from 0.25 till 0.69, and the index Morisite--from 44.58 of % till 74.51 of %. The communities of parasites of common spaedfoot was characterized by low values of an index of Shannon, but the high indexes of an index Simpson, whereas for moor frog tracked the return tendence.
Goody, Deborah; Pfeifer, Alexander
In the last decade, exosomes have gained interest as a new type of intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Exosomes are circulating, cell-derived lipid vesicles smaller than 200 nm that contain proteins and nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs), and are able to modify cellular targets. Exosomal miRNAs function as signalling molecules that regulate the transcription of their target genes and can cause phenotypic transformation of recipient cells. Recent studies have shown that brown fat secretes exosomes as a form of communication with other metabolic organs such as the liver. Moreover, it has been shown that levels of miRNAs in BAT-derived exosomes change after BAT activation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, BAT-derived exosomes can be used as potential biomarkers of BAT activity. Here, we review the present knowledge about BAT-derived exosomes and their role in metabolism.
Full Text Available Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats’ echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies pattern of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning.
The physical principles and signal processing techniques underlying bat echolocation are investigated. It is shown, by calculation and simulation, how the measured echolocation performance of bats can be achieved.
Reijniers, Jonas; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert
Abstract: It has been argued that an important part of understanding bat echolocation comes down to understanding the morphology of the bat sound processing apparatus. In this Letter we present a method based on information theory that allows us to assess target localization performance of bat sonar, without a priori knowledge on the position, size, or shape of the reflecting target. We demonstrate this method using simulated directivity patterns of the frequency-modulated bat Micronycteris m...
Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Anar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan E.
A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. ...
Nokireki, T; Tammiranta, N; Kokkonen, U-M; Kantala, T; Gadd, T
A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2. © 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan
Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul; Hayman, David TH; Plowright, Raina K.; Streicker, Daniel G.
Despite conservation concerns for many species of bats, factors causing mortality in bats have not been reviewed since 1970. Here, we review and qualitatively describe trends in the occurrence and apparent causes of multiple mortality events (MMEs) in bats around the world.
Madagascar has many synanthropic bat species but relatively little is known about how people interact with them. A preliminary assessment on the presence of bats in buildings and their interactions with people was conducted in the eastern town of Moramanga. Fifty of the 156 buildings were reported to contain active bat ...
Generally,Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) roost in trees or under the eaves of buildings. This study investigated the roosting dynamics of E. wahlbergi in the urban environment of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. To determine roost fidelity bats were radiotracked to daytime roosts. Bats were found to ...
Rusty bats are seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns. Implantation is superficial with amniogenesis initiated very early during embryogenesis. Contrary to most other bat species where the amnion is formed by folding, it is formed by cavitation in the rusty bat.
We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...
The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...
Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Vries, de P.
IMARES conducted studies in 2012 and 2013 to monitor offshore bat activity with passive acoustic ultrasonic recorders. In the follow-up project reported here, more data on the offshore occurrence of bats was collected in 2014. Using the same methodology as in 2012 and 2013, bat activity was
Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson
Little information exists on resource selection by foraging Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) during the maternity season. Existing studies are based on modest sample sizes because of the rarity of this endangered species and the difficulty of radio-tracking bats. Our objectives were to determine resource selection by foraging Indiana bats during the maternity season and...
Space Memory in Bats: Most animals have space memory in that they return to the same place after the day or night ... The other species of insectivorous bats ofMadurai, nine in all, do have roost memory but not space ... cally, the auditory region of the brain of insectivorous bats are disproportionately large compared to the.
Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira
Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species.
Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Jones, Gareth; Cotton, James A.; Zhang, Shuyi
The remarkable high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity of the mammalian auditory system has been attributed to the evolution of mechanical amplification, in which sound waves are amplified by outer hair cells in the cochlea. This process is driven by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound for orientation and hunting and possess the highest frequency hearing of all mammals. To test for the involvement of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we sequenced the coding region in echolocating and nonecholocating species. The resulting putative gene tree showed strong support for a monophyletic assemblage of echolocating species, conflicting with the species phylogeny in which echolocators are paraphyletic. We reject the possibilities that this conflict arises from either gene duplication and loss or relaxed selection in nonecholocating fruit bats. Instead, we hypothesize that the putative gene tree reflects convergence at stretches of functional importance. Convergence is supported by the recovery of the species tree from alignments of hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and the putative gene tree from the intra- and extracellular domains. We also found evidence that Prestin has undergone Darwinian selection associated with the evolution of specialized constant-frequency echolocation, which is characterized by sharp auditory tuning. Our study of a hearing gene in bats strongly implicates Prestin in the evolution of echolocation, and suggests independent evolution of high-frequency hearing in bats. These results highlight the potential problems of extracting phylogenetic signals from functional genes that may be prone to convergence. PMID:18776049
Kingston, Tigga; Rossiter, Stephen J
Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating. Horseshoe bats are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the past 5 million years. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the pure-tone frequency in the cochlea and inferior colliculus) to detect the minute changes in echo amplitude and frequency generated when an insect flutters its wings. The emitted signal is the accentuated second harmonic of a series in which the fundamental and remaining harmonics are filtered out. Here we show that three distinct, sympatric size morphs of the large-eared horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus philippinensis) echolocate at different harmonics of the same fundamental frequency. These morphs have undergone recent genetic divergence, and this process has occurred in parallel more than once. We suggest that switching harmonics creates a discontinuity in the bats' perception of available prey that can initiate disruptive selection. Moreover, because call frequency in horseshoe bats has a dual function in resource acquisition and communication, ecological selection on frequency might lead to assortative mating and ultimately reproductive isolation and speciation, regardless of external barriers to gene flow.
David T S Hayman
Full Text Available Ebolaviruses (EBOV (family Filoviridae cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur.
Moratelli, Ricardo; Calisher, Charles H
An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment. PMID:25742261
Foo, Cecily F; Bennett, Victoria J; Hale, Amanda M; Korstian, Jennifer M; Schildt, Alison J; Williams, Dean A
Although the ultimate causes of high bat fatalities at wind farms are not well understood, several lines of evidence suggest that bats are attracted to wind turbines. One hypothesis is that bats would be attracted to turbines as a foraging resource if the insects that bats prey upon are commonly present on and around the turbine towers. To investigate the role that foraging activity may play in bat fatalities, we conducted a series of surveys at a wind farm in the southern Great Plains of the US from 2011-2016. From acoustic monitoring we recorded foraging activity, including feeding buzzes indicative of prey capture, in the immediate vicinity of turbine towers from all six bat species known to be present at this site. From insect surveys we found Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera in consistently high proportions over several years suggesting that food resources for bats were consistently available at wind turbines. We used DNA barcoding techniques to assess bat diet composition of (1) stomach contents from 47 eastern red bat ( Lasiurus borealis ) and 24 hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus ) carcasses collected in fatality searches, and (2) fecal pellets from 23 eastern red bats that were found on turbine towers, transformers, and tower doors. We found that the majority of the eastern red bat and hoary bat stomachs, the two bat species most commonly found in fatality searches at this site, were full or partially full, indicating that the bats were likely killed while foraging. Although Lepidoptera and Orthoptera dominated the diets of these two bat species, both consumed a range of prey items with individual bats having from one to six insect species in their stomachs at the time of death. The prey items identified from eastern red bat fecal pellets showed similar results. A comparison of the turbine insect community to the diet analysis results revealed that the most abundant insects at wind turbines, including terrestrial insects such as crickets and several
Goldberg, Tony L; Bennett, Andrew J; Kityo, Robert; Kuhn, Jens H; Chapman, Colin A
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that both the bat flies and their bat hosts belong to putative new species. The coding-complete genome of the new virus, named Kanyawara virus (KYAV), is only distantly related to that of its closest known relative, Mount Elgon bat virus, and was found at high titers in bat flies but not in blood or on mucosal surfaces of host bats. Viral genome analysis indicates unusually low CpG dinucleotide depletion in KYAV compared to other ledanteviruses and rhabdovirus groups, with KYAV displaying values similar to rhabdoviruses of arthropods. Our findings highlight the possibility of a yet-to-be-discovered diversity of potentially pathogenic viruses in bat ectoparasites.
Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi
Studies have demonstrated that ~60%-80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs.
Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof
The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and
Greif, Stefan; Zsebők, Sándor; Schmieder, Daniela; Siemers, Björn M
Sensory traps pose a considerable and often fatal risk for animals, leading them to misinterpret their environment. Bats predominantly rely on their echolocation system to forage, orientate, and navigate. We found that bats can mistake smooth, vertical surfaces as clear flight paths, repeatedly colliding with them, likely as a result of their acoustic mirror properties. The probability of collision is influenced by the number of echolocation calls and by the amount of time spent in front of the surface. The echolocation call analysis corroborates that bats perceive smooth, vertical surfaces as open flyways. Reporting on occurrences with different species in the wild, we argue that it is necessary to more closely monitor potentially dangerous locations with acoustic mirror properties (such as glass fronts) to assess the true frequency of fatalities around these sensory traps. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Salim Mattar V
Full Text Available Bats are a group of extraordinarily specialized vertebrates and are the only mammals capable of flying; their nocturnal habits have stigmatized them to such an extent that in the Hollywood film productions Count Dracula of the Carpathian Mountains was considered the first vampire man; even before Batman himself. In ecosystems, bats are actors with leading roles, 70% of them are insectivores, pollinators, or frugivorous and contribute to the regeneration of forests by disseminating seeds. Some are even fish hunters. Although their large population is mostly distributed in the tropics, they are cosmopolitan and are also found in the Northern Hemisphere. The population of these bats has been displaced in the South American tropics, due to, among many factors, illegal mining, pesticide spraying, indiscriminate deforestation to provide pasture for cattle, and the invasion of their habitats by humans (1.
Wang, Daryi; Oakley, Todd; Mower, Jeffrey; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Yim, Sokchea; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Tsao, Hsienshao; Li, Wen-Hsiung
The two suborders of bats, Megachiroptera (megabats) and Microchiroptera (microbats), use different sensory modalities for perceiving their environment. Megabats are crepuscular and rely on a well-developed eyes and visual pathway, whereas microbats occupy a nocturnal niche and use acoustic orientation or echolocation more than vision as the major means of perceiving their environment. In view of the differences associated with their sensory systems, we decided to investigate the function and evolution of color vision (opsin genes) in these two suborders of bats. The middle/long wavelength (M/L) and short wavelength (S) opsin genes were sequenced from two frugivorous species of megabats, Haplonycteris fischeri and Pteropus dasymallus formosus, and one insectivorous species of microbat, Myotis velifer. Contrary to the situation in primates, where many nocturnal species have lost the functional S opsin gene, both crepuscular and strictly nocturnal species of bats that we examined have functional M/L and S opsin genes. Surprisingly, the S opsin in these bats may be sensitive to UV light, which is relatively more abundant at dawn and at dusk. The M/L opsin in these bats appears to be the L type, which is sensitive to red and may be helpful for identifying fruits among leaves or for other purposes. Most interestingly, H. fischeri has a recent duplication of the M/L opsin gene, representing to date the only known case of opsin gene duplication in non-primate mammals. Some of these observations are unexpected and may provide insights into the effect of nocturnal life on the evolution of opsin genes in mammals and the evolution of the life history traits of bats in general.
Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie
Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....
Pedrero Rodríguez, Mauro
Visually impaired people have many difficulties when traveling because it is impossible for them to detect obstacles that stand in their way. Bats instead of using the sight to detect these obstacles use a method based on ultrasounds, as their sense of hearing is much more developed than that of sight. The aim of the project is to design and build a device based on the method used by the bats to detect obstacles and transmit this information to people with vision problems to improve the...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs. This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1, while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2. Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the bat1Δ bat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the
Colón, Maritrini; Hernández, Fabiola; López, Karla; Quezada, Héctor; González, James; López, Geovani; Aranda, Cristina; González, Alicia
Background Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. Principal Findings Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs). This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1), while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2). Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the bat1Δ bat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. Conclusions Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the biosynthetic and catabolic
Full Text Available Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats.
Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P
The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given.
Full Text Available Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107 bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species.
Boonman, Arjan; Bumrungsri, Sara; Yovel, Yossi
Because evolution mostly acts over millions of years, the intermediate steps leading to a functional sensory system remain enigmatic. Accordingly, there is an ongoing debate regarding the evolution of bat echolocation. In search of the origin of bat echolocation, we studied how Old World fruit bats, which have always been classified as nonecholocating, orient in complete darkness. We found that two of these nonecholocating species used click-like sounds to detect and discriminate objects in complete darkness. However, we discovered that this click-based echo sensing is rudimentary and does not allow these bats to estimate distance accurately as all other echolocating bats can. Moreover, unlike all other echolocating bats, which generate pulses using the larynx or the tongue, these bats generated clicks with their wings. We provide evidence suggesting that all Old World fruit bats can click with their wings. Although this click-based echo sensing used by Old World fruit bats may not represent the ancestral form of current (laryngeal) bat echolocation, we argue that clicking fruit bats could be considered behavioral fossils, opening a window to study the evolution of echolocation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veselka, Nina; McErlain, David D; Holdsworth, David W; Eger, Judith L; Chhem, Rethy K; Mason, Matthew J; Brain, Kirsty L; Faure, Paul A; Fenton, M Brock
Echolocation is an active form of orientation in which animals emit sounds and then listen to reflected echoes of those sounds to form images of their surroundings in their brains. Although echolocation is usually associated with bats, it is not characteristic of all bats. Most echolocating bats produce signals in the larynx, but within one family of mainly non-echolocating species (Pteropodidae), a few species use echolocation sounds produced by tongue clicks. Here we demonstrate, using data obtained from micro-computed tomography scans of 26 species (n = 35 fluid-preserved bats), that proximal articulation of the stylohyal bone (part of the mammalian hyoid apparatus) with the tympanic bone always distinguishes laryngeally echolocating bats from all other bats (that is, non-echolocating pteropodids and those that echolocate with tongue clicks). In laryngeally echolocating bats, the proximal end of the stylohyal bone directly articulates with the tympanic bone and is often fused with it. Previous research on the morphology of the stylohyal bone in the oldest known fossil bat (Onychonycteris finneyi) suggested that it did not echolocate, but our findings suggest that O. finneyi may have used laryngeal echolocation because its stylohyal bones may have articulated with its tympanic bones. The present findings reopen basic questions about the timing and the origin of flight and echolocation in the early evolution of bats. Our data also provide an independent anatomical character by which to distinguish laryngeally echolocating bats from other bats.
Arnett, E.B. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)
Research conducted by the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative in West Virginia was presented. Bats are key pollinators, seed dispersers, and insect predators. Bats also help to protect crops and play an important role in helping to reduce pesticide use. However, bats reproduce slowly and are susceptible to mortality factors. In 2003, between 1398 and 4031 bats were killed at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Facility in West Virginia. Possible explanations why bats are killed by wind turbines include the fact that wind farms form a linear corridor. Acoustics, echolocation failure, and electromagnetic-disorientation may also play a role in bat mortalities. Unifying patterns of bat fatalities at wind facilities include the fact that fatalities are heavily skewed toward migratory bats. Peak turbine collision fatalities occur in mid-summer. Bat fatalities are highest during periods of low wind speed and seem to be related to climate variables associated with the passage of weather fronts. Studies have also shown that the changing cut-in speeds of turbines may also reduce bat fatalities. It was concluded that pre-construction assessments should be conducted to determine high risk areas. tabs., figs.
Surlykke, Annemarie; Kalko, Elisabeth K V
Echolocating bats have successfully exploited a broad range of habitats and prey. Much research has demonstrated how time-frequency structure of echolocation calls of different species is adapted to acoustic constraints of habitats and foraging behaviors. However, the intensity of bat calls has...... been largely neglected although intensity is a key factor determining echolocation range and interactions with other bats and prey. Differences in detection range, in turn, are thought to constitute a mechanism promoting resource partitioning among bats, which might be particularly important...... for the species-rich bat assemblages in the tropics. Here we present data on emitted intensities for 11 species from 5 families of insectivorous bats from Panamá hunting in open or background cluttered space or over water. We recorded all bats in their natural habitat in the field using a multi-microphone array...
Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.
We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. The BAT T 90 duration peaks at 70 s. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT short-duration GRBs are generally harder than those of the long-duration GRBs. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate redshift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high redshift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate redshift GRBs.
Menzel, Jennifer M. [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Menzel, Michael A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Ford, W. Mark [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Edwards, John W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Sheffield, Steven R. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Bunch, Mary S. [South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources, Pendleton, SC (United States)
Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.
..." (Dickerson, Martin, and Allen 1999; Kasul, Martin, and Allen 2000). This technical note provides information on selected bat species that have the potential to occur on Corps projects in the eastern United States and be impacted by Corps activities...
Suu-Ire, Richard; Begeman, Lineke; Banyard, Ashley C; Breed, Andrew C; Drosten, Christian; Eggerbauer, Elisa; Freuling, Conrad M; Gibson, Louise; Goharriz, Hooman; Horton, Daniel L; Jennings, Daisy; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Marston, Denise; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Riesle Sbarbaro, Silke; Selden, David; Wise, Emma L; Kuiken, Thijs; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A
Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no experimental model that mimics natural lyssavirus infection in the reservoir bat species. Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that is endemic in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Africa. Here we compared the susceptibility of these bats to three strains of Lagos bat virus (from Senegal, Nigeria, and Ghana) by intracranial inoculation. To allow comparison between strains, we ensured the same titer of virus was inoculated in the same location of the brain of each bat. All bats (n = 3 per strain) were infected, and developed neurological signs, and fatal meningoencephalitis with lyssavirus antigen expression in neurons. There were three main differences among the groups. First, time to death was substantially shorter in the Senegal and Ghana groups (4 to 6 days) than in the Nigeria group (8 days). Second, each virus strain produced a distinct clinical syndrome. Third, the spread of virus to peripheral tissues, tested by hemi-nested reverse transcriptase PCR, was frequent (3 of 3 bats) and widespread (8 to 10 tissues positive of 11 tissues examined) in the Ghana group, was frequent and less widespread in the Senegal group (3/3 bats, 3 to 6 tissues positive), and was rare and restricted in the Nigeria group (1/3 bats, 2 tissues positive). Centrifugal spread of virus from brain to tissue of excretion in the oral cavity is required to enable lyssavirus transmission. Therefore, the Senegal and Ghana strains seem most suitable for further pathogenesis, and for transmission, studies in the straw-colored fruit bat.
Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix
We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats.
Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian
We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767
Winter, Ara S; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Kimble, Jason C; Buecher, Debbie C; Valdez, Ernest W; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Young, Jesse M; Read, Kaitlyn J H; Northup, Diana E
Microorganisms that reside on and in mammals, such as bats, have the potential to influence their host's health and to provide defenses against invading pathogens. However, we have little understanding of the skin and fur bacterial microbiota on bats, or factors that influence the structure of these communities. The southwestern United States offers excellent sites for the study of external bat bacterial microbiota due to the diversity of bat species, the variety of abiotic and biotic factors that may govern bat bacterial microbiota communities, and the lack of the newly emergent fungal disease in bats, white-nose syndrome (WNS), in the southwest. To test these variables, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing from swabs of external skin and fur surfaces from 163 bats from 13 species sampled from southeastern New Mexico to northwestern Arizona. Community similarity patterns, random forest models, and generalized linear mixed-effects models show that factors such as location (e.g., cave-caught versus surface-netted) and ecoregion are major contributors to the structure of bacterial communities on bats. Bats caught in caves had a distinct microbial community compared to those that were netted on the surface. Our results provide a first insight into the distribution of skin and fur bat bacteria in the WNS-free environment of New Mexico and Arizona. More importantly, it provides a baseline of bat external microbiota that can be explored for potential natural defenses against pathogens.
Betty M Booker
Full Text Available The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Echolocation The Strange Ways of Bats. G Marimuthu. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 40-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0040-0048. Author Affiliations.
Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim
The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.
Adarsh, B.R.; Raghunathan, T.; Jayabarathi, T.; Yang, Xin-She
This paper presents the application of a new metaheuristic optimization algorithm, the chaotic bat algorithm for solving the economic dispatch problem involving a number of equality and inequality constraints such as power balance, prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits. Transmission losses and multiple fuel options are also considered for some problems. The chaotic bat algorithm, a variant of the basic bat algorithm, is obtained by incorporating chaotic sequences to enhance its performance. Five different example problems comprising 6, 13, 20, 40 and 160 generating units are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The algorithm requires little tuning by the user, and the results obtained show that it either outperforms or compares favorably with several existing techniques reported in literature. - Highlights: • The chaotic bat algorithm, a new metaheuristic optimization algorithm has been used. • The problem solved – the economic dispatch problem – is nonlinear, discontinuous. • It has number of equality and inequality constraints. • The algorithm has been demonstrated to be applicable on high dimensional problems.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Echolocation The Strange Ways of Bats. G Marimuthu. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 40-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0040-0048. Author Affiliations.
The Research Institute for Nature Management (R.I.N.) has compiled all available information on the distribution of bats in the Netherlands up till 1968. The data were derived from literature and museum specimens, as well as from numerous unpublished observations. Around 1960 much was known already
minimising the occurrence of errors. Centered around metabarcoding dietary studies of bat droppings and leech gut contents, this continuous exploration and refinement is reflected in both the work and structure of this thesis. After a thesis introduction and two chapters on environmental DNA and biodiversity...
The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a tree roosting species found throughout the eastern United States that is federally listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A more detailed understanding of summer roosting and foraging habitat...
An analysis of echolocation and signal processing in brown bats is presented. Data cover echo detection, echo ranging, echolocalization, and echo analysis. Efforts were also made to identify the part of the brain that carries out the most essential processing function for echolocation. Results indicate the inferior colliculus and the auditory nuclei function together to process this information.
For different species of bats, fixed in 5 % formaldehyd, an estimation of the number of neurons in the spiral ganglion was made. The cochleae were decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin. The complete series of sections were stained with hematoxylin. On the sections through the ganglion, the
Turbill, Christopher; Geiser, Fritz
In summer, long-eared bats (Nyctophilus spp.) roost under bark and in tree cavities, where they appear to benefit from diurnal heating of roosts. In contrast, hibernation is thought to require a cool stable temperature, suggesting they should prefer thermally insulated tree cavities during winter. To test this prediction, we quantified the winter thermoregulatory physiology and ecology of hibernating tree-roosting bats, Nyctophilus geoffroyi and N. gouldi in the field. Surprisingly, bats in winter continued to roost under exfoliating bark (65%) on the northern, sunny side of trees and in shallow tree cavities (35%). Despite passive re-warming of torpid bats by 10-20 degrees C per day, torpor bouts lasted up to 15 days, although shorter bouts were also common. Arousals occurred more frequently and subsequent activity lasted longer on warmer nights, suggesting occasional winter foraging. We show that, because periodic arousals coincide with maximum roost temperatures, when costs of rewarming and normothermic thermoregulation are minimal, exposure to a daily temperature cycle could largely reduce energy expenditure during hibernation. Our study provides further evidence that models of torpor patterns and energy expenditure from hibernators in cold temperate climates are not directly applicable in milder climates, where prolonged torpor can be interspersed with more frequent arousals and occasional foraging.
Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo
Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature
Matthew B. Dickinson; Michael J. Lacki; Daniel R. Cox
Fire and Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) have coexisted for millennia in the central hardwoods region, yet past declines in populations of this endangered species, and the imperative of fire use in oak silviculture and ecosystem conservation, call for an analysis of both the risks and opportunities associated with using fires on landscapes in...
Held, Jana; Gmeiner, Markus; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Matsiégui, Pierre-Blaise; Schaer, Juliane; Eckerle, Isabella; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai; Bletz, Stefan; Schaumburg, Frieder
The colonization of afro-tropical wildlife with Staphylococcus aureus and the derived clade Staphylococcus schweitzeri remains largely unknown. A reservoir in bats could be of importance since bats and humans share overlapping habitats. In addition, bats are food sources in some African regions and can be the cause of zoonotic diseases. Here, we present a cross-sectional survey employing pharyngeal swabs of captured and released bats (n=133) in a forest area of Gabon. We detected low colonization rates of S. aureus (4-6%) and S. schweitzeri (4%) in two out of four species of fruit bats, namely Rousettus aegyptiacus and Micropteropus pusillus, but not in insectivorous bats. Multilocus sequence typing showed that S. aureus from Gabonese bats (ST2984, ST3259, ST3301, ST3302) were distinct from major African human associated clones (ST15, ST121, ST152). S. schweitzeri from bats (ST1697, ST1700) clustered with S. schweitzeri from other species (bats, monkeys) from Nigeria and Côte d'Ivoire. In conclusion, colonization rates of bats with S. aureus and S. schweitzeri were low in our study. Phylogenetic analysis supports an intense geographical dispersal of S. schweitzeri among different mammalian wildlife hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James
In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice.
García-Morales, Rodrigo; Badano, Ernesto I; Moreno, Claudia E
Neotropical bats are sensitive to human-induced habitat changes, and some authors believe bats can be used as bioindicators. In the literature, however, the results are disparate. Some results show bat diversity deceases as disturbance increases, whereas others indicate no effect. Determining the general response patterns of bats when they encounter different degrees of human-induced disturbance across the Neotropics would help to determine their usefulness as bioindicators. In a series of meta-analyses, we compared the occurrence frequency of bat species between well-preserved forests and human-use areas. We obtained data through an extensive review of published peer-reviewed articles, theses, and reports. The overall effect size indicated that human-use areas harbored more bat species than well-preserved forests. Different response patterns emerged when meta-analyses were conducted separately by family, feeding habit, vegetation stratum, and conservation status. Our results suggest that bat assemblages display strong responses to forest loss and land-use change and that the direction and magnitude of these responses depends on the bat group under study and the type of disturbance. Our results are consistent with the idea that bats are useful for assessing the effects of habitat changes in the Neotropics. However, with our meta-analyses we could not detect fine differences in bat feeding habits, especially within Phyllostomidae, or elucidate the effect of landscape configuration. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.
Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura
From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.
Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan; Albayrak, I.; Yorulmaz, T.; Arslan, E.
Roč. 70, č. 3 (2015), s. 400-405 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Eptesicus serotinus * Nyctalus lasiopterus * Barbastella barbastellus * C-banding * Ag-NOR staining Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2015
Mac Aodha, Oisin; Gibb, Rory; Barlow, Kate E; Browning, Ella; Firman, Michael; Freeman, Robin; Harder, Briana; Kinsey, Libby; Mead, Gary R; Newson, Stuart E; Pandourski, Ivan; Parsons, Stuart; Russ, Jon; Szodoray-Paradi, Abigel; Szodoray-Paradi, Farkas; Tilova, Elena; Girolami, Mark; Brostow, Gabriel; Jones, Kate E
Passive acoustic sensing has emerged as a powerful tool for quantifying anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity, especially for echolocating bat species. To better assess bat population trends there is a critical need for accurate, reliable, and open source tools that allow the detection and classification of bat calls in large collections of audio recordings. The majority of existing tools are commercial or have focused on the species classification task, neglecting the important problem of first localizing echolocation calls in audio which is particularly problematic in noisy recordings. We developed a convolutional neural network based open-source pipeline for detecting ultrasonic, full-spectrum, search-phase calls produced by echolocating bats. Our deep learning algorithms were trained on full-spectrum ultrasonic audio collected along road-transects across Europe and labelled by citizen scientists from www.batdetective.org. When compared to other existing algorithms and commercial systems, we show significantly higher detection performance of search-phase echolocation calls with our test sets. As an example application, we ran our detection pipeline on bat monitoring data collected over five years from Jersey (UK), and compared results to a widely-used commercial system. Our detection pipeline can be used for the automatic detection and monitoring of bat populations, and further facilitates their use as indicator species on a large scale. Our proposed pipeline makes only a small number of bat specific design decisions, and with appropriate training data it could be applied to detecting other species in audio. A crucial novelty of our work is showing that with careful, non-trivial, design and implementation considerations, state-of-the-art deep learning methods can be used for accurate and efficient monitoring in audio.
Barlow, Kate E.; Firman, Michael; Freeman, Robin; Harder, Briana; Kinsey, Libby; Mead, Gary R.; Newson, Stuart E.; Pandourski, Ivan; Russ, Jon; Szodoray-Paradi, Abigel; Tilova, Elena; Girolami, Mark; Jones, Kate E.
Passive acoustic sensing has emerged as a powerful tool for quantifying anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity, especially for echolocating bat species. To better assess bat population trends there is a critical need for accurate, reliable, and open source tools that allow the detection and classification of bat calls in large collections of audio recordings. The majority of existing tools are commercial or have focused on the species classification task, neglecting the important problem of first localizing echolocation calls in audio which is particularly problematic in noisy recordings. We developed a convolutional neural network based open-source pipeline for detecting ultrasonic, full-spectrum, search-phase calls produced by echolocating bats. Our deep learning algorithms were trained on full-spectrum ultrasonic audio collected along road-transects across Europe and labelled by citizen scientists from www.batdetective.org. When compared to other existing algorithms and commercial systems, we show significantly higher detection performance of search-phase echolocation calls with our test sets. As an example application, we ran our detection pipeline on bat monitoring data collected over five years from Jersey (UK), and compared results to a widely-used commercial system. Our detection pipeline can be used for the automatic detection and monitoring of bat populations, and further facilitates their use as indicator species on a large scale. Our proposed pipeline makes only a small number of bat specific design decisions, and with appropriate training data it could be applied to detecting other species in audio. A crucial novelty of our work is showing that with careful, non-trivial, design and implementation considerations, state-of-the-art deep learning methods can be used for accurate and efficient monitoring in audio. PMID:29518076
Schoenberg, Kari M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a
Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Ganz, Tomas; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N
Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. Hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. Here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage disease [Egyptian fruit bat (with and without hemochromatosis)], one species of pteropodid bat where iron storage disease is rare [straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum)], and one species of bat with a natural diet very high in iron, in which iron storage disease is not reported [common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus)]. Iron challenge via intramuscular injection of iron dextran resulted in significantly increased liver iron content and histologic iron scores in all three species, and increased plasma iron in Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased in response to iron administration in healthy Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, but not in straw-colored fruit bats or Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis. Hepcidin gene expression significantly correlated with liver iron content in Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, and with transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin concentration in Egyptian fruit bats. Induction of hepcidin gene expression in response to iron challenge is absent in straw-colored fruit bats and in Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis and, relative to common vampire bats and healthy humans, is low in Egyptain fruit bats without hemochromatosis. Limited hepcidin response to iron challenge may contribute to the increased susceptibility of Egyptian fruit bats to iron storage disease.
Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres
During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.
Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira
The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Lans, Anouk A J J; Vosselman, Maarten J; Hanssen, Mark J W; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D
The 'gold standard' for measuring brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans is [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging. With this technique subjects are exposed to ionizing radiation and are therefore limited in the number of scans that can be performed. We investigated the relation between supraclavicular skin temperatures and BAT activity values using a strictly temperature-controlled air-cooling protocol. Data of 36 male subjects was analyzed. BAT activity was evaluated by [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging and skin temperature was measured by means of wireless temperature sensors. Supraclavicular skin temperature dropped less compared to skin temperatures at other sites (all P values BAT activity (R (2) 0.23), and the change in supraclavicular skin temperature and non-shivering thermogenesis (R (2) 0.18, both P values BAT activity and BAT thermogenesis.
Socolovschi, Cristina; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents.
Full Text Available Bats are important reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses. For extensive surveys of potential pathogens in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum in Zambia, a total of 107 spleen samples of E. helvum in 2006 were inoculated onto Vero E6 cells. The cell culture inoculated with one of the samples (ZFB06-106 exhibited remarkable cytopathic changes. Based on the ultrastructural property in negative staining and cross-reactivity in immunofluorescence assays, the virus was suspected to be an adenovirus, and tentatively named E. helvum adenovirus 06-106 (EhAdV 06-106. Analysis of the full-length genome of 30,134 bp, determined by next-generation sequencing, showed the presence of 28 open reading frames. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that EhAdV 06-106 represented a novel bat adenovirus species in the genus Mastadenovirus. The virus shared similar characteristics of low G + C contents with recently isolated members of species Bat mastadenoviruses E, F and G, from which EhAdV 06-106 diverged by more than 15% based on the distance matrix analysis of DNA polymerase amino acid sequences. According to the taxonomic criteria, we propose the tentative new species name “Bat mastadenovirus H”. Because EhAdV 06-106 exhibited a wide in vitro cell tropism, the virus might have a potential risk as an emerging virus through cross-species transmission.
Ogawa, Hirohito; Kajihara, Masahiro; Nao, Naganori; Shigeno, Asako; Fujikura, Daisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Mutemwa, Alisheke; Squarre, David; Yamada, Masao; Higashi, Hideaki; Sawa, Hirofumi; Takada, Ayato
Bats are important reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses. For extensive surveys of potential pathogens in straw-colored fruit bats ( Eidolon helvum ) in Zambia, a total of 107 spleen samples of E. helvum in 2006 were inoculated onto Vero E6 cells. The cell culture inoculated with one of the samples (ZFB06-106) exhibited remarkable cytopathic changes. Based on the ultrastructural property in negative staining and cross-reactivity in immunofluorescence assays, the virus was suspected to be an adenovirus, and tentatively named E. helvum adenovirus 06-106 (EhAdV 06-106). Analysis of the full-length genome of 30,134 bp, determined by next-generation sequencing, showed the presence of 28 open reading frames. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that EhAdV 06-106 represented a novel bat adenovirus species in the genus Mastadenovirus . The virus shared similar characteristics of low G + C contents with recently isolated members of species Bat mastadenoviruses E , F and G , from which EhAdV 06-106 diverged by more than 15% based on the distance matrix analysis of DNA polymerase amino acid sequences. According to the taxonomic criteria, we propose the tentative new species name " Bat mastadenovirus H ". Because EhAdV 06-106 exhibited a wide in vitro cell tropism, the virus might have a potential risk as an emerging virus through cross-species transmission.
He, Biao; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Tan, Weilong; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Qin, Shaomin; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zihan; Yang, Ling'en; Wang, Quanxi; Hu, Tingsong; Bao, Xiaolei; Wu, Jianmin; Tu, Changchun
Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses, and increasing evidence supports the notion that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVAs), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals have been identified from African and Chinese bats. However, all the data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, present only during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA. To systematically investigate the genetic diversity of RVAs, 547 bat anal swabs or gut samples along with 448 bat sera were collected from five South Chinese provinces. Specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) screening found four RVA strains. Strain GLRL1 possessed a completely novel genotype constellation, whereas the other three possessed a constellation consistent with the MSLH14-like genotype, a newly characterized group of viruses widely prevalent in Chinese insectivorous bats. Among the latter, strain LZHP2 provided strong evidence of cross-species transmission of RVAs from bats to humans, whereas strains YSSK5 and BSTM70 were likely reassortants between typical MSLH14-like RVAs and human RVAs. RVA-specific antibodies were detected in 10.7% (48/448) of bat sera by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA). Bats in Guangxi and Yunnan had a higher RVA-specific antibody prevalence than those from Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. These observations provide evidence for cross-species transmission of MSLH14-like bat RVAs to humans, highlighting the impact of bats as reservoirs of RVAs on public health. IMPORTANCE Bat viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses, are important pathogens causing outbreaks of severe emerging infectious diseases. However, little is known about bat viruses capable
Gaige Wang; Lihong Guo; Hong Duan; Luo Liu; Heqi Wang
Path planning for uninhabited combat air vehicle (UCAV) is a complicated high dimension optimization problem, which mainly centralizes on optimizing the flight route considering the different kinds of constrains under complicated battle field environments. Original bat algorithm (BA) is used to solve the UCAV path planning problem. Furthermore, a new bat algorithm with mutation (BAM) is proposed to solve the UCAV path planning problem, and a modification is applied to mutate between bats duri...
Gunnell, Gregg F; Manthi, Fredrick K
Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of important viral diseases and their potential threat to humans has increased the interest in bats as potential reservoir species. Whereas the majority of studies determined the occurrence of specific zoonotic agents in chiropteran species, little is known about actual bat pathogens and impacts of disease on bat mortality. Combined pathological and microbiological investigations in free-ranging bats are sparse and often limited by small sample sizes. In the present study about 500 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae were subjected to a post-mortem examination followed by histo-pathological and bacteriological investigations. The bat carcasses originated from different geographical regions in Germany and were collected by bat researchers and bat rehabilitation centers. Results Pathological examination revealed inflammatory lesions in more than half of the investigated bats. Lung was the predominantly affected organ (40% irrespective of bat species, sex and age. To a lesser extent non-inflammatory organ tissue changes were observed. Comparative analysis of histo-pathology and bacteriology results identified 22 different bacterial species that were clearly associated with pathological lesions. Besides disease-related mortality, traumatic injuries represented an additional major cause of death. Here, attacks by domestic cats accounted for almost a half of these cases. Conclusions The present study shows that free-ranging bats not only serve as a reservoir of infectious agents, they are also vulnerable to various infectious diseases. Some of these microbial agents have zoonotic potential, but there is no evidence that European bats would pose a higher health hazard risk to humans in comparison to other wildlife.
Collen, A. L.
The evolutionary history of echolocation in bats is poorly understood, as fossils provide little direct evidence, and most studies into echolocation have taken an ecological approach. Bats use a wide variety of echolocation call structures despite facing similar sensory challenges, and it is not clear how and why these echolocation call types evolved, or what impact they have on other aspects of the evolution of bats. Here, I use phylogenetic comparative methods and newly-collated echolocatio...
Full Text Available Bats face a great risk of dehydration, so sensory mechanisms for water recognition are crucial for their survival. In the laboratory, bats recognized any smooth horizontal surface as water because these provide analogous reflections of echolocation calls. We tested whether bats also approach smooth horizontal surfaces other than water to drink in nature by partly covering watering troughs used by hundreds of bats with a Perspex layer mimicking water. We aimed 1 to confirm that under natural conditions too bats mistake any horizontal smooth surface for water by testing this on large numbers of individuals from a range of species and 2 to assess the occurrence of learning effects. Eleven bat species mistook Perspex for water relying chiefly on echoacoustic information. Using black instead of transparent Perspex did not deter bats from attempting to drink. In Barbastella barbastellus no echolocation differences occurred between bats approaching the water and the Perspex surfaces respectively, confirming that bats perceive water and Perspex to be acoustically similar. The drinking attempt rates at the fake surface were often lower than those recorded in the laboratory: bats then either left the site or moved to the control water surface. This suggests that bats modified their behaviour as soon as the lack of drinking reward had overridden the influence of echoacoustic information. Regardless of which of two adjoining surfaces was covered, bats preferentially approached and attempted to drink from the first surface encountered, probably because they followed a common route, involving spatial memory and perhaps social coordination. Overall, although acoustic recognition itself is stereotyped and its importance in the drinking process overwhelming, our findings point at the role of experience in increasing behavioural flexibility under natural conditions.
Lee, Saemi; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; An, Injung; Jeong, Jipseol; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Jheong, Weonhwa; Oem, Jae-Ku
Bats have increasingly been recognized as the natural reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), coronavirus, and other coronaviruses found in mammals. However, little research has been conducted on bat coronaviruses in South Korea. In this study, bat samples (332 oral swabs, 245 fecal samples, 38 urine samples, and 57 bat carcasses) were collected at 33 natural bat habitat sites in South Korea. RT-PCR and sequencing were performed for specific coronavirus genes to identify the bat coronaviruses in different bat samples. Coronaviruses were detected in 2.7% (18/672) of the samples: 13 oral swabs from one species of the family Rhinolophidae, and four fecal samples and one carcass (intestine) from three species of the family Vespertiliodae. To determine the genetic relationships of the 18 sequences obtained in this study and previously known coronaviruses, the nucleotide sequences of a 392-nt region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene were analyzed phylogenetically. Thirteen sequences belonging to SARS-like betacoronaviruses showed the highest nucleotide identity (97.1-99.7%) with Bat-CoV-JTMC15 reported in China. The other five sequences were most similar to MERS-like betacoronaviruses. Four nucleotide sequences displayed the highest identity (94.1-95.1%) with Bat-CoV-HKU5 from Hong Kong. The one sequence from a carcass showed the highest nucleotide identity (99%) with Bat-CoV-SC2013 from China. These results suggest that careful surveillance of coronaviruses from bats should be continued, because animal and human infections may result from the genetic variants present in bat coronavirus reservoirs.
Eric Ruggiero; James Sherwood; Patrick Drane; David Kretschmann
Northern white ash had been the wood of choice for Major League Baseball (MLB) bats until the introduction of hard maple in the late 1990s. Since the introduction of maple to the game, there has been a perceived increase in the rate of bats to exhibit multi-piece failures (MPF)both ash and maple. Lab and field data indicate that while a maple bat is as...
Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.
Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.
Yob, J. M.; Field, H.; Rashdi, A. M.; Morrissy, C.; van der Heide, B.; Rota, P.; bin Adzhar, A.; White, J.; Daniels, P.; Jamaluddin, A.; Ksiazek, T.
Nipah virus, family Paramyxoviridae, caused disease in pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998-99. Because Nipah virus appears closely related to Hendra virus, wildlife surveillance focused primarily on pteropid bats (suborder Megachiroptera), a natural host of Hendra virus in Australia. We collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular Malaysia. Neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:11384522
Giles, John R; Plowright, Raina K; Eby, Peggy; Peel, Alison J; McCallum, Hamish
Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have received increased attention after the recent emergence of notable viral pathogens of bat origin. Their vagility hinders data collection on abundance and distribution, which constrains modeling efforts and our understanding of bat ecology, viral dynamics, and spillover. We addressed this knowledge gap with models and data on the occurrence and abundance of nectarivorous fruit bat populations at 3 day roosts in southeast Queensland. We used environmental drivers of nectar production as predictors and explored relationships between bat abundance and virus spillover. Specifically, we developed several novel modeling tools motivated by complexities of fruit bat foraging ecology, including: (1) a dataset of spatial variables comprising Eucalypt-focused vegetation indices, cumulative precipitation, and temperature anomaly; (2) an algorithm that associated bat population response with spatial covariates in a spatially and temporally relevant way given our current understanding of bat foraging behavior; and (3) a thorough statistical learning approach to finding optimal covariate combinations. We identified covariates that classify fruit bat occupancy at each of our three study roosts with 86-93% accuracy. Negative binomial models explained 43-53% of the variation in observed abundance across roosts. Our models suggest that spatiotemporal heterogeneity in Eucalypt-based food resources could drive at least 50% of bat population behavior at the landscape scale. We found that 13 spillover events were observed within the foraging range of our study roosts, and they occurred during times when models predicted low population abundance. Our results suggest that, in southeast Queensland, spillover may not be driven by large aggregations of fruit bats attracted by nectar-based resources, but rather by behavior of smaller resident subpopulations. Our models and data integrated remote sensing and statistical learning to make inferences on bat ecology
Full Text Available Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L. mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L. mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%, belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus, and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L. mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L. mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.
Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E
Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Reijniers, Jonas; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert
It has been argued that an important part of understanding bat echolocation comes down to understanding the morphology of the bat sound processing apparatus. In this Letter we present a method based on information theory that allows us to assess target localization performance of bat sonar, without a priori knowledge on the position, size, or shape of the reflecting target. We demonstrate this method using simulated directivity patterns of the frequency-modulated bat Micronycteris microtis. The results of this analysis indicate that the morphology of this bat’s sound processing apparatus has evolved to be a compromise between sensitivity and accuracy with the pinnae and the noseleaf playing different roles.
Jayme, Sarah I; Field, Hume E; de Jong, Carol; Olival, Kevin J; Marsh, Glenn; Tagtag, Anson M; Hughes, Tom; Bucad, Anthony C; Barr, Jennifer; Azul, Rachel R; Retes, Lilia M; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Cruz, Magdalena S; Santos, Imelda J; Lim, Theresa Mundita S; Benigno, Carolyn C; Epstein, Jonathan H; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott H
In 2008-09, evidence of Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection was found in domestic pigs and pig workers in the Philippines. With species of bats having been shown to be the cryptic reservoir of filoviruses elsewhere, the Philippine government, in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, assembled a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional team to investigate Philippine bats as the possible reservoir of RESTV. The team undertook surveillance of bat populations at multiple locations during 2010 using both serology and molecular assays. A total of 464 bats from 21 species were sampled. We found both molecular and serologic evidence of RESTV infection in multiple bat species. RNA was detected with quantitative PCR (qPCR) in oropharyngeal swabs taken from Miniopterus schreibersii, with three samples yielding a product on conventional hemi-nested PCR whose sequences differed from a Philippine pig isolate by a single nucleotide. Uncorroborated qPCR detections may indicate RESTV nucleic acid in several additional bat species (M. australis, C. brachyotis and Ch. plicata). We also detected anti-RESTV antibodies in three bats (Acerodon jubatus) using both Western blot and ELISA. The findings suggest that ebolavirus infection is taxonomically widespread in Philippine bats, but the evident low prevalence and low viral load warrants expanded surveillance to elaborate the findings, and more broadly, to determine the taxonomic and geographic occurrence of ebolaviruses in bats in the region.
Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats Hipposideros commersoni (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in South-Central Africa: interactions between seasonality and large body size; and implications for conservation.
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.
Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie
Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat's perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vanderelst, Dieter; Holderied, Marc W; Peremans, Herbert
Bat echolocation is an ability consisting of many subtasks such as navigation, prey detection and object recognition. Understanding the echolocation capabilities of bats comes down to isolating the minimal set of acoustic cues needed to complete each task. For some tasks, the minimal cues have already been identified. However, while a number of possible cues have been suggested, little is known about the minimal cues supporting obstacle avoidance in echolocating bats. In this paper, we propose that the Interaural Intensity Difference (IID) and travel time of the first millisecond of the echo train are sufficient cues for obstacle avoidance. We describe a simple control algorithm based on the use of these cues in combination with alternating ear positions modeled after the constant frequency bat Rhinolophus rouxii. Using spatial simulations (2D and 3D), we show that simple phonotaxis can steer a bat clear from obstacles without performing a reconstruction of the 3D layout of the scene. As such, this paper presents the first computationally explicit explanation for obstacle avoidance validated in complex simulated environments. Based on additional simulations modelling the FM bat Phyllostomus discolor, we conjecture that the proposed cues can be exploited by constant frequency (CF) bats and frequency modulated (FM) bats alike. We hypothesize that using a low level yet robust cue for obstacle avoidance allows bats to comply with the hard real-time constraints of this basic behaviour.
Full Text Available Bat echolocation is an ability consisting of many subtasks such as navigation, prey detection and object recognition. Understanding the echolocation capabilities of bats comes down to isolating the minimal set of acoustic cues needed to complete each task. For some tasks, the minimal cues have already been identified. However, while a number of possible cues have been suggested, little is known about the minimal cues supporting obstacle avoidance in echolocating bats. In this paper, we propose that the Interaural Intensity Difference (IID and travel time of the first millisecond of the echo train are sufficient cues for obstacle avoidance. We describe a simple control algorithm based on the use of these cues in combination with alternating ear positions modeled after the constant frequency bat Rhinolophus rouxii. Using spatial simulations (2D and 3D, we show that simple phonotaxis can steer a bat clear from obstacles without performing a reconstruction of the 3D layout of the scene. As such, this paper presents the first computationally explicit explanation for obstacle avoidance validated in complex simulated environments. Based on additional simulations modelling the FM bat Phyllostomus discolor, we conjecture that the proposed cues can be exploited by constant frequency (CF bats and frequency modulated (FM bats alike. We hypothesize that using a low level yet robust cue for obstacle avoidance allows bats to comply with the hard real-time constraints of this basic behaviour.
Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc
More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes. These data allows assessing the epidemiological risk and which preventive measures are necessary to take.The structure and functionality of ecosystems are changing worldwide at an unprecedented rate and can modify the interactions between humans and infected bats. There are more or less local factors that can affect the emergence and spread of diseases (environmental alterations, changes in land use, human population growth, changes in human socioeconomic behavior or social structure, people mobility increase, trade increase, forest fires, extreme weather events, wars, breakdown in public health infrastructure, etc.).Twenty-three percent of all bat species in the world are decreasing. How does the regression of bat species affect the dynamic of viruses? The dichotomy between health risk and bat preservation is compatible with a preventive task based on more information and training.
Young, M K; Banu, S; McCall, B J; Vlack, S; Carroll, H; Bennett, S; Davison, R; Francis, D
Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. The participation rate was 54%. Adults who reported they had intentionally handled bats in South East Queensland indicated high levels of knowledge and perception of a moderately high risk associated with bats with overall low intentions to handle bats in the future. However, substantial proportions of people would attempt to handle bats again in some circumstances, particularly to protect their children or pets. Fifty-two percent indicated that they would handle a bat if a child was about to pick up or touch a live bat, and 49% would intervene if a pet was interacting with a bat. Future public health communications should recognize the situations in which even people with highrisk perceptions of bats will attempt to handle them. Public health messages currently focus on avoidance of bats in all circumstances and recommend calling in a trained vaccinated handler, but messaging directed at adults for circumstances where children or pets may be potentially exposed should provide safe immediate management options. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
This was achiev the lower bulk-density regular fiber and the fine bulk-densities of the uncompressed higher bulk- de Sets of pb and d curves for the...34, J. of Thermal Insulation, Vol. 1, July, 1977, p. 49. 10. Mark, M., and Derecho , C. T., Jr., "Packing Coefficient and...Specification MIL-S-43880, Sleeping Bag, Extreme Cold (Down and Polyester Batting), 15 Mar 1979. 19. Breckenridge, J. R., "Insulating Effectiveness
Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes a zoonotic disease with high mortality that is transmitted to humans from bats of the genus Pteropus (flying foxes via an intermediary equine host. Factors promoting spillover from bats to horses are uncertain at this time, but plausibly encompass host and/or agent and/or environmental factors. There is a lack of HeV sequence information derived from the natural bat host, as previously sequences have only been obtained from horses or humans following spillover events. In order to obtain an insight into possible variants of HeV circulating in flying foxes, collection of urine was undertaken in multiple flying fox roosts in Queensland, Australia. HeV was found to be geographically widespread in flying foxes with a number of HeV variants circulating at the one time at multiple locations, while at times the same variant was found circulating at disparate locations. Sequence diversity within variants allowed differentiation on the basis of nucleotide changes, and hypervariable regions in the genome were identified that could be used to differentiate circulating variants. Further, during the study, HeV was isolated from the urine of flying foxes on four occasions from three different locations. The data indicates that spillover events do not correlate with particular HeV isolates, suggesting that host and/or environmental factors are the primary determinants of bat-horse spillover. Thus future spillover events are likely to occur, and there is an on-going need for effective risk management strategies for both human and animal health.
Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania
The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.
Natori, M. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
This paper gives an outline of the structures of bats. Unlike birds, bats have a wing membrane structure. The membrane constituted of the skin is spread between five fingers to form the wing. The wing membrane is seen in the forelimbs and the tail. In the chest and the shoulder, the ligament sheet supports the muscles. The wing membrane is about 0.5mm in thickness, with a fiber net woven through reflecting a tension field in flying. The fiber net is composed of compound materials of elastin and collagen. The shoulder joints consists of the clavicle, scapula and humerus, which is close to human beings. The elbow joints rotate only inside the plane of the wings. The leg joints are hook-shaped, with the tendon sheath provided with ruggedness. The carpus is made up of eight bones and is characterized by the ability of spreading and storing the wings. At the time of storing the wing membrane, the finger joints are stored and, during the flight after the wings are spread, it forms the flapping wing plane. Lightweight and formation of the sturdy front edge are characteristics common to other flying creatures. The spreading and the storing are possible through the direct motion of the hands. The shoulder joints and the carpus of the human beings are closer to those of bats than to those of birds. (NEDO)
Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.
Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.
Yovel, Yossi; Melcon, Mariana Laura; Franz, Matthias O; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich
Echolocating bats use the echoes from their echolocation calls to perceive their surroundings. The ability to use these continuously emitted calls, whose main function is not communication, for recognition of individual conspecifics might facilitate many of the social behaviours observed in bats. Several studies of individual-specific information in echolocation calls found some evidence for its existence but did not quantify or explain it. We used a direct paradigm to show that greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) can easily discriminate between individuals based on their echolocation calls and that they can generalize their knowledge to discriminate new individuals that they were not trained to recognize. We conclude that, despite their high variability, broadband bat-echolocation calls contain individual-specific information that is sufficient for recognition. An analysis of the call spectra showed that formant-related features are suitable cues for individual recognition. As a model for the bat's decision strategy, we trained nonlinear statistical classifiers to reproduce the behaviour of the bats, namely to repeat correct and incorrect decisions of the bats. The comparison of the bats with the model strongly implies that the bats are using a prototype classification approach: they learn the average call characteristics of individuals and use them as a reference for classification.
Neil M. FUREY
Full Text Available Bats account for 30 % of mammal diversity in SE Asia and are potential bioindicators of wider biodiversity impacts resulting from habitat loss and climate change. As existing sampling techniques in the region typically fail to record bats that habitually fly in open areas and at higher altitudes, current inventory efforts are less than comprehensive. Acoustic sampling with bat detectors may help to overcome these limitations for insectivorous bats, but has yet to be tested in mainland SE Asia. To do so, we sampled bats while simultaneously recording the echolocation calls of insectivorous species commuting and foraging in a variety of karst habitats in north Vietnam. Monitoring of cave-dwelling bats was also undertaken. Discriminant function analysis of 367 echolocation calls produced by 30 insectivorous species showed that acoustic identification was feasible by correctly classifying 89.1 % of calls. In all habitats, acoustic sampling and capture methods recorded significantly more species each night than capture methods alone. Capture methods consequently failed to record 29 % (ten spp. of aerial insectivores of the bat fauna in commuting and foraging habitats and 11 % (two spp. of that in our cave sample. Only four of these species were subsequently captured following significantly greater sampling effort. This strongly suggests that acoustic methods are indispensable for maximizing bat inventory completeness in SE Asia. As accurate inventories and monitoring are essential for effective species conservation, we recommend the inclusion of acoustic sampling in future studies of bat assemblages across the region [Current Zoology 55(5:–2009].
Full Text Available Echolocating bats use the echoes from their echolocation calls to perceive their surroundings. The ability to use these continuously emitted calls, whose main function is not communication, for recognition of individual conspecifics might facilitate many of the social behaviours observed in bats. Several studies of individual-specific information in echolocation calls found some evidence for its existence but did not quantify or explain it. We used a direct paradigm to show that greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis can easily discriminate between individuals based on their echolocation calls and that they can generalize their knowledge to discriminate new individuals that they were not trained to recognize. We conclude that, despite their high variability, broadband bat-echolocation calls contain individual-specific information that is sufficient for recognition. An analysis of the call spectra showed that formant-related features are suitable cues for individual recognition. As a model for the bat's decision strategy, we trained nonlinear statistical classifiers to reproduce the behaviour of the bats, namely to repeat correct and incorrect decisions of the bats. The comparison of the bats with the model strongly implies that the bats are using a prototype classification approach: they learn the average call characteristics of individuals and use them as a reference for classification.
Hein, Cris; Schirmacher, Michael; Arnett, Ed; Huso, Manuela
Bat Conservation International initiated a multi-year, pre-construction study in mid-summer 2009 to investigate patterns of bat activity and evaluate the use of acoustic monitoring to predict mortality of bats at the proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project (RWEP) in east-central Wyoming. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) determine levels and patterns of activity for three phonic groups of bats (high-frequency emitting bats, low-frequency emitting bats, and hoary bats) using the proposed wind facility prior to construction of turbines; (2) determine if bat activity can be predicted based on weather patterns; correlate bat activity with weather variables; and (3) combine results from this study with those from similar efforts to determine if indices of pre-construction bat activity can be used to predict post-construction bat fatalities at proposed wind facilities. We report results from two years of pre-construction data collection.
McCracken, Kitty [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haines, Angelina [XCEL Engineering Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guge, B. J. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Evans, James W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA), Nashville, TN (United States)
This report summarizes results of a three-year acoustic survey of bat species on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The survey was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division and ORNL Facilities and Operations Directorate, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency’s ORR wildlife manager, a student from Tennessee Technological University, and a technician contracted through Excel Corp. One hundred and twenty-six sites were surveyed reservation-wide using Wildlife Acoustics SM2+ Acoustic Bat Detectors.
Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z
Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat.
Full Text Available Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR, mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g. Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored
Full Text Available A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. All together a total of 42 potentially novel bat herpesviruses were partially characterized. Thirty-two of them were tentatively assigned to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily while the remaining 10 were allocated into the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. Significant diversity was observed among the novel sequences when compared with type herpesvirus species of the ICTV-approved genera. The inferred phylogenetic relationships showed that most of the betaherpesviruses sequences fell into a well-supported unique monophyletic clade and support the recognition of a new betaherpesvirus genus. This clade is subdivided into three major clades, corresponding to the families of bats studied. This supports the hypothesis of a species-specific parallel evolution process between the potentially new betaherpesviruses and their bat hosts. Interestingly, two of the betaherpesviruses' sequences detected in rhinolophid bats clustered together apart from the rest, closely related to viruses that belong to the Roseolovirus genus. This suggests a putative third roseolo lineage. On the contrary, no phylogenetic structure was detected among several potentially novel bat-hosted gammaherpesviruses found in the study. Remarkably, all of the possible novel bat herpesviruses described in this study are linked to a unique bat species.
Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Aznar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan Emilio
A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. All together a total of 42 potentially novel bat herpesviruses were partially characterized. Thirty-two of them were tentatively assigned to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily while the remaining 10 were allocated into the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. Significant diversity was observed among the novel sequences when compared with type herpesvirus species of the ICTV-approved genera. The inferred phylogenetic relationships showed that most of the betaherpesviruses sequences fell into a well-supported unique monophyletic clade and support the recognition of a new betaherpesvirus genus. This clade is subdivided into three major clades, corresponding to the families of bats studied. This supports the hypothesis of a species-specific parallel evolution process between the potentially new betaherpesviruses and their bat hosts. Interestingly, two of the betaherpesviruses' sequences detected in rhinolophid bats clustered together apart from the rest, closely related to viruses that belong to the Roseolovirus genus. This suggests a putative third roseolo lineage. On the contrary, no phylogenetic structure was detected among several potentially novel bat-hosted gammaherpesviruses found in the study. Remarkably, all of the possible novel bat herpesviruses described in this study are linked to a unique bat species.
van Zijll Langhout, Martine; Struijk, Richard P J H; Könning, Tessa; van Zuilen, Dick; Horvath, Katalin; van Bolhuis, Hester; Maarschalkerweerd, Roelof; Verstappen, Frank
Captive rearing programs have been initiated to save the European common spadefoot (Pelobates fuscus), a toad species in the family of Pelobatidae, from extinction in The Netherlands. Evaluating whether this species needs ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation and/or dietary supplementation for healthy bone development is crucial for its captive management and related conservation efforts. The bone mineralization in the femurs and the thickest part of the parietal bone of the skulls of European common spadefoots (n = 51) was measured in Hounsfield units (HUs) by computed tomography. One group, containing adults (n = 8) and juveniles (n = 13), was reared at ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo without UVB exposure. During their terrestrial lifetime, these specimens received a vitamin-mineral supplement. Another group, containing adults (n = 8) and juveniles (n = 10), was reared and kept in an outdoor breeding facility in Münster, Germany, with permanent access to natural UVB light, without vitamin-mineral supplementation. The HUs in the ARTIS and Münster specimens were compared with those in wild specimens (n = 12). No significant difference was found between the HUs in the femurs of both ARTIS and Münster adults and wild adults (P = 0.537; P = 0.181). The HUs in the skulls of both captive-adult groups were significantly higher than in the skulls of wild specimens (P = 0.020; P = 0.005). The HUs in the femurs of the adult ARTIS animals were significantly higher than the HUs in the femurs of the adult Münster animals (P = 0.007). The absence of UVB radiation did not seem to have a negative effect on the bone development in the terrestrial stage. This suggests that this nocturnal, subterrestrial amphibian was able to extract sufficient vitamin D 3 from its diet and did not rely heavily on photobiosynthesis through UVB exposure.
Karin Corrêa Scheffer
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de morcegos envolvidas na manutenção do ciclo da raiva, verificar a distribuição do vírus da raiva em tecidos e órgãos de morcegos e os períodos de mortalidade dos camundongos inoculados. MÉTODOS: A positividade para o vírus da raiva foi avaliada por imunofluorescência direta em morcegos de municípios do Estado de São Paulo, de abril de 2002 a novembro de 2003. A distribuição do vírus nos morcegos foi avaliada pela inoculação de camundongos e infecção de células N2A, com suspensões a 20% preparadas a partir de fragmentos de diversos órgãos e tecidos, além de cérebro e glândula salivar. A mortalidade dos camundongos foi observada diariamente, após inoculação intracerebral. RESULTADOS: Dos 4.393 morcegos pesquisados, 1,9% foram positivos para o vírus da raiva, pertencentes a dez gêneros, com predomínio de insetívoros. A média do período máximo de mortalidade dos camundongos pós-inoculação a partir de cérebros e glândulas salivares de morcegos hematófagos foi de 15,33±2,08 dias e 11,33±2,30 dias; insetívoros, 16,45±4,48 dias e 18,91±6,12 dias; e frugívoros, 12,60±2,13 dias e 15,67±4,82 dias, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: As espécies infectadas com o vírus da raiva foram: Artibeus lituratus, Artibeus sp., Myotis nigricans, Myotis sp., Eptesicus sp., Lasiurus ega, Lasiurus cinereus, Nyctinomops laticaudatus, Tadarida brasiliensis, Histiotus velatus, Molossus rufus, Eumops sp. e Desmodus rotundus. A pesquisa de vírus em diferentes tecidos e órgãos mostrou-se que os mais apropriados para o isolamento foram cérebro e glândulas salivares.OBJECTIVE: To identify the species of bats involved in maintaining the rabies cycle; to investigate the distribution of the rabies virus in the tissues and organs of bats and the time taken for mortality among inoculated mice. METHODS: From April 2002 to November 2003, bats from municipalities in the State of São Paulo were
Lau, Susanna K P; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Yeung, Hazel C; Li, Kenneth S M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Zhao, Pyrear S H; Lau, Candy C C; Lam, Carol S F; Choi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Ben C H; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S Y; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Libiao; Wang, Ming; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Compared to the enormous species diversity of bats, relatively few parvoviruses have been reported. We detected diverse and potentially novel parvoviruses from bats in Hong Kong and mainland China. Parvoviruses belonging to Amdoparvovirus, Bocaparvovirus and Dependoparvovirus were detected in alimentary, liver and spleen samples from 16 different chiropteran species of five families by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of partial helicase sequences showed that they potentially belonged to 25 bocaparvovirus, three dependoparvovirus and one amdoparvovirus species. Nearly complete genome sequencing confirmed the existence of at least four novel bat bocaparvovirus species (Rp-BtBoV1 and Rp-BtBoV2 from Rhinolophus pusillus, Rs-BtBoV2 from Rhinolophus sinicus and Rol-BtBoV1 from Rousettus leschenaultii) and two novel bat dependoparvovirus species (Rp-BtAAV1 from Rhinolophus pusillus and Rs-BtAAV1 from Rhinolophus sinicus). Rs-BtBoV2 was closely related to Ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 with 93, 72.1 and 78.7 % amino acid identities in the NS1, NP1 and VP1/VP2 genes, respectively. The detection of bat bocaparvoviruses, including Rs-BtBoV2, closely related to porcine bocaparvoviruses, suggests recent interspecies transmission of bocaparvoviruses between bats and swine. Moreover, Rp-BtAAV1 and Rs-BtAAV1 were most closely related to human AAV1 with 48.7 and 57.5 % amino acid identities in the rep gene. The phylogenetic relationship between BtAAVs and other mammalian AAVs suggests bats as the ancestral origin of mammalian AAVs. Furthermore, parvoviruses of the same species were detected from multiple bat species or families, supporting the ability of bat parvoviruses to cross species barriers. The results extend our knowledge on the diversity of bat parvoviruses and the role of bats in parvovirus evolution and emergence in humans and animals.
Abstract. The study determines the ecological significance of bats excrement in cryptococcosis in Awka, Nigeria. A total of 194 samples of bats droppings were collected from church, houses and public buildings. Each sample was suspended 1:10 in sterile normal saline solution and then cultured in Staib medium (Guizotia ...
Patterns of sexual pelvic bone dimorphism in mammals are well documented. However, limited osteo-morphometrical examinations exist of the nature of dimorphism in the bony pelvis of the bat. This study, therefore, investigated the patterns of size and shape dimorphism in the pelvic bone of the West African fruit bat, ...
The same procedure will be used to find a formula for batting performance and a classification table for Test players. Keywords: Batting performance, Consistency, Cricket, Present form of a batsman, Rating of batsmen. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation Vol.26(1) 2004: 55-64 ...
Full Text Available Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses. While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.
Bat community patterns in Uganda are examined in relation to their occurrence in the different vegetation zones of the country. The data available so far cover only three of the country's floristic regions. These data suggest that the northern drier region U1 has more microchiropteran bats and that species diversity of ...
Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four
Hernout, Béatrice V.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Arnold, Kathryn E.; McClean, Colin J.; Aegerter, James; Boxall, Alistair B.A.
A modeling framework was used to assess the risk of four metals to UK bat species. Eight species of bats were predicted to be “at risk” from one or more of the metals in over 5% of their ranges. Species differed significantly in their predicted risk. Contamination by Pb was found to pose the greatest risk, followed by Cu, Cd and Zn. A sensitivity analysis identified the proportion of invertebrates ingested as most important in determining the risk. We then compared the model predictions with a large dataset of metals concentrations in the tissues (liver, kidney) of Pipistrellus sp. from across England and Wales. Bats found in areas predicted to be the most “at risk” contained higher metal concentrations in their tissues than those found in areas predicted “not at risk” by the model. Our spatially explicit modeling framework provides a useful tool for further environmental risk assessment studies for wildlife species. - Highlights: • Spatial variation in risk of exposure to metals was modeled for 14 UK bat species. • Interspecific differences in metal exposure across bat species were found. • Sensitivity analyses revealed that the bat diet data was important in driving risk. • Pb exposure poses the greatest risk, followed by Cu, Cd and Zn. • The model is able to partially predict areas where bats are the most exposed. - Modeling exposure to trace metals for bats: interspecies variation and model evaluation.
Studies of morphologically dissimilar insectivorous bats have lead to the conclusion that morphology is the prime correlate of habitat use, and consequently of diet. This has lead to the prediction that morphologically similar bats should have similar diets. We examined the diet and morphology of two morphologically similar ...
Surveys of bat diversity are rare for the southern domain of Madagascar. Mistnetting for bats took place at Berenty Private Reserve in southeastern Madagascar during a six months study in 2009 and at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar for one month in 2011. At Berenty, Hipposideros ...
Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...
Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola
The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an
Cooper, Ann C.
This curriculum guide is all about bats and provides information through the telling of stories about bats and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the physical…
Chris D Hein; Steven B Castleberry; Karl V. Miller
Although use of corridors by some wildlife species has been extensively examined, use by bats is poorly understood. From 1 June to 31 August (2004~200S), we used Anabat II detectors to examine bat activity and species occupancy relative to forested corridors on an intensively managed forest landscape in southern South Carolina, USA. We...
Straková, Petra; Dufková, L.; Širmarová, J.; Salát, J.; Bartonička, T.; Klempa, B.; Pfaff, F.; Höper, D.; Hoffmann, B.; Ulrich, R. G.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 48, March (2017), s. 127-130 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hantavirus * Bat * Phylogenetic analysis * Emerging virus * Bat-borne virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases; Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016
Sep 13, 1996 ... of reproduction in insectivorous bats. To assess the possible role of dietary calcium, we have measured bone calcium concentrations in female and male long-fingered bats. (Miniopterus schreibersil) through a full reproductive cycle. The results indicate that winter was not a period of calcium stress and ...
Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...
Bats are yet to be incorporated in management plans in Nigeria. This is attributed to dearth in information as well as social stigma. This study was designed to determine bat species diversity, abundance and the relation of both indices to habitat structure. The survey was carried out in Omo forest reserve between May and ...
The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...
Fujioka, Emyo; Aihara, Ikkyu; Sumiya, Miwa; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hiryu, Shizuko
When seeing or listening to an object, we aim our attention toward it. While capturing prey, many animal species focus their visual or acoustic attention toward the prey. However, for multiple prey items, the direction and timing of attention for effective foraging remain unknown. In this study, we adopted both experimental and mathematical methodology with microphone-array measurements and mathematical modeling analysis to quantify the attention of echolocating bats that were repeatedly capturing airborne insects in the field. Here we show that bats select rational flight paths to consecutively capture multiple prey items. Microphone-array measurements showed that bats direct their sonar attention not only to the immediate prey but also to the next prey. In addition, we found that a bat's attention in terms of its flight also aims toward the next prey even when approaching the immediate prey. Numerical simulations revealed a possibility that bats shift their flight attention to control suitable flight paths for consecutive capture. When a bat only aims its flight attention toward its immediate prey, it rarely succeeds in capturing the next prey. These findings indicate that bats gain increased benefit by distributing their attention among multiple targets and planning the future flight path based on additional information of the next prey. These experimental and mathematical studies allowed us to observe the process of decision making by bats during their natural flight dynamics.
Lazure, Louis; Fenton, M Brock
There are two very different approaches to laryngeal echolocation in bats. Although most bats separate pulse and echo in time by signalling at low duty cycles (LDCs), almost 20% of species produce calls at high duty cycles (HDCs) and separate pulse and echo in frequency. HDC echolocators are sensitive to Doppler shifts. HDC echolocation is well suited to detecting fluttering targets such as flying insects against a cluttered background. We used two complementary experiments to evaluate the relative effectiveness of LDC and HDC echolocation for detecting fluttering prey. We measured echoes from fluttering targets by broadcasting artificial bat calls, and found that echo amplitude was greatest for sounds similar to those used in HDC echolocation. We also collected field recordings of syntopic LDC and HDC bats approaching an insect-like fluttering target and found that HDC bats approached the target more often (18.6% of passes) than LDC bats (1.2% of passes). Our results suggest that some echolocation call characteristics, particularly duty cycle and pulse duration, translate into improved ability to detect fluttering targets in clutter, and that HDC echolocation confers a superior ability to detect fluttering prey in the forest understory compared with LDC echolocation. The prevalence of moths in the diets of HDC bats, which is often used as support for the allotonic frequency hypothesis, can therefore be partly explained by the better flutter detection ability of HDC bats.
Kohl, Claudia; Kurth, Andreas
Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses). While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.
Davis, P.L.; Holmes, E.C.; Larrous, F.
European bat lyssaviruses types I and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widespread in Europe, although little is known of their evolutionary history. We undertook a comprehensive sequence analysis to infer the selection pressures, rates of nucleotide substitution, age of genetic diversity, geographical...... of EBLVs reflects their distinctive epidemiology in bats, where they occupy a relatively stable fitness peak....
Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A
While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival.
Robert T. Brooks; W. Mark Ford
Nine species of bat are known to occur across the six New England a states, but most aspects of their natural history, such as foraging habitat use, are poorly understood. Recent published research has documented the importance of still-water habitats as foci of bat flight activity. To better understand and document habitat use in southern New England, we used the...
Wang, Xingtai; DeMaria, Alfred; Smole, Sandra; Brown, Catherine M.; Han, Linda
To investigate rabies in Massachusetts, we analyzed bat rabies test results before and after introduction of raccoon variant rabies and after release of revised 1999 US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Bat submissions were associated with level of rabies awareness and specific postexposure recommendations.
From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…
The collection of Bats hereafter described has been presented to the Leyden Museum by our well known correspondent Dr. C. G. Young from Berbice, New Amsterdam, British Guyana. This collection tells us that, although our knowledge about the Bats may have increased during the latest years, much
The bat flight circles and pathways around obstacles remained stereotyped indicating a stable foraging ground; most probably the same individuals foraging in the same tracks. The most common bats at our observation sites were. Pipistrellus spp., Hipposideros speoris. H. bicolor and Rhinopoma hardwickei. These species.
Zukal, Jan; Řehák, Z.
Roč. 55, č. 3 (2006), s. 273-281 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Moravian Karst * echolocation calls * bat community * detectoring Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2006 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/55/3/273-281.pdf
Kváč, Martin; Hořická, A.; Sak, Bohumil; Prediger, Jitka; Salát, J.; Širmarová, J.; Bartonička, T.; Clark, M.; Chelladurai, J.R.J.J.; Gillam, E.; McEvoy, J.
Roč. 114, č. 10 (2015), s. 3917-3921 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Bats * SSU * Actin * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015
Sybill K. Amelon; Sarah E. Hooper; Kathryn M. Womack
The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal...
Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Fooks, A.R.; Agerholm, J.S.
In 1998 and 2002, European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) was demonstrated in brain tissue of five Danish sheep suffering from micrological disorders. Four of the five sheep also had encephalic listeriosis. The animals originated from four flocks on pastures within a limited area of western Jutla...
Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos
It is, according to an old proverb, “better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.” And those of us trying to discover new insights into the mysterious lives of bats often do a lot of cursing in the darkness. Bats do most things under cover of night, and often in places where humans and most other animals can’t go. This dark inaccessibility is great for bats, but not so great for those of us trying to study them. Successful conservation hinges on understanding bat behaviors and needs, as well as identifying and addressing the things that threaten them in the darkness. But how do we light a candle without scaring the bats away or altering their behavior?
Lassen, Kristin Marie; Ræbild, Anders; Hansen, Henrik
A pollination experiment was conducted with Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae) in The Gambia. P. biglobosa is integrated in the farming systems and produces fruit pulp and seeds used in cooking. The species is bat-pollinated, and in areas with few bats the main pollinators are assumed to be honey bees...... as replicates. The pollinators’ identity, efficiency, and relative effect were determined. Bats, honey bees, and stingless bees were able to pollinate the species. Bat-visited capitula produced more pods, but not significantly more than honey bees. Honey bees were more efficient than stingless bees, resulting...... was analysed and a positive correlation between number of seeds per pod and the sugar content was found. Improved pollination success may thus result in sweeter fruits. We conclude it is important to strive against a pollinator-friendly environment in order to attract bats and bees. Furthermore, we suggest...
Fenton, M. B.; Faure, P. A.; Ratcliffe, J. M.
Duty cycle describes the relative 'on time' of a periodic signal. In bats, we argue that high duty cycle (HDC) echolocation was selected for and evolved from low duty cycle (LDC) echolocation because increasing call duty cycle enhanced the ability of echolocating bats to detect, lock onto and track...... fluttering insects. Most echolocators (most bats and all birds and odontocete cetaceans) use LDC echolocation, separating pulse and echo in time to avoid forward masking. They emit short duration, broadband, downward frequency modulated (FM) signals separated by relatively long periods of silence....... In contrast, bats using HDC echolocation emit long duration, narrowband calls dominated by a single constant frequency (CF) separated by relatively short periods of silence. HDC bats separate pulse and echo in frequency by exploiting information contained in Doppler-shifted echoes arising from their movements...
José Luis Mena
Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and deforestation are among the major threats to Peruvian bats conservation. Unfortunately,information about the effects of these threats above 500 m elevation is lacking. In this study, I assessedbat responses to fragmentation in Pozuzo (Pasco at a landscape scale approach. I evaluate two hypothesesregarding the role of bats as indicators of habitat disturbance. The first prediction says that landscapes highlydisturbed will show higher abundances of habitat generalist species such as frugivorous bats belonging to thesubfamilies Stenodermatinae and Carollinae. The second prediction regards that landscapes with greater forestcover will show higher abundance of habitat specialist species such as animalivorous bat species belongingto the subfamily Phyllostominae, a guild sensitive to forest disturbance. I found evidence supporting the animalivoroushypothesis but it was partial to the frugivorous hypothesis. This study highlights the importance offorest fragments to bat conservation in human-modified landscapes.
Wada, Yuji; Sasaki, Michihito; Setiyono, Agus; Handharyani, Ekowati; Rahmadani, Ibenu; Taha, Siswatiana; Adiani, Sri; Latief, Munira; Kholilullah, Zainal Abidin; Subangkit, Mawar; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Nakamura, Ichiro; Kimura, Takashi; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi
Bats are an important natural reservoir of zoonotic viral pathogens. We previously isolated an alphaherpesvirus in fruit bats in Indonesia, and here establish the presence of viruses belonging to other taxa of the family Herpesviridae. We screened the same fruit bat population with pan-herpesvirus PCR and discovered 68 sequences of novel gammaherpesvirus, designated 'megabat gammaherpesvirus' (MgGHV). A phylogenetic analysis of approximately 3.4 kbp of continuous MgGHV sequences encompassing the glycoprotein B gene and DNA polymerase gene revealed that the MgGHV sequences are distinct from those of other reported gammaherpesviruses. Further analysis suggested the existence of co-infections of herpesviruses in Indonesian fruit bats. Our findings extend our understanding of the infectious cycles of herpesviruses in bats in Indonesia and the phylogenetic diversity of the gammaherpesviruses.
Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.
The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.
We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...
During the 1980s and 1990s, Britain experienced an unprecedented increase in scientific and public interest in bat conservation, culminating in 90 'bat groups' by 1992. In South Africa, bats are poorly protected or unprotected, and most of the country's 54 species are poorly known. With the formation of bat interest groups in ...
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68752; File No. SR-BATS-2013-003] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules in Connection With the Elimination of Discretionary Orders for BATS Options...
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63969; File No. SR-BATS-2011-007] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. to Adopt BATS Rule 11.21, entitled ``Input of Accurate Information...
During the 1980s and 1990s, Britain experienced an unprecedented increase in scientific and public interest in bat conservation, culminating in 90 'bat groups' by 1992. In South Africa, bats are poorly protected or unpro- tected, and most of the country's 54 species are poorly known. With the formation of bat interest groups ...
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62901; File No. SR-BATS-2010-024] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' and To Make Related...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet... requirements must STTs and BATs meet? To be permitted to act as a BAT or STT in the DOT alcohol testing program...). (1) Qualification training must be in accordance with the DOT Model BAT or STT Course, as applicable...
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-67477; File No. SR-BATS-2012-028] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rules Related to Telemarketing July 20, 2012. Pursuant to...
Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles
After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600
...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines... documents related to the draft revised summer survey guidelines for the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) for an... U.S. mail address; Email: email@example.com ; or Fax: 812-334-4273. Include ``Indiana Bat Summer...
Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A
Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision.
... offering (``IPO Auction''); and (4) an auction in the event of a halt of trading in a security (``Halt Auction''). The Opening Auction, IPO Auction, Halt Auction, and Closing Auction operated by BATS will be a... the Opening Auction, the Closing Auction, and IPO/Halt Auctions. \\8\\ BATS Rule 1.5(w) defines...
Full Text Available Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines and there is at present no accepted method of reducing or preventing this mortality. Following our demonstration that bat activity is reduced in the vicinity of large air traffic control and weather radars, we tested the hypothesis that an electromagnetic signal from a small portable radar can act as a deterrent to foraging bats. From June to September 2007 bat activity was compared at 20 foraging sites in northeast Scotland during experimental trials (radar switched on and control trials (no radar signal. Starting 45 minutes after sunset, bat activity was recorded for a period of 30 minutes during each trial and the order of trials were alternated between nights. From July to September 2008 aerial insects at 16 of these sites were sampled using two miniature light-suction traps. At each site one of the traps was exposed to a radar signal and the other functioned as a control. Bat activity and foraging effort per unit time were significantly reduced during experimental trials when the radar antenna was fixed to produce a unidirectional signal therefore maximising exposure of foraging bats to the radar beam. However, although bat activity was significantly reduced during such trials, the radar had no significant effect on the abundance of insects captured by the traps.
Johnson, Greg; Kunz, Thomas
This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies planned to address such issues. Presenters addressed what the existing science demonstrates about land-based wind turbine impacts on bats, including: mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts, species and numbers killed, per turbine rates/per MW generated, and impacts on threatened and endangered species. They discussed whether there is sufficient data for wind turbines and bat impacts for projects in the eastern US, especially on ridge tops. Finally, the subject of offshore impacts on bats was briefly addressed, including what lessons have been learned in Europe and how these can be applied in the U S. Paper one, by Greg Johnson, was titled ''A Review of Bat Impacts at Wind Farms in the US''. Paper two, by Thomas Kunz, was titled ''Wind Power: Bats and Wind Turbines''.
Full Text Available The zoonotic potential of paramyxoviruses is particularly demonstrated by their broad host range like the highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses originating from bats. But while so far all bat-borne paramyxoviruses have been identified in fruit bats across Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia, we describe the detection and characterization of the first paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats. Moreover, we examined the possible impact of paramyxovirus infection on individual animals by comparing histo-pathological findings and virological results. Organs from deceased insectivorous bats of various species were sampled in Germany and tested for paramyxovirus RNA in parallel to a histo-pathological examination. Nucleic acids of three novel paramyxoviruses were detected, two viruses in phylogenetic relationship to the recently proposed genus Jeilongvirus and one closely related to the genus Rubulavirus. Two infected animals revealed subclinical pathological changes within their kidneys, suggestive of a similar pathogenesis as the one described in fruit bats experimentally infected with Hendra virus.Our findings indicate the presence of bat-born paramyxoviruses in geographic areas free of fruit bat species and therefore emphasize a possible virus-host co-evolution in European bats. Since these novel viruses are related to the very distinct genera Rubulavirus and Jeilongvirus, a similarly broad genetic diversity among paramyxoviruses in other Microchiroptera compared to Megachiroptera can be assumed. Given that the infected bats were either found in close proximity to heavily populated human habitation or areas of intensive agricultural use, a potential risk of the emergence of zoonotic paramyxoviruses in Europe needs to be considered.
First report of rabies infection in bats, Molossus molossus, Molossops neglectus and Myotis riparius in the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil Primeiro relato de infecção de vírus da raiva em morcegos, Molossus molossus, Molossops neglectus e Myotis riparius na cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo
Adriana Ruckert da Rosa
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This paper presents the first report of rabies in three bat species, Molossus molossus, Molossops neglectus and Myotis riparius in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Bats were diagnosed as positive for rabies using the fluorescent antibody test and mouse inoculation test. The isolates were characterized antigenically using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies. The samples were also genetically analyzed by partial sequencing of the portion of nucleoprotein gene between positions 1157 and 1445nt. RESULTS: Analysis of the results verified that the sample isolated from the species M. molossus presented antigenic variant 6, while the other two samples showed a different profile from that established in the panel, one not previously reported in the literature. The results of genetic analysis revealed that the M. molossus sample segregated with Lasiurus sp. isolates, M. neglectus segregated with a subgroup of Eptesicus furinalis isolates and the Myotis riparius sample segregated with Myotis sp. isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The cases reported in this paper emphasize the need for clarification of the circumstances in which cases of rabies in wildlife occur, principally in urban areas.INTRODUÇÃO: Esse trabalho apresenta o primeiro registro de raiva em três espécies de morcegos: Molossus molossus, Molossops neglectus e Myotis riparius na Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os morcegos foram diagnosticados como positivos para raiva usando as técnicas padrão de imunofluorescência direta e o teste de inoculação em camundongo. Os isolados foram caracterizados antigenicamente usando um painel de oito anticorpos monoclonais (CDC/Atlanta/USA. As amostras também foram analisadas geneticamente por sequenciamento parcial do gene da nucleoproteína entre as posições 1157 e 1445nt. RESULTADOS: O resultado das análises mostrou que as amostras isoladas da espécie M. molossus apresentou variante antigênica 6, enquanto as outras duas
Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei
Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.
Guarato, Francesco; Hallam, John
Understanding and modeling bat biosonar behavior should take into account what the bat actually emitted while exploring the surrounding environment. Recording of the bat calls could be performed by means of a telemetry system small enough to sit on the bat head, though filtering due to bat...... directivity affects recordings and not all bat species are able to carry such a device. Instead, remote microphone recordings of the bat calls could be processed by means of a mathematical method that estimates bat head orientation as a first step before calculating the amplitudes of each call for each...... frequency. This approach considers bat position with respect to each microphone, directivity, and head orientation for compensating microphone recordings of bat calls. The method has been tested in a laboratory environment using data from a Polaroid transducer as sound source: results are presented...
Turkington, Hannah L; Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Tsolakos, Nikos; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Schwemmle, Martin; Hale, Benjamin G
Recently, two influenza A virus (FLUAV) genomes were identified in Central and South American bats. These sequences exhibit notable divergence from classical FLUAV counterparts, and functionally, bat FLUAV glycoproteins lack canonical receptor binding and destroying activity. Nevertheless, other features that distinguish these viruses from classical FLUAVs have yet to be explored. Here, we studied the viral nonstructural protein NS1, a virulence factor that modulates host signaling to promote efficient propagation. Like all FLUAV NS1 proteins, bat FLUAV NS1s bind double-stranded RNA and act as interferon antagonists. Unexpectedly, we found that bat FLUAV NS1s are unique in being unable to bind host p85β, a regulatory subunit of the cellular metabolism-regulating enzyme, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Furthermore, neither bat FLUAV NS1 alone nor infection with a chimeric bat FLUAV efficiently activates Akt, a PI3K effector. Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed that the bat FLUAV NS1-p85β interaction can be reengineered (in a strain-specific manner) by changing two to four NS1 residues (96L, 99M, 100I, and 145T), thereby creating a hydrophobic patch. Notably, ameliorated p85β-binding is insufficient for bat FLUAV NS1 to activate PI3K, and a chimeric bat FLUAV expressing NS1 with engineered hydrophobic patch mutations exhibits cell-type-dependent, but species-independent, propagation phenotypes. We hypothesize that bat FLUAV hijacking of PI3K in the natural bat host has been selected against, perhaps because genes in this metabolic pathway were differentially shaped by evolution to suit the unique energy use strategies of this flying mammal. These data expand our understanding of the enigmatic functional divergence between bat FLUAVs and classical mammalian and avian FLUAVs. IMPORTANCE The potential for novel influenza A viruses to establish infections in humans from animals is a source of continuous concern due to possible severe outbreaks or pandemics. The
Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P
The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the two human HLA-B-associated transcripts (BATs) genes, BAT1 and BAT2, was investigated using 5 different restriction enzymes and two human BAT1 and BAT2 cDNA probes. Two of the enzymes, NcoI and RsaI, revealed polymorphic patterns which were...
Bonaccorso, Frank J.; McGuire, Liam P.
The Hawaiian archipelago, the most isolated cluster of islands on Earth, has been colonized successfully twice by bats. The putative “lava tube bat” of Hawaii is extinct, whereas the Hawaiian Hoary Bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, survives as an endangered species. We conducted a three-stage analysis to identify conditions under which hoary bats originally colonized Hawaii. We used FLIGHT to determine if stores of fat would provide the energy necessary to fly from the Farallon Islands (California) to Hawaii, a distance of 3,665 km. The Farallons are a known stopover and the closest landfall to Hawaii for hoary bats during migrations within North America. Our modeling variables included physiological, morphological, and behavioral data characterizing North American Hoary Bat populations. The second step of our modeling process investigated the potential limiting factor of water during flight. The third step in our modeling examines the role that prevailing trade winds may have played in colonization flights. Of our 36 modeling scenarios, 17 (47 %) require tailwind assistance within the range of observed wind speeds, and 7 of these scenarios required −1 tailwinds as regularly expected due to easterly trade winds. Therefore the climatic conditions needed for bats to colonize Hawaii may not occur infrequently either in contemporary times or since the end of the Pleistocene. Hawaii’s hoary bats have undergone divergence from mainland populations resulting in smaller body size and unique pelage color.
Full Text Available The use of virtual environments (VE for training perceptual-motors skills in sports continues to be a rapidly growing area. However, there is a dearth of research that has examined whether training in sports simulation transfers to the real task. In this study, the transfer of perceptual-motor skills trained in an adaptive baseball batting VE to real baseball performance was investigated. Eighty participants were assigned equally to groups undertaking adaptive hitting training in the VE, extra sessions of batting practice in the VE, extra sessions of real batting practice, and a control condition involving no additional training to the players’ regular practice. Training involved two 45 min sessions per week for 6 weeks. Performance on a batting test in the VE, in an on-field test of batting, and on a pitch recognition test was measured pre- and post-training. League batting statistics in the season following training and the highest level of competition reached in the following 5 years were also analyzed. For the majority of performance measures, the adaptive VE training group showed a significantly greater improvement from pre-post training as compared to the other groups. In addition, players in this group had superior batting statistics in league play and reached higher levels of competition. Training in a VE can be used to improve real, on-field performance especially when designers take advantage of simulation to provide training methods (e.g., adaptive training that do not simply recreate the real training situation.
The use of virtual environments (VE) for training perceptual-motors skills in sports continues to be a rapidly growing area. However, there is a dearth of research that has examined whether training in sports simulation transfers to the real task. In this study, the transfer of perceptual-motor skills trained in an adaptive baseball batting VE to real baseball performance was investigated. Eighty participants were assigned equally to groups undertaking adaptive hitting training in the VE, extra sessions of batting practice in the VE, extra sessions of real batting practice, and a control condition involving no additional training to the players' regular practice. Training involved two 45 min sessions per week for 6 weeks. Performance on a batting test in the VE, in an on-field test of batting, and on a pitch recognition test was measured pre- and post-training. League batting statistics in the season following training and the highest level of competition reached in the following 5 years were also analyzed. For the majority of performance measures, the adaptive VE training group showed a significantly greater improvement from pre-post training as compared to the other groups. In addition, players in this group had superior batting statistics in league play and reached higher levels of competition. Training in a VE can be used to improve real, on-field performance especially when designers take advantage of simulation to provide training methods (e.g., adaptive training) that do not simply recreate the real training situation.
Full Text Available In recent years novel human respiratory disease agents have been described in South East Asia and Australia. The causative pathogens were classified as pteropine orthoreoviruses with strong phylogenetic relationship to orthoreoviruses of flying foxes inhabiting these regions. Subsequently, a zoonotic bat-to-human transmission has been assumed. We report the isolation of three novel mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs from European bats, comprising bat-borne orthoreovirus outside of South East Asia and Australia and moreover detected in insectivorous bats (Microchiroptera. MRVs are well known to infect a broad range of mammals including man. Although they are associated with rather mild and clinically unapparent infections in their hosts, there is growing evidence of their ability to also induce more severe illness in dogs and man. In this study, eight out of 120 vespertilionid bats proved to be infected with one out of three novel MRV isolates, with a distinct organ tropism for the intestine. One isolate was analyzed by 454 genome sequencing. The obtained strain T3/Bat/Germany/342/08 had closest phylogenetic relationship to MRV strain T3D/04, isolated from a dog. These novel reoviruses provide a rare chance of gaining insight into possible transmission events and of tracing the evolution of bat viruses.
Heinrich, Melina; Warmbold, Alexander; Hoffmann, Susanne; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz
As opposed to visual imaging, biosonar imaging of spatial object properties represents a challenge for the auditory system because its sensory epithelium is not arranged along space axes. For echolocating bats, object width is encoded by the amplitude of its echo (echo intensity) but also by the naturally covarying spread of angles of incidence from which the echoes impinge on the bat's ears (sonar aperture). It is unclear whether bats use the echo intensity and/or the sonar aperture to estimate an object's width. We addressed this question in a combined psychophysical and electrophysiological approach. In three virtual-object playback experiments, bats of the species Phyllostomus discolor had to discriminate simple reflections of their own echolocation calls differing in echo intensity, sonar aperture, or both. Discrimination performance for objects with physically correct covariation of sonar aperture and echo intensity ("object width") did not differ from discrimination performances when only the sonar aperture was varied. Thus, the bats were able to detect changes in object width in the absence of intensity cues. The psychophysical results are reflected in the responses of a population of units in the auditory midbrain and cortex that responded strongest to echoes from objects with a specific sonar aperture, regardless of variations in echo intensity. Neurometric functions obtained from cortical units encoding the sonar aperture are sufficient to explain the behavioral performance of the bats. These current data show that the sonar aperture is a behaviorally relevant and reliably encoded cue for object size in bat sonar.
Lacroix, Audrey; Duong, Veasna; Hul, Vibol; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Omaliss, Keo; Chea, Sokha; Hassanin, Alexandre; Theppangna, Watthana; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Afelt, Aneta; Greatorex, Zoe; Fine, Amanda E; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah; Joly, Damien O; Keatts, Lucy; Dussart, Philippe; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe
Astroviruses are known to infect humans and a wide range of animal species, and can cause gastroenteritis in their hosts. Recent studies have reported astroviruses in bats in Europe and in several locations in China. We sampled 1876 bats from 17 genera at 45 sites from 14 and 13 provinces in Cambodia and Lao PDR respectively, and tested them for astroviruses. Our study revealed a high diversity of astroviruses among various Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera bats. Evidence for varying degrees of host restriction for astroviruses in bats was found. Furthermore, additional Pteropodid hosts were detected. The astroviruses formed distinct phylogenetic clusters within the genus Mamastrovirus, most closely related to other known bat astroviruses. The astrovirus sequences were found to be highly saturated indicating that phylogenetic relationships should be interpreted carefully. An astrovirus clustering in a group with other viruses from diverse hosts, including from ungulates and porcupines, was found in a Rousettus bat. These findings suggest that diverse astroviruses can be found in many species of mammals, including bats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moss, Cynthia; Ghose, Kaushik; Jensen, Marianne; Surlykke, Annemarie
The echolocating bat controls the direction of its sonar beam, just as visually dominant animals control the movement of their eyes to foveate targets of interest. The sonar beam aim of the echolocating bat can therefore serve as an index of the animal's attention to objects in the environment. Until recently, spatial attention has not been studied in the context of echolocation, perhaps due to the difficulty in obtaining an objective measure. Here, we describe measurements of the bat's sonar beam aim, serving as an index of acoustic gaze and attention to objects, in tasks that require localization of obstacles and insect prey. Measurements of the bat's sonar beam aim are taken from microphone array recordings of vocal signals produced by a free-flying bat under experimentally controlled conditions. In some situations, the animal relies on spatial memory over reflected sounds, perhaps because its perceptual system cannot easily organize cascades of echoes from obstacles and prey. This highlights the complexity of the bat's orientation behavior, which can alternate between active sensing and spatial memory systems. The bat's use of spatial memory for orientation also will be addressed in this talk. [Work supported by NSF-IBN-0111973 and the Danish Research Council.
McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.
The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782
This paper studies the ecology of bats. The age of the birth of bats is estimated to be from the end of the Mesozoic period to the early part of the Cenozoic period. It is inferred that the fingers were extended in the last stage of the evolution and that a membrane was developed between fingers and turned into wings. Further, improvement of the body was necessary for bats to fly. For example, bats need to have the powerful muscular strength, solid frame for the muscles to adhere to, framework and joints of the wings that surpass air resistance, and the circulatory system and the blood capable of supplying oxygen to the muscles. Different kinds of bats have different patterns of flying, which are each characterized by the shape and the muscle systems of the wings. The flying method has been analyzed in high speed movies. The shoulder joints are essential for the flight while their strength is different by the species. The difference in the flying method governs their ecology (zone of life, number of colony formations). The flocking types are classified into six kinds. The feeds are numerous. They do echo location except non-nocturnal large bats (Pteropodidae). The life span varies depending on the species of bats, ranging widely from 7 to 30 years. (NEDO)
Alibardi, L; Thompson, M B
Differentiation and localization of keratin in the epidermis during embryonic development and up to 3 months posthatching in the Australian water python, Liasis fuscus, was studied by ultrastructural and immunocytochemical methods. Scales arise from dome-like folds in the skin that produce tightly imbricating scales. The dermis of these scales is completely differentiated before any epidermal differentiation begins, with a loose dermis made of mesenchymal cells beneath the differentiating outer scale surface. At this stage (33) the embryo is still unpigmented and two layers of suprabasal cells contain abundant glycogen. At Stage 34 (beginning of pigmentation) the first layers of cells beneath the bilayered periderm (presumptive clear and oberhautchen layers) have not yet formed a shedding complex, within which prehatching shedding takes place. At Stage 35 the shedding complex, consisting of the clear and oberhautchen layers, is discernible. The clear layer contains a fine fibrous network that faces the underlying oberhautchen, where the spinulae initially contain a core of fibrous material and small beta-keratin packets. Differentiation continues at Stage 36 when the beta-layer forms and beta-keratin packets are deposited both on the fibrous core of the oberhautchen and within beta-cells. Mesos cells are produced from the germinal layer but remain undifferentiated. At Stage 37, before hatching, the beta-layer is compact, the mesos layer contains mesos granules, and cells of the alpha-layer are present but are not yet keratinized. They are still only partially differentiated a few hours after hatching, when a new shedding complex is forming underneath. Using antibodies against chick scale beta-keratin resolved at high magnification with immunofluorescent or immunogold conjugates, we offer the first molecular confirmation that in snakes only the oberhautchen component of the shedding complex and the underlying beta cells contain beta-keratin. Initially, there is
We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at zBAT catalog, we analyze a total of 1279 optical spectra, taken from twelve different telescopes, for a total of 642 spectra of unique AGN. We present the absorption and emission line measurements as well as black hole masses and accretion rates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (473), representing more than a factor of 10 increase from past studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics.
Full Text Available Oral sex is widely used in human foreplay, but rarely documented in other animals. Fellatio has been recorded in bonobos Pan paniscus, but even then functions largely as play behaviour among juvenile males. The short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx exhibits resource defence polygyny and one sexually active male often roosts with groups of females in tents made from leaves. Female bats often lick their mate's penis during dorsoventral copulation. The female lowers her head to lick the shaft or the base of the male's penis but does not lick the glans penis which has already penetrated the vagina. Males never withdrew their penis when it was licked by the mating partner. A positive relationship exists between the length of time that the female licked the male's penis during copulation and the duration of copulation. Furthermore, mating pairs spent significantly more time in copulation if the female licked her mate's penis than if fellatio was absent. Males also show postcopulatory genital grooming after intromission. At present, we do not know why genital licking occurs, and we present four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that may explain the function of fellatio in C. sphinx.
Ratzbor, Guenter; Dubourg-Savage, Marie-Jo; Andre, Yann; Kirchstetter, France; Bungart, Rolf; Neau, Paul; Gruendonner, Dieter; Lagrange, Hubert; Rufray, Vincent; Prie, Vincent; Haquart, Alexandre; Melki, Frederic; Fonio, Joseph; Brinkmann, Robert; Hoetker, Hermann; Grajetzki, Bodo; Mammen, Ubbo; Fagot, Guillaume; Hill, Reinhold
The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on wind turbines impacts on birds and bats. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 85 participants exchanged views on the impacts of wind energy development on birds and bats mortality, the legal aspects, the research programs and the remedial actions. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Wind energy and nature protection - Is there really a conflict? (Guenter Ratzbor); 2 - Taking bats into account in wind energy projects in the European legal framework (Marie-Jo Dubourg-Savage); 3 - Wind energy-biodiversity national program - Towards a biodiversity label for wind farms (Yann Andre); 4 - Development, construction and operation of a bats-friendly wind farm in France? (France Kirchstetter); 5 - Practical experience of bats protection rules in the framework of German wind energy projects - Examples taken from projects development (Rolf Bungart); 6 - Inclusion of birds and bats issues in wind energy planning documents: schemes and wind energy development area (Paul Neau); 7 - Inclusion of potential threats for birds and bats in the definition of wind energy exploitation areas in Germany (Dieter Gruendonner); 8 - Chirotech - Conciliation between wind energy development and bats preservation - Data collection status, first results and perspectives (Hubert Lagrange, Joseph Fonio); 9 - Bats and wind energy in Germany - Present day situation and research works for conflicts resolution (Robert Brinkmann); 10 - Wind turbines and raptors in Germany: experience gained and presentation of a new research project (Hermann Hoetker); 11 - Birds fauna analysis in the framework of the development of the Cote d'Albatre offshore wind energy project (Guillaume Fagot); 12 - Birds flight remote study methods around FINO 1 (Reinhold Hill)
Full Text Available Bats are important reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens. However, no surveys of bacterial pathogens in bats have been performed in the Caucasus region. To understand the occurrence and distribution of bacterial infections in these mammals, 218 bats belonging to eight species collected from four regions of Georgia were examined for Bartonella, Brucella, Leptospira, and Yersinia using molecular approaches. Bartonella DNA was detected in 77 (35% bats from all eight species and was distributed in all four regions. The prevalence ranged 6-50% per bat species. The Bartonella DNA represented 25 unique genetic variants that clustered into 21 lineages. Brucella DNA was detected in two Miniopterus schreibersii bats and in two Myotis blythii bats, all of which were from Imereti (west-central region. Leptospira DNA was detected in 25 (13% bats that included four M. schreibersii bats and 21 M. blythii bats collected from two regions. The Leptospira sequences represented five genetic variants with one of them being closely related to the zoonotic pathogen L. interrogans (98.6% genetic identity. No Yersinia DNA was detected in the bats. Mixed infections were observed in several cases. One M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella, Brucella, and Leptospira; one M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella and Brucella; 15 M. blythii bats and three M. schreibersii bats were co-infected with Bartonella and Leptospira. Our results suggest that bats in Georgia are exposed to multiple bacterial infections. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenicity of these agents to bats and their zoonotic potential.
Ellison, Laura E.
Turbines have been used to harness energy from wind for hundreds of years. However, with growing concerns about climate change, wind energy has only recently entered the mainstream of global electricity production. Since early on in the development of wind-energy production, concerns have arisen about the potential impacts of turbines to wildlife; these concerns have especially focused on the mortality of birds. Despite recent improvements to turbines that have resulted in reduced mortality of birds, there is clear evidence that bat mortality at wind turbines is of far greater conservation concern. Bats of certain species are dying by the thousands at turbines across North America, and the species consistently affected tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Turbine-related bat mortalities are now affecting nearly a quarter of all bat species occurring in the United States and Canada. Most documented bat mortality at wind-energy facilities has occurred in late summer and early fall and has involved tree bats, with hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) being the most prevalent among fatalities. This literature synthesis and annotated bibliography focuses on refereed journal publications and theses about bats and wind-energy development in North America (United States and Canada). Thirty-six publications and eight theses were found, and their key findings were summarized. These publications date from 1996 through 2011, with the bulk of publications appearing from 2007 to present, reflecting the relatively recent conservation concerns about bats and wind energy. The idea for this Open-File Report formed while organizing a joint U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/U.S. Geological Survey "Bats and Wind Energy Workshop," on January 25-26, 2012. The purposes of the workshop were to develop a list of research priorities to support decision making concerning bats with respect to siting and operations of wind-energy facilities across the United
Surlykke, Annemarie; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.
Echolocating bats have successfully exploited a broad range of habitats and prey. Much research has demonstrated how time-frequency structure of echolocation calls of different species is adapted to acoustic constraints of habitats and foraging behaviors. However, the intensity of bat calls has been largely neglected although intensity is a key factor determining echolocation range and interactions with other bats and prey. Differences in detection range, in turn, are thought to constitute a mechanism promoting resource partitioning among bats, which might be particularly important for the species-rich bat assemblages in the tropics. Here we present data on emitted intensities for 11 species from 5 families of insectivorous bats from Panamá hunting in open or background cluttered space or over water. We recorded all bats in their natural habitat in the field using a multi-microphone array coupled with photographic methods to assess the bats' position in space to estimate emitted call intensities. All species emitted intense search signals. Output intensity was reduced when closing in on background by 4–7 dB per halving of distance. Source levels of open space and edge space foragers (Emballonuridae, Mormoopidae, Molossidae, and Vespertilionidae) ranged between 122–134 dB SPL. The two Noctilionidae species hunting over water emitted the loudest signals recorded so far for any bat with average source levels of ca. 137 dB SPL and maximum levels above 140 dB SPL. In spite of this ten-fold variation in emitted intensity, estimates indicated, surprisingly, that detection distances for prey varied far less; bats emitting the highest intensities also emitted the highest frequencies, which are severely attenuated in air. Thus, our results suggest that bats within a local assemblage compensate for frequency dependent attenuation by adjusting the emitted intensity to achieve comparable detection distances for prey across species. We conclude that for bats with similar
Full Text Available Echolocating bats have successfully exploited a broad range of habitats and prey. Much research has demonstrated how time-frequency structure of echolocation calls of different species is adapted to acoustic constraints of habitats and foraging behaviors. However, the intensity of bat calls has been largely neglected although intensity is a key factor determining echolocation range and interactions with other bats and prey. Differences in detection range, in turn, are thought to constitute a mechanism promoting resource partitioning among bats, which might be particularly important for the species-rich bat assemblages in the tropics. Here we present data on emitted intensities for 11 species from 5 families of insectivorous bats from Panamá hunting in open or background cluttered space or over water. We recorded all bats in their natural habitat in the field using a multi-microphone array coupled with photographic methods to assess the bats' position in space to estimate emitted call intensities. All species emitted intense search signals. Output intensity was reduced when closing in on background by 4-7 dB per halving of distance. Source levels of open space and edge space foragers (Emballonuridae, Mormoopidae, Molossidae, and Vespertilionidae ranged between 122-134 dB SPL. The two Noctilionidae species hunting over water emitted the loudest signals recorded so far for any bat with average source levels of ca. 137 dB SPL and maximum levels above 140 dB SPL. In spite of this ten-fold variation in emitted intensity, estimates indicated, surprisingly, that detection distances for prey varied far less; bats emitting the highest intensities also emitted the highest frequencies, which are severely attenuated in air. Thus, our results suggest that bats within a local assemblage compensate for frequency dependent attenuation by adjusting the emitted intensity to achieve comparable detection distances for prey across species. We conclude that for bats
Moss, Cynthia F; Surlykke, Annemarie
-motor behaviors and flight path control, which draw upon 3-D spatial perception, attention, and memory. This article reviews field and laboratory studies that document adaptive sonar behaviors of echolocating bats, and point to the fundamental signal parameters they use to track and sort auditory objects......Bats echolocating in the natural environment face the formidable task of sorting signals from multiple auditory objects, echoes from obstacles, prey, and the calls of conspecifics. Successful orientation in a complex environment depends on auditory information processing, along with adaptive vocal...... in a dynamic environment. We suggest that adaptive sonar behavior provides a window to bats' perception of complex auditory scenes....
Arnone,Ives Simões; Trajano,Eleonora; Pulchério-Leite,Atenisi; Passos,Fernando de Camargo
In Brazil, bat migrations have been inferred based on seasonal variations in bat abundances observed for several species, probably as a result of variations in temperature and food availability. However, direct evidence of individual medium to long distance (> 10 km) movements, based on marked specimens, is restricted to large frugivorous bats, genus Artibeus (Phyllostomidae). We report the longest bat movement recorded in Brazil, along 113 km in a straight line, difference in altitude of 738...
We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parametert:; measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs, and that the time-averaged E obs/peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate
Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.
Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M
Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.
Yin, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Peiwen; Yang, Lili; Müller, Rolf
Horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) and the related Old World leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae) both show conspicuous pinna motions as part of their biosonar behaviors. In the current work, the kinematics of these motions in one species from each family (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Hipposideros armiger) has been analyzed quantitatively using three-dimensional tracking of landmarks placed on the pinna. The pinna motions that were observed in both species fell into two categories: In "rigid rotations" motions the geometry of the pinna was preserved and only its orientation in space was altered. In "open-close motions" the geometry of the pinna was changed which was evident in a change of the distances between the landmark points. A linear discriminant analysis showed that motions from both categories could be separated without any overlap in the analyzed data set. Hence, bats from both species have two separate types of pinna motions with apparently no transitions between them. The deformations associated with open-close pinna motions in Hipposideros armiger were found to be substantially larger compared to the wavelength associated with the largest pulse energy than in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (137% vs 99%). The role of the two different motions in the biosonar behaviors of the animals remains to be determined.
Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo
Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.
Christine V. Portfors
Full Text Available Assessing the composition of an area's bat fauna is typically accomplished by using captures or by monitoring echolocation calls with bat detectors. The two methods may not provide the same data regarding species composition. Mist nets and harp traps may be biased towards sampling low flying species, and bat detectors biased towards detecting high intensity echolocators. A comparison of the bat fauna of Fazenda Intervales, southeastern Brazil, as revealed by mist nets and harp trap captures, checking roosts and by monitoring echolocation calls of flying bats illustrates this point. A total of 17 species of bats was sampled. Fourteen bat species were captured and the echolocation calls of 12 species were recorded, three of them not revealed by mist nets or harp traps. The different sampling methods provided different pictures of the bat fauna. Phyllostomid bats dominated the catches in mist nets, but in the field their echolocation calls were never detected. No single sampling approach provided a complete assessment of the bat fauna in the study area. In general, bats producing low intensity echolocation calls, such as phyllostomids, are more easily assessed by netting, and bats producing high intensity echolocation calls are better surveyed by bat detectors. The results demonstrate that a combined and varied approach to sampling is required for a complete assessment of the bat fauna of an area.
Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo
Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029
Moskaluk, Alexandra E; Stuckey, Matthew J; Jaffe, David A; Kasten, Rickie W; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Olave-Leyva, José Ignacio; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; García-Flores, María Martha; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; García-Baltazar, Anahí; Chomel, Bruno B
Bartonellae are emerging blood-borne bacteria that have been recovered from a wide range of mammalian species and arthropod vectors around the world. Bats are now recognized as a potential wildlife reservoir for a diverse number of Bartonella species, including the zoonotic Candidatus B. mayotimonensis. These bat-borne Bartonella species have also been detected in the obligate ectoparasites of bats, such as blood-feeding flies, which could transmit these bacteria within bat populations. To better understand this potential for transmission, we investigated the relatedness between Bartonella detected or isolated from bat hosts sampled in Mexico and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. were identified in bat flies collected on two bat species, with the highest prevalence in Trichobius parasiticus and Strebla wiedemanni collected from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). When comparing Bartonella sequences from a fragment of the citrate synthase gene (gltA), vector-associated strains were diverse and generally close to, but distinct from, those recovered from their bacteremic bat hosts in Mexico. Complete Bartonella sequence concordance was observed in only one bat-vector pair. The diversity of Bartonella strains in bat flies reflects the frequent host switch by bat flies, as they usually do not live permanently on their bat host. It may also suggest a possible endosymbiotic relationship with these vectors for some of the Bartonella species carried by bat flies, whereas others could have a mammalian host.
Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Rahola, Nil; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Yangari, Patrick; Prugnolle, Franck; Maganga, Gael Darren; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Fontenille, Didier; Ayala, Diego; Paupy, Christophe
Evidence of haemosporidian infections in bats and bat flies has motivated a growing interest in characterizing their transmission cycles. In Gabon (Central Africa), many caves house massive colonies of bats that are known hosts of Polychromophilus Dionisi parasites, presumably transmitted by blood-sucking bat flies. However, the role of bat flies in bat malaria transmission remains under-documented. An entomological survey was carried out in four caves in Gabon to investigate bat fly diversity, infestation rates and host preferences and to determine their role in Polychromophilus parasite transmission. Bat flies were sampled for 2-4 consecutive nights each month from February to April 2011 (Faucon and Zadie caves) and from May 2012 to April 2013 (Kessipoughou and Djibilong caves). Bat flies isolated from the fur of each captured bat were morphologically identified and screened for infection by haemosporidian parasites using primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Among the 1,154 bats captured and identified as Miniopterus inflatus Thomas (n = 354), Hipposideros caffer Sundevall complex (n = 285), Hipposideros gigas Wagner (n = 317), Rousettus aegyptiacus Geoffroy (n = 157, and Coleura afra Peters (n = 41), 439 (38.0 %) were infested by bat flies. The 1,063 bat flies recovered from bats belonged to five taxa: Nycteribia schmidlii scotti Falcoz, Eucampsipoda africana Theodor, Penicillidia fulvida Bigot, Brachytarsina allaudi Falcoz and Raymondia huberi Frauenfeld group. The mean infestation rate varied significantly according to the bat species (ANOVA, F (4,75) = 13.15, P bat fly species and host bat species was observed. Polychromophilus melanipherus Dionisi was mainly detected in N. s. scotti and P. fulvida and less frequently in E. africana, R. huberi group and B. allaudi bat flies. These results suggest that N. s. scotti and P. fulvida could potentially be involved in P. melanipherus transmission among cave-dwelling bats
The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a small, tree roosting species found throughout the eastern United States that is federally listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Although their major hibernacula are protected, information on...
Mikula, P.; Morelli, Federico; Lučan, R. K.; Jones, D. N.; Tryjanowski, P.
Roč. 46, č. 3 (2016), s. 160-174 ISSN 0305-1838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : avian predation hypothesis * bats * diurnal birds * nocturnality * predation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.286, year: 2016
Full Text Available We test the hypothesis is that bats using the same area and at the same time would be using similar preys, but they would have different foraging times due to specific differences in biomass. A total of 730 captures was analyzed 13 species of Vespertilionidae and Molossidae bats netted over a small dam in southeastern Brazil from 1993 and 1999. The relationship between the average time of captures and the biomass of the species of Vespertilinidae and Molossidae most frequent (captures > 4 was positive and significant (r = 0.83, p = 0.022, N = 7. Two lines are discussed to answer the longer foraging time for bigger bats: 1 larger insectivorous bats don't consume proportionally larger preys and 2 larger insects are less available.
Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E
The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032
Full Text Available Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed.
Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Konečný, Adam; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 41, - (2010), s. 151-166 ISSN 0024-7774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * North Africa * Western Sahara * distribution * echolocation * Maghreb Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Pylant, Cortney L; Nelson, David M; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Gates, J Edward; Keller, Stephen R
An unanticipated impact of wind-energy development has been large-scale mortality of insectivorous bats. In eastern North America, where mortality rates are among the highest in the world, the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and the eastern red bat (L. borealis) comprise the majority of turbine-associated bat mortality. Both species are migratory tree bats with widespread distributions; however, little is known regarding the geographic origins of bats killed at wind-energy facilities or the diversity and population structure of affected species. We addressed these unknowns by measuring stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ 2 H) and conducting population genetic analyses of bats killed at wind-energy facilities in the central Appalachian Mountains (USA) to determine the summering origins, effective size, structure, and temporal stability of populations. Our results indicate that ~1% of hoary bat mortalities and ~57% of red bat mortalities derive from non-local sources, with no relationship between the proportion of non-local bats and sex, location of mortality, or month of mortality. Additionally, our data indicate that hoary bats in our sample consist of an unstructured population with a small effective size (N e ) and either a stable or declining history. Red bats also showed no evidence of population genetic structure, but in contrast to hoary bats, the diversity contained in our red bat samples is consistent with a much larger N e that reflects a demographic expansion after a bottleneck. These results suggest that the impacts of mortality associated with intensive wind-energy development may affect bat species dissimilarly, with red bats potentially better able to absorb sustained mortality than hoary bats because of their larger N e . Our results provide important baseline data and also illustrate the utility of stable isotopes and population genetics for monitoring bat populations affected by wind-energy development. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.
SILVA, S. S. P.; PERACCHI, A. L.
In the present study visits of phyllostomid bats to the Lafoensia glyptocarpa Kohne flowers were observed at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Itaguaí municipality, Rio de Janeiro state. This tree species present floral characteristics to fit the "chiropterophilous syndrome", encouraging the visit of four species of bats which showed different behavior patterns, according to their size, weight and access to the food resources. Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) showed hovering beha...
Pereira, Maria João Veloso da Costa Ramos, 1976-
Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Bats are the second more diverse mammalian order, reaching their taxonomic and ecological diversity peak in the neotropics, where they play key ecological roles. In spite of this, the factors that affect the distribution, diversity and abundance of bats at different spatial and temporal scales are still poorly known. This dissertation focused on the analysis of such factors. For the s...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study.
Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan
The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This book has something for everyone, from casual seekers of fascinating eye candy to professional scientists interested in the latest discoveries. Without losing sight of how mysterious bats remain despite decades of research, the authors deftly introduce readers to bats and the people who study them. The book is nice to look at, easy to understand, and interesting in many ways. These stories stick in the reader's memory long after being read—a sign of great scientific communication.
Teeling, Emma C
The evolutionary history of laryngeal echolocation is controversial, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie this sense. A recent paper by Li and colleagues is one of the first studies to identify and sequence a gene involved in echolocation in bats -Prestin, the so-called mammalian hearing gene. Phylogenetic analyses show evidence for positive selection acting on this gene in the echolocating lineages and support the convergent evolution of laryngeal echolocation in bats.
Voigt, Christian C; Lewanzik, Daniel
Echolocation is energetically costly for resting bats, but previous experiments suggested echolocation to come at no costs for flying bats. Yet, previous studies did not investigate the relationship between echolocation, flight speed, aerial manoeuvres and metabolism. We re-evaluated the 'no-cost' hypothesis, by quantifying the echolocation pulse rate, the number of aerial manoeuvres (landings and U-turns), and the costs of transport in the 5-g insectivorous bat Rhogeessa io (Vespertilionidae). On average, bats (n = 15) travelled at 1.76 ± 0.36 m s⁻¹ and performed 11.2 ± 6.1 U-turns and 2.8 ± 2.9 ground landings when flying in an octagonal flight cage. Bats made more U-turns with decreasing wing loading (body weight divided by wing area). At flight, bats emitted 19.7 ± 2.7 echolocation pulses s⁻¹ (range 15.3-25.8 pulses s⁻¹), and metabolic rate averaged 2.84 ± 0.95 ml CO₂ min⁻¹, which was more than 16 times higher than at rest. Bats did not echolocate while not engaged in flight. Costs of transport were not related to the rate of echolocation pulse emission or the number of U-turns, but increased with increasing number of landings; probably as a consequence of slower travel speed when staying briefly on ground. Metabolic power of flight was lower than predicted for R. io under the assumption that energetic costs of echolocation call production is additive to the aerodynamic costs of flight. Results of our experiment are consistent with the notion that echolocation does not add large energetic costs to the aerodynamic power requirements of flight in bats.
Christian C Voigt
Full Text Available Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius' bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way.
Jonasson, Kristin A; Willis, Craig K R
Hibernation physiology and energy expenditure have been relatively well studied in large captive hibernators, especially rodents, but data from smaller, free-ranging hibernators are sparse. We examined variation in the hibernation patterns of free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) using temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters. First, we aimed to test the hypothesis that age, sex and body condition affect expression of torpor and energy expenditure during hibernation. Second, we examined skin temperature to assess whether qualitative differences in the thermal properties of the hibernacula of bats, compared with the burrows of hibernating rodents, might lead to different patterns of torpor and arousal for bats. We also evaluated the impact of carrying transmitters on body condition to help determine the potential impact of telemetry studies. We observed large variation in the duration of torpor bouts within and between individuals but detected no effect of age, sex or body condition on torpor expression or estimates of energy expenditure. We observed the use of shallow torpor in the midst of periodic arousals, which may represent a unique adaptation of bats for conservation of energy during the most costly phase of hibernation. There was no difference in the body condition of hibernating bats outfitted with transmitters compared with that of control bats captured from the same hibernaculum at the same time. This study provides new information on the energetics of hibernation in an under-represented taxon and baseline data important for understanding how white-nose syndrome, a new disease devastating populations of hibernating bats in North America, may alter the expression of hibernation in affected bats.
minimising the occurrence of errors. Centered around metabarcoding dietary studies of bat droppings and leech gut contents, this continuous exploration and refinement is reflected in both the work and structure of this thesis. After a thesis introduction and two chapters on environmental DNA and biodiversity......DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies such as biodiversity and diet studies. To reveal the diversity in environmental samples such as soil, water, and faeces, this approach principally employs PCR amplification of environmental DNA...... to detect diversity in environmental samples. Furthermore, the increasing number of studies and the range of questions addressed through the use of metabarcoding highlight the importance of continuous exploration and refinement of the approach with the overall aim to optimise diversity detection while...
Powell, Meredith; Cappelluti, Nico; Urry, Meg; Koss, Michael; BASS Team
We characterize the environments of local growing supermassive black holes by measuring the clustering of AGN in the Swift-BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). With 548 AGN in the redshift range 0.01
Voigt, Ch.C.; Dechmann, D.K.N.; Dechmann, D.K.N.; Kunz, Th.H.; Bender, J.; Rinehart, B.J.; Michener, R.H.
Unlike most terrestrial mammals, female bats must supply their offspring with all required nutrients until pups achieve virtually adult size, at which time they are able to fly and become independent. Access to nutrients may be especially challenging for reproductively active females in mineral-poor landscapes such as tropical rain forests. We hypothesized that pregnant and lactating females from tropical landscapes acquire essential nutrients from locally-available mineral licks. We captured ten times as many bats at mineral licks than at control sites in a lowland rain forest in eastern Ecuador. Among bats captured at mineral licks, the sex ratio was heavily biased toward females, and a significantly higher portion of females captured at these sites, compared to control sites, were reproductively active (pregnant and lactating). Enrichment of N 15 in relation to N 14 in wing tissue indicated that bats captured at mineral licks were mostly fruit-eating species. Given the high visitation rates of reproductive active females at mineral licks, it is likely that mineral licks are important for fruit-eating female bats as a mineral source during late pregnancy and lactation. By sustaining high population densities of fruit-eating bats that disperse seeds, mineral licks may have an indirect influence on local plant species richness.
Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R
Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations.
Christian C. Voigt
Full Text Available Unlike most terrestrial mammals, female bats must supply their offspring with all required nutrients until pups achieve virtually adult size, at which time they are able to fly and become independent. Access to nutrients may be especially challenging for reproductively active females in mineral-poor landscapes such as tropical rainforests. We hypothesized that pregnant and lactating females from tropical landscapes acquire essential nutrients from locally-available mineral licks. We captured ten times as many bats at mineral licks than at control sites in a lowland rainforest in eastern Ecuador. Among bats captured at mineral licks, the sex ratio was heavily biased toward females, and a significantly higher portion of females captured at these sites, compared to control sites, were reproductively active (pregnant and lactating. Enrichment of N15 in relation to N14 in wing tissue indicated that bats captured at mineral licks were mostly fruit-eating species. Given the high visitation rates of reproductive active females at mineral licks, it is likely that mineral licks are important for fruit-eating female bats as a mineral source during late pregnancy and lactation. By sustaining high population densities of fruit-eating bats that disperse seeds, mineral licks may have an indirect influence on local plant species richness.
Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R
Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations
Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic agents, virtually nothing is known about the host/virus relationships; principally because few colonies of bats are available for experimental infections, a lack of reagents, methods and expertise for studying bat antiviral responses and immunology, and the difficulty of conducting meaningful field work. These challenges can be addressed, in part, with new technologies that are species-independent that can provide insight into the interactions of bats and viruses, which should clarify how the viruses persist in nature, and what risk factors might facilitate transmission to humans and livestock. PMID:25494448
Full Text Available Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic agents, virtually nothing is known about the host/virus relationships; principally because few colonies of bats are available for experimental infections, a lack of reagents, methods and expertise for studying bat antiviral responses and immunology, and the difficulty of conducting meaningful field work. These challenges can be addressed, in part, with new technologies that are species-independent that can provide insight into the interactions of bats and viruses, which should clarify how the viruses persist in nature, and what risk factors might facilitate transmission to humans and livestock.
Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Surlykke, Annemarie
Most echolocating bats exhibit a strong correlation between body size and the frequency of maximum energy in their echolocation calls (peak frequency), with smaller species using signals of higher frequency than larger ones. Size-signal allometry or acoustic detection constraints imposed on wavel......Most echolocating bats exhibit a strong correlation between body size and the frequency of maximum energy in their echolocation calls (peak frequency), with smaller species using signals of higher frequency than larger ones. Size-signal allometry or acoustic detection constraints imposed...... on wavelength by preferred prey size have been used to explain this relationship. Here we propose the hypothesis that smaller bats emit higher frequencies to achieve directional sonar beams, and that variable beam width is critical for bats. Shorter wavelengths relative to the size of the emitter translate...... into more directional sound beams. Therefore, bats that emit their calls through their mouths should show a relationship between mouth size and wavelength, driving smaller bats to signals of higher frequency. We found that in a flight room mimicking a closed habitat, six aerial hawking vespertilionid...
Full Text Available Classification of plants according to their echoes is an elementary component of bat behavior that plays an important role in spatial orientation and food acquisition. Vegetation echoes are, however, highly complex stochastic signals: from an acoustical point of view, a plant can be thought of as a three-dimensional array of leaves reflecting the emitted bat call. The received echo is therefore a superposition of many reflections. In this work we suggest that the classification of these echoes might not be such a troublesome routine for bats as formerly thought. We present a rather simple approach to classifying signals from a large database of plant echoes that were created by ensonifying plants with a frequency-modulated bat-like ultrasonic pulse. Our algorithm uses the spectrogram of a single echo from which it only uses features that are undoubtedly accessible to bats. We used a standard machine learning algorithm (SVM to automatically extract suitable linear combinations of time and frequency cues from the spectrograms such that classification with high accuracy is enabled. This demonstrates that ultrasonic echoes are highly informative about the species membership of an ensonified plant, and that this information can be extracted with rather simple, biologically plausible analysis. Thus, our findings provide a new explanatory basis for the poorly understood observed abilities of bats in classifying vegetation and other complex objects.
Jiang, Tinglei; Wu, Hui; Feng, Jiang
Evolutionary biologists have a long-standing interest in how acoustic signals in animals vary geographically, because divergent ecology and sensory perception play an important role in speciation. Geographic comparisons are valuable in determining the factors that influence divergence of acoustic signals. Bats are social mammals and they depend mainly on echolocation pulses to locate prey, to navigate and to communicate. Mounting evidence shows that geographic variation of bat echolocation pulses is common, with a mean 5-10 kHz differences in peak frequency, and a high level of individual variation may be nested in this geographical variation. However, understanding the geographic variation of echolocation pulses in bats is very difficult, because of differences in sample and statistical analysis techniques as well as the variety of factors shaping the vocal geographic evolution. Geographic differences in echolocation pulses of bats generally lack latitudinal, longitudinal and elevational patterns, and little is known about vocal dialects. Evidence is accumulating to support the fact that geographic variation in echolocation pulses of bats may be caused by genetic drift, cultural drift, ecological selection, sexual selection and social selection. Future studies could relate geographic differences in echolocation pulses to social adaptation, vocal learning strategies and patterns of dispersal. In addition, new statistical techniques and acoustic playback experiments may help to illustrate the causes and consequences of the geographic evolution of echolocation pulse in bats. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.