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Sample records for basophil activation test

  1. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  2. Basophil markers for identification and activation in the indirect basophil activation test by flow cytometry for diagnosis of autoimmune urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Zehwan; Choi, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Kun; Won, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    The indirect basophil activation test using flow cytometry is a promising tool for autoimmune urticaria diagnosis. We aimed to identify better donor basophils (from atopic vs. non-atopic donors and interleukin-3 primed vs. unprimed basophils) and improve basophil identification and activation markers (eotaxin CC chemokine receptor-3 [CCR3] vs. CD123 and CD63 vs. CD203c). Donor basophils were obtained from non-atopic and atopic group O donors. Positive control sera were artificially prepared to simulate autoimmune urticaria patients' sera. Patient sera were obtained from nine children with chronic urticaria. Assay sensitivity was compared among each variation by using positive control sera (n=21), applying cutoff values defined from negative control sera (n=20). For basophil identification, a combination of CCR3 and CD123 markers revealed a higher correlation with automated complete blood count (r=0.530) compared with that observed using CD123 (r=0.498) or CCR3 alone (r=0.195). Three activation markers on the atopic donor basophils attained 100% assay sensitivity: CD203c on unprimed basophils, CD63+CD203+ or CD63 alone on primed basophils; however, these markers on the non-atopic donor basophils attained lower assay sensitivity. For basophil identification markers, a combination of CD123 and CCR3 is recommended, while CD123 alone may be used as an alternative. Donor basophils should be obtained from an atopic donor. For basophil activation markers, either CD203c alone on unprimed basophils or CD203c and CD63 on primed basophils are recommended, while CD63 alone on primed basophils may be used as an alternative.

  3. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  4. Flow-assisted basophil activation tests in immediate drug hypersensitivity: two decades of Antwerp experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangodt, E A; Van Gasse, A L; Bastiaensen, A; Decuyper, I I; Uyttebroek, A; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2016-02-01

    The last two decades have witnessed that flow-assisted analysis of in vitro-activated basophils can constitute a valuable adjunct in the in vitro diagnostic approach of immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHR). This article summarises the current experience with the basophil activation test in the diagnosis of IDHR, with particular focus on allergy to curarising neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics (β-lactams and fluoroquinolones), iodinated radiocontrast media and opiates.

  5. The usefulness of the basophil activation test in monitoring specific immunotherapy with house dust mite allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnobilska, Ewa M.; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    Introduction In clinical practice, reliable tools for monitoring specific immunotherapy (SIT) are of utmost importance. Aim To assess the usefulness of the basophil activation test (BAT) in monitoring SIT in paediatric patients with allergy to house dust mites (HDM). Material and methods Thirty-one children qualified for SIT with HDM, of whom 21 completed the SIT during the observation period. The BAT was carried out prior to commencing the SIT (time point BAT1) and upon finishing the initial pack of allergy vaccine (cumulative dose of allergen 12487.5 PNU; BAT2), as well as after the second vaccine pack (cumulative dose of allergen 23750.0 PNU; BAT3). Peripheral blood of the patients was stimulated with allergen solutions in five concentrations from 0.00225 ng/ml to 22.5 ng/ml. Basophil activation was measured by CD63 expression in flow cytometry. Results For the allergen concentration of 0.225 ng/ml, a statistically significant decrease in median basophil activation was observed, from 51.29% at BAT1 to 8.48% at BAT2 (p = 0.004) and 4.21% at BAT3 (p < 0.001). For the allergen concentration of 0.0225 ng/ml, a statistically significant decrease was seen between BAT1 (1.72%) and BAT3 (0.21%, p = 0.01). Median CD-sens index decreased significantly from 1099.02 at BAT1 to 179.31 at BAT2 (p < 0.002) and 168.04 at BAT3 (p < 0.001). Conclusions There is a significant decrease in BAT results in the course of specific immunotherapy with HDM allergens in children, with the optimum allergen concentration for monitoring basophil response at 0.225 ng/ml. The CD-sens index seems to be a better monitoring parameter than the plain percentage of CD63-expressing basophils. PMID:29599678

  6. The basophil activation test: a sensitive test in the diagnosis of allergic immediate hypersensitivity to pristinamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Sébastien; Garnier, Lorna; Joly, Elodie; Rouzaire, Paul; Nosbaum, Audrey; Pralong, Pauline; Faudel, Amélie; Rioufol, Catherine; Bienvenu, Françoise; Bienvenu, Jacques; Berard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity (IHS) reactions to macrolides and to macrolide-derived antibiotics like pristinamycin are uncommon. In this context, there is little data available to appreciate the true value of biological tools regarding the diagnosis of immediate allergy to pristinamycin. Here we assess the clinical usefulness of the basophil activation test (BAT) to differentiate allergic from nonallergic IHS to pristinamycin. Thirty-six patients were tested with skin tests as the gold standard and BAT. The BAT achieved a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 100%, implying an absence of false positive results. Multicenter studies remain to be performed to better define the sensitivity, specificity and interlaboratory variation of BAT in the diagnosis of allergy to pristinamycin and macrolides. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A comparative study on basophil activation test, histamine release assay, and passive sensitization histamine release assay in the diagnosis of peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, L. F.; Juel-Berg, N.; Hansen, K. S.; Clare Mills, E. N.; van Ree, R.; Poulsen, L. K.; Jensen, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundAllergy can be diagnosed using basophil tests. Several methods measuring basophil activation are available. This study aimed at comparing basophil activation test (BAT), histamine release assay (HR), and passive sensitization histamine release assay (passive HR) in the diagnosis of peanut

  8. Basophil activation test for inhalant allergens in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulur, Ismail; Kiykim, Ayca; Baris, Safa; Ozen, Ahmet; Yuce, Ezgi Gizem; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif

    2017-06-01

    Flow cytometric quantification of in vitro basophil activation can be quite performant and reliable tool to measure IgE-dependent allergen-specific responses in allergic patients. Current study aimed to evaluate the clinical relevance of basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of pediatric grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) allergies. Forty-seven patients suffering from allergic rhinitis with HDM and grass pollen co-sensitization with clinical history of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma and 15 non-allergic healthy subjects were enrolled. BAT was determined by flow cytometry upon double staining with anti-IgE/anti-CD63 mAb. Regarding HDM with cut-off point greater than 12.5% for CD63 + basophils sensitivity and specificity of the BAT were 90% and 73%, with positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) as 0.70 and 0.91, respectively. The analysis of concordance of being either allergic or healthy in comparison to BAT results for HDM revealed a substantial concordance (κ index = 0.61, p allergic or healthy in comparison to BAT results for grass pollen revealed an almost perfect concordance (κ index = 0.87, p allergic children was found to be remarkably higher in our cohort compared to other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Utility of basophil activation testing to assess perioperative anaphylactic reactions in real-world practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Bernadette; Wigand, Sibylle; Lewald, Heidrun; Kochs, Eberhard; Ring, Johannes; Biedermann, Tilo; Darsow, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic reactions due to drugs and substances associated with general anesthesia can potentially be life-threatening. The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of the basophil activation test (BAT) for allergy diagnosis work up. A total of 14 patients (5 men, 9 women; mean age: 57.8 years) with clinical records of anaphylactic reactions under general anesthesia were studied by means of anesthesia records, skin and serological tests. Eleven healthy subjects without any history of allergic sensitization to anaesthetic drugs served as controls. BATs based on stimulation of whole blood cells measuring CD63 activation of basophils and using CCR3 as basophil marker by flow cytometry (Flow CAST®, BÜHLMANN Laboratories AG, Schönenbuch, Switzerland) were performed with the following substances (in dependence on the history and the skin tests of the patient): analgesics (acetylsalicylic acid, celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indometacin, metamizole, paracetamol, propyphenazone, tramadol), antibiotics (PPL (benzylpenicilloyl polylysine), MDM (minor determinant mixture), amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, roxithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim), local anesthetics (articaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, prilocaine, procaine, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate), narcotics and NMBA (atracurium, cisatracurium, etomidate, neostigmine, midazolam, mivacurium, pancuronium, propofol, pyridostigmine, succinylcholine, sufentanil, thiopental, vecuronium), and other individual substances. Three patients showed positive results in the BAT: One to metamizole, one to PPL, and one to pancuronium. BATs with these substances were negative in controls. The BAT should be used complementary to skin tests, especially if IgE-mediated mechanisms are presumed and skin tests are inconclusive. A positive reaction in BAT identifies the culprit agent with high probability. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published

  10. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT.

  11. Diagnostic tests based on human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Erdmann, Stephan; Knol, Edward F

    2006-01-01

    -maximal responses, termed 'intrinsic sensitivity'. These variables give rise to shifts in the dose-response curves which, in a diagnostic setting where only a single antigen concentration is employed, may produce false-negative data. Thus, in order to meaningfully utilize the current basophil activation tests....... Diagnostic studies using CD63 or CD203c in hymenoptera, food and drug allergy are critically discussed. Basophil-based tests are indicated for allergy testing in selected cases but should only be performed by experienced laboratories....

  12. [The role of the basophil activation test (BAT) in qualification for specific immunotherapy with inhalant allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanda, Małgorzata; Dyga, Wojciech; Rusinek, Barbara; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    Qualification for specific immunotherapy (SIT) according to the guidelines of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) includes medical history, skin prik tests (SPT) and/or measuring the concentration of sIgE. It is necessary to perform additional diagnostic tests in case of discrepancies between the history and the results of SPT/sIgE or differences between SPT and sIgE. Basophil activation test (BAT) assesses the expression of activation markers of these cells, eg. CD63 and CD203c after stimulation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAT in the qualification for the SIT in comparison to the SPT and sIgE and in case of discrepancies between the results of SPT and sIgE. The study included 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) caused by allergy to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dp) or birch pollen qualified for SIT. All patients had SPT, sIgE and BAT determination. The group of patients with allergy to birch was a control group for Dp allergic and vice versa. BAT with CD63 antigen expression was performed using a Flow2CAST test. Basophils were stimulated with allergen preparation (50, 500, and 5000 SBU/ml concentrations). BAT results were expressed as a stimulation index (SI). For optimal concentrations of 50 and 500 SBU/ml parameters comparing BAT to SPT and sIgE as the gold standards were consecutively: sensitivity 82-100% and 93-100%, specificity 50-94% and 47-89%, positive predictive value 65- 94% and 61-87%, negative predictive value 86-100% and 93-100%. Correlation BAT - SPT and BAT - sIgE ranged within 0.59 to 0.84 and 0.51 to 0.72. BAT was helpful in 2 of 30 patients with incompatible results of SPT and sIgE. Optimal concentrations for basophil stimulation are 50 and 500 SBU/ ml. BAT may be useful diagnostic tool in the qualification for the SIT in case of discrepancies between the results of SPT and sIgE.

  13. The diagnostic value of basophil activation test in patients with an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to radiocontrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnobphun, Panwas; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Kampitak, Thatchai; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong

    2011-05-01

    No available test diagnoses allergic reactions to radiocontrast media (RCM). The basophil activation test (BAT) has been introduced for the diagnosis of both immunoglobulin (Ig) E and non-IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation, but its value to diagnose immediate RCM reactions is still unknown. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of BAT in immediate RCM hypersensitivity. The BATs were performed in 26 patients with immediate RCM reactions and in 43 specimens from healthy volunteers. The sample's whole blood was incubated with the responsible RCM and % activated (CD63+/CCR3+) basophils were analyzed by flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal cutoff value of activated basophils to diagnose patients with RCM hypersensitivity. The incubation of blood with RCM yielded significantly higher activated basophil percentages in patients with a history of immediate RCM reactions than in normal controls with both 1:100 and 1:10 dilutions (13.11% vs. 2.71%, P value = .01; and 19.23% vs. 3.73%, P = .001, respectively). Both % activated basophils and stimulation index (SI) had acceptable discrimination powers to diagnose RCM hypersensitivity. The area under the curve was 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.91, P = .000) by using SI as the diagnostic criteria with 1:100 dilution of RCM. The specificity of the test ranged from 88.4% to 100%. Our study demonstrated the potential of BAT as a diagnostic tool for an immediate RCM hypersensitivity, particularly as a confirmation test. Further studies are required to confirm the test accuracy and identify a patient's predisposing factors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Usefulness of basophil activation test for the diagnosis of IgE mediated hypersensitivity to tetanus toxoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, Blanca; Méndez, Yesica; Feo-Brito, Francisco; Urra, José Miguel

    2018-03-01

    A great number of vaccinated patients develop specific anti-tetanus toxoid IgE, but usually do not undergo any adverse effect. Most of the allergic reactions to tetanus toxoid vaccine usually present with unspecific symptoms of local inflammation. In the presence of severe reactions, and in a special way if the vaccine is provided together with other drugs, it is difficult to establish which is the harmful drug responsible for IgE-mediated adverse reaction. A patient with an anaphylactic reaction after the administration of Toxoid Tetanic (TT) along with several drugs is described. All skin test were negative. The basophils activation test (BAT) in a clear way, identified TT as the allergen that triggered anaphylaxis. The results achieved demonstrates the usefulness of BAT to clarify patients with hypersensibility to tetanus toxoide when the clinic is severe and the vaccine has been administered together with other drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Basophil Activation Test Can Be of Value for Diagnosing Immediate Allergic Reactions to Omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Jose J; Bogas, Gador; Salas, Maria; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Dionicio, Javier; Gonzalez-Mendiola, Rosario; Ariza, Adriana; Fernández-Santamaría, Ruben; Olazabal, Isabel; Doña, Inmaculada; Fernandez, Tahia D; Torres, Maria J

    2018-01-12

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs has risen, likely because of increased consumption. Their diagnosis is difficult, with skin tests (STs) presenting low sensitivity, making it necessary to perform drug provocation tests (DPTs). The value of in vitro tests for the diagnosis of immediate reaction to PPI is unclear. To analyze the diagnostic value of the basophil activation test (BAT) in a group of patients diagnosed with immediate allergy to omeprazole. The study included 42 patients with confirmed immediate allergic reactions to omeprazole confirmed by positive ST results or DPT results and 22 age- and sex-matched subjects tolerant to PPIs. BAT was performed with omeprazole, pantoprazole, and lansoprazole using CD63 and CD203c as activation markers. ST sensitivity was 66.7% with a specificity of 100%. BAT using CD63 with a stimulation index of more than 2 as positive revealed a sensitivity of 73.8%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 66.7%. BAT was positive in 57.1% of patients with negative ST result, and thus by combining ST and BAT we can correctly diagnose 85.7% of patients with immediate allergy to omeprazole. BAT represents a complementary tool for inclusion in the allergological workup for patients allergic to omeprazole. When combined with ST, it can be of value to guide the clinician as to whether to perform a DPT. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual risk assessment in the diagnosis of immediate type drug hypersensitivity reactions to betalactam and non-betalactam antibiotics using basophil activation test: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnes, A; Merk, H F; Wurpts, G; Röseler, S; Lehmann, S; Tenbrock, K; Baron, J M; Balakirski, G

    2018-03-06

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions of immediate type pose a challenging problem, especially, if standard diagnostic procedures do not lead to conclusive results. The aim of this investigation is to identify, whether basophil activation test (BAT) is able to provide additional benefit in the diagnostic evaluation of immediate type drug hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics in comparison to the routine allergological diagnostic methods. We investigated patients, which presented to the Department of Dermatology and Allergology of the University Hospital of RWTH Aachen in Germany for diagnostic workup of type I allergic reactions to antibiotics during the period from 2009 to 2012. The analysis was performed retrospectively based on patient records. The inclusion criteria were performed standard allergological in vivo diagnostic and a basophil activation test (BAT) as a part of diagnostic workup. 82 diagnostic investigations were performed in 52 patients. BAT was positive in 9 of 12 cases with a positive clinical history but negative skin test results. Furthermore, all patients who reported severe drug hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylactic reaction grade 2 and above) showed positive BAT (5/5), while only 3 of these 5 cases demonstrated a positive skin testing that led to the conclusion of possible immediate type drug hypersensitivity. Although skin tests remain the most important part of the primary diagnostic investigation, BAT is an additional valuable and sensitive in vitro test in the diagnostic procedure of immediate type allergic reactions to antibiotics. However, further standardized investigations are needed in order to calculate exact sensitivity and specificity of this diagnostic tool in both, adult and pediatric populations.

  17. Omalizumab may not inhibit mast cell and basophil activation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, J; Ohanyan, T; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Metz, M

    2015-09-01

    In March 2014, omalizumab, a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, was approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). The primary mode of action of omalizumab is considered to be the reduction in free IgE serum levels and the subsequent down-regulation of FcεRI, the high affinity receptor for IgE, on mast cells and basophils. Recently, it has been suggested that most CSU patients have an autoimmune aetiology which may lead to chronic activation of mast cells and basophils. To understand more of the mechanisms by which omalizumab may exert its effects in CSU, its efficacy was tested on human mast cells and basophils. Omalizumab, which was or was not preincubated with serum from healthy donors or CSU patients, was coincubated with isolated healthy donor skin mast cells or peripheral blood-derived monocytes containing 1-2% basophils. Degranulation was induced using anti-human IgE, C5a, or substance P and histamine release determined. Anti-human IgE-induced histamine release from mast cells or basophils was not altered in the presence or absence of omalizumab. In contrast, preincubation of mast cells with DARPin Fc fusion protein, a positive control for negative signalling via FcεRI-FcγRIIb cross activation, significantly diminished histamine release. Moreover, omalizumab, that was preincubated with healthy donor serum, CSU patient serum or auto-reactive CSU serum to allow for the formation of potential immune complexes, did not alter induced histamine release in a coincubation setup with mast cells or basophils as compared to the absence of omalizumab. In vivo, blood basophil numbers and basophil histamine content increase under omalizumab therapy. Our results suggest that the rapid response to omalizumab therapy is more likely to result from the elimination of an activating signal rather than the generation of a negative, inhibitory signal. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. The utility of the basophil activation test in the diagnosis of immediate amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanate hypersensitivity in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Simona; Mori, Francesca; Valleriani, Claudia; Mangone, Giusi; Testi, Sergio; Saretta, Francesca; Sarti, Lucrezia; Pucci, Neri; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio

    2017-04-21

    The basophil activation test (BAT), has been proposed as a possible assay for the diagnosis of immediate-type allergy to beta-lactams (BLs). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of BAT in the diagnosis of amoxicillin (AMX) or AMX-clavulanate (AMX-C) IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in children and adults. Eighteen children and 21 adults, with clinical history of immediate reactions to AMX or AMX-C, were referred to Anna Meyer Children's Hospital and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, respectively. They underwent in vivo tests (skin prick test and intradermal test). Moreover, BAT with AMX or AMX-C was performed within 6 months from the reaction. In the pediatric group, the concordance between the skin tests (ST) and BAT results was 83.3%. Upon comparing the symptom grades and ST results to the BAT results, we found that the reaction severity and ST positivity did not correlate with BAT results in children. In the adult group, the concordance between the ST and BAT results was 61.9%. Upon comparing patients with severe reactions and patients with mild reactions in terms of BAT results, we found a BAT sensitivity of 38.5% and a specificity of 100%. When comparing the symptom grades to the BAT results, we found that no patients with mild symptoms had a positive BAT result, whereas 38.5% of patients with severe symptoms had a positive BAT result. BAT does not seem to be a useful tool to increase the sensitivity of an allergy work-up to diagnose immediate hypersensitivity to AMX or AMX-C.

  19. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1

  20. Analysis of basophil activation by flow cytometry in pediatric house dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Miguel; Villota, Julian; Moneo, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Detection of allergen-induced basophil activation by flow cytometry has been shown to be a useful tool for allergy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of this technique for the diagnosis of pediatric house dust mite allergy. Quantification of total and specific IgE and basophil activation test were performed to evaluate mite allergic (n = 24), atopic (n = 23), and non-allergic children (n = 9). Allergen-induced basophil activation was detected as a CD63-upregulation. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal cut-off value of activated basophils discriminating mite allergic and non-allergic children. ROC curve analysis yielded a threshold value of 18% activated basophils when mite-sensitized and atopic children were studied [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97-1.01, p 43 kU/l) values for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen. They also showed positive prick (wheal diameter >1.0 cm) and basophil activation (>87%) tests and high specific IgE (>100 kU/l) with shrimp allergen. Shrimp sensitization was demonstrated by high levels of Pen a 1-specific IgE (>100 kU/l). Cross-reactivity between mite and shrimp was confirmed by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA-CAP) inhibition study in these two cases. This study demonstrated that the analysis of allergen-induced CD63 upregulation by flow cytometry is a reliable tool for diagnosis of mite allergy in pediatric patients, with sensitivity similar to routine diagnostic tests and a higher specificity. Furthermore, this method can provide additional information in case of disagreement between in vivo and in vitro test results.

  1. Changes in basophil activation during immunotherapy with house dust mite and mugwort in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Soon-Hee; Chung, Soo-Jie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Byung-Keun; Lim, Kyung-Whan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2018-01-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) is a promising tool for monitoring allergen-specific immunotherapy responses. We aimed to investigate the changes in basophil activation in response to the inhalant allergens of house dust mite (HDM) and mugwort pollen during immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis. We enrolled patients with allergic rhinitis who were to receive subcutaneous immunotherapy for the inhalant allergens HDM or mugwort. A BAT was performed to assess CD63 upregulation in response to allergen stimulation using peripheral blood collected from the patients prior to immunotherapy and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after beginning immunotherapy. Rhinitis symptoms were evaluated using the rhinitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) at 1-year intervals. Seventeen patients (10 with HDM sensitivity, 3 with mugwort sensitivity, and 4 with sensitivity to both HDM and mugwort) were enrolled in the study. Basophil reactivity to HDM did not change significantly during 24 months of immunotherapy. However, a significant reduction in basophil reactivity to mugwort was observed at 24-month follow-up. There was no significant association between the change in clinical symptoms by RQLQ and the change in basophil reactivity to either allergen. The change in allergen-specific basophil reactivity to HDM was well correlated with the change in nonspecific basophil activation induced by anti-FcεRI antibody, although basophil reactivity to anti-FcεRI antibody was not significantly reduced during immunotherapy. Suppression of CD63 upregulation in the BAT was only observed with mugwort at 2-year follow-up. However, the basophil response did not reflect the clinical response to immunotherapy.

  2. Double positivity to bee and wasp venom: improved diagnostic procedure by recombinant allergen-based IgE testing and basophil activation test including data about cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Bernadette; Krischan, Lilian; Darsow, Ulf; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to both bee and wasp venom can be due to a sensitivity to both insect venoms or due to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Investigating whether a basophil activation test (BAT) with both venoms as well as with bromelain and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or recombinant allergen-based IgE testing can improve the diagnostic procedure. Twenty-two Hymenoptera-venom allergic patients with sIgE antibodies to both bee and wasp venom were studied. sIgE antibodies to MUXF3 CCD, bromelain, HRP, rApi m 1, and rVes v 5 were determined, and a BAT (Flow2 CAST) with venom extracts, bromelain, and HRP was performed. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing was done by using an ELISA, if required. The reactivity of basophils was calculated from the insect venom concentration at half-maximum stimulation. Double positivity/double negativity/single positivity to rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 was seen in 12/1/9 patients. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing in the last ones revealed positive results to the other venom in all cases except one. BAT was double positive/double negative/single positive in 6/2/14 patients. Four patients with negative results in sIgE antibodies to CCDs had positive results in BAT. BAT with bromelain/HRP showed a sensitivity of 50%/81% and a specificity of 91%/90%. Component-resolved IgE testing elucidates the pattern of double positivity, showing a majority of true double sensitizations independent of CCD sensitization. BAT seems to add more information about the culprit insect even if the true clinical relevance of BAT is not completely determined because of ethical limitations on diagnostic sting challenges. BAT with HRP is a good method to determine sensitivity to CCDs. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of allergen-induced basophil activation by ASM-024, a nicotinic receptor ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brittany M; Oliveria, John Paul; Nusca, Graeme M; Smith, Steven G; Beaudin, Sue; Dua, Benny; Watson, Rick M; Assayag, Evelynne Israël; Cormier, Yvon F; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were identified on eosinophils and shown to regulate inflammatory responses, but nAChR expression on basophils has not been explored yet. We investigated surface receptor expression of nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 subunits on basophils. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ASM-024, a synthetic nicotinic ligand, on in vitro anti-IgE and in vivo allergen-induced basophil activation. Basophils were enriched from the peripheral blood of allergic donors and the expression of nAChR subunits and muscarinic receptors was determined. Purified basophils were stimulated with anti-IgE in the presence of ASM-024 with or without muscarinic or nicotinic antagonists for the measurement of CD203c expression and histamine release. The effect of 9 days of treatment with 50 and 200 mg ASM-024 on basophil CD203c expression was examined in the blood of mild allergic asthmatics before and after allergen inhalation challenge. nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 receptor subunit expression was detected on basophils. Stimulation of basophils with anti-IgE increased CD203c expression and histamine release, which was inhibited by ASM-024 (10(-5) to 10(-)(3) M, p ASM-024 was reversed in the presence of muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. In subjects with mild asthma, ASM-024 inhalation significantly inhibited basophil CD203c expression measured 24 h after allergen challenge (p = 0.03). This study shows that ASM-024 inhibits IgE- and allergen-induced basophil activation through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and suggests that ASM-024 may be an efficacious agent for modulating allergic asthma responses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Inhibition of basophil activation by histamine: a sensitive and reproducible model for the study of the biological activity of high dilutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainte-Laudy, J; Belon, Ph

    2009-10-01

    At the beginning of this series of experiments we were looking for a model based on the use of purified commercially available compounds based on a fully described and accepted pharmacological model to study of the biological effect of high dilutions. Negative feedback induced by histamine, a major pro-inflammatory mediator, on basophils and mast cells activation via an H2 receptor me these criteria. The simplest way of measuring basophil activation in the early 1980's was the human basophil activation test (HBDT). Our major goal was first to study the biological effect of centesimal histamine dilutions beyond the Avogadro limit, on the staining properties of human basophils activated by an allergen extract initially house dust mite, then an anti-IgE and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). Technical development over the 25 years of our work led us to replace the manual basophil counting by flow cytometry. The main advantages were automation and observer independence. Using this latter protocol our aim was to confirm the existence of this phenomenon and to check its specificity by testing, under the same conditions, inactive analogues of histamine and histamine antagonists. More recently, we developed an animal model (mouse basophils) to study the effect of histamine on histamine release. For the HBDT model basophils were obtained by sedimentation of human blood taken on EDTA and stained with Alcian blue. Results were expressed in percentage activation. Histamine dilutions tested were freshly prepared in the lab by successive centesimal dilutions and vortexing. Water controls were prepared in the same way. For the flow cytometric protocol basophils were first labeled by an anti-IgE FITC (basophil marker) and an anti-CD63 (basophil activation marker). Results were expressed in percentage of CD63 positive basophils. Another flow cytometric protocol has been developed more recently, based on basophil labeling by anti-IgE FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and anti-CD203 PE

  5. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  6. Activation of basophils is a new and sensitive marker of biocompatibility in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadi, Zenib; Mansouri, Ladan; Nopp, Anna; Paulsson, Josefin M; Winqvist, Ola; Russom, Aman; Ståhl, Mårten; Hylander, Britta; Jacobson, Stefan H; Lundahl, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    The hemodialysis procedure involves contact between peripheral blood and the surface of dialyzer membranes, which may lead to alterations in the pathways of innate and adaptive immunity. We aimed to study the effect of blood-membrane interaction on human peripheral basophils and neutrophils in hemodialysis with high- and low-permeability polysulfone dialyzers. The surface expression of CD203c (basophil selection marker) and CD63 (activation marker) after activation by the bacterial peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or anti-Fcε receptor I (FcεRI) antibody and the absolute number of basophils was investigated before and after hemodialysis with each of the dialyzers. Moreover, the expression on neutrophils of CD11b, the CD11b active epitope, and CD88 was analyzed in the same groups of individuals. The expression of CD63 in basophils following activation by fMLP was significantly higher in the patient group compared with that in healthy controls, but no differences were observed after activation by anti-FcεRI. During the hemodialysis procedure, the low-flux membrane induced up-regulation of CD63 expression on basophils, while passage through the high-flux membrane did not significantly alter the responsiveness. In addition, the absolute number of basophils was unchanged after hemodialysis with either of the dialyzers and compared with healthy controls. We found no significant differences in the expression of the neutrophil activation markers (CD11b, the active epitope of CD11b, and CD88) comparing the two different dialyzers before and after dialysis and healthy controls. Together, these findings suggest that alterations in basophil activity may be a useful marker of membrane bioincompatibility in hemodialysis. © 2014 The Authors. Artificial Organs published by The International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Regulation and kinetics of platelet-activating factor and leukotriene C-4 synthesis by activated human basophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, W. J.; Homburg, C. H. E.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Knol, E. F.; Mul, F. P. J.; Roos, D.; Tool, A. T. J.

    2003-01-01

    Background Allergic disease is the result of an interplay of many different cell types, including basophils and mast cells, in combination with various inflammatory lipid mediators, such as platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotrienes (LT). LTC4 synthesis by human basophils has been studied

  8. "Auto-anti-IgE": naturally occurring IgG anti-IgE antibodies may inhibit allergen-induced basophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yih-Chih; Ramadani, Faruk; Santos, Alexandra F; Pillai, Prathap; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Harper, Clare E; Fang, Cailong; Dodev, Tihomir S; Wu, Shih-Ying; Ying, Sun; Corrigan, Christopher J; Gould, Hannah J

    2014-12-01

    Naturally occurring IgE-specific IgG autoantibodies have been identified in patients with asthma and other diseases, but their spectrum of functions is poorly understood. Address the hypothesis that: (i) IgG anti-IgE autoantibodies are detectable in the serum of all subjects but elevated in asthmatic patients regardless of atopic status as compared with controls; (ii) some activate IgE-sensitized basophils; and (iii) some inhibit allergen-induced basophil activation. IgE-specific IgG autoantibodies were detected and quantified in sera using ELISA. Sera were examined for their ability to activate IgE-sensitized human blood basophils in the presence and absence of allergen using a basophil activation test, and to inhibit allergen binding to specific IgE on a rat basophilic cell line stably expressing human FcεRI. IgG autoantibodies binding to both free and FcεRI-bound IgE were detected in patients with atopic and non-atopic asthma, as well as controls. While some were able to activate IgE-sensitised basophils, others inhibited allergen-induced basophil activation, at least partly by inhibiting binding of IgE to specific allergen. Naturally occurring IgG anti-IgE autoantibodies may inhibit, as well as induce, basophil activation. They act in a manner distinct from therapeutic IgG anti-IgE antibodies such as omalizumab. They may at least partly explain why atopic subjects who make allergen-specific IgE never develop clinical symptoms, and why omalizumab therapy is of variable clinical benefit in severe atopic asthma. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low level of circulating basophil counts in biopsy-proven active lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peifen; Tang, Ying; Lin, Liu; Zhong, Haowen; Yang, Hui; Zeng, Yuchun; Lv, Jun; Li, Xiaomei; Lu, Yanying; Xu, Anping

    2018-02-01

    Basophils have been shown to be important players in promoting lupus nephritis (LN). However, the relationship between circulating basophil counts and renal pathology activity of LN remains unclear. In this retrospective study, 159 clinical and pathology samples from patients with biopsy-proven LN were analyzed. The renal activity and classification were evaluated according to renal pathology. The correlations between circulating basophil counts and renal pathology activity index were assessed. Overall, circulating basophil counts correlated with total systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (r = - 0.31), renal SLEDAI score (r = - 0.35), activity index (AI) score(r = - 0.40), and renal histologic activity parameters (p counts (0.007 ± 0.007 vs. 0.011 ± 0.010 × 10 9 /L, p = 0.04). Subgroup analyses revealed that the circulating basophil counts in group B (AI > 8) were significantly lower than that in group A (AI ≤ 8) (0.004 ± 0.006 vs. 0.009 ± 0.009 × 10 9 /L, p counts among LN pathology classification groups (p counts when compared with group of class I/II (p counts as a convenient and helpful marker for renal activity of LN.

  10. Is tyrosine kinase activation involved in basophil histamine release in asthma due to western red cedar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A; Chan, H; Salari, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1998-02-01

    Occupational asthma due to western red cedar is associated with histamine release from basophils and mast cells on exposure to plicatic acid (PA), but the mechanisms underlying this response remain unclear. Specific kinase inhibitors were used to study the role of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases in PA-induced histamine release from human basophils. Pretreatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor methyl 2,5-dihydroxy-cinnamate (MDHC) attenuated histamine release from basophils triggered by anti-IgE (29.8% inhibition; n = 15; P < 0.01) or grass pollen (48% inhibition; n = 6; P < 0.01). Inhibition was concentration-dependent and could be reversed by washing the cells in buffer, while the inactive stereoisomer of MDHC did not affect histamine release. In contrast, the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine did not affect histamine release by either anti-IgE or grass pollen. Pretreatment with MDHC partially inhibited PA-induced histamine release from basophils of 6/9 patients with red cedar asthma (25.4% vs 33.8%; P = NS). Staurosporine gave a similar level of inhibition of PA-induced histamine release (25.3% vs 33.8%; P = NS). Thus, signal transduction of the human basophil Fc epsilon RI appears to depend upon tyrosine kinase activation, but not on protein kinase C (serine/threonine kinase) activation. The lack of specific effect on plicatic acid-induced histamine release in basophils obtained from patients with occupational asthma due to western red cedar suggests that tyrosine kinases are not as important in this disease as in atopic asthma, and is consistent with the view that histamine release in red cedar asthma is largely IgE-independent.

  11. CHANGES IN BASOPHIL ACTIVITY IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN DURING UPDOSING OF SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    Jump to…Top of page POS-FU-15 Top of page CHANGES IN BASOPHIL ACTIVITY IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN DURING UPDOSING OF SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY Johannes Martin Schmid, Ronald Dahl, Hans Juergen Hoffmann Department of Respiratory Medicine, Århus University Hospital, AARHUS, Denmark...

  12. Urticaria crónica: Evolución clínica, prueba del suero autologo, recuento y activación de basofilos Chronic urticaria: Follow up, autologous serum skin test, basophil count and activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galassi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios sugieren que algunos pacientes con urticaria crónica tienen autoanticuerpos dirigidos contra la IgE o a la cadena alfa de su receptor de alta afinidad FceRIa. La detección de éstos se realiza in vivo mediante la prueba del suero autólogo (PSA o in vitro mediante una variedad de técnicas. Describimos aquí nuestra experiencia con 37 pacientes, 28 mujeres y 9 varones con una relación femenino/masculino de 3.1 y edad promedio de 36.5 años (16-78. La PSA fue positiva en 25 (68% y negativa en 12 (32%. El suero indujo una pápula significativamente más grande que el plasma (122 ± 78 mm² vs 57 ± 66 mm², pRecent advances on the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria have defined a group of patients with autoantibodies directed to the IgE or to the alpha chain of the Fc high affinity receptor of IgE, FceRIa. These antibodies are detected in vivo through the autologous serum test (AST and in vitro with a variety of techniques. We here describe 37 patients with chronic urticaria, 28 female and 9 male, with a f/m ratio of 3.1. Mean age at onset was 36.5 years (range 16-78. AST was positive in 25 (68% of 37 patients. Serum induced a wheal significantly larger than plasma (122 ± 78 mm² vs 57 ± 66 mm², p<0.05. Median persistence of the chronic urticaria, estimated by Kaplan-Meyer analysis, was 437 days, with no difference between AST(+ and AST(- patients (437 vs. 369, p=0.18. Mean IgE concentration was 157 ± 173 IU/mL, as expected in an unselected population. Basophil count was lower in patients compared with controls (17 ± 12 cel/mL vs. 43 ± 27 cel/mL, p< 0.008. Only sera from 2/7(28.6% patients AST (+ and very low basophil count consistently induced expression of CD63. This effect was abrogated in non-releasing basophils, confirming the presence of antibodies directed to the FceRIa-IgE . We conclude that functional antibodies are present in only a minority of patients and that their identification does not predict the outcome.

  13. Basophil activation after nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs stimulation in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to these drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Adriana; Fernandez, Tahia D; Doña, Inmaculada; Aranda, Ana; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Melendez, Lidia; Canto, Gabriela; Blanca, Miguel; Torres, Maria J; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2014-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs most frequently involved in allergic reactions of which two main types exist: IgE-mediated and crossintolerance. The diagnosis of crossintolerance reactions is often based on the drug provocation test. The potential value of the basophil activation test (BAT) was evaluated using different basophil markers in the diagnosis of patients with crossintolerance to NSAIDs and cutaneous symptoms. We studied 46 patients with crossintolerance to NSAIDs and 45 tolerant controls. BAT was performed with acetyl salicylic acid, paracetamol, diclofenac, dipyrone, naproxen, and ibuprofen at four different concentrations using CD193 and CD203c as basophil markers and CD63 as activation marker. We compared BAT results using CD193⁺ or CD193⁺ CD203c⁺ for basophil selection and found a significant increase in the stimulation index when using CD193⁺ CD203c⁺ in both patients and controls (P = 0.004 and P = 0.017, respectively). Selection of living cells only produced an increase in basophil stimulation in patients for both CD193⁺ and CD193⁺ CD203c⁺ (P < 0.001 for both), whereas in controls there was no change with CD193⁺ and a decrease with CD193⁺ CD203c⁺ (P = 0.001). We found that CD193⁺ CD203c⁺ increased the percentage of positive cases in patients and controls when compared with CD193⁺. When excluding dead cells, there was an increase of 21.7% in patients and 10% in controls. These results indicate that using CD193⁺ CD203⁺, excluding dead cells, is the best approach for BAT although this test is not recommended for the diagnosis of patients with crossintolerance to NSAIDs owing to its low sensitivity and specificity. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones: The expression of basophil activation markers depends on the clinical entity and the culprit fluoroquinolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tahia D; Ariza, Adriana; Palomares, Francisca; Montañez, María I; Salas, María; Martín-Serrano, Angela; Fernández, Rubén; Ruiz, Arturo; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, María J

    2016-06-01

    Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) are generally well-tolerated antibiotics, increasing numbers of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These can be evaluated in vitro by basophil activation tests (BATs); however, sensitivity is not optimal. Many factors could influence sensitivity such as basophil activation markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different activations markers, CD63 and CD203c, on the sensitivity of BAT to FQ. We studied 17 patients with immediate allergic reactions to FQ. BAT was performed with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin using CD193 (CCR3) for basophil selection and CD203c or CD63 as activation markers. Stimulation with ciprofloxacin induced a significantly higher expression of CD63 in ciprofloxacin-allergic patients compared to moxifloxacin-allergic patients (P = 0.002). In patients allergic to moxifloxacin with anaphylactic shock, we have observed an increase in the percentage of cells that upregulate CD203c, whereas patients with anaphylaxis preferentially upregulate CD63. The best sensitivity-specificity was obtained using a cutoff of 3 and the culprit FQ, using CD203c for moxifloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 36.4%; specificity = 94.4%), and CD63 for ciprofloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 83.3%; specificity = 88.9%). A negative correlation was found between the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c and the time interval between the reaction occurrence and the performance of the test (Spearman r = -0.446; P < 0.001 for CD63 and Spearman r = -0.386; P < 0.001 for CD203c). The performance of BAT for FQ allergy must be optimized for each drug, taking into account possible differences in the stimulation mechanism that leads to the upregulation of different activation markers.

  15. Activation of human basophils by combined toll-like receptor- and FcεRI-triggering can promote Th2 skewing of naive T helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurmond, Jolien; Stoop, Jeroen N; Rivellese, Felice; Bakker, Aleida M; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M

    2014-02-01

    Basophils are mostly known for their involvement in allergic reactions. Recent studies in mice indicate a role for basophils in the induction of adaptive immunity, especially T helper 2 (Th2) responses. Therefore, it would be highly important to understand how basophils respond to pathogen-associated molecules, such as ligands for toll-like receptors (TLRs), and if the basophils could promote Th2 responses via these stimuli. To this end, the activation of basophils via TLRs in combination with activation via IgE was studied, as well as its effect on T helper cell skewing. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated the presence of mRNA for TLRs 1-8 in human basophils. Basophils responded to TLR triggering with differential cytokine production, but not with degranulation. Simultaneous triggering of TLRs and IgE led to synergy in production of IL-4, IL-8, IL-13, and RANTES. Furthermore, the synergistic effects on basophils mediated by IgE and TLR-4 triggering allowed robust Th2 skewing upon activation of naïve human CD4⁺ T cells. Our data show that human basophils respond to TLR ligands in synergy with IgE-mediated activation and that the cytokines produced can promote Th2 differentiation. These results indicate a role for basophils in the regulation of T-cell responses in humans. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Test de activación de basófilos en el diagnóstico de alergia a medicamentos Basophil activation test in the diagnosis of allergy to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    M.L. Sanz; M.C. García; M.R. Caballero; I. Diéguez; P.M. Gamboa

    2003-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la fiabilidad del test de activación de basófilos (TAB) en el diagnóstico "in vitro" de alergia a betalactámicos y a metamizol y se analiza la sensibilidad y especificidad de la técnica. Para ello se estudian 58 pacientes alérgicos a antibióticos betalactámicos con prueba cutánea positiva frente a algún derivado de la penicilina y 30 controles sanos que toleraban betalactámicos, y 26 pacientes alérgicos a metamizol con una reacción inmediata y 30 controles sa...

  17. Validation of basophil histamine release against the autologous serum skin test and outcome of serum-induced basophil histamine release studies in a large population of chronic urticaria patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, M H; Grattan, C E H; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous histamine-releasing factors (HRFs) are involved in 30-60% of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). Evidence for their existence comes from in vivo studies of autoreactivity with the autologous serum skin test (ASST), in vitro immunoassays demonstrating autoantibodies against the immuno......Endogenous histamine-releasing factors (HRFs) are involved in 30-60% of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). Evidence for their existence comes from in vivo studies of autoreactivity with the autologous serum skin test (ASST), in vitro immunoassays demonstrating autoantibodies against...... the immunoglobulin E (IgE) or the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) and serum-induced histamine release (HR) from basophils and mast cells. We have examined the correlation between the ASST and a new basophil histamine-releasing assay (the HR-Urtikaria test) in a group of well-characterized CU patients...

  18. Mechanism of activation of human basophils by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Marone, G; Tamburini, M; Giudizi, M G; Biagiotti, R; Almerigogna, F; Romagnani, S

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 and S. aureus Wood 46 to induce histamine release from human basophils in vitro. S. aureus Cowan 1 (10(5) to 10(7)/ml), which synthesizes protein A (Staph A), stimulated the release of histamine from basophils, whereas S. aureus Wood 46 (10(5) to 2 X 10(7)/ml), which does not synthesize Staph A, did not induce histamine secretion. Soluble Staph A (10(-3) to 10 micrograms/ml), but not staphylococcal enterotoxin A, induced histamine ...

  19. Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha activates basophils by means of CXCR4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Jacobi, H H; Jing, C

    2000-01-01

    The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is predominantly expressed on inactivated naive T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is the only known ligand for CXCR4. To date, the CXCR4 expression and function...... of SDF-1alpha in basophils are unknown....

  20. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU.

  1. Histamine Release from Mast Cells and Basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils represent the most relevant source of histamine in the immune system. Histamine is stored in cytoplasmic granules along with other amines (e.g., serotonin), proteases, proteoglycans, cytokines/chemokines, and angiogenic factors and rapidly released upon triggering with a variety of stimuli. Moreover, mast cell and basophil histamine release is regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. The engagement of different receptors can trigger different modalities of histamine release and degranulation. Histamine released from mast cells and basophils exerts its biological activities by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely H1R, H2R, H3R (expressed mainly in the brain), and the recently identified H4R. While H1R and H2R activation accounts mainly for some mast cell- and basophil-mediated allergic disorders, the selective expression of H4R on immune cells is uncovering new roles for histamine (possibly derived from mast cells and basophils) in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Thus, the in-depth knowledge of mast cell and basophil histamine release and its biologic effects is poised to uncover new therapeutic avenues for a wide spectrum of disorders.

  2. Intracellular events in anti-IgE nonreleasing human basophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E. F.; Mul, F. P.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Roos, D.

    1992-01-01

    Histamine release (HR) after activation of human basophils with anti-IgE demonstrates a great variability among different donors. To elucidate the biochemical basis of this phenomenon, we studied the activation of purified basophils from donors that barely demonstrated HR (less than 7%) after

  3. Mast cells and basophils are essential for allergies: mechanisms of allergic inflammation and a proposed procedure for diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shao-heng; Zhang, Hui-yun; Zeng, Xiao-ning; Chen, Dong; Yang, Ping-chang

    2013-01-01

    The current definition of allergy is a group of IgE-mediated diseases. However, a large portion of patients with clinical manifestations of allergies do not exhibit elevated serum levels of IgE (sIgEs). In this article, three key factors, ie soluble allergens, sIgEs and mast cells or basophils, representing the causative factors, messengers and primary effector cells in allergic inflammation, respectively, were discussed. Based on current knowledge on allergic diseases, we propose that allergic diseases are a group of diseases mediated through activated mast cells and/or basophils in sensitive individuals, and allergic diseases include four subgroups: (1) IgE dependent; (2) other immunoglobulin dependent; (3) non-immunoglobulin mediated; (4) mixture of the first three subgroups. According to our proposed definition, pseudo-allergic-reactions, in which mast cell or basophil activation is not mediated via IgE, or to a lesser extent via IgG or IgM, should be non-IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Specific allergen challenge tests (SACTs) are gold standard tests for diagnosing allergies in vivo, but risky. The identification of surface membrane activation markers of mast cells and basophils (CD203c, CCR3, CD63, etc) has led to development of the basophil activation test (BAT), an in vitro specific allergen challenge test (SACT). Based on currently available laboratory allergy tests, we here propose a laboratory examination procedure for allergy. PMID:23974516

  4. Studies on the mechanisms of activation of potassium efflux and receptor-cytoskeleton association by aggregated immunoglobulin E-receptor complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrecque, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for the activation of an outwardly-directed K + permeability pathway was obtained by studying changes in plasma membrane potential that result from the aggregation of immunoglobulin E-complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells. With the potential-sensitive dye, bisoxonol, we observe that activation by multivalent antigen causes membrane depolarization that is followed by a return towards the resting potential that we term repolarization. The depolarization response may reflect a Ca 2+ influx pathway, and it exhibits the same antigen-dose dependence and temperature dependence as the degranulation response. The polarization phase of the membrane potential response is selectively inhibited by the K + channel blockers quinidine and Ba 2+ in parallel with their inhibition of the degranulation response, suggesting an important role for a K + efflux pathway in antigen-stimulated degranulation. 86 Rb + efflux measurements were used to characterize the K + permeability pathways responsible for the repolarization response

  5. New Insights into the Roles for Basophils in Acute and Chronic Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Mukai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basophils represent less than 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes. They are often recruited to the site of allergic inflammation, albeit in small numbers. However, it remained uncertain whether basophils play any significant role in allergic reactions or act as minor and redundant 'circulating mast cells'. We have recently demonstrated that basophils play critical roles in systemic anaphylaxis and chronic allergic inflammation, distinctively from mast cells. Basophils are one of the major players in the IgG-but not IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis, in contrast to mast cells. In response to the allergen-IgG immune complexes, basophils release the platelet-activating factor rather than histamine as the major chemical mediator to induce the systemic anaphylaxis. The depletion of basophils protects mice from death due to anaphylactic shock. Basophils also play a crucial role in the development of the IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation with massive eosinophil infiltration in the skin, independently of T cells and mast cells, even though basophils account for only ~2% of the infiltrates. The basophil depletion shows a therapeutic effect on on-going allergic inflammation. Accumulating evidence suggests that basophils function as initiators rather than effectors of the chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, basophils and their products seem to be promising therapeutic targets for allergic disorders.

  6. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    with allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with basophil activation tests (BAT). Methods: We have randomized 24 patients to a treatment (18) and an open control group (6). Repeated BAT were performed at baseline and througout treatment. Heparinized blood was centrifuged, plasma was removed, the cells washed twice...

  7. Brown Norway rat ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies increase the human basophil expression of CD63 marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellou, A.; Saint-Laudy, J.; Knippels, L.; Montémont, C.; Vauthier, E.; Gerard, P.; Pellegrom, H.; Koerkamp, E.K.; Lesesve, J.F.; Guéant, J.L.; Lambert, H.; Mallié, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Anaphylactic shock is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent hypersensitivity. Biological tests like leucocyte histamine release (LHR) and human basophil activation (HBA), frequently used in human allergy, reflect both the amount of IgE fixed on cells and the cellular reactivity. To assess whether

  8. The number of FceRI receptors on basophils decreases during subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, J. M.; Dahl, R.; Hoffmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    -conjunctivitis were randomized to receive standard subcutaneous immunotherapy (n = 18) or to an open control group (n = 6). The number of FceRI receptors on basophils was measured by quantitative analysis of indirect immunofluorescence by flow cytometry. Grass binding to basophils was measured by staining with grass......-conjugated fluorescent dye and analyzed by flow cytometry. Basophil sensitivity was determined by the EC50, the logarithm of the allergen concentration leading to half-maximum basophil activation. Results: The number of FceRI receptors decreased from a median 105196 (95% CI: 81283-132038) to 30903 (95% CI: 11482- 85114...

  9. Differential usage of COX-1 and COX-2 in prostaglandin production by mast cells and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Setsuko; Nagano, Naoko; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Minami, Masashi; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    Basophils have been erroneously considered as minor relatives of mast cells, due to some phenotypic similarity between them. While recent studies have revealed non-redundant roles for basophils in various immune responses, basophil-derived effector molecules, including lipid mediators, remain poorly characterized, compared to mast cell-derived ones. Here we analyzed and compared eicosanoids produced by mouse basophils and mast cells when stimulated with IgE plus allergens. The production of 5-LOX metabolites such as LTB4 and 5-HETE was detected as early as 0.5 h post-stimulation in both cell types, even though their amounts were much smaller in basophils than in mast cells. In contrast, basophils and mast cells showed distinct time course in the production of COX metabolites, including PGD2, PGE2 and 11-HETE. Their production by mast cells was detected at both 0.5 and 6 h post-stimulation while that by basophils was detectable only at 6 h. Of note, mast cells showed 8-9 times higher levels of COX-1 than did basophils at the resting status. In contrast to unaltered COX-1 expression with or without stimulation, COX-2 expression was up-regulated in both cell types upon activation. Importantly, when activated, basophils expressed 4-5 times higher levels of COX-2 than did mast cells. In accordance with these findings, the late-phase production of the COX metabolites by basophils was completely ablated by COX-2 inhibitor whereas the early-phase production by mast cells was blocked by COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor. Thus, the production of COX metabolites is differentially regulated by COX-1 and COX-2 in basophils and mast cells.

  10. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikado, Hideto; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity

  11. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikado, Hideto [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko [Laboratory of Proteomics and Biomolecular Science, BioMedical Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takai, Toshiro, E-mail: t-takai@juntendo.ac.jp [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity.

  12. A Recombinant Fragment of Human Surfactant Protein D Suppresses Basophil Activation and T-Helper Type 2 and B-Cell Responses in Grass Pollen-induced Allergic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Singh, Iesha; Pathan, Ansar A; Layhadi, Janice A; Parkin, Rebecca; Alexandra, Fedina; Durham, Stephen R; Kishore, Uday; Shamji, Mohamed H

    2017-12-15

    Recombinant fragment of human surfactant protein D (rfhSP-D) has been shown to suppress house dust mite- and Aspergillus fumigatus-induced allergic inflammation in murine models. We sought to elucidate the effect of rfhSP-D on high-affinity IgE receptor- and CD23-mediated, grass pollen-induced allergic inflammatory responses. rfhSP-D, containing homotrimeric neck and lectin domains, was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(λDE3)pLysS cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sera were obtained from individuals with grass pollen allergy (n = 27). The effect of rfhSP-D on basophil activation and histamine release was measured by flow cytometry. IgE-facilitated allergen binding and presentation were assessed by flow cytometry. T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokines were measured in cell culture supernatants. The effect of rfhSP-D on IgE production by B cells when stimulated with CD40L, IL-4, and IL-21 was also determined. rfhSP-D bound to Phleum pratense in a dose- and calcium-dependent manner. Allergen-induced basophil responsiveness and histamine release were inhibited in the presence of rfhSP-D, as measured by CD63, CD203c (P = 0.0086, P = 0.04205), and intracellularly labeled diamine oxidase (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0148). The binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells was reduced by 51% (P = 0.002) in the presence of rfhSP-D. This decrease was concomitant with reduction in CD23 expression on B cells (P D suppressed allergen-driven CD27 - CD4 + CRTh2 + T-cell proliferation (P P D inhibited CD40L/IL-4- and IL-21-mediated IgE production (77.12%; P = 0.02) by B cells. For the first time, to our knowledge, we show that rfhSP-D inhibited allergen-induced basophil responses at a single-cell level and suppressed CD23-mediated facilitated allergen presentation and Th2 cytokine production. In addition, rfhSP-D inhibited IgE synthesis by B cells, which is also a novel observation.

  13. A comparative study of the FcepsilonRI molecule on human mast cell and basophil cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Dissing, S; Skov, P S

    2005-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils express the high-affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI. We have analysed the human mast cell line LAD2 and four subclones of the basophil cell line KU812 in order to reveal possible differences concerning the FcepsilonRI surface regulation, anti-IgE-triggered activation...

  14. Immunotherapy in allergy and cellular tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) is an in vitro assay where the activation of basophils upon exposure to various IgE-challenging molecules is measured by flow cytometry. It is a cellular test able to investigate basophil behavior during allergy and allergy immunotherapy. A panoply of critical issues and suggestive advances have rendered this assay a promising yet puzzling tool to endeavor a full comprehension of innate immunity of allergy desensitization and manage allergen or monoclonal anti-IgE therapy. In this review a brief state of art of BAT in immunotherapy is described focusing onto the analytical issue pertaining BAT performance in allergy specific therapy. PMID:24717453

  15. Expression of the Transcription Factor E4BP4 in Human Basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Gohr, Maria; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The cytokine IL-3 plays an important role for human basophil development, function and survival. IL-3 is also reported to induce the expression of the transcription factor E4BP4, but it is not known whether E4BP4 is expressed in basophils and influences basophil responsiveness. The aim...... by Alcian blue. RNA was extracted (0.005-0.02 µg RNA from 0.5 - 1 x 106 cells), and the corresponding cDNA analyzed by real-time PCR where E4BP4 expression was calculated as 2-(CT(E4BP4) - CT(β-actin)). E4BP4 protein expression was visualized in basophil lysates (107 cells/ml) by Western blot followed...... by ECL stain and X-ray film exposure. Protein band intensities were correlated to -actin expression. Results We analyzed basophils from 14 donors and found E4BP4 mRNA expression in all donors (2.33 ± 2.42) despite a low basophil RNA level. Seven donors were also tested for E4BP4 protein expression...

  16. Measuring histamine and cytokine release from basophils and mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Skov, Per S

    2014-01-01

    Basophils and mast cells are known for their capability to release both preformed and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators. In this chapter we describe how to stimulate and detect histamine released from basophils in whole blood, purified basophils, in vitro cultured mast cells, and in situ s...

  17. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified by the...

  18. Interleukin-4- and NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3-independent mechanisms of alum enhanced T helper type 2 responses on basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng-Juan; Ma, Yi-Lei; Tang, Ruo-Yu; Gong, Wen-Ci; Li, Jun; Chen, Chun-Xia; Yin, Lan; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Aluminium hydroxide (alum), the most widely used adjuvant in human and animal vaccines, has long been known to promote T helper type 2 (Th2) responses and Th2-associated humoral responses, but the mechanisms have remained poorly understood. In this study, we explored whether alum is able to directly modulate antigen-presenting cells to enhance their potency for Th2 polarization. We found that alum treatment of dendritic cells failed to show any Th2-promoting activities. In contrast, alum was able to enhance the capacity of basophils to induce Th2 cells. When basophils from interleukin-4 (IL-4) knockout mice were examined, the intrinsic Th2-promoting activities by basophils were largely abrogated, but the alum-enhanced Th2-promoting activities on basophils were still detectable. More importantly, Th2-promoting adjuvant activities by alum found in IL-4 knockout mice were also largely reduced when basophils were depleted by antibody administration. Therefore, basophils can mediate Th2-promoting activities by alum both in vitro and in vivo through IL-4-independent mechanisms. Further studies revealed that secreted soluble molecules from alum-treated basophils were able to confer the Th2-promoting activities, and neutralization of thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-25 attenuated the IL-4-independent development of Th2 cells elicited by alum-treated basophils. Finally, alum was able to activate NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in murine basophils in the same way as alum in professional antigen-presenting cells, but NLRP3 was not required for Th2-promoting activities on basophils by alum in vitro. These results demonstrated that alum can enhance the capacities of basophils to polarize Th2 cells via IL-4- and NLRP3-independent pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Molecular targets on mast cells and basophils for novel therapies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harvima, I.T.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Dráber, Petr; Friedman, S.; Polakovičová, Iva; Gibbs, B.F.; Blank, U.; Nilsson, G.; Maurer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2014), s. 530-544 ISSN 0091-6749 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cell activation * mast cells and basophils * treatment of allergic diseases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.476, year: 2014

  20. BTK inhibition is a potent approach to block IgE-mediated histamine release in human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljkovic, D; Blatt, K; Stefanzl, G; Dorofeeva, Y; Skrabs, C; Focke-Tejkl, M; Sperr, W R; Jaeger, U; Valenta, R; Valent, P

    2017-11-01

    Recent data suggest that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an emerging therapeutic target in IgE receptor (IgER)-cross-linked basophils. We examined the effects of four BTK inhibitors (ibrutinib, dasatinib, AVL-292, and CNX-774) on IgE-dependent activation and histamine release in blood basophils obtained from allergic patients (n=11) and nonallergic donors (n=5). In addition, we examined the effects of these drugs on the growth of the human basophil cell line KU812 and the human mast cell line HMC-1. All four BTK blockers were found to inhibit anti-IgE-induced histamine release from basophils in nonallergic subjects and allergen-induced histamine liberation from basophils in allergic donors. Drug effects on allergen-induced histamine release were dose dependent, with IC 50 values ranging between 0.001 and 0.5 μmol/L, and the following rank order of potency: ibrutinib>AVL-292>dasatinib>CNX-774. The basophil-targeting effect of ibrutinib was confirmed by demonstrating that IgE-dependent histamine release in ex vivo blood basophils is largely suppressed in a leukemia patient treated with ibrutinib. Dasatinib and ibrutinib were also found to counteract anti-IgE-induced and allergen-induced upregulation of CD13, CD63, CD164, and CD203c on basophils, whereas AVL-292 and CNX-774 showed no significant effects. Whereas dasatinib and CNX-774 were found to inhibit the growth of HMC-1 cells and KU812 cells, no substantial effects were seen with ibrutinib or AVL-292. BTK-targeting drugs are potent inhibitors of IgE-dependent histamine release in human basophils. The clinical value of BTK inhibition in the context of allergic diseases remains to be determined. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Basophil Reactivity as Biomarker in Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions-Potential and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Markus; Harrer, Andrea; Himly, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) resemble typical immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated symptoms. Clinical manifestations range from local skin reactions, gastrointestinal and/or respiratory symptoms to severe systemic involvement with potential fatal outcome. Depending on the substance group of the eliciting drug the correct diagnosis is a major challenge. Skin testing and in vitro diagnostics are often unreliable and not reproducible. The involvement of drug-specific IgE is questionable in many cases. The culprit substance (parent drug or metabolite) and potential cross-reacting compounds are difficult to identify, patient history and drug provocation testing often remain the only means for diagnosis. Hence, several groups proposed basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of immediate DHRs as basophils are well-known effector cells in allergic reactions. However, the usefulness of BAT in immediate DHRs is highly variable and dependent on the drug itself plus its capacity to spontaneously conjugate to serum proteins. Stimulation with pure solutions of the parent drug or metabolites thereof vs. drug-protein conjugates may influence sensitivity and specificity of the test. We thus, reviewed the available literature about the use of BAT for diagnosing immediate DHRs against drug classes such as antibiotics, radio contrast media, neuromuscular blocking agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and biologicals. Influencing factors like the selection of stimulants or of the identification and activation markers, the stimulation protocol, gating strategies, and cut-off definition are addressed in this overview on BAT performance. The overall aim is to evaluate the suitability of BAT as biomarker for the diagnosis of immediate drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions.

  2. Constituents from oak bark (Quercus robur L.) inhibit degranulation and allergic mediator release from basophils and mast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Peter; Heinrich, Miriam; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Grunewald, Franziska; Messerschmidt, Silke; Herrick, Anja; Gruber, Kim; Beckmann, Christiane; Knoedler, Matthias; Huber, Roman; Steinborn, Carmen; Stintzing, Florian C; Gründemann, Carsten

    2016-12-24

    Oak bark has been used since ancient times in Europaen ethnomedicine because of its adstringent, antimicrobial and hemostatic features, e.g. as a remedy for the treatment of wounds and skin diseases. Oak bark tannins are considered as bioactive natural products, interacting with surface proteins of mucous membranes and might be beneficial for the treatment of allergic diseases. This study investigated the effect of an oak bark decoction (OBD) and isolated tannin fractions on the degranulation capacity and cytokine/chemokine release from rat basophilic cells and human mast cells in vitro, which are essential for the initiation of early- and late-phase allergic reactions. By chromatographic separation on Sephadex ® LH-20 high- and low-molecular weight tannins were separated from OBD and the tannin composition analyzed by HPLC(DAD)-MS n . Then, the OBD and its fractions were tested in degranulation (β-hexosaminidase activity) of allergen-specific-activated basophilic cells in a photometric assay. The OBD and the high-molecular tannin fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell degranulation. Furthermore, the OBD and particularly its high molecular weight tannin fraction exhibited an inhibitory activity on the IL-8-, IL-6- and TNF-α-secretion from stimulated human mast cells, detected and quantified by ELISA. The OBD and its high-molecular weight tannins revealed an impact on allergic mediator release of basophilic cells and human mast cells and thereby provide a rationale for the topical treatment with OBD preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of CD63 Upregulation Induced by NSAIDs on Basophils and Monocytes in Patients with NSAID Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An in vitro basophil activation test, based on the detection of CD63 upregulation induced by NSAIDs, has been described. Its clinical significance remains controversial. Objectives. In patients with a history of nonallergic NSAID hypersensitivity, stratified according to the severity of the symptoms, to assess with NSAIDs the predictive value of basophil (BAT and monocyte (MAT activation tests. Patients/Methods. Sixty patients who had NSAIDs-induced or exacerbated urticaria/angiooedema and 20 controls was included. After incubation with NSAIDs or acetaminophen, leukocytes were analysed for CD63 upregulation. Results. With aspirin, the sensitivity (37% and specificity (90% of BAT agree with already published results. In contrast, when patients had had cutaneous and visceral reactions, the frequency of positive BAT 14/22 (64%, P<0.001 or MAT 10/22 (46%, P<0.01 were increased. Conclusions. Positive tests were more frequent among patients having a severe hypersensitivity contrasting with the other patients who had results similar to controls.

  4. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...... by the histamine content of the adhering basophils. The spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin was higher than to laminin and collagen type I. Both spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA...

  5. IgE-mediated basophil tumour necrosis factor alpha induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 from monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Poulsen, Lars K.; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated activation of mast cells has been reported to induce the release of tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α), which may display autocrine effects on these cells by inducing the generation of the tissue remodelling protease matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). While mast cells and basophils have...

  6. Identification of Biological and Pharmaceutical Mast Cell- and Basophil-Related Targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klein, O.; Ngo-Nyekel, F.; Stefanache, T.; Torres, R.; Salomonsson, M.; Hallgren, J.; Radinger, M.; Bambousková, Monika; Campbell, M.; Cohen-Mor, S.; Dema, B.; Rose, C.G.; Abrink, M.; Charles, N.; Ainooson, G.; Paivandy, A.; Pavlova, V.G.; Serrano-Candelas, E.; Yu, Y.; Hellman, L.; Jensen, B.M.; Van Anrooij, B.; Grootens, J.; Gura, H.K.; Stylianou, M.; Tobio, A.; Blank, U.; Ohrvik, H.; Maurer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 6 (2016), s. 465-472 ISSN 0300-9475 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : tyrosine kinase inhibitors * fc-epsilon-ri * in-vivo * inflammatory diseases * dependent activation * midostaurin pkc412 * mediator release * murine basophils * animal-models * mouse models Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 2.256, year: 2016

  7. Zinc supplementation decreases basophilic stippling in rats exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead acetate inhibits pyrimidine-5’-nucleotidase resulting in ribonucleic acid and ribosome accumulation in erythrocytes (RBC, visible as basophilic stippling (BS. Lead exposure disrupts RBC membrane, shortens the RBC life span and decreases hematocrit. Zinc supplementation increases lead-binding proteins (metallothioneins. The study objective was to determine whether zinc supplementation prior to lead exposure decreases BS and increases the hematocrit in rats. Methods The study was a randomized post-test only control-group trial, using 28 rats allocated to one control and 3 intervention groups (Zinc I, Zinc II, Zinc III receiving 0.2 mg, 0.4 mg, and 0.8 mg of zinc by oral gavage daily for 3 weeks. All groups were then exposed to lead at 0.5 g/kg BW/day by gavage for 10 weeks. On the last day of the 10 weeks BS was determined from Giemsa-stained blood smears and hematocrit by hematology analyzer. Between-group differences were tested with one-way Anova, followed by Bonferroni’s test. Results Mean BS decreased significantly to 7.93 ± 0.99% in controls, and to 6.91 ± 1.04%, 4.66 ± 0.79%, and 1.73 ± 0.88%, respectively, in intervention groups (p=0.000. Mean hematocrit increased significantly to 26.16 ± 3.60% in controls, and to 30.33 ± 6.12%, 36.83 ± 3.31%, and 40.00 ± 4.77%, respectively, in intervention groups (p=0.000. One-way Anova and Bonferroni’s test showed significant differences in BS and hematocrit between controls and intervention groups receiving zinc supplementation of 0.4 and 0.8 mg (p=0.000. Conclusion Zinc supplementation before lead exposure significantly decreases basophilic stippling and increases hematocrit level in rats exposed to lead.

  8. Zinc supplementation decreases basophilic stippling in rats exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead acetate inhibits pyrimidine-5’-nucleotidase resulting in ribonucleic acid and ribosome accumulation in erythrocytes (RBC, visible as basophilic stippling (BS. Lead exposure disrupts RBC membrane, shortens the RBC life span and decreases hematocrit. Zinc supplementation increases lead-binding proteins (metallothioneins. The study objective was to determine whether zinc supplementation prior to lead exposure decreases BS and increases the hematocrit in rats. METHODS The study was a randomized post-test only control-group trial, using 28 rats allocated to one control and 3 intervention groups (Zinc I, Zinc II, Zinc III receiving 0.2 mg, 0.4 mg, and 0.8 mg of zinc by oral gavage daily for 3 weeks. All groups were then exposed to lead at 0.5 g/kg BW/day by gavage for 10 weeks. On the last day of the 10 weeks BS was determined from Giemsastained blood smears and hematocrit by hematology analyzer. Between-group differences were tested with one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni’s test. RESULTS Mean BS was significantly decreasing 7.93 ± 0.99% in controls, 6.91 ± 1.04%, 4.66 ± 0.79%, and 1.73 ± 0.88%, respectively, in intervention groups (p=0.000. Mean hematocrit was significantly increasing 26.16 ± 3.60% in controls, and 30.33 ± 6.12%, 36.83 ± 3.31%, and 40.00 ± 4.77%, respectively, in intervention groups (p=0.000. One-way Anova and Bonferroni’s test showed significant differences in BS and hematocrit between controls and intervention groups receiving zinc supplementation of 0.4 and 0.8 mg (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Zinc supplementation before lead exposure significantly decreases basophilic stippling and increases hematocrit level in rats exposed to lead

  9. Decrease of Airway Allergies After Lung Transplantation Is Associated With Reduced Basophils and Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, M; Yamada, Y; Inci, I; Weder, W; Jungraithmayr, W

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are hypersensitive reactions of the immune system on antigen exposure similar to immune reactions after transplantation (Tx). Their activity can change after Tx. The lung as a transplantable organ is challenged two-fold, by antigens from the blood and the air environment. Herein we analyzed if airway allergies change after lung Tx. We systematically reviewed patients' airway allergies before and after lung Tx between 1992 and 2014. The course of lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes, among them neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, was analyzed in patients in whom airway allergies have changed and in whom they did not change. From 362 lung transplanted patients, 44 patients had suffered from allergies before Tx (12.2%). In 20 of these patients (45.5%), airway allergies disappeared completely within 1 year after lung Tx and were persistently absent thereafter. In these patients, basophils and eosinophils decreased significantly (P allergies did not disappear. Leukocytes overall, and in particular, neutrophils, decreased significantly in patients whose allergy disappeared (P allergies disappeared in almost half of cases after lung Tx. Along with this reduction, basophils and eosinophils decreased as potentially responsible cells for this phenomenon. These findings may stimulate intensified research on basophils and eosinophils as major drivers of airway allergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced Fc∊RI-Mediated Release of Asthma-Promoting Cytokines and Chemokines from Human Basophils during Omalizumab Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Janet M.; Tarleton, Christy A.; Gilmartin, Laura; Archibeque, Tereassa; Qualls, Clifford R.; Diehl, Lorena; Wilson, Bridget S.; Schuyler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background Treating asthmatics with the humanized IgE-scavenging antibody, omalizumab (rhuMAb-E25, Xolair®), reduces airways inflammation and asthma symptoms. Previously, omalizumab was shown to cause a dramatic and reversible loss of cell surface high-affinity IgE receptors, Fc∊RI, from the peripheral blood basophils of asthmatics. The consequences of receptor loss for the Fc∊RI-mediated synthesis and release of cytokines implicated in allergic asthma have not been examined. Methods Fifteen asthmatic volunteers each received omalizumab for 12 weeks. Peripheral blood basophils were isolated before, during, 2 weeks after and 6 months after omalizumab. Basophils were assayed for the basal and anti-IgE-stimulated release of cytokines, chemokines and histamine. Pooled data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and by paired t tests. Results Anti-IgE-stimulated human basophils synthesize and release Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13) and chemokines (IL-8, RANTES). The anti-IgE-stimulated release of IL-4, IL-13 and IL-8 was reduced during omalizumab treatment and returned to pretreatment levels after omalizumab withdrawal. Omalizumab did not alter basophil histamine levels or basal and anti-IgE-stimulated histamine release. Conclusions Omalizumab may reduce asthma symptoms in part by suppressing the Fc∊RI-mediated production by basophils of Th2 cytokines and selected chemokines. Anti-IgE-stimulated basophil cytokine synthesis appears more sensitive than histamine release to the loss of Fc∊RI caused by omalizumab treatment. PMID:19844128

  11. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles ...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....

  12. A comparative study of the FcepsilonRI molecule on human mast cell and basophil cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Dissing, S; Skov, P S

    2005-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils express the high-affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI. We have analysed the human mast cell line LAD2 and four subclones of the basophil cell line KU812 in order to reveal possible differences concerning the FcepsilonRI surface regulation, anti-IgE-triggered activation, Fcep......, FcepsilonRIalpha protein stability and the mRNA level of FcepsilonRIalpha-, beta- and the truncated beta-chain (beta(T)), and thereby determine the utility of these cell lines in investigations of the FcepsilonRI biology....

  13. Effects of Echium plantagineum L. Bee Pollen on Basophil Degranulation: Relationship with Metabolic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Moita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen and to characterize its primary metabolites. The activity of E. plantagineum hydromethanolic extract, devoid of alkaloids, was tested against β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophilic leukemic cells (RBL-2H3. Two different stimuli were used: calcium ionophore A23187 and IgE/antigen. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated in a cell-free system using soybean lipoxygenase. Additionally, the extract was analysed by HPLC-UV for organic acids and by GC-IT/MS for fatty acids. In RBL-2H3 cells stimulated either with calcium ionophore or IgE/antigen, the hydromethanolic extract significantly decreased β-hexosaminidase release until the concentration of 2.08 mg/mL, without compromising cellular viability. No effect was found on lipoxygenase. Concerning extract composition, eight organic acids and five fatty acids were determined for the first time. Malonic acid (80% and α-linolenic acid (27% were the main compounds in each class. Overall, this study shows promising results, substantiating for the first time the utility of intake of E. plantagineum bee pollen to prevent allergy and ameliorate allergy symptoms, although a potentiation of an allergic response can occur, depending on the dose used.

  14. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized persons with positive skin prick test, but no allergy symptoms, are classified as being asymptomatic skin sensitized (AS). The allergic type 1 disease is dependant on IgE binding to the high affinity IgE-receptor (FcepsilonRI) expressed on basophils and mast cells...

  15. Role of IgG4 in histamine release from human basophil leucocytes. I. Sensitization of cells from normal donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Stahl Skov, P; Mosbech, H

    1988-01-01

    Several conflicting reports on the ability of IgG4 to mediate type I allergic reactions have appeared lately. We have developed a model system for testing this possibility, using passive sensitization of basophil leucocytes from normal individuals. At first, the system was optimized with regard...

  16. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  17. In vitro histamine release from basophils of asthmatic and atopic individuals in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, R.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    It was found that spontaneous histamine release from human basophils in H 2 O-based buffers is negligible; in D 2 O-based buffers, however, release is observed with the cells of some donors. Analysis of this phenomenon revealed release from the basophils of 1 of 22 control individuals (5%), 15 of 47 patients with allergic rhinitis (32%), and 14 of 20 asthmatic patients (70%). The difference between both patient groups and controls and between atopics and asthmatics was highly significant. That D 2 O release was not cytotoxic is suggested by the finding that 37 0 was optimal, with inhibition at 4 0 C or 46 0 C as well as by EDTA, 2-deoxyglucose, and dibromoacetophenone, an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 . The release mechanism was unusual in that dibutyryl cAMP and agonists that cause an increase in cAMP lead to no inhibition. No correlation was noted between the total serum IgE level (and thus the number of IgE receptors on the basophil surface) and the magnitude of D 2 O release. No increase in D 2 O release was observed in 17 ragweed-sensitive patients through a ragweed season. A unique property of D 2 O release was the loss of reactivity by preincubating cells at 37 0 C for 30 min before adding D 2 O. Non-D 2 O-reactive cells could be ''converted'' to D 2 O-reactive cells by incubation with antigen in the whole blood phase during leukocyte isolation; these cells showed the same loss of releaseability at 37 0 C and an inhibitor profile similar to D 2 O-responsive cells from ragweed allergic or asthmatic patients. We suggest that D 2 O-based buffers reveal, in atopic and asthmatic patients, in vivo basophil activation; whether this is due to IgE cross-links, to C split products, or to other stimuli is not yet clear

  18. Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Loke Mun Sei

    2015-01-01

    Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, ...

  19. Contribution of basophils to cutaneous immune reactions and Th2-mediated allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eOtsuka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Basophils are potent effector cells of innate immunity and also play a role in T helper 2 (Th2-mediated allergic responses. But, although their in vitro functions are well studied, their in vivo functions remain largely unknown. However, several mouse models of basophil depletion have recently been developed and used to investigate basophil functions. For example, in a croton oil-induced model of irritant contact dermatitis in conditionally basophil-depleted transgenic mice, we found that basophils rapidly infiltrate inflamed skin and subsequently induce infiltration of eosinophils. We also showed that basophils induce Th2 skewing upon epicutaneous sensitization with various haptens and peptide antigens. Intriguingly, basophils also promoted Th2 polarization upon protein antigen exposure in the presence of dendritic cells (DCs. The dermal DC subset associated with Th2 skewing was recently identified as CD301b+ DC. Such studies with basophil-deficient mouse models have significantly improved our understanding of the mechanisms involved in human immune-related diseases. In this review, we will focus on the relative contribution of basophils and DCs to Th2-mediated allergic responses.

  20. Basophil FcεRI Expression in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Potential Immunological Predictor of Response to Omalizumab Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Deza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the efficacy of omalizumab has been clearly demonstrated in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU, its mechanism of action, which results in improvement in CSU symptoms, is not entirely understood. This study investigated the effect of omalizumab on expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI on blood basophils from patients with active CSU, and its association with the clinical response. Patients exhibiting significant clinical improvement showed a sharp reduction in the levels of basophil FcεRI after 4 weeks, which was maintained throughout the total duration of the treatment. Such evolution was not observed in non-responder patients. Furthermore, non-responders showed significantly lower baseline levels of FcεRI than responders. Baseline basophil FcεRI expression was found to be a potential immunological predictor of response to omalizumab (100% sensitivity and 73.2% specificity. The results of this study contribute to our knowledge of the therapeutic benefit and mechanism of action of anti-IgE therapy in CSU.

  1. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using χ 2 tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and χ 2 prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  2. Basophil Sensitivity Decreases During the Updosing of SCIT in Subjects Allergic to Grass Pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    ).This corresponds to an approximately 14-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity. No significant changes were observed in the baseline, washed cells or control group. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the main mechanism leading to a reduction of basophil sensitivity is humoral. PII: S0091-6749(10)02749-1 doi:10.1016...

  3. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  4. Transcription factor RBP-J-mediated signalling regulates basophil immunoregulatory function in mouse asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shuo-Yao; He, Ya-Long; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Chang-Gui

    2017-09-01

    Basophils (BA) play an important role in the promotion of aberrant T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses in asthma. It is not only the effective cell, but also modulates the initiation of Th2 immune responses. We earlier demonstrated that Notch signalling regulates the biological function of BAin vitro. However, whether this pathway plays the same role in vivo is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Notch signalling on BA function in the regulation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Bone marrow BA were prepared by bone marrow cell culture in the presence of recombinant interleukin-3 (rIL-3; 300 pg/ml) for 7 days, followed by isolation of the CD49b + microbeads. The recombination signal binding protein J (RBP-J -/- ) BA were co-cultured with T cells, and the supernatant and the T-cell subtypes were examined. The results indicated disruption of the capacity of BA for antigen presentation alongside an up-regulation of the immunoregulatory function. This was possibly due to the low expression of OX40L in the RBP-J -/- BA. Basophils were adoptively transferred to ovalbumin-sensitized recipient mice, to establish an asthma model. Lung pathology, cytokine profiles of brobchoalveolar fluid, airway hyperactivity and the absolute number of Th1/Th2 cells in lungs were determined. Overall, our results indicate that the RBP-J-mediated Notch signalling is critical for BA-dependent immunoregulation. Deficiency of RBP-J influences the immunoregulatory functions of BA, which include activation of T cells and their differentiation into T helper cell subtypes. The Notch signalling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for BA-based immunotherapy against asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Proposed diagnostic criteria and classification of basophilic leukemias and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, P; Sotlar, K; Blatt, K; Hartmann, K; Reiter, A; Sadovnik, I; Sperr, W R; Bettelheim, P; Akin, C; Bauer, K; George, T I; Hadzijusufovic, E; Wolf, D; Gotlib, J; Mahon, F-X; Metcalfe, D D; Horny, H-P; Arock, M

    2017-04-01

    Basophils form a distinct cell lineage within the hematopoietic cell family. In various myeloid neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, basophilia is frequently seen. Acute and chronic basophilic leukemias, albeit rare, have also been described. However, no generally accepted criteria and classification of basophilic leukemias have been presented to date. To address this unmet need, a series of Working Conferences and other meetings were organized between March 2015 and March 2016. The current article provides a summary of consensus statements from these meetings, together with proposed criteria to delineate acute basophilic leukemia (ABL) from chronic basophilic leukemia (CBL) and primary forms of the disease where no preceding myeloid malignancy is detected, from the more common 'secondary' variants. Moreover, the term hyperbasophilia (HB) is proposed for cases with a persistent peripheral basophil count ⩾1000 per μl of blood. This condition, HB, is highly indicative of the presence of an underlying myeloid neoplasm. Therefore, HB is an important checkpoint in the diagnostic algorithm and requires a detailed hematologic investigation. In these patients, an underlying myeloid malignancy is often found and is then labeled with the appendix -baso, whereas primary cases of ABL or CBL are very rare. The criteria and classification proposed in this article should facilitate the diagnosis and management of patients with unexplained basophilia and basophil neoplasms in routine practice, and in clinical studies.

  6. Trisomy 19 and T(9;22 In a Patient with Acute Basophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rojas-Atencio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute basophilic leukemia with two coexisting clonal abnormalities, t(9;22 and trisomy 19. The blast showed positive reaction with myeloperoxidase but negative reaction with chloroacetate esterase and acid phosphatase. Metachromatic features of the blast were observed with toluidine blue stain. Ultrastructure study showed the presence of azurophilic granules in basophils and blast mast cells. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies revealed, t(9;22 with BCR/ABL positive and trisomy 19 in all metaphase cells. To our knowledge, this paper here is the first to present acute basophilic leukemia with trisomy 19 and t(9;22.

  7. Mutual interaction of Basophils and T cells in chronic inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eSarfati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Basophils are, together with mast cells, typical innate effector cells of allergen-induced IgE-dependent allergic diseases. Both cell types express the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεR1, release histamine, inflammatory mediators and cytokines following FcεR1 cross-linking. Basophils are rare granulocytes in blood, lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and the difficulties to detect and isolate these cells has hampered the study of their biology and the understanding of their possible role in pathology. Furthermore, the existence of other FcεR1-expressing cells, including professional Ag-presenting dendritic cells, generated some controversy regarding the ability of basophils to express MHC Class II molecules, present Ag and drive naïve T cell differentiation into Th2 cells. The focus of this review is to present the recent advances on the interactions between basophils and peripheral blood and tissue memory Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, as well as their potential role in IgE-independent non allergic chronic inflammatory disorders, including human inflammatory bowel diseases. Basophils interactions with the innate players of IgE-dependent allergic inflammation, particularly innate lymphoid cells, will also be considered. The previously unrecognized function for basophils in skewing adaptive immune responses opens novel perspectives for the understanding of their contribution to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

  8. Detection of MHC class II expression on human basophils is dependent on antibody specificity but independent of atopic disposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Britta Cathrina; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jensen, Bettina M

    2012-01-01

    A debate has recently arisen as to whether murine basophils can function as antigen presenting cells in allergic inflammation. However, mouse and human basophils differ considerably, and the expression of MHC class II on human basophils has been investigated as a proxy for their capability...... of antigen presentation but conflicting results have emerged. In this technical note, we show that an antibody specific for all three MHC class II subtypes (HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ), leads to a significantly higher amount of MHC class II+ basophils compared to antibodies specific for HLA-DR only. A significant...... difference was also observed between the HLA-DR specific antibodies, indicating that the choice of antibody is crucial. Furthermore, critical compensation was essential to avoid false HLA-DR+ basophils. Finally, we found that detection of MHC class II on human basophils was independent of atopic disposition....

  9. Inhibitory effect of various Tunisian olive oils on chemical mediator release and cytokine production by basophilic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, P; Zarrouk, M; Kawasaki, K; Isoda, H

    2008-03-05

    Tunisian olive oils have been traditionally used as a medicinal food for chronic inflammation. To investigate the antiallergic effect of virgin olive oil samples from five principal olive varieties grown in various regions of Tunisia, we used the type I allergy reaction model using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells and different dilutions of olive oil samples to determine beta-hexosaminidase release inhibition at two different response stages. Results showed that the Sayali olive oil significantly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release by the IgE antibody-sensitized, BSA antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells at the antibody-antigen binding stage. The result of our experiment shows that the anti-allergic effect of olive oil at this binding stage may be dependent on their flavone content. The Zarrazi olive oil significantly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release at the antigen-receptor binding stage. Moreover, we investigated the effect of olive oil samples on histamine release and production of cytokines by activated human basophilic (KU812) cells. Different dilutions of Sayali olive oil dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), and different dilutions of Zarrazi olive oil dose-dependently inhibited histamine release and IL-4 production by calcium ionophore A23187 plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated KU812 cells.

  10. Human Lactobacillus Strains from the Intestine can Suppress IgE-Mediated Degranulation of Rat Basophilic Leukaemia (RBL-2H3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Harata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells play a critical role in immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated allergic diseases, and the degranulation of mast cells is important in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A disturbance of the intestinal microflora, especially of endogenous lactic acid bacteria, might be a contributing factor for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Additional knowledge regarding the interaction of human intestinal Lactobacilli with mast cells is still necessary. Twenty-three strains of Lactobacilli, including commercial and reference strains and strains from the human intestine, were tested for their ability to regulate degranulation of cells from rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells (RBL-2H3 in vitro based on a β-hexosaminidase release assay. Each of the tested Lactobacilli characteristically suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells, and Lactobacillus GG showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the cells. Furthermore, the bacteria isolated from the human intestine significantly suppressed degranulation of RBL-2H3 cellsin comparison with the reference strains. These results suggest that Lactobacilli, particularly those from the human intestine, can affect the activation of mast cells in a strain-dependent manner. Further study should be conducted to analyse the understanding mechanism.

  11. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-07-09

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  12. Chair side simple caries activity test: Ora test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, S; Sudha, P; Anegundi, R T

    2006-06-01

    Oratest, a caries activity test was performed on 48 school going children of Mangalore city to estimate efficacy of the test. High statistical significance was found when the means of control and test group were compared [gamma = 0.913]. The Oratest is found to be a simple chair side, less time consuming and inexpensive caries activity test.

  13. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Blood basophils also participate in allergic and other inflammatory reactions in the same way as mast cells.4. The capacity of mast cells and basophil to release mediators of anaphylaxis in response to cell activation, also termed releasability, depends on a number of different factors, including the primary underlying disease ...

  14. Trogocytosis of peptide–MHC class II complexes from dendritic cells confers antigen-presenting ability on basophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kensuke; Shiozawa, Nozomu; Nagao, Toshihisa; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Th2 immunity plays important roles in both protective and allergic responses. Nevertheless, the nature of antigen-presenting cells responsible for Th2 cell differentiation remains ill-defined compared with the nature of the cells responsible for Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Basophils have attracted attention as a producer of Th2-inducing cytokine IL-4, whereas their MHC class II (MHC-II) expression and function as antigen-presenting cells are matters of considerable controversy. Here we revisited the MHC-II expression on basophils and explored its functional relevance in Th2 cell differentiation. Basophils generated in vitro from bone marrow cells in culture with IL-3 plus GM-CSF displayed MHC-II on the cell surface, whereas those generated in culture with IL-3 alone did not. Of note, these MHC-II–expressing basophils showed little or no transcription of the corresponding MHC-II gene. The GM-CSF addition to culture expanded dendritic cells (DCs) other than basophils. Coculture of basophils and DCs revealed that basophils acquired peptide–MHC-II complexes from DCs via cell contact-dependent trogocytosis. The acquired complexes, together with CD86, enabled basophils to stimulate peptide-specific T cells, leading to their proliferation and IL-4 production, indicating that basophils can function as antigen-presenting cells for Th2 cell differentiation. Transfer of MHC-II from DCs to basophils was also detected in draining lymph nodes of mice with atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation. Thus, the present study defined the mechanism by which basophils display MHC-II on the cell surface and appears to reconcile some discrepancies observed in previous studies. PMID:28096423

  15. Trogocytosis of peptide-MHC class II complexes from dendritic cells confers antigen-presenting ability on basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kensuke; Shiozawa, Nozomu; Nagao, Toshihisa; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2017-01-31

    Th2 immunity plays important roles in both protective and allergic responses. Nevertheless, the nature of antigen-presenting cells responsible for Th2 cell differentiation remains ill-defined compared with the nature of the cells responsible for Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Basophils have attracted attention as a producer of Th2-inducing cytokine IL-4, whereas their MHC class II (MHC-II) expression and function as antigen-presenting cells are matters of considerable controversy. Here we revisited the MHC-II expression on basophils and explored its functional relevance in Th2 cell differentiation. Basophils generated in vitro from bone marrow cells in culture with IL-3 plus GM-CSF displayed MHC-II on the cell surface, whereas those generated in culture with IL-3 alone did not. Of note, these MHC-II-expressing basophils showed little or no transcription of the corresponding MHC-II gene. The GM-CSF addition to culture expanded dendritic cells (DCs) other than basophils. Coculture of basophils and DCs revealed that basophils acquired peptide-MHC-II complexes from DCs via cell contact-dependent trogocytosis. The acquired complexes, together with CD86, enabled basophils to stimulate peptide-specific T cells, leading to their proliferation and IL-4 production, indicating that basophils can function as antigen-presenting cells for Th2 cell differentiation. Transfer of MHC-II from DCs to basophils was also detected in draining lymph nodes of mice with atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation. Thus, the present study defined the mechanism by which basophils display MHC-II on the cell surface and appears to reconcile some discrepancies observed in previous studies.

  16. Surface profiling of normally responding and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe

    a maximum release blood mononuclear cells were purified by density centrifugation and using flow cytometry, basophils, defined as FceRIa+CD3-CD14-CD19-CD56-,were analysed for surface expression of relevant markers. All samples were compensated and analysed in logicle display. All gates......c, C3aR, C5aR CCR3, FPR1, ST2, CRTH2 on anti-IgE respondsive and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry, thereby generating a surface profile of the two phenotypes. Methods Fresh buffy coat blood (

  17. Complexity of the influence of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Svendsen, U G; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    The influence of exogenous addition of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells was examined in vitro. Gangliosides dose-dependently inhibited histamine release, and this inhibition was dependent on the ganglioside sialic acid content, since GT1b, having 3 sialic...... acid moieties, was more potent than gangliosides with 2 moieties (GD1a and GD1b), which again were more potent inhibitors than GM1 with one moiety. Asialo-GM1 was without effect. In high concentrations the gangliosides potentiated basophil histamine release. The modulation of histamine release...

  18. Complexity of the influence of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Svendsen, U G; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    acid moieties, was more potent than gangliosides with 2 moieties (GD1a and GD1b), which again were more potent inhibitors than GM1 with one moiety. Asialo-GM1 was without effect. In high concentrations the gangliosides potentiated basophil histamine release. The modulation of histamine release......The influence of exogenous addition of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells was examined in vitro. Gangliosides dose-dependently inhibited histamine release, and this inhibition was dependent on the ganglioside sialic acid content, since GT1b, having 3 sialic...

  19. Blood Eosinophil and Basophil Values Before and After Surgery for Eosinophilic-type Sinonasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, Giuseppe; Parrino, Daniela; Zanotti, Claudia; Tealdo, Giulia; Barion, Umberto; Sfriso, Paolo; Marioni, Gino

    2018-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil and basophil levels have recently been considered for the purpose of endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Histologically, eosinophilic-type CRSwNPs have been associated with high recurrence rates after treatment. Objective The present study was the first to compare blood eosinophil and basophil counts in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP patients before and after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods The study concerned 79 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed eosinophilic-type CRSwNP treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. Results A significant drop in mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages occurred from before to after endoscopic sinus surgery in the cohort as a whole. Mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages were also reduced after surgery in the subcohorts of CRSwNP patients with (i) asthma, (ii) aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and (iii) no allergy. Although blood eosinophil and basophil counts correlated directly before and after surgery, a statistical reduction in blood basophil counts and percentages after surgery emerged only in the subcohort of nonallergic CRSwNP patients. Conclusion Endoscopic sinus surgery can clear polyps, remove inflammatory tissue, and reduce inflammatory cytokine levels. Consistently with the biological mechanism described, endoscopic sinus surgery could coincide with a reduction in blood eosinophils in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP.

  20. Effects of phorbol ester and dexamethasone treatment on histidine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in basophilic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, I; Urdiales, J L; Medina, M A; Sanchez-Jimenez, F

    2001-05-01

    Both histamine and polyamines are important for maintaining basophilic cell function and viability. The synthesis of these biogenic amines is regulated by histidine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase, respectively. In other mammalian tissues, an interplay between histamine and polyamine metabolisms has been suspected. In this report, the interplay between histamine and ornithine-derived polyamines was studied in a non-transformed mouse mast cell line (C57.1) treated with phorbol ester and dexamethasone, a treatment previously used to increase histidine decarboxylase expression in mastocytoma and basophilic leukemia. Treatment with phorbol ester and dexamethasone increased histidine decarboxylase expression and intracellular histamine levels in C57.1 mast cells to a greater extent than those found for other transformed basophilic models. The treatment also induced a reduction in ornithine decarboxylase expression, intracellular polyamine contents, and cell proliferation. These results indicate that the treatment induces a co-ordinate response of polyamine metabolism and proliferation in mast cells and other immune-related cells. The decrease in the proliferative capacity of mast cells caused by phorbol ester and dexamethasone was simultaneous to an increase in histamine production. Our results, together with those reported by other groups working with polyamine-treated mast cells, indicate an antagonism between histamine and polyamines in basophilic cells.

  1. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599

  2. Omalizumab Increases the Intrinsic Sensitivity of Human Basophils to IgE-Mediated Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGlashan, Donald; Saini, Sarbjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment of allergic patients with omalizumab results in a paradoxical increase in their basophil histamine release response, ex vivo, to crosslinking anti-IgE antibody. It is not known whether this change in response is associated with an increase in intrinsic cellular sensitivity, which would be a paradoxical response. Objective To determine if the increase in response to anti-IgE Ab is a reflection of an increased cellular sensitivity, expressed as molecules of antigen-specific IgE per basophil required to produce a 50% of maximal response. Methods Patients were treated with omalizumab or placebo agent for 12 weeks (NCT01003301 at ClinicalTrials.gov) and the metric of basophil sensitivity was assessed at 4 time points, baseline, 6–8 weeks, 12 weeks (after which treatment stopped) and 24 weeks (12 weeks after the end of treatment). Results As observed previously, treatment with omalizumab resulted in a marked increase in the maximal histamine release induced by crosslinking anti-IgE Ab. This change was accompanied by a marked shift in intrinsic basophil sensitivity, ranging from 2.5 to 125 fold, with an average of 6 fold at the midpoint of the treatment to 12 fold after 12 weeks. The magnitude of the increase in cellular sensitivity was inversely related to the starting sensitivity or the starting maximum histamine release. The increased cellular sensitivity also occurred when using LTC4 secretion as a metric of the basophil response. 12 weeks after the end of treatment, cellular sensitivity was found to shift towards the baseline level although the return to baseline was not yet complete at this time point. Conclusions Treatment with omalizumab results in a markedly increased sensitivity of basophils to IgE-mediated stimulation, in terms of the number of IgE molecules required to produce a given response. These results provide a better quantitative sense of the phenotypic change that occurs in basophils during omalizumab treatment which has

  3. Structural analysis of the endogenous glycoallergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis and its recognition by human basophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Adela, E-mail: adela@unam.mx; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico); Palomares, Laura A. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 510-3, 62250 Cuernavaca, MOR (Mexico); Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian [Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Orozco-Martínez, Socorro [Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Insurgentes Sur 3700C, 04530 Cuicuilco, DF (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the three-dimensional structure of the endogenous glycosylated allergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase), which exhibits three post-translational modifications that form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be an allergenic IgE epitope. Endogenous glycosylated Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis is an important latex allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies from patients who suffer from latex allergy. The carbohydrate moieties of Hev b 2 constitute a potentially important IgE-binding epitope that could be responsible for its cross-reactivity. Here, the structure of the endogenous isoform II of Hev b 2 that exhibits three post-translational modifications, including an N-terminal pyroglutamate and two glycosylation sites at Asn27 and at Asn314, is reported from two crystal polymorphs. These modifications form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be one of the binding sites for IgE. A structure is also proposed for the most important N-glycan present in this protein as determined by digestion with specific enzymes. To analyze the role of the carbohydrate moieties in IgE antibody binding and in human basophil activation, the glycoallergen was enzymatically deglycosylated and evaluated. Time-lapse automated video microscopy of basophils stimulated with glycosylated Hev b 2 revealed basophil activation and degranulation. Immunological studies suggested that carbohydrates on Hev b 2 represent an allergenic IgE epitope. In addition, a dimer was found in each asymmetric unit that may reflect a regulatory mechanism of this plant defence protein.

  4. Electrolysis activities at FCH Test Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Nielsen, Eva; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    FCH Test Center for fuel cell and hydrogen technologies was established in 2010 at Risø DTU in Denmark. Today, the test center is part of DTU Energy Conversion. The center gives industry access to advanced testing and demonstration of components and systems. A number of national projects and EU p...... projects regarding water electrolysis involve FCH Test Center as a partner. This presentation gives an overview of the activities....

  5. Basophils contribute to pristane-induced Lupus-like nephritis model

    OpenAIRE

    Dema, Barbara; Lamri, Yasmine; Pellefigues, Christophe; Pacreau, Emeline; Saidoune, Fanny; Bidault, Caroline; Karasuyama, Hajime; Sacr?, Karim; Daugas, Eric; Charles, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Lupus nephritis (LN), one of the most severe outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is initiated by glomerular deposition of immune-complexes leading to an inflammatory response and kidney failure. Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and autoreactive B and T cells are central in SLE pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms amplifying this autoantibody production drive flares of the disease. We previously showed that basophils were contributing to LN development in a spo...

  6. Haematological health assessment in a passerine with extremely high proportion of basophils in peripheral blood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Schnitzer, J.; Munclinger, P.; Votýpka, J.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 4 (2010), s. 841-849 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : basophilic granulocyte * hematology * hematocrit * Leucocyte differential count * Polychromatic erythrocyte Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2010

  7. Membrane sialic acid influences basophil histamine release by interfering with calcium dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Skov, P S

    1987-01-01

    by insertion of sialic acid containing gangliosides into the membrane inhibited the mediator release. The reduction in membrane sialic acid content abolished the inhibitory capacity of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine, whereas the inhibition produced by verapamil and lanthanum was not affected....... This difference, together with the previous finding that alterations in membrane sialic acid content is reflected in the cell sensitivity to extracellular calcium, suggest an interaction between membrane sialic acid and the calcium channels involved in basophil histamine release....

  8. Buildings, fields of activity, testing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Since 1969 the activities of the Materialpruefungsanstalt Stuttgart (MPA) have grown quickly as planned, especially in the field of reactor safety research, which made it necessary to increase the staff to approximately 165 members, to supplement the machines and equipment and to extend the fields of activities occasioning a further departmental reorganization. At present the MPA has the following departments: 1. Teaching (materials testing, materials science and strength of materials) 2. Materials and Welding Technology 3. Materials Science and General Materials Testing with Tribology 4. Design and Strength 5. Creep and Fatigue Testing 6. Central Facilities 7. Vessel and Component Testing. (orig./RW) [de

  9. 2S protein Ara h 7.0201 has unique epitopes compared to other Ara h 7 isoforms and is comparable to 2S proteins Ara h 2 and 6 in basophil degranulation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayen, S M; Ehlers, A M; den Hartog Jager, C F; Garssen, J; Knol, E F; Knulst, A C; Suer, W; Willemsen, L E M; Otten, H G

    2018-03-14

    Screening for specific IgE against 2S albumin proteins Ara h 2 and 6 has good positive predictive value in diagnosing peanut allergy. From the third 2S member Ara h 7, three isoforms have been identified. Their allergenicity has not been elucidated. This study investigated the allergenicity of Ara h 7 isoforms compared to Ara h 2 and 6. Sensitization of 15 DBPCFC confirmed peanut allergic patients to recombinant Ara h 2.0201, 6.01 and isoforms of recombinant Ara h 7 was determined by IgE immunoblotting strips. A basophil activation test (BAT) was performed in nine patients to determine IgE-crosslinking capacities of the allergens. Sensitivity to the allergens was tested in five patients that were sensitized to at least one Ara h 7 isoform, by a concentration range in the BAT. 3D-prediction models and sequence alignments were used to visualize differences between isoforms and to predict allergenic epitope regions. Sensitization to Ara h 7.0201 was most frequent (80%) and showed to be equally potent as Ara h 2.0201 and 6.01 in inducing basophil degranulation. Sensitization to Ara h 7.0201 together with Ara h 2.0201 and/or 6.01 was observed, indicating the presence of unique epitopes compared to the other two isoforms. Differences between the three Ara h 7 isoforms were observed in C-terminal cysteine residues, pepsin and trypsin cleavage sites and three single amino acid substitutions. The majority of peanut-allergic patients are sensitized to isoform Ara h 7.0201, which is functionally as active as Ara h 2.0201 and 6.01. Unique epitopes are most likely located in the C-terminus or an allergenic loop region which is a known allergenic epitope region for Ara h 2.0201 and 6.01. Due to its unique epitopes and allergenicity, it is an interesting candidate to improve the diagnostic accuracy for peanut allergy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The CLEC12A receptor marks human basophils:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Petersen, Marie; Stidsholt Roug, Anne; Plesner, Trine

    2017-01-01

    chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) samples and eight healthy donors in a six-color multicolor flowcytometry (FCM) based assay. Furthermore, we performed fluorescence activated cell sorting on one CML sample to morphologically confirm the CD45lowSSClowCD14-CD123 + CLEC12A+ subset to be highly enriched......BACKGROUND: The transmembrane receptor C-type lectin domain family 12, member A (CLEC12A) is known to be highly expressed on monocytes and neutrophils and is a reliable leukemia associated marker in acute myeloid leukemia. Consequently, detailed knowledge of the various normal cell types expressing...... for the evaluation of hematological disorders, awareness of minor normal CLEC12A+ subpopulations is crucial when using CLEC12A as a minimal residual disease marker in myeloid malignancies. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society....

  11. FLT-3 ITD Positive Acute Basophilic Leukemia with Rare Complex Karyotype Presenting with Acute Respiratory Failure: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antohe Ion

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute basophilic leukemia is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia, as categorized by the 2008 World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms. Acute basophilic leukemia diagnosis requires thorough morphological, cytochemical, immunophenotypic, molecular, and cytogenetic studies and exclusion of other hematological neoplasms associating basophilia. The disease course is defined by histamine driven, occasionally life-threatening respiratory, cardiovascular, cutaneous or digestive complications, as well as primary refractoriness to standard therapy. Clinical presentation: We herein report a case of a 63-year-old asthmatic female patient diagnosed with acute basophilic leukemia, associated with previously unpublished cytogenetic features and FLT-3 ITD mutation, pulmonary leukostasis and spontaneous pulmonary capillary leak syndrome, which worsened immediately following chemotherapy initiation. Respiratory complications were successfully managed, but recrudesced upon emergence of refractory disease and were ultimately fatal. We highlight the likelihood of pulmonary complications induced by basophil degranulation and tumor lysis in hypercellular acute basophilic leukemia and the potential benefit of histamine receptor blockade in this setting.

  12. Thapsigargin-induced nuclear calcium signals in rat basophilic leukaemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horikoshi, Y; Furuno, T; Teshima, R; Sawada, J; Nakanishi, M

    1994-01-01

    By a confocal fluorescence microscope with an argon-ion laser (488 nm) and a He-Cd laser (325 nm) we have studied thapsigargin-induced calcium signals in individual rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells. In the presence or absence of external calcium ions, thapsigargin-induced calcium signals were transferred to the nucleus as well as to the cytoplasm of RBL-2H3 cells. The calcium signals were generally much stronger in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. However, some of the RBL-2H3 cells ...

  13. Influence of nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum on histamine release from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Thastrup, Ole; Norn, S

    1987-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that the membrane content of sialic acid influences histamine release from human basophils by interfering with the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release. In this study we investigated a possible interaction between membrane sialic acid...... and the calcium channels, using the calcium antagonists nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was inhibited by verapamil, nimodipine and lanthanum. When cells were pretreated with sialidase in order to remove sialic acid from the cell membrane, the inhibitory action of nimodipine...

  14. Characterization of rat basophilic leukemia cell surface proteins using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonocore-Buzzelli, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells express both immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptors. In this study, mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced against the RBL cell and screened for their ability to precipitate specific bands from 125 I surface labeled cells. Fourteen hybridomas were selected and divided into five groups since many of the hybridomas precipitated bands of identical molecular weight. One or more of the hybridomas from each group, and the cell surface antigens they identified, were further characterized. Binding of all the monoclonal antibodies to the RBL-2H3 cell surface was saturable and of high affinity. In cross inhibition studies, two of the antibodies were found to bind to identical or neighboring epitopes, presumably on the same cell surface molecule. Binding studies using other cell populations demonstrated that the monoclonal antibodies react not only with commonly expressed rat cell surface molecules but also with molecules specifically expressed on rat mast cells and basophils. None of the antibodies were found to induce or inhibit serotonin release from the RBL cells. Western blotting showed most of the antibodies to react with bands whose molecular weights resembled those seen by immuno-precipitation. Antibodies number sign 8 and number sign 12, although from the same group, were found to react with different subunits of the same cell surface protein. Sequential immunoprecipitation and peptide mapping confirmed that the antigens defined by these antibodies were structurally related

  15. CTAB-coated gold nanorods elicit allergic response through degranulation and cell death in human basophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka Lun; Chen, Huanjun; Chen, Qiulan; Wang, Jianfang; Ho, Ho Pui; Wong, Chun Kwok; Kong, Siu Kai

    2012-07-01

    The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs.The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30435j

  16. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance.

  17. Monomeric immunoglobulin E stabilizes FcepsilonRIalpha from the human basophil cell line KU812 by protecting it from natural turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Hansen, Jens Bo; Dissing, S

    2003-01-01

    The high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells and basophils is up-regulated by its own ligand IgE; however, the mechanism is unknown.......The high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells and basophils is up-regulated by its own ligand IgE; however, the mechanism is unknown....

  18. Exercise haemodynamics: field activities versus laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini

    1997-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The present knowledge on changes in blood pressure during athletics is based virtually entirely on the results of stress testing, owing to the inability to measure blood pressures during sports activities. However, everyday physical activities, as well as sports activities, differ in many respects from stress testing, so that a direct comparison cannot be made. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of three different sports, track running, road cycling and weight lifting, on blood pressures recorded intra-arterially with the Oxford system and to compare the results with those obtained during traditional ergometry. METHODS: Blood pressure was recorded continuously in three groups of male athletes (22 joggers, 6 cyclists and 11 builders) by means of the intraarterial portablke Oxford method, through a catheter placed in the radial artery. RESULTS: During track running beat-by-beat analysis of the recordings showed a peculiar behaviour of the phasic pressure waves. Periodic oscillations of the pulse pressure, which varied in frequency in the range 4-28 cycles/min according to the velocity of running and heart rate, were observed nearly always. The frequency of the running-induced fluctuations in pulse pressure almost always equalled the difference between the heart rate and the stepping rate, suggesting that these oscillations were beats. The source of the stride-dependent wave was identified with the shaking of the aorta and the great vessels during the running. A weak correlation between the maximum blood pressure recorded during track running and the blood pressure recorded during treadmill or bicycle ergometry was found. Outdoor cycling caused a far higher increase in blood pressure than did bicycle ergometry, confirming that the response of the blood pressure to the laboratory test is not a good predictor of the changes in blood pressure which actually occur during outdoor activities. Weight lifting brought about noticeable elevations in blood pressure, to

  19. Use of humanised rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RS-ATL8 for the assessment of allergenicity of Schistosoma mansoni proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasite-specific IgE is thought to correlate with protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection or re-infection. Only a few molecular targets of the IgE response in S. mansoni infection have been characterised. A better insight into the basic mechanisms of anti-parasite immunity could be gained from a genome-wide characterisation of such S. mansoni allergens. This would have repercussions on our understanding of allergy and the development of safe and efficacious vaccinations against helminthic parasites.A complete medium- to high-throughput amenable workflow, including important quality controls, is described, which enables the rapid translation of S. mansoni proteins using wheat germ lysate and subsequent assessment of potential allergenicity with a humanised Rat Basophilic Leukemia (RBL reporter cell line. Cell-free translation is completed within 90 minutes, generating sufficient amounts of parasitic protein for rapid screening of allergenicity without any need for purification. Antigenic integrity is demonstrated using Western Blotting. After overnight incubation with infected individuals' serum, the RS-ATL8 reporter cell line is challenged with the complete wheat germ translation mixture and Luciferase activity measured, reporting cellular activation by the suspected allergen. The suitability of this system for characterization of novel S. mansoni allergens is demonstrated using well characterised plant and parasitic allergens such as Par j 2, SmTAL-1 and the IgE binding factor IPSE/alpha-1, expressed in wheat germ lysates and/or E. coli. SmTAL-1, but not SmTAL2 (used as a negative control, was able to activate the basophil reporter cell line.This method offers an accessible way for assessment of potential allergenicity of anti-helminthic vaccine candidates and is suitable for medium- to high-throughput studies using infected individual sera. It is also suitable for the study of the basis of allergenicity of helminthic proteins.

  20. Use of humanised rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RS-ATL8 for the assessment of allergenicity of Schistosoma mansoni proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Daniel; Ludolf, Fernanda; Alanine, Daniel G W; Stretton, Owen; Ali Ali, Eman; Al-Barwary, Nafal; Wang, Xiaowei; Doenhoff, Michael J; Mari, Adriano; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Dunne, David W; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Falcone, Franco H

    2014-09-01

    Parasite-specific IgE is thought to correlate with protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection or re-infection. Only a few molecular targets of the IgE response in S. mansoni infection have been characterised. A better insight into the basic mechanisms of anti-parasite immunity could be gained from a genome-wide characterisation of such S. mansoni allergens. This would have repercussions on our understanding of allergy and the development of safe and efficacious vaccinations against helminthic parasites. A complete medium- to high-throughput amenable workflow, including important quality controls, is described, which enables the rapid translation of S. mansoni proteins using wheat germ lysate and subsequent assessment of potential allergenicity with a humanised Rat Basophilic Leukemia (RBL) reporter cell line. Cell-free translation is completed within 90 minutes, generating sufficient amounts of parasitic protein for rapid screening of allergenicity without any need for purification. Antigenic integrity is demonstrated using Western Blotting. After overnight incubation with infected individuals' serum, the RS-ATL8 reporter cell line is challenged with the complete wheat germ translation mixture and Luciferase activity measured, reporting cellular activation by the suspected allergen. The suitability of this system for characterization of novel S. mansoni allergens is demonstrated using well characterised plant and parasitic allergens such as Par j 2, SmTAL-1 and the IgE binding factor IPSE/alpha-1, expressed in wheat germ lysates and/or E. coli. SmTAL-1, but not SmTAL2 (used as a negative control), was able to activate the basophil reporter cell line. This method offers an accessible way for assessment of potential allergenicity of anti-helminthic vaccine candidates and is suitable for medium- to high-throughput studies using infected individual sera. It is also suitable for the study of the basis of allergenicity of helminthic proteins.

  1. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj

    2006-01-01

    . However, a relationship between the AS status and FcepsilonRI has not been investigated. We aimed to characterize basophils from AS by looking at histamine release (HR) (sensitivity and reactivity) and the FcepsilonRI molecule, and compare it with nonatopic (NA) or allergic (A) persons....

  2. Influence of nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum on histamine release from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Thastrup, Ole; Norn, S

    1987-01-01

    and the calcium channels, using the calcium antagonists nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was inhibited by verapamil, nimodipine and lanthanum. When cells were pretreated with sialidase in order to remove sialic acid from the cell membrane, the inhibitory action of nimodipine...... was abolished, whereas the inhibition by verapamil or lanthanum was unaffected. This difference may be explained by the different mode of action of the calcium channel antagonists, and the results suggest an association between membrane sialic acid and the calcium channel.......Our previous studies suggest that the membrane content of sialic acid influences histamine release from human basophils by interfering with the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release. In this study we investigated a possible interaction between membrane sialic acid...

  3. Cyclic AMP agonist inhibition increases at low levels of histamine release from human basophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, R.S.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    The relationship between the intensity of the signal for antigen-induced immunoglobulin E-mediated histamine release from human basophils and the concentration of agonist needed to inhibit release has been determined. The agonists, prostaglandin E1, dimaprit, fenoterol, isobutylmethylxanthine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, all act by increasing the cyclic AMP level. Each agonist was 10- to 1000-fold more potent (relative ID50) at low levels of histamine release (5-10% of total histamine) than at high levels (50-80%). Thus, the inhibitory potential of a drug is a function of the concentration of antigen used to initiate the response. Our results are now more in accord with the inhibitory profile of these drugs in human lung tissue. It is suggested that in vivo release is likely to be low and that this is the level at which to evaluate drugs in vitro.

  4. Skin CD4+ Memory T Cells Play an Essential Role in Acquired Anti-Tick Immunity through Interleukin-3-Mediated Basophil Recruitment to Tick-Feeding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Ohta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, blood-sucking arthropods, serve as vectors for transmission of infectious diseases including Lyme borreliosis. After tick infestation, several animal species can develop resistance to subsequent infestations, reducing the risk of transmission. In a mouse model, basophils reportedly infiltrate tick-feeding sites during the second but not first infestation and play a crucial role in the expression of acquired tick resistance. However, the mechanism underlying basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site remains ill-defined. Here, we investigated cells and their products responsible for the basophil recruitment. Little or no basophil infiltration was detected in T-cell-deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells reconstituted it. Il3 gene expression was highly upregulated at the second tick-feeding site, and adoptive transfer of interleukin-3 (IL-3-sufficient but not IL-3-deficient CD4+ T cells conferred the basophil infiltration on T-cell-deficient mice, indicating that the CD4+ T-cell-derived IL-3 is essential for the basophil recruitment. Notably, IL-3+ resident CD4+ memory T cells were detected even before the second infestation in previously uninfested skin distant from the first tick-feeding site. Taken together, IL-3 produced locally by skin CD4+ memory T cells appears to play a crucial role in basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site.

  5. Skin CD4+Memory T Cells Play an Essential Role in Acquired Anti-Tick Immunity through Interleukin-3-Mediated Basophil Recruitment to Tick-Feeding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Tabakawa, Yuya; Yamaji, Kayoko; Ishiwata, Kenji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Oh-Hora, Masatsugu; Kawano, Yohei; Miyake, Kensuke; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Naohiro; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Ticks, blood-sucking arthropods, serve as vectors for transmission of infectious diseases including Lyme borreliosis. After tick infestation, several animal species can develop resistance to subsequent infestations, reducing the risk of transmission. In a mouse model, basophils reportedly infiltrate tick-feeding sites during the second but not first infestation and play a crucial role in the expression of acquired tick resistance. However, the mechanism underlying basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site remains ill-defined. Here, we investigated cells and their products responsible for the basophil recruitment. Little or no basophil infiltration was detected in T-cell-deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells reconstituted it. Il3 gene expression was highly upregulated at the second tick-feeding site, and adoptive transfer of interleukin-3 (IL-3)-sufficient but not IL-3-deficient CD4 + T cells conferred the basophil infiltration on T-cell-deficient mice, indicating that the CD4 + T-cell-derived IL-3 is essential for the basophil recruitment. Notably, IL-3 + resident CD4 + memory T cells were detected even before the second infestation in previously uninfested skin distant from the first tick-feeding site. Taken together, IL-3 produced locally by skin CD4 + memory T cells appears to play a crucial role in basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site.

  6. A positive serum basophil histamine release assay is a marker for ciclosporin-responsiveness in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Kamran; Bhargava, Kapil; Skov, Per Stahl

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The electronic records of 398 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who had had a serum basophil histamine release assay (BHRA) performed as a marker of functional autoantibodies were audited. The BHRA was positive in 105 patients (26.4%). Fifty eight were treated with ciclo...... with ciclosporin because they were H1 anti-histamine unresponsive. CSU patients with a positive BHRA were more likely to respond clinically (P...

  7. Autoreactive IgE in Chronic Spontaneous/Idiopathic Urticaria and Basophil/Mastocyte Priming Phenomenon, as a Feature of Autoimmune Nature of the Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaszek, Bernard; Pawłowicz, Robert; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Obojski, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Recent years of research have shed a new light on the role of IgE in immune reactions. It seems to be more than just a contribution to immediate type of allergic response. It appears that monomeric IgE may enhance mast cell activity without cross-linking of FcεRI by IgE specific allergen or autoreactive IgG anti-IgE antibodies. Monomeric IgE molecules are heterogeneous concerning their ability to induce survival and activation of mast cells only by binding the IgE to FcεRI, but not affecting degranulation of cells. It also turned out that IgE may react to autoantigens occurring in the blood not only in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) but also in other autoimmune diseases. The aforementioned phenomena may promote the activity of mast cells/basophils in CSU that easily degranulate when influenced by various inner (autoreactive IgG against IgE and FcεRI, autoreactive IgE for self-antigens) and outer factors (cold, heat, pressure) or allergens. These findings forced the new approach to the role of autoimmunity, self-antigens and IgE autoantibodies in the pathology of CSU. CSU put in the scheme of autoreactive IgG and autoreactive IgE seems to be either a kind of an autoimmune disease or a clinical manifestation of some other defined autoimmune diseases or both.

  8. Active fault diagnosis based on stochastic tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on stochastic change detection applied in connection with active fault diagnosis (AFD). An auxiliary input signal is applied in AFD. This signal injection in the system will in general allow us to obtain a fast change detection/isolation by considering the output...

  9. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Development and Testing of Active Groundwater Samplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Bertel; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Andersen, Lars Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Baffle System (PBS). The methodology and design of the two systems is presented and the operational application is demonstrated by examples from full-scale field experiments. The methods are validated and their sensitivity to the well construction and the hydrogeological environment is assessed based...... on numerical modelling and controlled laboratory experiments. Active groundwater sampling techniques can be used for remedial pumping optimization and in obtaining hydraulic data and represent a fast operational and reliable sampling tool, also under heterogeneous and low permeability conditions....

  11. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  12. Drug Testing of Students in Extracurricular Activities: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Russo, Charles J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews recent federal appellate court cases dealing with legal issues involving random drug testing of students participating in extracurricular activities. Draws implications for school business officials and other educators. (PKP)

  13. Frontal theta activity during working memory in test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Gao, Xin; Zhou, Renlai

    2015-03-04

    Previous studies have shown that working memory (WM) processes are related to frontal-midline theta (FM-theta) activity (4-8 Hz) and test anxiety impairs WM performance. However, the effect of test anxiety on FM-theta activity during WM has not been investigated as yet. To examine this question, 37 undergraduates were asked to complete a modified reading span task involving neutral working memory capacity (WMC) and emotional WMC while their electroencephalography was measured. The results showed that relative to neutral WMC performance (the ability to remember the letter lists in the context of valence-neutral sentences), emotional WMC performance (the ability to remember the letter lists in the context of test-related sentences) was poorer for highly test anxious participants compared with lowly test anxious participants. Relative to FM-theta activity during remembering the letter lists in the valence-neutral context, FM-theta activity was weaker during remembering the letter lists in the test-related context for highly test anxious participants compared with lowly test anxious participants. These findings indicate that FM-theta is an index not only for successful WM manipulation but also for efficient prefrontal cortex functioning during WM.

  14. Quality checking task force destructive testing of active waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1987-03-01

    The implications of sampling and testing of full size active packages of intermediate level wastes are summarised in this report. Sampling operations are technically feasible but a major difficulty will be the disposal of secondary waste. A literature survey indicated that destructive testing of wasteforms is not carried out as a routine operation in Europe or the USA. (author)

  15. Junction temperature estimation for an advanced active power cycling test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, S.

    2015-01-01

    estimation method using on-state VCE for an advanced active power cycling test is proposed. The concept of the advanced power cycling test is explained first. Afterwards the junction temperature estimation method using on-state VCE and current is presented. Further, the method to improve the accuracy...

  16. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  17. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  18. Dissolution test for low-activity waste product acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have measured the mean and standard deviation of the solution concentrations of B, Na, and Si attained in replicate dissolution tests conducted at temperatures of 20, 40, and 70 C, for durations of 3 and 7 days, and at glass/water mass ratios of 1:10 and 1:1. These and other tests were conducted to evaluate the adequacy of the test methods specified in privatization contracts and to develop a data base that can be used to evaluate the reliability of reported results for tests performed on the waste products. Tests were conducted with a glass that we formulated to be similar to low-activity waste products that will be produced during the remediation of Hanford tank wastes. Statistical analyses indicated that, while the mean concentrations of B, Na, and Si were affected by the values of test parameters, the standard deviation of replicate tests was not. The precision of the tests was determined primarily by uncertainties in the analysis of the test solutions. Replicate measurements of other glass properties that must be reported for Hanford low-activity waste products were measured to evaluate the possible adoption of the glass used in these tests as a standard test material for the product acceptance process

  19. Histamine release from basophil leukocytes in asthma patients after in vitro provocation with various neuromuscular blocking drugs and intravenous anaesthetic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H; Søndergaard, I

    1987-01-01

    Basophil histamine release is a relatively new investigation technique, which can be used in the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Our aim in this investigation was to determine reference values for asthma patients and normal subjects. Blood from eight asthmatic patients and eight normal subj...... on the calculated reference value (mean +/- 2 s.d.), which was found to be 0-30%....

  20. Basophilic round bodies in gastric biopsies little known by pathologists: iatrogenic yttrium 90 microspheres deriving from selective internal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Chan, John K C

    2013-10-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy is a relatively new technique that irradiates primary and metastatic liver cancer using yttrium 90 microspheres. Increasing reports have shown this to be a useful treatment for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma and others metastases from colon, lung, breast, sarcoma, and ocular melanoma. On the other hand, more and more therapy-related complications have been described. Since the morphologic description of injured organs are relatively uncommon, we report 2 cases of selective internal radiation therapy-related gastric injury, which represent basophilic round bodies in gastric biopsies little known by pathologists. The appearances in esophagogastroduodenoscopy include gastrointestinal ulcer, edema, and bleeding. Histological findings are mucosal atrophy, mild to moderate cytologic atypia, edema of the stroma, and inflammatory infiltration. The most characteristic feature is the presence of round blue and dark microspheres in the stromal blood vessels.

  1. Utility of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachová, Martina; Panzner, Petr; Malkusová, Ivana; Hanzlíková, Jana; Vlas, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    A diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy is based on clinical history and the results of skin tests and/or laboratory methods. To analyze the utility of available laboratory tests in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Ninety-five patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy with a history of bee (35) or wasp (60) anaphylactic sting reaction and positive skin test with bee or wasp venom were included in this analysis. Specific immunoglobulin E (to bee venom extract, wasp venom extract, available recombinant molecules, and a basophil activation test with venom extracts were assessed in all the patients. Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using standard threshold values; then, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compute optimal threshold values. Also, statistical analysis of the utility of different combinations of laboratory tests was performed. The optimal threshold values were revealed to be the following: 1.0 kIU/L for bee venom extract (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 100%), 0.35 kIU/L for rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 68.57%; specificity, 100%), 1.22 kIU/L for wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 88.33%; specificity, 95.45%), 0.7 kIU/L for rVes v 5 (sensitivity, 86.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 1.0 kIU/L for rVes v 1 (sensitivity, 56.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 6.5% for basophil activation test with bee venom extract (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 95.45%), and 4.5% for basophil activation test with wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 91.53%; specificity, 95.45%). The best test combinations were found to be the following: bee venom extract plus rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 95.45%) in bee and either wasp venom extract plus rVes v 5, or rVes v 5 plus rVes v 1 (both sensitivity, 98.33%; specificity, 95.45%) in patients with wasp venom allergy. Our analysis confirmed that currently used laboratory tests represent effective tools in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Moreover, our probabilistic approach offered another

  2. Bootstrap testing for cross-correlation under low firing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Montoro, Aldana M; Cao, Ricardo; Espinosa, Nelson; Cudeiro, Javier; Mariño, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A new cross-correlation synchrony index for neural activity is proposed. The index is based on the integration of the kernel estimation of the cross-correlation function. It is used to test for the dynamic synchronization levels of spontaneous neural activity under two induced brain states: sleep-like and awake-like. Two bootstrap resampling plans are proposed to approximate the distribution of the test statistics. The results of the first bootstrap method indicate that it is useful to discern significant differences in the synchronization dynamics of brain states characterized by a neural activity with low firing rate. The second bootstrap method is useful to unveil subtle differences in the synchronization levels of the awake-like state, depending on the activation pathway.

  3. Investigation of tigecycline bactericidal activity: Optimisation of laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usacheva, Elena A; Grayes, Althea; Schora, Donna; Peterson, Lance R

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to optimise the conditions for bactericidal testing of tigecycline and to investigate its bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Tigecycline is the first in a new class of glycylcycline antibiotics exhibiting in vitro activity against a broad range of bacteria, including multidrug-resistant organisms. Its bactericidal activity in vitro has not been extensively investigated using multiple test conditions. Five growth media comprising Mueller Hinton broth, Minimum Essential Medium of Eagle, Ham F-12, RPMI 1640 and Iso-Sensitest broth (ISB) with and without surfactant (Tween 80) were investigated in vitro to assess tigecycline bactericidal activity. Clinical isolates of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, meticillin-susceptible S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus spp., representing the majority of clinically relevant bacteria, were evaluated for the impact of test conditions on the tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), ISB with 0.02% Tween 80 most efficiently demonstrated the bactericidal action of tigecycline when evaluated in 64 well-characterised clinical isolates and was considered as the optimal bactericidal test medium. Using this condition, tigecycline approached 56% bactericidal activity with 3log 10 reduction in CFUs at 72h incubation. Bactericidal action increased to 80% of strains when 2log 10 reduction was used as the endpoint. Only Enterococcus spp. showed no bactericidal response in this analysis. Tigecycline exhibited a bactericidal effect in vitro against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At the tested in vitro conditions, tigecycline MICs were unchanged regardless of the different test media used. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W.; Ascione, G.; Elwood, S.; Gilbert, J.; Rule, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Measurements have been made following TFTR D-T campaigns to characterize the behavior of D-T fusion reactor neutron activation using Ionization Chamber, Geiger Mueller, and Ge detector gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. The results exhibit decay rates characteristic of the materials and geometries of the Test Cell hardware, and allow extrapolation to higher fusion power yields. The results can be used for benchmarking D-T fusion reactor activation simulations for accurate determinations of low activation long-lived cooling. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Design, analysis, and test of an active tubular interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elspass, Wilfried J.; Eerme, M.; Paradies, R.; Resch, Martin

    1997-06-01

    Space missions require higher and higher performance such as high pointing accuracy and stability, and high shape precision. Passive damping means often cannot fulfill the requirements. Besides space applications at the same time numerous applications in machine design require higher accuracy. For a lot of applications the passive measures come up against limits. Active technologies have to be considered more often. Active mechanical components are more and more used as a necessary step towards adaptive structures. Active mechanical interfaces are simpler systems having very useful applications and can be used as kind of test benches in order to master the most exacting technologies. The main advantages of such an active interface are the following: (1) state-of- the-art sensors and actuators can be used, (2) the mechanical design of the interface is conventional, (3) the passive behavior of the system is not deteriorated, (4) the design is compact and rather easy to integrate, (5) easy repair (replacement) of the active mechanical part, (6) standardization of the interfaces results in cost reductions. An important property in such intermediate step is that no major redesign of the conventionally designed mechanical structure should be needed. The design, numerical analysis, manufacturing and test of a fully integrated active tubular interface (ATI) is presented. The design of the ATI includes the optimal laminate stacking sequence with respect to maximum deformation efficiency. The results of an active damping application, an antenna support beam, including the controller layout are discussed.

  6. Activities preceding a decline in the paratuberculosis test prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    A voluntary control programme on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was initiated in Denmark in 2006 and has since 2007 included 25-28% of the dairy herds and 35-40% of the dairy cows. The programme was complemented with activities aimed to reduce the MAP infection prevalence. A ch...... for a “continuous” flow of diagnostic test information four times annually in each herd. This information can be used for detection and management of infectious animals and for prevalence monitoring........ A challenge in evaluation of activities in a national programme it is essentially a sample size of one without a control group. Therefore, the apparent effect of activities on programme level can only be descriptive. Our objective was to describe the decline in the test-prevalence along with the activities...... preceding this decline. The cohort of herds enrolled in 2006-2007 had an average estimated within-herd test-prevalence of 10% at start. By January 2014 this had declined to 2%. The test-prevalence in the cohort of herds enrolled in 2008-2010 started at approximately 6% and by January 2014 was reduced...

  7. Application of charged particle activation for testing machine part wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosimova, M.; Tendera, P.

    1985-01-01

    The results of application of the charge particle activation method to investigate machine part wear are presented. Study of radionuclide activity and yield has been carried out at the U-120M isochronous cyclotron by means of the method of iron foil piles from 20 to 100 μm in thick. Protons and deuterons have been used. Wear measurement is based on determination of wear particle activity in a butyric medium. An example of the results of a bench test of activated piston rings and cylinder liner of the engine for trucks is given. The method of surface activation is shown to be acceptable for studying machine part wear under the regular service conditions, especially on the stage of the primary investigations and development, when sampling structural materials and estimating different lubricating oil applicability

  8. Activities preceding a decline in the paratuberculosis test prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    . A challenge in evaluation of activities in a national programme it is essentially a sample size of one without a control group. Therefore, the apparent effect of activities on programme level can only be descriptive. Our objective was to describe the decline in the test-prevalence along with the activities...... preceding this decline. The cohort of herds enrolled in 2006-2007 had an average estimated within-herd test-prevalence of 10% at start. By January 2014 this had declined to 2%. The test-prevalence in the cohort of herds enrolled in 2008-2010 started at approximately 6% and by January 2014 was reduced...... to about 3%. In addition to these data, a “sampling error” in August 2011 resulted in the availability of a sample of 99 herds that were not enrolled in the programme. They had a median test-prevalence of 5.5% compared to 3.1% in 268 herds from the 2006-2007 cohort tested in the same month. This sample...

  9. Active earth pressure model tests versus finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzak Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to compare failure mechanisms observed in small scale model tests on granular sample in active state, and simulated by finite element method (FEM using Plaxis 2D software. Small scale model tests were performed on rectangular granular sample retained by a rigid wall. Deformation of the sample resulted from simple wall translation in the direction ‘from the soil” (active earth pressure state. Simple Coulomb-Mohr model for soil can be helpful in interpreting experimental findings in case of granular materials. It was found that the general alignment of strain localization pattern (failure mechanism may belong to macro scale features and be dominated by a test boundary conditions rather than the nature of the granular sample.

  10. Active earth pressure model tests versus finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the paper is to compare failure mechanisms observed in small scale model tests on granular sample in active state, and simulated by finite element method (FEM) using Plaxis 2D software. Small scale model tests were performed on rectangular granular sample retained by a rigid wall. Deformation of the sample resulted from simple wall translation in the direction `from the soil" (active earth pressure state. Simple Coulomb-Mohr model for soil can be helpful in interpreting experimental findings in case of granular materials. It was found that the general alignment of strain localization pattern (failure mechanism) may belong to macro scale features and be dominated by a test boundary conditions rather than the nature of the granular sample.

  11. Test-to-test variability in motor activity during the suggested immobilization test in restless legs patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Sforza, Emilia

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the test-to-test variability of the suggested immobilization test (SIT) in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Twenty patients with primary RLS (12 men and eight women; age: 53.3+/-11.3 years) were selected for the study. We compared the results of two SITs performed on two consecutive evenings prior to polysomnographic recordings. Overall, the periodic leg movement index during the SIT (SIT PLM) and the SIT PLM index associated with sensory manifestations (SIT PLM+) were not significantly different between tests. The number of PLM sequences per SIT, the mean PLM duration and the PLM interval did not significantly change between the two consecutive tests. The pattern of temporal evolution of motor activity across the SIT was very reproducible, SIT PLM showing a clear tendency to a progressive increase across the test, with the SIT PLM+ index decreasing in the second half of the test. Despite good reproducibility, there were marked intra-individual differences. Considering the proposed cut-off value of 12 for the SIT PLM index to confirm RLS, 11 patients were positive at the first test and four additional patients became positive at the second test. SIT PLM index changes did not correlate with age, severity of disease and polysomnographic measures. Quantitative analysis of motor activity during two consecutive SITs in RLS patients showed a significant inter-test intra-individual variability unrelated to demographic, clinical or polysomnographic parameters. SIT PLM index variability suggests that a single test would not be sensitive enough for diagnostic purposes in unclear cases and that new criteria need to be applied to increase its specificity and sensitivity.

  12. Oratest: A new concept to test caries activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries activity tests are based on the concept of a specific odontogenic infection, the principle causative organism being streptococci mutans. Their predominance is attributed to its acidogenic and aciduric nature after a selective growth advantages over the other non- acid tolerant organisms. Many studies on caries activity are aimed at finding relevant microorganisms. Till date, the ideal method to evaluate in terms of sensitivity, specialization and reliability has not been found. Many of these caries activity tests require extensive work up time and additional equipment. Rosenberg et al. in 1989 developed Oratest, a simple, economical, non- invasive and less time-consuming test for estimating the oral microbial level. The test is simple and consists of rinsing the mouth with 10 ml of sterile milk, 3 ml of which is mixed with 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue dye and observed for colour change. The present study sample consists of twenty five children with dental caries and twenty five controls, free of caries, gingivitis and other oral ailments. This study is being conducted in the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology and is in the preliminary phase so further results are awaited.

  13. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  14. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    Histamine release from human basophils was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with a glucolipid mixture containing sialic acid-containing gangliosides. This was true for histamine release induced by anti-IgE, Concanavalin A and the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas the release induced by S...... with the glucolipid mixture increased the sialic acid content of the cells, and this increase was attributed to an insertion of gangliosides into the cell membrane. The inhibition of histamine release was abolished by increasing the calcium concentration, which substantiates our previous findings that cell membrane...... sialic acid in basophil leukocytes is involved in the regulation of histamine release, possibly by a modulation of the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release....

  15. Design and Calibration Tests of an Active Sound Intensity Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kletschkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an active sound intensity probe that can be used for sound source localization in standing wave fields. The probe consists of a sound hard tube that is terminated by a loudspeaker and an integrated pair of microphones. The microphones are used to decompose the standing wave field inside the tube into its incident and reflected part. The latter is cancelled by an adaptive controller that calculates proper driving signals for the loudspeaker. If the open end of the actively controlled tube is placed close to a vibrating surface, the radiated sound intensity can be determined by measuring the cross spectral density between the two microphones. A one-dimensional free field can be realized effectively, as first experiments performed on a simplified test bed have shown. Further tests proved that a prototype of the novel sound intensity probe can be calibrated.

  16. Adaptive and robust active vibration control methodology and tests

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Ioan Doré; Castellanos-Silva, Abraham; Constantinescu, Aurelian

    2017-01-01

    This book approaches the design of active vibration control systems from the perspective of today’s ideas of computer control. It formulates the various design problems encountered in the active management of vibration as control problems and searches for the most appropriate tools to solve them. The experimental validation of the solutions proposed on relevant tests benches is also addressed. To promote the widespread acceptance of these techniques, the presentation eliminates unnecessary theoretical developments (which can be found elsewhere) and focuses on algorithms and their use. The solutions proposed cannot be fully understood and creatively exploited without a clear understanding of the basic concepts and methods, so these are considered in depth. The focus is on enhancing motivations, algorithm presentation and experimental evaluation. MATLAB®routines, Simulink® diagrams and bench-test data are available for download and encourage easy assimilation of the experimental and exemplary material. Thre...

  17. Wind Tunnel Test of the SMART Active Flap Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Anand, Vaidyanthan R.; Birchette, Terrence S.; Lau, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, DARPA, MIT, UCLA, and U. of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. The Boeing SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing edge flap on each blade. The eleven-week test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor at speeds up to 155 knots, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor aero-acoustic analysis, and quantified the effects of open and closed loop active flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness of the active flap control on noise and vibration was conclusively demonstrated. Results showed significant reductions up to 6dB in blade-vortex-interaction and in-plane noise, as well as reductions in vibratory hub loads up to 80%. Trailing-edge flap deflections were controlled within 0.1 degrees of the commanded value. The impact of the active flap on control power, rotor smoothing, and performance was also demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing.

  18. Hepatitis A virus: a test method for virucidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M H; Schmitt, J; Rahaus, M; König, A

    2001-08-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is closely related to the genus enterovirus. HAV is very stable and resistant to acid pH and elevated temperature, as well as to chemicals and environmental influences. Human poliovirus is still one of the model viruses for testing disinfectants but there are discussions about changing to hepatitis A virus. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for using adapted hepatitis A virus to test hand disinfectants. Using HAV strains HM175/24a and FRhK-4 cytopathic effects were visible rarely, and not before 14 days. To verify virus growth in cells a RT-PCR was developed. Two disinfectants tested did not show the required virucidal activity to satisfy current German guidelines.

  19. Active approach for holographic nondestructive testing of satellite fuel tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Torsten; Elandaloussi, Frank; Paulus, Dietrich W.; Osten, Wolfgang

    1999-09-01

    In computer vision several views exist how to solve vision problems. The first general methodology was introduced by Marr; he proposed a data-driven and straightforward analysis strategy. Nowadays the concept of active vision introduced by Aloimonos et al. becomes more and more important. In contrast to Marr's philosophy, active vision implies a feedback loop which consists of sensors and active components. In this paper we present a system for the identification of material faults under the surface of a test object. For that purpose the specimen is elastically deformed, then the deformation is made visible using holographic interferometry, and finally flaw parameters are estimated using a model-based approach to analyze interferograms. This is an underconstrained computer vision problem which is regularized using a priori knowledge and an active modification of the experimental setup. More mathematically, this vision task can be seen in the context of inverse problem theory. In this contribution we describe the system and point out how it is related to the methodologies named above. To illustrate the functionality of the system, results are shown from nondestructive testing of satellite fuel tanks.

  20. Should Soil Testing Services Measure Soil Biological Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic matter accumulation. Total soil organic matter changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil testing services via the flush of CO during 1 to 3 d following rewetting of dried soil. The flush of CO is related to soil microbial biomass C and has repeatedly been shown strongly related to net N mineralization during standard aerobic incubations. New research is documenting the close association with plant N uptake in semicontrolled greenhouse conditions ( = 0.77, = 36. Field calibrations are underway to relate the flush of CO to the need for in-season N requirement in a variety of crops. An index of soil biological activity can and should be determined to help predict soil health and soil N availability.

  1. Preference as a Function of Active Interresponse Times: A Test of the Active Time Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, Paul; Cleaveland, J. Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe a test of the active time model for concurrent variable interval (VI) choice. The active time model (ATM) suggests that the time since the most recent response is one of the variables controlling choice in concurrent VI VI schedules of reinforcement. In our experiment, pigeons were trained in a multiple concurrent…

  2. Methylglyoxal Induced Basophilic Spindle Cells with Podoplanin at the Surface of Peritoneum in Rat Peritoneal Dialysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hirahara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD is a common treatment for patients with reduced or absent renal function. Long-term PD leads to peritoneal injury with structural changes and functional decline. At worst, peritoneal injury leads to encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS, which is a serious complication of PD. In order to carry out PD safely, it is important to define the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS. We prepared rat models of peritoneal injury by intraperitoneal administration of glucose degradation products, such as methylglyoxal (MGO or formaldehyde (FA, chlorhexidine gluconate (CG, and talc. In rats treated with MGO, peritoneal fibrous thickening with the appearance of basophilic spindle cells with podoplanin, cytokeratin, and α-smooth muscle actin at the surface of the peritoneum was observed. These cells may have been derived from mesothelial cells by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In FA- or CG-treated rats, the peritoneum was thickened, and mesothelial cells were absent at the surface of the peritoneum. The CG- or MGO-treated rats presented with a so-called abdominal cocoon. In the talc-treated rats, extensive peritoneal adhesion and peritoneal thickening were observed. MGO-induced peritoneal injury model may reflect human histopathology and be suitable to analyze the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS.

  3. The effects of thermal stimuli on intracellular calcium change and histamine releases in rat basophilic leukemia mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zu-Hui; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Lu-Wei

    2012-05-01

    The effects of thermal stimuli on rat basophilic leukemia mast cells were studied. The cells in calcium-contained or calcium-free buffers were thermally stimulated in the temperature range of 25-60 °C. The corresponding calcium ion concentration in cells [Ca2+]i as well as the released histamine from cells was measured with fluorescence staining methods. The ruthenium red (RR), a block of membrane calcium channels (transient receptor potential family V (TRPV)), was used in experiments. Under the stimulus of 25-50 °C, no significant difference on [Ca2+]i was found between these three groups of the cells in calcium-contained buffer without or with RR and cells in calcium-free saline, indicating that the increased calcium in cytosol did not result from the extracellular buffer but came from the intracellular calcium stores. The [Ca2+]i continuously increased under the temperature of 50-60 °C, but the RR and calcium-free saline can obviously diminish the [Ca2+]i increase at these high temperatures, reflecting that the opening of the TRPV2 channels leads to a calcium influx resulting in the [Ca2+]i increment. The histamine release also became significant in these cases. Since the released histamine is a well-known mediator for the microcirculation promotion, the histamine release from mast cells could be one of the mechanisms of thermal therapy.

  4. Methylglyoxal Induced Basophilic Spindle Cells with Podoplanin at the Surface of Peritoneum in Rat Peritoneal Dialysis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, Ichiro; Sato, Hideki; Imai, Toshimi; Onishi, Akira; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Shigeaki; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a common treatment for patients with reduced or absent renal function. Long-term PD leads to peritoneal injury with structural changes and functional decline. At worst, peritoneal injury leads to encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), which is a serious complication of PD. In order to carry out PD safely, it is important to define the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS. We prepared rat models of peritoneal injury by intraperitoneal administration of glucose degradation products, such as methylglyoxal (MGO) or formaldehyde (FA), chlorhexidine gluconate (CG), and talc. In rats treated with MGO, peritoneal fibrous thickening with the appearance of basophilic spindle cells with podoplanin, cytokeratin, and α-smooth muscle actin at the surface of the peritoneum was observed. These cells may have been derived from mesothelial cells by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In FA- or CG-treated rats, the peritoneum was thickened, and mesothelial cells were absent at the surface of the peritoneum. The CG- or MGO-treated rats presented with a so-called abdominal cocoon. In the talc-treated rats, extensive peritoneal adhesion and peritoneal thickening were observed. MGO-induced peritoneal injury model may reflect human histopathology and be suitable to analyze the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS.

  5. Factorial Structure of Cognitive Activity Using a Neuropsychological Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A general neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually given to a 98-subject sample, aged 11–12 years old. The battery included some basic and common tests routinely used in the evaluation of language, memory, spatial abilities, concept formation, and praxic abilities. Twenty-five different scores were calculated. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed nine different factors, accounting for about 70% of the variance. Factor I was measured by a Sequential Verbal Memory test and Verbal Fluency subtests (“verbal factor”. Factor II was measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Memory subtests (immediate and delayed reproduction, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and immediate reproduction (“non-verbal memory and constructional factor”. Factor III was measured by the WMS Logical Memory subtests (immediate and delayed; “verbal memory factor”. Factor IV was associated with fine movements (tapping subtests, right and left hand; “fine movements factor”. Factor V was specially measured by the Information subtest of the WMS and the Boston Naming Test (“verbal knowledge”. Factor VI represented a “praxic ability factor” (ideomotor praxis tests. Delayed Associative Learning subtest measured Factor VII; and Digits measured Factor VIII. Factor IX was a “mental control factor” (Mental Control subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale. The implications of these results to theories relating to the structure of cognitive activity are discussed.

  6. Comparative activity of carbapenem testing (the COMPACT study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblebicioglu Hakan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT study centres in Turkey. Methods Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing. Results Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC90 values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against Pseudomonas spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against Enterobacteriaceae; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC90 for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher. Conclusions Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey.

  7. Comparative activity of carbapenem testing (the COMPACT study) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) study centres in Turkey. Methods Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU)/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing. Results Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC90 values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against Pseudomonas spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against Enterobacteriaceae; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC90 for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher. Conclusions Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey. PMID:22340940

  8. Active Blade Vibration Control Being Developed and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dexter

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are currently being designed to have increased performance, lower weight and manufacturing costs, and higher reliability. Consequently, turbomachinery components, such as turbine and compressor blades, have designs that are susceptible to new vibration problems and eventual in-service failure due to high-cycle fatigue. To address this problem, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing and testing innovative active blade vibration control concepts. Preliminary results of using an active blade vibration control system, involving a rotor supported by an active magnetic bearing in Glenn's Dynamic Spin Rig, indicate promising results (see the photograph). Active blade vibration control was achieved using feedback of blade strain gauge signals within the magnetic bearing control loop. The vibration amplitude was reduced substantially (see the graphs). Also, vibration amplitude amplification was demonstrated; this could be used to enhance structural mode identification, if desired. These results were for a nonrotating two-bladed disk. Tests for rotating blades are planned. Current and future active blade vibration control research is planned to use a fully magnetically suspended rotor and smart materials. For the fully magnetically suspended rotor work, three magnetic bearings (two radial and one axial) will be used as actuators instead of one magnetic bearing. This will allow additional degrees of freedom to be used for control. For the smart materials work, control effectors located on and off the blade will be considered. Piezoelectric materials will be considered for on-the-blade actuation, and actuator placement on a stator vane, or other nearby structure, will be investigated for off-the-blade actuation. Initial work will focus on determining the feasibility of these methods by performing basic analysis and simple experiments involving feedback control.

  9. Market risk stress testing for internationally active financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a comprehensive framework for market risk stress testing in internationally active financial institutions. We begin by defining the scope and type of the stress test and explaining how to select risk factors and the stress time horizon. We then address challenges related to data gathering, followed by in-depth discussion of techniques for developing realistic shock scenarios. Next the process of shock application to a particular portfolio is described, followed by determination of portfolio profit and loss. We conclude by briefly discussing the issue of assigning probability to stress scenarios. We illustrate the framework by considering the development of a ‘worst case’ scenario using global financial market data from Thomson Reuters Datastream.

  10. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Models And Initial Active Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-04-23

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNPX model simulations and initial testing of the active mode variation of the Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was previously reported.

  11. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  12. Testing Punctuated Equilibrium Theory Using Evolutionary Activity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodberry, O. G.; Korb, K. B.; Nicholson, A. E.

    The Punctuated Equilibrium hypothesis (Eldredge and Gould,1972) asserts that most evolutionary change occurs during geologically rapid speciation events, with species exhibiting stasis most of the time. Punctuated Equilibrium is a natural extension of Mayr's theories on peripatric speciation via the founder effect, (Mayr, 1963; Eldredge and Gould, 1972) which associates changes in diversity to a population bottleneck. That is, while the formation of a foundation bottleneck brings an initial loss of genetic variation, it may subsequently result in the emergence of a child species distinctly different from its parent species. In this paper we adapt Bedau's evolutionary activity statistics (Bedau and Packard, 1991) to test these effects in an ALife simulation of speciation. We find a relative increase in evolutionary activity during speciations events, indicating that punctuation is occurring.

  13. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based...... on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......-ionised water (DIW), 24 h in 2.5% HF, 24 h in acetone and 60 s in a resist developer. By analysing the thin silicon oxide present on the surfaces to be bonded with optical methods, the influence of pre-cleaning and activation process parameters was investigated....

  14. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based...

  15. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  16. Monomeric IgE stimulates NFAT translocation into the nucleus, a rise in cytosol Ca2+, degranulation, and membrane ruffling in the cultured rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vinita; Mihara, Shoji; Fensome-Green, Amanda; Bolsover, Stephen; Cockcroft, Shamshad

    2004-04-01

    Mast cells are key regulators in allergy and inflammation, and release histamine, cytokines, and other proinflammatory mediators. In the classical view, IgE acts merely to prime mast cells, attaching to FcepsilonRs but not evoking any cell signaling response until cross-linked by the presence of a multivalent allergen. However, several recent studies have reported that IgE alone can promote cell survival and cytokine production in the absence of cross-linking by allergen. In this study we demonstrate that acute addition of monomeric IgE elicits a wide spectrum of responses in the rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast cell line, including activation of phospholipases Cgamma and D, a rise in cytosol Ca(2+), NFAT translocation, degranulation, and membrane ruffling within minutes. Calcium transients persist for hours as long as IgE is present resulting in the maintained translocation of the transcription factor NFAT to the nucleus. Removal of IgE reverses the signaling processes. Our results indicate that, far from simply preparing the cells for a response to allergen, monomeric IgE can stimulate signaling pathways that lead to degranulation, membrane ruffling, and NFAT translocation. The mechanism of activation is likely to be via aggregation of the FcepsilonR1 because activation by IgE can be inhibited with monovalent hapten.

  17. Field-Testing of an Active Laser Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V.; Khiznyak, A.; Woll, D.; Liu, S.

    Comprehensive space surveillance demands a more accurate technique in tracking multi-dimensional state vector (3D coordinate, velocity, vibration, etc.) of the space objects. RF radiometric techniques typically can not provide the needed accuracy, while passive optical (and laser) tracking systems can provide distance to the object and its angular position, but not a direct reading of velocity, the parameter of primary importance for space object tracking and characterization. Addressing this problem with active optical tracking techniques is challenging because of the great distances involved, the high velocity of the satellites, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. We have proposed a phase conjugation based laser tracking concept, and accomplished the first version of design and engineering of a prototype for an Active Laser Tracking System (ALTS). In its current state the ALTS is capable to demonstrate the very basics operational principles of the proposed active tracking technique. We then performed a number of experiments to prove operational capabilities of this prototype both at MetroLaser's lab environment and at Edwards AFB Test Range. In its current architecture the ALTS is comprised of two laser cavities, Master and Slave that are coupled through a Phase Conjugate Mirror (PCM) formed in a non-linear medium (NLM) set at Master laser cavity. By pumping NLM and forming PCM, Master laser establishes the cavities coupling mode and injects the photons in the slave cavity. It is essential that the specific features of the PCM not only serve to couple ALTS cavities, but also serves to compensate optical aberrations of the ALTS (gain media and optical elements of the laser resonator). Due to its ability to compensate optical aberrations, phase conjugate resonators are capable of sustaining oscillation with a remote target as an output coupler. The entire system comprises of several modules, including a laser, emitting/receiving telescope, gimbal

  18. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  19. Resveratrol inhibits IgE-mediated basophilic mast cell degranulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seon-Young; Bae, Ji-Young; Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-05-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin abundantly found in red grape skin and is effective in antitumor and antiinflammation associated with immune responses. This study investigated whether resveratrol suppressed immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic responses and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rat RBL-2H3 mast cells and in BALB/c mice. The release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine was enhanced in mast cells sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-IgE and subsequently stimulated by DNP-human serum albumin (HSA), indicative of mast cell degranulation. When mast cells were pretreated with nontoxic resveratrol at 1-25 μmol/L, such induction was dose dependently diminished. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) of sensitized mast cells were activated by stimulation with DNP-HSA antigen, which was dampened by ≥5 μmol/L resveratrol. The phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC)μ and PKCθ was attenuated by administering resveratrol to DNP-HSA-exposed mast cells, whereas quiescent PKCζ/λ in sensitized cells was dose-dependently activated by resveratrol. Male BALB/c mice were sensitized for 24 h with DNP-IgE and orally administered with resveratrol 1 h before the DNP-HSA challenge. The histamine concentration was enhanced in sensitized mice challenged to DNP-HSA, which was reversed by administration of 10 mg/kg resveratrol. Additionally, it encumbered the tissue activation of Syk, PLCγ, and PKCμ in antigen-exposed mice. Resveratrol decreased IgE-mediated PCA and alleviated allergic edema of mouse ear and dorsal skin. Mast cell degranulation and allergic inflammation, accompanying the induction of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, were inhibited by supplementing resveratrol to antigen-challenged mice. Resveratrol inhibited mast cell-derived, immediate-type allergic reactions, and these responses of resveratrol suggest possible therapeutic strategies in preventing allergic inflammatory diseases.

  20. Nonreceptor protein tyrosine and lipid phosphatases in type I Fcepsilon receptor-mediated activation of mast and basophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heneberg, Petr; Dráber, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2002), s. 253-263 ISSN 1018-2438 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026; GA ČR GA204/00/0204; GA ČR GA310/00/0205; GA AV ČR IAA5052005; GA AV ČR IAA7052006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : phosphatases * tyrosin kinases * lipid phosphorylation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2002

  1. Ceftaroline activity tested against viridans group streptococci from US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Rhomberg, Paul R; Castanheira, Mariana; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    A total of 840 clinically relevant viridans group streptococci (VGS) isolates (1/patient episode) were collected from 71 US medical centers in 2013-2014. These organisms were tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods against ceftaroline and selected comparator agents. All isolates were speciated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and were primarily from skin/soft tissue (32.6%) and bloodstream (32.3%) infections. Ceftaroline was highly active against all VGS species/groups with MIC50 and MIC90 values ranging from ≤0.015 to 0.03μg/mL and ≤0.015 to 0.06μg/mL, respectively. The highest ceftaroline MIC value was only 0.5μg/mL (0.5% of strains) and ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06μg/mL) was 8-fold more active than ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5μg/mL). The VGS groups most susceptible to ceftaroline were Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus bovis (MIC90, ≤0.015μg/mL), whereas the highest ceftaroline MIC values were observed among Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis groups. In summary, ceftaroline exhibited potent in vitro activity against VGS, including many uncommonly isolated species/groups for which very limited susceptibility information is currently available to guide therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ceftaroline activity tested against contemporary Latin American bacterial pathogens (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Flamm

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2484 target bacterial pathogens were collected (one per patient episode from patients in 16 Latin American medical centers located in seven nations during 2011. Isolate identity was confirmed at a coordinating laboratory and susceptibility testing was performed for ceftaroline and comparator agents according to reference broth microdilution methods. A total of 30.0% of isolates were from respiratory tract, 29.4% from skin and skin structure, 21.4% from blood stream, 7.9% from urinary tract and 11.3% from other sites. Ceftaroline was active against Staphylococcus aureus (42.8% MRSA with 83.6% of the isolates at ≤1 mg/L and all isolates at ≤2 mg/L (MIC5090, 0.25/2 mg/L. National MRSA rates ranged from a low of 28.8% in Colombia to a high of 68.1% in Chile. All Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC50/90 values were at ≤0.015/≤0.015 mg/L for both. All Streptococcus pneumoniae were susceptible to ceftaroline, linezolid, tigecycline and vancomycin. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone was at 88.4% (CLSI non-meningitis interpretive criteria and 73.9% (CLSI meningitis interpretive criteria for all S. pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone susceptibility was only at 33.3% (CLSI non-meningitis interpretive criteria and 0.0% (CLSI meningitis interpretive criteria for penicillin-intermediate (penicillin MIC, 4 mg/L strains. All Haemophilus influenzae (29.4% β-lactamase-positive isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline, amoxicillin–clavulanate, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin. For the Latin American region, the ESBL-phenotype rate was 37.6% for Escherichia coli and 53.3% for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ceftaroline was not active against ESBL-phenotype strains but was active against >90.0% of the non-ESBL-phenotype. The spectrum of activity of ceftaroline against pathogens from Latin America indicates that it merits further study for its potential use in the Latin American region.

  3. The Effects of Electrical Stimuli on Calcium Change and Histamine Release in Rat Basophilic Leukemia Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wu, Zu-Hui; Chen, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Lu-Wei

    2013-06-01

    We apply electric fields at different frequencies of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 kHz to the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) mast cells in calcium-containing or calcium-free buffers. The stimuli cause changes of the intracellular calcium ion concentration [Ca2+]i as well as the histamine. The [Ca2+]i increases when the frequency of the external electric field increases from 100 Hz to 10 kHz, and then decreases when the frequency further increases from 10 kHz to 100 kHz, showing a peak at 100 kHz. A similar frequency dependence of the histamine release is also found. The [Ca2+]i and the histamine releases at 100 Hz are about the same as the values of the control group with no electrical stimulation. The ruthenium red (RR), an inhibitor to the TRPV (transient receptor potential (TRP) family V) channels across the cell membrane, is used in the experiment to check whether the electric field stimuli act on the TRPV channels. Under an electric field of 10 kHz, the [Ca2+]i in a calcium-concentration buffer is about 3.5 times as much as that of the control group with no electric stimulation, while the [Ca2+]i in a calcium-free buffer is only about 2.2 times. Similar behavior is also found for the histamine release. RR blockage effect on the [Ca2+]i decrease is statistically significant (~75%) when mast cells in the buffer with calcium are stimulated with a 10 kHz electric field in comparison with the result without the RR treatment. This proves that TRPVs are the channels that calcium ions inflow through from the extracellular environment under electrical stimuli. Under this condition, the histamine is also released following a similar way. We suggest that, as far as an electric stimulation is concerned, an application of ac electric field of 10 kHz is better than other frequencies to open TRPV channels in mast cells, and this would cause a significant calcium influx resulting in a significant histamine release, which could be one of the mechanisms for electric therapy.

  4. Neutron activation analysis method - international ring test for proficiency assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbos, D.; Bucsa, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this test is to assess the quality control of analytical procedures for soils and plants which is of utmost importance to produce reliable and reproducible analytical data. For this purpose first, second, and third line quality control measures are taken in analytical laboratories. For first line control certified reference materials (CRM's) are preferred. However, the number and matrix variation in CRM's for environmental analytical research is still very limited. For second line control internal reference samples are often used, but again here the values for many element and parameter concentrations are questionable since almost no check versus CRM's is possible. For third line control participation in laboratory-evaluating exchange programs is recommended. This article contains the results achieved by our neutron activation analysis laboratory after irradiation experiment of soil and vegetation samples in TRIGA Reactor. All the samples were irradiated in the same location of the reactor in roughly similar conditions. (authors)

  5. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  6. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Lise, Kristensen,; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics......Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics...

  7. Test installation for separation of contaminated/activated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, H.; Peeze Binkhorst, I.A.G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Large amounts of contaminated concrete are released when dismantling nuclear power plants. Volume reduction of contaminated concrete has economic and environmental advantages. A test facility has been built by which contaminated concrete can be separated in clean aggregate and contaminated cement. During the tests a considerable amount of dust accumulated in the valve construction of the test installation. This could result in an unacceptable accumulation of contaminated dust, blocking of the handle and emission of dust and grit during the operation of the test facility. The design of the valve construction was adjusted by using and testing flexible materials

  8. HIPPARCOS satellite: Aeritalia involvement and system test activities and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strim, B.; Cugno, W.; Morsillo, G.

    In 1989 the European Space Agency is scheduled to launch HIPPARCOS on a 2.5-year mission that will revolutionize the state of astronomy. This is the first satellite to be dedicated to astrometry, a branch of astronomy that deals with the position of celestial objects and their motion in space. With an accuracy impossible to achieve from Earth, HIPPARCOS will make position, trigonometric parallax and proper motion measurements of some 100.000 pre-selected stars. The data will be used to calculate each star's distance and motion, providing astronomers with an unprecedented map of the heavens. In the end, the HIPPARCOS mission is expected to reveal surprisingly new insight into theories of stellar evolution, as well as into the nature of our galaxy and the universe. The program has been awarded to the MESH industrial consortium for definition, development and production. The French firm MATRA (prime contractor) and the AERITALIA SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP (major co-contractor) share program responsibility. AERITALIA is in charge of the spacecraft or "service module". This is the structural platform for the telescope payload and provides all subsystem services including thermal control, data handling, telecommunications, electrical power distribution, power generation, attitude and orbit control, and apogee kick motor. AERITALIA is responsible for the procurement of all spacecraft subsystems for which it directs the activities of a multinational team of subcontractors. In addition, it is in charge of the satellite's final assembly, integration and testing, as well as for the procurement of all ground support equipment for satellite testing. HIPPARCOS stands for HIgh Precision PARallax COllecting Satellite. Its name is also intended to honor the Greek astronomer Hipparchus (190-120 BC) who compiled the first star catalog and who first used trigonometric parallax to calculate the distance to the moon. (Parallax is the apparent shift in a celestial body's position in the sky

  9. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  10. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting time tests is a device, used to monitor heparin therapy for the treatment of venous thrombosis or...

  11. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  12. Analysis of protein kinase C requirement for exocytosis in permeabilized rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-2H3 cells: a GTP-binding protein(s) as a potential target for protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccione, R; Di Tullio, G; Caretta, M; Marinetti, M R; Bizzarri, C; Francavilla, S; Luini, A; De Matteis, M A

    1994-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C in calcium-dependent exocytosis was investigated in permeabilized rat basophilic leukaemia cells. When protein kinase C was down-regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (1 microM for 3-6 h) or inhibited by pharmacological agents such as calphostin C (1 microM) or a protein kinase C-specific pseudo-substrate peptide inhibitor (100-200 microM), cells lost the ability to secrete in response to 10 microM free Ca2+. In contrast, a short treatment (15 min) with phorbol myristate acetate, which maximally activates protein kinase C, potentiated the effects of calcium. Biochemical analysis of protein kinase C-deprived cells indicated that loss of the Ca(2+)-induced secretory response correlated with disappearance of protein kinase C-alpha. In addition, at the concentrations effective for exocytosis, calcium caused translocation of protein kinase C-alpha to the membrane fraction and stimulated phospholipase C, suggesting that, in permeabilized cells, protein kinase C can be activated by calcium through generation of the phospholipase C metabolite diacylglycerol. The delta, epsilon and zeta Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C isoenzymes were insensitive to phorbol myristate acetate-induced down-regulation and did not, as expected, translocate to the particulate fraction in response to calcium. Interestingly, secretory competence was restored in cells depleted of protein kinase C or in which protein kinase C itself was inhibited by non-hydrolysable GTP analogues, but not by GTP, suggesting that protein kinase C might regulate the ability of a G protein(s) directly controlling the exocytotic machinery to be activated by endogenous GTP. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8129713

  13. Is Depression in Alzheimer's Caregivers Really Due to Activity Restriction? A Preliminary Mediational Test of the Activity Restriction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor

    2008-01-01

    This study is a preliminary examination of the Activity Restriction Model of depressive symptoms. A total of 16 elderly Alzheimer's caregivers and 9 non-caregivers completed measures of activity restriction and depressive symptoms. Mediation was tested using the Sobel test with bootstrapping procedures. Results indicated that caregivers experienced significant elevations in depressive symptoms and activity restriction relative to non-caregivers (p < .05). Activity restriction significantly me...

  14. Improving active Mealy machine learning for protocol conformance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, F.; Kuppens, H.; Tretmans, J.; Vaandrager, F.; Verwer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a well-known industrial case study from the verification literature, the bounded retransmission protocol, we show how active learning can be used to establish the correctness of protocol implementation I relative to a given reference implementation R. Using active learning, we learn a model M

  15. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization.

  16. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  17. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a

  18. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Patrick; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kneafsey, Timothy; Borglin, Sharon; Piceno, Yvette; Andersen, Gary; Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Doughty, Christine; Reagan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition's (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  19. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  20. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety

  1. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-12-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety.

  2. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will

  3. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs

  4. Role of human neurobehavioural tests in regulatory activity on chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, R.; Barker, P.

    1998-01-01

    Psychological performance tests have been used since the mid-1960s in occupational and environmental health toxicology. The interpretation of significantly different test scores in neurobehavioural studies is not straightforward in the regulation of chemicals. This paper sets out some issues which emerged from discussions at an international workshop, organised by the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE), to discuss differences in interpretation of human neurobehavioural test data in regulatory risk assessments. The difficulties encountered by regulators confronted with neurobehavioural studies seem to be twofold; some studies lack scientific rigor; other studies, although scientifically sound, are problematic because it is not clear what interpretation to place on the results. Issues relating to each of these points are discussed. Next, scenarios within which to consider the outcomes of neurobehavioural studies are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further work are put forward.   PMID:9624273

  5. Shuttle active thermal control system development testing. Volume 7: Improved radiator coating adhesive tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Silver/Teflon thermal control coatings have been tested on a modular radiator system projected for use on the space shuttle. Seven candidate adhesives have been evaluated in a thermal vacuum test on radiator panels similar to the anticipated flight hardware configuration. Several classes of adhesives based on polyester, silicone, and urethane resin systems were tested. These included contact adhesives, heat cured adhesives, heat and pressure cured adhesives, pressure sensitive adhesives, and two part paint on or spray on adhesives. The coatings attached with four of the adhesives, two silicones and two urethanes, had no changes develop during the thermal vacuum test. The two silicone adhesives, both of which were applied to the silver/Teflon as transfer laminates to form a tape, offered the most promise based on application process and thermal performance. Each of the successful silicone adhesives required a heat and pressure cure to adhere during the cryogenic temperature excursion of the thermal-vacuum test.

  6. Skin test-positive immediate hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media: the role of controlled challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-García, A; Tomás, M; Pineda, R; Tornero, P; Herrero, T; Fuentes, V; Zapatero, L; de Barrio, M

    2013-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) to iodinated contrast media (ICM) have traditionally been considered nonallergic; however, the increasingly frequent reporting of positive skin test and basophil activation test results suggests a specific allergic mechanism in some patients. Skin tests have been proposed as a useful tool for diagnosis, although their sensitivity and predictive values remain to be determined. The role of controlled challenge testing has not been assessed. We aimed to evaluate the role of controlled challenge testing in skin test-positive IHR to ICM. We evaluated 106 patients with IHR to ICM by performing skin tests with the agent that caused the reaction. Patients with a positive result were selected. Skin tests were extended to a series of 8 ICMs; 5 patients underwent controlled challenge test with an alternative skin test-negative ICM; a further 2 patients underwent computed tomography with an alternative skin test-negative ICM. No premedication was administered. Intradermal test results were positive to the ICM that caused the reaction in 11 out of 106 patients (10.4%). Five of the 11 patients tolerated a controlled challenge test with an alternative skin test-negative ICM. The 2 patients who underwent computed tomography with an alternative skin test-negative ICM tolerated the medium. Skin tests are useful for the diagnostic workup in patients with an allergic IHR to ICM. Since ICM cannot be avoided in many patients because they are irreplaceable in some diagnostic or therapeutic techniques, an alternative safe ICM should be investigated for future procedures. We propose the use of controlled challenge tests based on skin test results to address this need in skin test-positive reactions in order to identify an alternative non-cross-reactive ICM.

  7. Wind Tunnel Testing of Active Control System for Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper describes preparation of wind tunnel testing of the principle of using flaps to control the motion of suspension bridges. The experiment will take place at the Instituto Superior Technico Lisbon, Portugal. The bridge section model is constructed of foam with an aluminium frame. The flaps...

  8. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 141(c). The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3... department, except that, in the ordinary course of its police operations, D sells its police cars to a... years of actual use. At that time, D deposits the proceeds from the sale of the police cars in a...

  9. Modeling motive activation in the Operant Motives Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, J. Malte; Lang, Jonas W. B.; Engeser, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Operant Motive Test (OMT) is a picture-based procedure that asks respondents to generate imaginative verbal behavior that is later coded for the presence of affiliation, power, and achievement-related motive content by trained coders. The OMT uses a larger number of pictures and asks...

  10. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Aalberse, R C

    1995-03-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a synthetic peptide of its C terminus. When allergen and antibodies were allowed to preincubate, Lol p I induced histamine release was inhibited up to 85% by the antiserum against Lol p I. By omitting preincubation, and thereby more closely mimicking an in vivo situation, up to 55% inhibition was realized. This indicates that allergen-specific IgG can act as 'blocking' antibody without preincubation. Immunization of rabbits with a synthetic C-terminal peptide of Lol p I resulted in antibodies reactive with natural Lol p I. Despite their 100-fold lower avidity for Lol p I (as compared with antinatural Lol p I), these antibodies had the capacity to inhibit Lol p I induced histamine release for > 90% (up to 50% without preincubation). This indicates that it is possible to block histamine release induced by a major allergen with low-avidity IgG antibodies directed against a minor proportion of the allergen (25 amino acids). IgE antibodies from the donors studied were unreactive with this synthetic peptide, indicating that for blocking activity identical epitope specificity of IgE and IgG is not essential. This opens interesting perspectives for application of synthetic peptides in immunotherapy, distinct from their effects on T cell reactivity.

  12. Further evaluation of the CSNI separate effect test activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Auria, F.; Aksan, S.N.; Glaeser, H. [and others

    1995-09-01

    An internationally agreed Separate Effect Test (SET) Validation Matrix for the thermalhydraulic system codes has been established by a subgroup of the Task Group on Thermalhydraulic System Behaviour as requested by OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Principal Working Group No. 2 on Coolant System Behavior. The construction of such matrix constituted an attempt to collect together in a systematic way the best sets of openly available test data to select for code validation. As a final result, 67 phenomena have been identified and characterized, roughly 200 facilities have been considered and more than 1000 experiments have been selected as useful for the validation of the codes. The objective of the present paper is to provide additional evaluation of the obtained data base and to supply an a-posteriori judgement in relation to (a) the data base adequacy, (b) the phenomenon, and (c) the need for additional experiments. This has been provided independently by each of the authors. The main conclusions are that large amount of data are available for certain popular phenomena e.g. heat transfer, but data are severely lacking in more esoteric areas e.g. for characterizing phenomena such as parallel channel instability and boron mixing and transport.

  13. Active Match Load Circuit Intended for Testing Piezoelectric Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    famous Rosen type design back in the 1950s. After the discovered of new piezoelectric materials and new PT designs have been invented, the PT based power converters are in the area where they can outperform tradition electromagnetic based converters in certain applications. The performance of PTs can......An adjustable high voltage active load circuit for voltage amplitudes above 100 volts, especially intended for resistive matching the output impedance of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) is proposed in this paper. PTs have been around for over 50 years, were C. A. Rosen is common known for his...

  14. Activated protein C resistance testing for factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Khor, Bernard; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    Activated protein C resistance assays can detect factor V Leiden with high accuracy, depending on the method used. Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban and direct thrombin inhibitors including dabigatran, argatroban, and bivalirudin can cause falsely normal results. Lupus anticoagulants can cause incorrect results in most current assays. Assays that include dilution into factor V-deficient plasma are needed to avoid interference from factor deficiencies or elevations, which can arise from a wide variety of conditions such as warfarin, liver dysfunction, or pregnancy. The pros and cons of the currently available assays are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Product Acceptance Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.

    1999-01-01

    'The Hanford Site has been used to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during Pu production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The DOE is proceeding with an approach to privatize the treatment and immobilization of Handord''s LAW and HLW.'

  16. Sputum epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78 (ENA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    macrophages, eosinophils, basophils and dendritic ... (ECP) as a marker of eosinophil activation, as well as eosinophil counts in ... Keywords: Bronchial asthma; chemokines; children; epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78; eosinophils; eosinophil cationic protein; sputum markers. Gehan A. Mostafa,.

  17. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  18. Development and Test of Robotically Assisted Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jonathan M.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two years, the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project under NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) funded an effort to develop an electromechanically-assisted space suit glove. The project was a collaboration between the Johnson Space Center's Software, Robotics, and Simulation Division and the Crew and Thermal Systems division. The project sought to combine finger actuator technology developed for Robonaut 2 with the softgoods from the ILC Phase VI EVA glove. The Space Suit RoboGlove (SSRG) uses a system of three linear actuators to pull synthetic tendons attached to the glove's fingers to augment flexion of the user's fingers. To detect the user's inputs, the system utilizes a combination of string potentiometers along the back of the fingers and force sensitive resistors integrated into the fingertips of the glove cover layer. This paper discusses the development process from initial concepts through two major phases of prototypes, and the results of initial human testing. Initial work on the project focused on creating a functioning proof of concept, designing the softgoods integration, and demonstrating augmented grip strength with the actuators. The second year of the project focused on upgrading the actuators, sensors, and software with the overall goal of creating a system that moves with the user's fingers in order to reduce fatigue associated with the operation of a pressurized glove system. This paper also discusses considerations for a flight system based on this prototype development and address where further work is required to mature the technology.

  19. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for data frac'' stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  20. In vivo and in vitro techniques to determine the biological activity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for determination of the biological activity of food allergens comprise both determination of the allergenic potency, i.e. the capability to elicit an allergic reaction in an already sensitized individual, and the allergenic potential, i.e. the risk for sensitizing a hitherto non......-allergic individual. Several methods are discussed for determination of potency including the double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, skin testing, in vitro effector cell assays such as basophil histamine release, and IgE-based techniques such as RAST and RAST inhibition. No reliable methods have yet been...... developed which can predict the allergenic potential of a food or a food allergen. The progress in the areas of stability studies and animal models for food allergy are discussed....

  1. Activity-Guided Isolation of Bioactive Constituents with Antinociceptive Activity from Muntingia calabura L. Leaves Using the Formalin Test

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Yusof, Mohd. Izwan; Salleh, Mohd. Zaki; Lay Kek, Teh; Ahmat, Norizan; Nik Azmin, Nik Fatini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC) and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP), ethyl acetate (EAP), and aqueous (AQP) partitions), in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in...

  2. Carrier-bound Alt a 1 peptides without allergenic activity for vaccination against Alternaria alternata allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaroch, T. E.; Focke, M.; Fleischmann, K.; Balic, N.; Lupinek, C.; Blatt, K.; Ferrara, R.; Mari, A.; Ebner, C.; Valent, P.; Spitzauer, S.; Swoboda, I.; Valenta, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The mould Alternaria alternata is a major elicitor of allergic asthma. Diagnosis and specific immunotherapy (SIT) of Alternaria allergy are often limited by the insufficient quality of natural mould extracts. Objective To investigate whether recombinant Alt a 1 can be used for reliable diagnosis of Alternaria alternata allergy and to develop a safe, non-allergenic vaccine for SIT of Alternaria allergy. Methods The qualitative sensitization profile of 80 Alternaria-allergic patients from Austria and Italy was investigated using an allergen micro-array and the amount of Alternaria-specific IgE directed to rAlt a 1 was quantified by ImmunoCAP measurements. Peptides spanning regions of predicted high surface accessibility of Alt a 1 were synthesized and tested for IgE reactivity and allergenic activity, using sera and basophils from allergic patients. Carrier-bound peptides were studied for their ability to induce IgG antibodies in rabbits which recognize Alt a 1 and inhibit allergic patients’ IgE reactivity to Alt a 1. Results rAlt a 1 allowed diagnosis of Alternaria allergy in all tested patients, bound the vast majority (i.e. >95%) of Alternaria-specific IgE and elicited basophil activation already at a concentration of 0.1 ng/mL. Four non-allergenic peptides were synthesized which, after coupling to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin, induced Alt a 1-specific IgG and inhibited allergic patients’ IgE binding to Alt a 1. Conclusions and clinical relevance rAlt a 1 is a highly allergenic molecule allowing sensitive diagnosis of Alternaria allergy. Carrier-bound non-allergenic Alt a 1 peptides are candidates for safe SIT of Alternaria allergy. PMID:22909168

  3. Anxiolytic activity of tenoten and diazepam depends on conditions in Vogel conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyfets, I A; Voronina, T A; Dugina, J L; Molodavkin, G M; Sergeeva, S A

    2011-07-01

    We compared two modifications of Vogel conflict test and assessed anxyolitic activity of two drugs: diazepam (benzodiazepine anxiolitic) and tenoten (ultra-low doses of antibodies to S-100 protein) in both modifications of the test. It was found that the intensity of anxiolitic effect of the drugs depends on the conditions of Vogel test.

  4. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  5. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  6. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  7. Neutron Activation Cool-down of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascione, G.; Kugel, H.W.; Kumar, A.; Tilson, Jr, C.

    1998-06-10

    Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) final operations and post-shutdown neutron activation measurements were made. Ionization chambers were used to follow TFTR activation during operations and after shutdown. Gamma-ray energy spectroscopy measurements were performed to characterize TFTR activation at accessible vessel-bays and on sample hardware removed from structures at various distances from the vessel. The results demonstrate long-lived activations from common, commercially available materials used in the fabrication and field engineering of TFTR. The measurements allow characterization of residual TFTR neutron activation, the projection of residual activation decay, and benchmarking of low activation issues simulations.

  8. Activity-Guided Isolation of Bioactive Constituents with Antinociceptive Activity from Muntingia calabura L. Leaves Using the Formalin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Yusof, Mohd Izwan; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Lay Kek, Teh; Ahmat, Norizan; Nik Azmin, Nik Fatini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC) and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP), ethyl acetate (EAP), and aqueous (AQP) partitions), in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in the respective early and late phase, was further subjected to the fractionation procedures and yielded seven fractions (labelled A to G). These fractions were tested, at the dose of 300 mg/kg, together with distilled water or 10% DMSO (negative controls); morphine and aspirin (positive controls) for potential antinociceptive activity. Of all fractions, Fraction D showed the most significant antinociceptive activity, which is considered as equieffective to morphine or aspirin in the early or late phase, respectively. Further isolation and identification processes on fraction D led to the identification of three known and one new compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroyflavone (2), 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone (3), and calaburone (4). At the dose of 50 mg/kg, compound 3 exhibited the highest percentage of antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of MEMC involved, partly, the synergistic activation of the flavonoid types of compounds.

  9. Activity-Guided Isolation of Bioactive Constituents with Antinociceptive Activity from Muntingia calabura L. Leaves Using the Formalin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Izwan Mohamad Yusof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP, ethyl acetate (EAP, and aqueous (AQP partitions, in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in the respective early and late phase, was further subjected to the fractionation procedures and yielded seven fractions (labelled A to G. These fractions were tested, at the dose of 300 mg/kg, together with distilled water or 10% DMSO (negative controls; morphine and aspirin (positive controls for potential antinociceptive activity. Of all fractions, Fraction D showed the most significant antinociceptive activity, which is considered as equieffective to morphine or aspirin in the early or late phase, respectively. Further isolation and identification processes on fraction D led to the identification of three known and one new compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (1, 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroyflavone (2, 2′,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxychalcone (3, and calaburone (4. At the dose of 50 mg/kg, compound 3 exhibited the highest percentage of antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of MEMC involved, partly, the synergistic activation of the flavonoid types of compounds.

  10. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  11. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  12. Electromyographic analysis of muscle activation during sit-and-reach flexibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjee, Swapan; McMahon, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    The sit-and-reach test (SRT) has been included in standard fitness test batteries for decades, but empirical evidence of actual muscle activity has been lacking. Furthermore, the positioning of the ankle joint during the execution of this test has received relatively scant attention. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to compare surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of selected lower extremity and back musculature and examine the impact of ankle positioning during the standard SRT and the modified sit-and-reach test (MSRT). Seven male and 7 female subjects performed 3 trials of the SRT and MSRT, each in a dorsiflexed and plantar flexed ankle position. During all trials, muscle activity (sEMG) was measured from the right semimembranous (SM), erector spinae (ES), and gastrocnemius (G). Mean sEMG data from each muscle (SM, ES, and G) were normalized by being expressed as a percent contribution to the total electrical activity (100%). Surface electromyographic activity data were also used to determine muscle activation ratios (e.g., SM to ES). Results revealed significantly higher flexibility scores during the plantar flexion condition for both test modalities. The SM exhibited the greatest percent contribution to total sEMG activity within all testing conditions. The SM to G and SM to ES muscle activation ratios were significantly greater than their inverse counterparts within all 4 testing conditions. Based on the 2 sEMG analysis techniques, the SM seemed to exhibit the greatest muscle activity. This investigation provides direct evidence of sEMG muscle activity during the SRT and MSRT, further confirming these tests to be a valid measure of hamstring flexibility.

  13. Are students' impressions of improved learning through active learning methods reflected by improved test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Marcee C

    2013-02-01

    To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monocyte Activation in Immunopathology: Cellular Test for Development of Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several highly prevalent human diseases are associated with immunopathology. Alterations in the immune system are found in such life-threatening disorders as cancer and atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation followed by macrophage polarization is an important step in normal immune response to pathogens and other relevant stimuli. Depending on the nature of the activation signal, macrophages can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes that are characterized by the expression of distinct patterns of secreted cytokines and surface antigens. This process is disturbed in immunopathologies resulting in abnormal monocyte activation and/or bias of macrophage polarization towards one or the other phenotype. Such alterations could be used as important diagnostic markers and also as possible targets for the development of immunomodulating therapy. Recently developed cellular tests are designed to analyze the phenotype and activity of living cells circulating in patient’s bloodstream. Monocyte/macrophage activation test is a successful example of cellular test relevant for atherosclerosis and oncopathology. This test demonstrated changes in macrophage activation in subclinical atherosclerosis and breast cancer and could also be used for screening a panel of natural agents with immunomodulatory activity. Further development of cellular tests will allow broadening the scope of their clinical implication. Such tests may become useful tools for drug research and therapy optimization.

  15. A cross-disciplinary response to improve test activities: The corporate memory capitalization in Ariane4 test domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Dinh Phuoc; Soler, Christian; Aussenac, N.; Macchion, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Assembly, Integration, Test, and Validation (AIT/AIV) of the Ariane4 Vehicle Equipment Bay was held at Matra Marconi Space (MMS) site of Toulouse for several years. For this activity, incident interpretation necessitates a great deal of different knowledge. When complex faults occur, particularly those appearing during overall control tests, experts of various domains (EGSE, software, on-board equipment) have to join for investigation sessions. Thus, an assistance tool for the identification of faulty equipment will improve the efficiency of diagnosis and the overall productivity of test activities. As a solution, the Aramiihs laboratory proposed considering the opportunity of a knowledge based system intended to assist the tester in diagnosis. This knowledge based system is, in fact, a short-term achievement of a long-term goal which is the capitalization of corporate memory in the Ariane4 test domain. Aramiihs is a research unit where engineers from MMS and researchers from the IRIT-CNRS cooperate on problems concerning new types of man-system interaction.

  16. 77 FR 10509 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... that may potentially affect communities and the surrounding environment. Releases may be accidental.... Respondents/Affected Entities: EPA contractor employees who work at sensitive sites. Estimated Number of... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Drug Testing for Contract Employees (Renewal) AGENCY...

  17. The Supreme Court Upholds Drug Testing of Student Participants in Extracurricular Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Russo, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 2001 United States Supreme Court decision in "Earls v. Board of Education of Tecumseh Public Schools," upholding random drug testing for students participating in extracurricular activities. Discusses implications for school policy and practice. (Contains 15 references.) (PKP)

  18. Astronaut Bruce McCandless tests possible method of activating satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Bruce McCandless tests one possible method of attempting to activate a switch on the Syncom-IV (LEASAT) satellite. McCandless was using a full scale mockup of the satellite in JSC's mockup and integration laboratory.

  19. Electromyographic study of rotator cuff muscle activity during full and empty can tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The empty can (EC and full can (FC tests are used as diagnostic tools for patients with rotator cuff disease. However, recently concerns have been raised that these tests do not selectively activate the muscle. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the rotator cuff muscle activation levels during the EC and FC tests in various positions using electromyography. Twelve healthy, right-handed men without shoulder complaints (mean age: 26.1 years, range: 23–35 years were included. The tests were performed isometrically with the shoulder elevated at 45° and 90° in the sagittal, scapular, and coronal planes, either in the thumb-up (FC test or thumb-down (EC test positions. During these positions, the electromyographic signal was recorded simultaneously from the four shoulder muscles using a combination of surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. The average activation of the supraspinatus and subscapularis was greater during the EC test than during the FC test and in the scapular and coronal planes than in the sagittal plane at 90°. For the infraspinatus, there were no significant differences in any positions between the two tests. Thus, the rotator cuff muscles are influenced by arm position and the elevation plane during the EC and FC tests.

  20. An overview of Test Techniques for Characterizing Active Phased Array Antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a review will be given of the microwave testing of active phased anay antennas. It will be shown that due to the application of Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules in such antennas considerable more tests have to be performed to characterise completely their microwave performance than for

  1. Reliability of the active and passive knee extension test in acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Oomen, Henricus G.; Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Weir, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Hamstring flexibility measurements are of clinical relevance for the prognosis of hamstring injury and for monitoring recovery after such injury. The active knee extension test (AKET) and passive knee extension test (PKET) are proven to be reliable in healthy subjects. Reliability has not been

  2. Reliability of the active and passive knee extension test in acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); H.G. Oomen (Henricus); M.H. Moen (Maaike); J.L. Tol (Johannes); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Weir (Adam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hamstring flexibility measurements are of clinical relevance for the prognosis of hamstring injury and for monitoring recovery after such injury. The active knee extension test (AKET) and passive knee extension test (PKET) are proven to be reliable in healthy subjects.

  3. Pharmacological aspects of corticotrophinergic and vasopressinergic function tests for HPA axis activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Gabriël Etienne

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the quantification of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in healthy volunteers by applying pharmacological function tests with distinct pharmacodynamic (PD) mechanisms. Its main objective is to contribute to the validation of different function tests for the

  4. The Active Straight Leg Raise test in lumbopelvic pain during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, Jan M A; Huis in 't Veld, EMJ; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Although many properties of the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) test as a diagnostic test in lumbopelvic pain (LPP) are well documented, various elements are lacking. A cross-sectional study was performed to compute sensitivity and specificity, to assess the advantages and disadvantages of various

  5. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  6. 77 FR 12010 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... anthropogenic sounds, studies of other marine animals and terrestrial animals would lead us to expect some... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  7. 78 FR 47282 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., and location) and marine mammal and/or indicator presence, species, number of animals, their behavior... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  8. 78 FR 34047 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... levels for these animals may be estimated using TTS data from marine mammals and relationships between... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  9. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  10. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Bridge Model with Active Vibration Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H. I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Mendes, P. A.

    The application of active control systems to reduce wind vibrations in bridges is a new area of research. This paper presents the results that were obtained on a set of wind tunnel tests of a bridge model equipped with active movable flaps. Based on the monitored position and motion of the deck...

  11. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomaa, B.; Hermsen, S.A.B.; Kessels, M.Y.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Peijenburg, A.C.M.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Piersma, A.H.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems within an alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds. Model

  12. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  13. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Myklebust, Grethe; Kallemose, Thomas; Lauridsen, Hanne B; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2016-06-01

    Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. Sixty-two adolescent female elite football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, Phamstring pre-activity share some common variance during the examined tests. However, a lack of strong correlation suggests that we cannot generalize one risk factor during one test to another test. The present data demonstrate that one-legged horizontal hop and drop vertical jump testing that are commonly used in the clinical setting does not resemble the specific neuromuscular activity patterns known to exist during sidecutting, a well known high risk movement for non-contact ACL injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between a deep clearing test and quantitative methods for lipolytic activity of filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Isabel M.; Lima, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    The deep clearing test (DC) is a simple method for measuring the relative lipolytic activity of fungi. The depth of the clear zone below the fungal colony provides a visual measure of the lipolytic activity on a continuous cumulative basis. The depth of clearing was determined for four commercial enzyme concentrations and compared by correlation analysis with results obtained by a titrimetric method and a colorimetric method for measuring lipolytic activity. Good correlation...

  15. Ground tests with active neutron instrumentation for the planetary science missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvak, M.L.; Mitrofanov, I.G.; Sanin, A.B.; Jun, I.; Kozyrev, A.S.; Krylov, A.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Timoshenko, G.N.; Starr, R.; Zontikov, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present results of experimental work performed with a spare flight model of the DAN/MSL instrument in a newly built ground test facility at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. This instrument was selected for the tests as a flight prototype of an active neutron spectrometer applicable for future landed missions to various solid solar system bodies. In our experiment we have fabricated simplified samples of planetary material and tested the capability of neutron activation methods to detect thin layers of water/water ice lying on top of planetary dry regolith or buried within a dry regolith at different depths

  16. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per; Whiteley, Rodney

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional. Gluteus medius (GM) muscle dysfunction is associated with overuse injury. The GM is functionally composed of 3 separate subdivisions: anterior, middle, and posterior. Clinical assessment of the GM subdivisions is relevant to detect strength and activation deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8 different strength-testing positions and analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant differences between testing positions for all 3 GM subdivisions were found. There were significant differences between the tested and the contralateral anterior and middle GM subdivisions (P guide specific GM rehabilitation.

  17. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...... different strength-testing positions and analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Significant differences between testing positions for all 3 GM subdivisions were found. There were significant differences between the tested and the contralateral anterior and middle GM subdivisions (P......STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. CONTEXT: Gluteus medius (GM) muscle dysfunction is associated with overuse injury. The GM is functionally composed of 3 separate subdivisions: anterior, middle, and posterior. Clinical assessment of the GM subdivisions is relevant to detect strength and activation...

  18. Current status of the active test at RRP and development programs for the advanced melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehira, Norio

    2016-01-01

    The vitrification facility in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant started the active tests to solidify HAW into the glass in 2007 which was the examination of the final stage before the operation, but the active test had to be discontinued due to the trouble of glass melter operation with down of pouring by deposit of noble metals on the melter bottom. After the equipment and operating conditions were improved in response to the result of the mock-up tests, a series of active tests were restarted active tests in May, 2012. These tests were finished with enough confirmation of stability in the state such as glass temperature and controlling the noble metals. JNFL has been developed the advanced melter, Joule heated ceramic melter, and the design of the advanced melter is largely different from the existing one. For the confirmation of the advanced melter performances, the full-scale inactive tests had been performed and successfully finished. This paper describes outline of development for advanced melter in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  19. Glenohumeral contact pressure in a simulated active compression test using cadaveric shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Javidan, Pooya; McGarry, Michelle H; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Limpisvasti, Orr; Lee, Thay Q

    2013-03-01

    The active compression test has been described to detect superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions. Some have speculated that contact between the lesser tuberosity and the superior glenoid in the testing position causes a positive test. This study evaluated the location of peak glenohumeral contact pressures during a simulated active compression test in a cadaveric model with and without SLAP lesions. Six specimens were tested. A pressure sensor was used to record glenohumeral contact, and a motion analysis system was used to measure humeral head translation. Contact pressures and translations were measured during serial deltoid and biceps loads. These were repeated for small and large SLAP lesions. There was a notable shift in the location of peak contact pressure from the anterior-inferior glenoid to the anterior-superior glenoid with increasing deltoid load. Deltoid loading translated the humeral head posteriorly relative to the glenoid. Conversely, biceps loads countered the pull of the deltoid only when the biceps load was greater than the deltoid load. The SLAP tears did not significantly alter the degree of humeral head translation or location of the contact pressures. In the active compression test, the posterior capsule is taut and the anterior capsule is lax, which permits the deltoid to translate the humeral head posteriorly. This shift in the peak contact pressure to the superior glenoid may elicit a positive active compression test. Basic Science Study, Biomechanics, Cadaver Model. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine K.; Biever, Ronald C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Holbech, Henrik; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Krueger, Hank; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine active chemicals are described, and associated challenges are discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or to the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine hazard and risk. These limitations include a lack of certainty regarding: 1) adequately sensitive species and life stages; 2) mechanistic endpoints that are diagnostic for endocrine pathways of concern; and 3) the linkage between mechanistic responses and apical, adverse outcomes. Furthermore, some existing test methods are resource intensive with regard to time, cost, and use of animals. However, based on recent experiences, there are opportunities to improve approaches to and guidance for existing test methods and to reduce uncertainty. For example, in vitro high-throughput screening could be used to prioritize chemicals for testing and provide insights as to the most appropriate assays for characterizing hazard and risk. Other recommendations include adding endpoints for elucidating connections between mechanistic effects and adverse outcomes, identifying potentially sensitive taxa for which test methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid

  1. Do collaborative practical tests encourage student-centered active learning of gross anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Cates, Tanya; White, Lloyd; Farchione, Davide

    2016-05-06

    Benefits of collaborative testing have been identified in many disciplines. This study sought to determine whether collaborative practical tests encouraged active learning of anatomy. A gross anatomy course included a collaborative component in four practical tests. Two hundred and seven students initially completed the test as individuals and then worked as a team to complete the same test again immediately afterwards. The relationship between mean individual, team, and difference (between team and individual) test scores to overall performance on the final examination (representing overall learning in the course) was examined using regression analysis. The overall mark in the course increased by 9% with a decreased failure rate. There was a strong relationship between individual score and final examination mark (P learning occurring during the collaborative testing and that weaker students gained the benefit from team marks without significant active learning taking place. This negative outcome may be due to insufficient encouragement of the active learning strategies that were expected to occur during the collaborative testing process. An improved understanding of the efficacy of collaborative assessment could be achieved through the inclusion of questionnaire based data to allow a better interpretation of learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 9: 231-237. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. The accomplishments of lithium target and test facility validation activities in the IFMIF/EVEDA phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Frederik; Baluc, Nadine; Favuzza, Paolo; Gröschel, Friedrich; Heidinger, Roland; Ibarra, Angel; Knaster, Juan; Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Massaut, Vincent; Saverio Nitti, Francesco; Miccichè, Gioacchino; O'hira, Shigeru; Rapisarda, David; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Wakai, Eiichi; Yokomine, Takehiko

    2018-01-01

    As part of the engineering validation and engineering design activities (EVEDA) phase for the international fusion materials irradiation facility IFMIF, major elements of a lithium target facility and the test facility were designed, prototyped and validated. For the lithium target facility, the EVEDA lithium test loop was built at JAEA and used to test the stability (waves and long term) of the lithium flow in the target, work out the startup procedures, and test lithium purification and analysis. It was confirmed by experiments in the Lifus 6 plant at ENEA that lithium corrosion on ferritic martensitic steels is acceptably low. Furthermore, complex remote handling procedures for the remote maintenance of the target in the test cell environment were successfully practiced. For the test facility, two variants of a high flux test module were prototyped and tested in helium loops, demonstrating their good capabilities of maintaining the material specimens at the desired temperature with a low temperature spread. Irradiation tests were performed for heated specimen capsules and irradiation instrumentation in the BR2 reactor at SCK-CEN. The small specimen test technique, essential for obtaining material test results with limited irradiation volume, was advanced by evaluating specimen shape and test technique influences.

  3. Utility of the Atopy Patch Test in the Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Fuiano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnostic work-up of allergic rhinitis (AR is first and foremost based on the combination of clinical history data and results of skin prick tests (SPT. Other tests, including specific IgE measurement, nasal challenge, and, as a third option, component resolved diagnosis or basophil activation test, may be useful when the diagnosis is difficult because of polysensitization or when negative results of SPT are observed despite a suggestive history for allergy. The atopy patch test (APT that assesses the type 4 delayed hypersensitivity allergy is currently not sufficiently used. The data obtained in recent studies on the diagnostic utility of the APT in patients with AR was reviewed. Data Sources: Review of the literature. Conclusion:  The data from available studies show that the APT is frequently positive in patients with AR, especially when there is a positive history for atopic dermatitis. Very often, APT is the only positive test and therefore performing only SPT or in vitro IgE measurement may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis. Recent data suggest a role for APT not only for diagnosis but also in epidemiological investigation on respiratory allergy.

  4. Performance testing of real-time AI systems using the activation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, L.; Duckworth, J.; Laznovsky, A.; Green, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes methods for automated performance testing of real-time artificial intelligence systems using the Activation Framework software development tool. The Activation Framework is suitable for applications such as the diagnosis of power system failures, which require the interpretation of large volumes of data in real-time. The Activation Framework consists of tools for compiling groups of Expert Systems rules into executable code modules, for automatically generating code modules from high level system configuration descriptions, and for automatically generating command files for program compilation and linking. It includes an operating system environment which provides the code which is common from one real-time AI applications to the next. It also includes mechanisms, described here, for automatic performance testing. The principal emphasis of this paper is on a rule based language which is used to capture performance specifications. This specification is compiled into code modules which are used to automatically test the system. This testing can validate that the system meets performance requirements during development and after maintenance. A large number of tests can be randomly generated and executed and the correctness of the outputs automatically validated. The paper also describes graph directed testing methods to minimize the number of test runs required

  5. eTEST: Developing a Smart Home HIV Testing Kit that Enables Active, Real-Time Follow-Up and Referral After Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler; Chan, Philip A; Simpanen, Erik; Operario, Don

    2017-05-08

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group at highest risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, but many do not test as frequently as recommended. Home-based self-testing (HBST) for HIV holds promise for promoting regular testing among these individuals, but currently available HBSTs have limited follow-up options, providing only a 1-800 number that participants can call. Failure to actively conduct follow-up counseling and referrals after HBST use could result in delays in seeking confirmatory testing and care among users receiving reactive (preliminary positive) test results. HBST also fails to connect users who test negative with other prevention services that can reduce their future risk for HIV. The aim of our study was to use qualitative research methods with high-risk MSM to inform development of a "smart" HBST kit. The kit utilizes existing Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies to monitor HBST use in real-time and enable delivery of timely, active follow-up counseling and referrals over the phone. In phase 1, individual interviews (n=10) explored how participants might use HBST and their views and preferences for conducting counseling and referral after HBST. Based on these perspectives, we developed a smartphone app (iOS, Android) that uses data from light sensors on Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacons to monitor when HBST kits are opened, facilitating timely follow-up phone contact with users. In phase 2, a usability study conducted among high-risk MSM (n=10) examined the acceptability and feasibility of this system and provided user perspectives after using the system along with HBST. Phase 1 themes suggested that MSM preferred HBST, that most thought active follow-up after HBST would be valuable, and that doing so over the phone within 24 h after testing was preferable. Phase 2 results showed that the eTEST system successfully detected HBST use in nearly all cases. Participant perspectives also suggested that the

  6. NASA Common Research Model Test Envelope Extension With Active Sting Damping at NTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Melissa B.; Balakrishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Common Research Model (CRM) high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel testing program was established to generate an experimental database for applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation studies. During transonic wind tunnel tests, the CRM encounters large sting vibrations when the angle of attack approaches the second pitching moment break, which can sometimes become divergent. CRM transonic test data analysis suggests that sting divergent oscillations are related to negative net sting damping episodes associated with flow separation instability. The National Transonic Facility (NTF) has been addressing remedies to extend polar testing up to and beyond the second pitching moment break point of the test articles using an active piezoceramic damper system for both ambient and cryogenic temperatures. This paper reviews CRM test results to gain understanding of sting dynamics with a simple model describing the mechanics of a sting-model system and presents the performance of the damper under cryogenic conditions.

  7. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. EIGHT STEPS OF SCALE DEVELOPMENT WERE FOLLOWED: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability were confirmed. The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a screening tool to assess active aging levels among older

  8. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  9. Field tests and evaluations of the IAEA Active-Well Coincidence Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Rinard, P.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates field tests of the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) at Winfrith and Dounreay, United Kingdom. The applicability of the AWCC for assaying the uranium content of a wide variety of materials was demonstrated and calibration curves were generated. The AWCC was used in three modes (fast, thermal, and passive) while assaying powders, pellets, cartridges, plates, assorted residues, and materials-testing-reactor fuel assemblies

  10. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the tanks that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC)

  11. Can disc diffusion susceptibility tests assess the antimicrobial activity of engineered nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmouli, Angeliki; Valenti, Marco; van Rijn, Erwin; Beaumont, Hubertus J. E.; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2018-03-01

    The use of disc diffusion susceptibility tests to determine the antibacterial activity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is questionable because their low diffusivity practically prevents them from penetrating through the culture media. In this study, we investigate the ability of such a test, namely the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test, to determine the antimicrobial activity of Au and Ag ENPs having diameters from 10 to 40 nm on Escherichia coli cultures. As anticipated, the tests did not show any antibacterial effects of Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their negligible diffusivity through the culture media. Ag NPs on the other hand exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity that was independent of their size. Considering that Ag, in contrast to Au, dissolves upon oxidation and dilution in aqueous solutions, the apparent antibacterial behavior of Ag NPs is attributed to the ions they release. The Kirby-Bauer method, and other similar tests, can therefore be employed to probe the antimicrobial activity of ENPs related to their ability to release ions rather than to their unique size-dependent properties. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. The antioxidant activity test by using DPPH method from the white tea using different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmajana, Doddy A.; Hadiansyah, Firman; Desnilasari, Dewi

    2017-11-01

    The solvents used in this study are: aquades, ethanol and glacial acetic acid. The raw material as the source of antioxidants is white tea. Pure Quercetin is used as a comparing antioxidant. The treatment design was the solvent type for extraction, while the antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH method, with IC50 as the reference of antioxidant activity value. The results of antioxidant activity tests with three different solvent types are IC50 of 22,499 µg/mL for aquades, IC50 of 13,317 µg/mL for Ethanol and IC50 of 60,555 µg/mL for Glacial Acetic Acid. As a control of the standard antioxidant activity value of Quercetin is 4,313 µg/mL.

  13. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular...... phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. METHODS: Sixty-two adolescent female elite...... football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored...

  14. Statistical testing of the association between annual turnover and marketing activities in SMEs using χ2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Liana; Miclea, Şerban; Izvercian, Monica

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the impact of SMEs' annual turnover upon its marketing activities (in terms of marketing responsibility, strategic planning and budgeting). Empirical results and literature reviews unveil that SMEs managers incline to partake in planned and profitable marketing activities, depending on their turnover's level. Thus, using the collected data form 131 Romanian SMEs managers, we have applied the Chi-Square Test in order to validate or invalidate three research assumptions (hypotheses), created starting from the empirical and literature findings.

  15. Determinants of physical activity among people with spinal cord injury: a test of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Kathleen A Martin; Latimer, Amy E; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Bassett, Rebecca L; Wolfe, Dalton L; Hanna, Steven E

    2011-08-01

    Little theory-based research has focused on understanding and increasing physical activity among people with physical disabilities. Testing a social cognitive theory-based model of determinants is important for identifying variables to target in physical activity-enhancing interventions. The aim of this study is to examine Social Cognitive Theory variables as predictors of physical activity among people living with spinal cord injury. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of Social Cognitive Theory predictors of physical activity (n=160). The model explained 39% of the variance in physical activity. Self-regulation was the only significant, direct predictor. Self-regulatory efficacy and outcome expectations had indirect effects, mediated by self-regulation. Social Cognitive Theory is useful for predicting physical activity in people with spinal cord injury. Self-regulation is the most potent Social Cognitive Theory predictor of physical activity in people with spinal cord injury. Self-regulation and its determinants should be targeted in physical activity-enhancing interventions.

  16. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  17. Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

  18. Analysis of muscle activity and ankle joint movement during the side-hop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Keigo; Katayose, Masaki

    2011-08-01

    Functional performance tests (FPTs) that consist of movements, such as hopping, landing, and cutting, provide useful measurements. Although some tests have been established for kinematic studies of the knee joint, very few tests have been established for the ankle joint. To use the FPT as a test battery for patients with an ankle sprain, it is necessary to document typical patterns of muscle activation and range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint during FPTs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of the ROM of the ankle inversion/eversion and the muscle activity of the peroneus longus muscle (PL) and the tibial anterior muscle (TA) in normal subjects during the side-hop test. To emphasize the characteristics of ROM and electromyography (EMG) at each phase, the side-hop tests were divided into 4 phases: lateral-hop contact phase (LC), lateral-hop flight phase (LF), medial hop contact phase (MC), and medial hop flight phase (MF), and the ROM of ankle inversion/eversion, a peak angle of ankle inversion, and Integral EMG (IEMG) of PL and TA compared among 4 phases. Fifteen male subjects with no symptoms of ankle joint problems participated in this research. The ROM of ankle inversion/eversion during the side-hop test was 27 ± 3.8° (mean ± SD), and there was a significant difference in the ROM of ankle inversion/eversion among 4 phases (p sprain.

  19. Test Cases for the Benchmark Active Controls: Spoiler and Control Surface Oscillations and Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Scott, Robert C.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2000-01-01

    As a portion of the Benchmark Models Program at NASA Langley, a simple generic model was developed for active controls research and was called BACT for Benchmark Active Controls Technology model. This model was based on the previously-tested Benchmark Models rectangular wing with the NACA 0012 airfoil section that was mounted on the Pitch and Plunge Apparatus (PAPA) for flutter testing. The BACT model had an upper surface spoiler, a lower surface spoiler, and a trailing edge control surface for use in flutter suppression and dynamic response excitation. Previous experience with flutter suppression indicated a need for measured control surface aerodynamics for accurate control law design. Three different types of flutter instability boundaries had also been determined for the NACA 0012/PAPA model, a classical flutter boundary, a transonic stall flutter boundary at angle of attack, and a plunge instability near M = 0.9. Therefore an extensive set of steady and control surface oscillation data was generated spanning the range of the three types of instabilities. This information was subsequently used to design control laws to suppress each flutter instability. There have been three tests of the BACT model. The objective of the first test, TDT Test 485, was to generate a data set of steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, and to determine the open loop dynamic characteristics of the control systems including the actuators. Unsteady pressures, loads, and transfer functions were measured. The other two tests, TDT Test 502 and TDT Test 5 18, were primarily oriented towards active controls research, but some data supplementary to the first test were obtained. Dynamic response of the flexible system to control surface excitation and open loop flutter characteristics were determined during Test 502. Loads were not measured during the last two tests. During these tests, a database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. A reasonably extensive subset of the data

  20. Analysis of five streptokinase formulations using the euglobulin lysis test and the plasminogen activation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto L.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptokinase, a 47-kDa protein isolated and secreted by most group A, C and G ß-hemolytic streptococci, interacts with and activates human protein plasminogen to form an active complex capable of converting other plasminogen molecules to plasmin. Our objective was to compare five streptokinase formulations commercially available in Brazil in terms of their activity in the in vitro tests of euglobulin clot formation and of the hydrolysis of the plasmin-specific substrate S-2251(TM. Euglobulin lysis time was determined using a 96-well microtiter plate. Initially, human thrombin (10 IU/ml and streptokinase were placed in individual wells, clot formation was initiated by the addition of plasma euglobulin, and turbidity was measured at 340 nm every 30 s. In the second assay, plasminogen activation was measured using the plasmin-specific substrate S-2251(TM. Streptase(TM was used as the reference formulation because it presented the strongest fibrinolytic activity in the euglobulin lysis test. The Unitinase(TM and Solustrep(TM formulations were the weakest, showing about 50% activity compared to the reference formulation. All streptokinases tested activated plasminogen but significant differences were observed. In terms of total S-2251(TM activity per vial, Streptase(TM (75.7 ± 5.0 units and Streptonase(TM (94.7 ± 4.6 units had the highest activity, while Unitinase(TM (31.0 ± 2.4 units and Strek(TM (32.9 ± 3.3 units had the weakest activity. Solustrep(TM (53.3 ± 2.7 units presented intermediate activity. The variations among the different formulations for both euglobulin lysis test and chromogenic substrate hydrolysis correlated with the SDS-PAGE densitometric results for the amount of 47-kDa protein. These data show that the commercially available clinical streptokinase formulations vary significantly in their in vitro activity. Whether these differences have clinical implications needs to be investigated.

  1. Can vaccinia virus be replaced by MVA virus for testing virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV is a test virus in the DVV/RKI guidelines as representative of the stable enveloped viruses. Since the potential risk of laboratory-acquired infections with VACV persists and since the adverse effects of vaccination with VACV are described, the replacement of VACV by the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA was studied by testing the activity of different chemical biocides in three German laboratories. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides (peracetic acid, aldehydes and alcohols were tested in a quantitative suspension test according to the DVV/RKI guideline. All tests were performed with a protein load of 10% fetal calf serum with both viruses in parallel using different concentrations and contact times. Residual virus was determined by endpoint dilution method. Results The chemical biocides exhibited similar virucidal activity against VACV and MVA. In three cases intra-laboratory differences were determined between VACV and MVA - 40% (v/v ethanol and 30% (v/v isopropanol are more active against MVA, whereas MVA seems more stable than VACV when testing with 0.05% glutardialdehyde. Test accuracy across the three participating laboratories was high. Remarkably inter-laboratory differences in the reduction factor were only observed in two cases. Conclusions Our data provide valuable information for the replacement of VACV by MVA for testing chemical biocides and disinfectants. Because MVA does not replicate in humans this would eliminate the potential risk of inadvertent inoculation with vaccinia virus and disease in non-vaccinated laboratory workers.

  2. Assessment of brain activation regulation in first graders via RAN / RAS test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Akhutina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RAN / RAS test (Rapid Automatized Naming / Rapid Alternating Stimulus has been used successfully used by many psychologists, primarily to predict the risk of dyslexia, as it includes a language component and requires good visual-verbal connections. However, The research demonstrates that the low speed of naming is an effective indicator of neurocognitive problems of information processing as a whole (learning difficulties in general, not just reading difficulties. This can be explained in two ways: disturbance of executive mental control and the difficulties of automatization: the difficulties of the transition from a controlled energy-consuming assignment to a less energy-consuming one. The second interpretation describes the problems of energy resources of cognitive functioning. It is similar to weak maintenance of cortical structures activation. However, using the test mentioned herewith for assessing functions of activation regulation has not been described previously. In terms of the Luria’s three functional units of the brain theory the RAN / RAS test can be considered as sensitive to the weakness of the first unit, whose function is to maintain the activity of cortical structures. So the aim of the research is to prove the possibility of assessing the activation regulation using the RAN / RAS test. This issue is relevant because neuropsychological tools for determining the weakness of Unit I functions are not quite sufficient, while the problem of “energetic” unit ranks first in the frequency of occurrence in children with learning disabilities.

  3. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of

  4. Partnering with School Nutrition Professionals to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Intake through Taste-Testing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.; Hughes, Luanne J.; Wu-Jung, Corey J.; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra; Savoca, LeeAnne

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 sets new nutrition standards for schools, requiring them to serve a greater variety and quantity of fruits and vegetables. Extension educators in New Jersey partnered with school nutrition professionals to implement a school wellness initiative that included taste-testing activities to support…

  5. Exciting New Take on a Classic: Crash Test Activity Puts the Egg in the Driver's Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2011-01-01

    An excellent common activity in technology and engineering classes involves dropping an egg from a significant height in a protective device designed and built by students. This article describes how the author uses the classic "egg drop" as an inspiration to have students modify a small crash test vehicle that speeds down a track and crashes into…

  6. Exciting New Take on a Classic: Crash Testing Activity Puts the Egg in the Driver's Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2011-01-01

    An excellent common activity in technology and engineering classes involves dropping an egg from a significant height in a protective device designed and built by students. This article describes how the author uses the classic "egg drop" as an inspiration to have students modify a small crash test vehicle that speeds down a track and crashes into…

  7. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of bioflavonoids and structural analogues in the Ames/Salmonella test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohn GR; Van der Stel JJ; Stavenuiter JFC; Hamzink MRJ; Kreijl CF; LEO; LBO

    1996-01-01

    The mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of bioflavonoids were determined in the bacterial mutagenicity test of Ames, using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The decreasing order of mutagenic activity found in both strains was quercetin>myricetin-kaempferol>morin hydrate. The

  8. Child-Robot Interaction in the Wild : Field Testing Activities of the ALIZ-E Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, J. de; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Wigdor, N.; Bierman, B.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which CRI activities developed by the ALIZ-E project were tested with the project's primary user group: children with diabetes. This field study resulted in new insights in the modalities and roles a robot aimed at CRI in a healthcare setting might utilise, while in

  9. Acceptance test of an activity meter to be used as reference in a calibration methodology establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Eduardo L.; Kuahara, Lilian T.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A., E-mail: educorrea1905@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear medicine is a medical physics area in which radiopharmaceuticals are used in diagnostic procedures. These radioactive elements are administered in the patient and the radiation emitted is detected by an equipment, that makes the body scan, connected to a computer software, and the image is constructed. In order to operate the nuclear medicine service must have calibrated radiation detectors. Thought, it does not exist, in Brazil, an activity meter calibration methodology, which causes many measurement uncertainties. The goal of this study is to present the acceptance test results of an activity meter to be used as reference in a new calibration methodology establishment. It was checked an activity meter Capintec, CRC-25R model, using three control sources ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba). The tests were based on the CNEN-NN 3.05 standard, the manufacturer manual, the TRS-454 and the TECDOC 602 and include: physical inspection, chamber voltage, zero adjustment, background response, data check and repeatability. The linearity and geometry tests could not be made, because the laboratory where the activity meter is located is not authorized to receive non-sealed radioactive sources. The equipment has presented a good behavior. All the results are in the range presented by national and international standards and the equipment is now being used in the laboratory and periodically passes through the quality control tests. (author)

  10. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  11. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.

  12. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Aileen P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.

  13. Identification of prefrontal cortex (BA10) activation while performing Stroop test using diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sabin; Chityala, Srujan R.; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2011-03-01

    Stroop test is commonly used as a behavior-testing tool for psychological examinations that are related to attention and cognitive control of the human brain. Studies have shown activations in Broadmann area 10 (BA10) of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during attention and cognitive process. The use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for human brain mapping is becoming more prevalent. In this study we expect to find neural correlates between the performed cognitive tasks and hemodynamic signals detected by a DOT system. Our initial observation showed activation of oxy-hemoglobin concentration in BA 10, which is consistent with some results seen by positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our study demonstrates the possibility of combining DOT with Stroop test to quantitatively investigate cognitive functions of the human brain at the prefrontal cortex.

  14. Design and Test of Semi-Active Vibration-Reducing System for Lathe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, its theory design, analysis and test system of semi-active vibration controlling system used for precision machine have been done. Firstly, lathe bed and spindle entity were modeled by using UG software; Then modes of the machine bed and the key components of spindle were obtained by using ANSYS software; Finally, harmonic response analysis of lathe spindle under complex load was acquired, which provided a basis of MR damper’s structure optimization design for a certain type of precision machine. In order to prove its effectives, a prototype semi-active vibration controlling lathe with MR damper was developed. Tests have been done, and comparison results between passive vibration isolation equipment and semi-active vibration controlling equipment proved its good performances of MR damper.

  15. Development of an Active Twist Rotor for Wind: Tunnel Testing (NLPN97-310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, SangJoon; Hagood, Nesbitt W., IV

    1998-01-01

    The development of the Active Twist Rotor prototype blade for hub vibration and noise reduction studies is presented in this report. Details of the modeling, design, and manufacturing are explored. The rotor blade is integrally twisted by direct strain actuation. This is accomplished by distributing embedded piezoelectric fiber composites along the span of the blade. The development of the analysis framework for this type of active blade is presented. The requirements for the prototype blade, along with the final design results are also presented. A detail discussion on the manufacturing aspects of the prototype blade is described. Experimental structural characteristics of the prototype blade compare well with design goals, and preliminary bench actuation tests show lower performance than originally predicted. Electrical difficulties with the actuators are also discussed. The presented prototype blade is leading to a complete fully articulated four-blade active twist rotor system for future wind tunnel tests.

  16. Biological shielding test of hot cells with high active source 60Co (300 TBq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švrčula, P.; Zoul, D.; Zimina, M.; Petříčková, A.; Adamíková, T.; Schulc, M.; Srba, O.

    2017-11-01

    This article describes a method for testing of the efficiency of the biological shielding of the hot cell facility, which were constructed as a part of the project SUSEN. Ten hot cells and one semi-hot cell are present in the facility Radiochemistry II. The shielding is made from steel plates. In order to demonstrate sufficient efficiency of the biological shielding of the hot cells and a correspondence between measured and contractual values at selected points. The test was done using sealed high activity 60Co sources. The results are also used as a proof of the optimization of radiation protection for the workplace of this type. The results confirm significant optimization of radiation protection at the workplace. The dose received by a staff do not exceed one tens of annual limit during active service. Obtained results fulfill general requirements of radiation protection and will be used for further active service of hot cells facility.

  17. Passive characterization and active testing of epoxy bonded regenerators for room temperature magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Navickaité, Kristina; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy bonded regenerators of both spherical and irregular La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy particles have been developed aiming at increasing the mechanical strength of active magnetic regenerators (AMR) loaded with brittle magnetocaloric materials and improving the flexibility of shaping the regenerator geometry......-layer AMR based on spherical particles is tested actively in a small reciprocating magnetic refrigerator, achieving a no-load temperature span of 16.8 °C using about 143 g of epoxy-bonded La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy materials. Simulations based on a one-dimensional (1D) AMR model are also implemented to validate...... and analyze the results from the active test....

  18. Point-of-care testing of activated clotting time in the ICU: is it relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ellenora; Clarke, Jody; Edward, Karen-leigh; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann

    Over the past 50 years there have been significant advances in both the clinical techniques and equipment used in the intensive care environment. One traditionally used point-of-care test is activated clotting time (ACT), a coagulation test primarily used during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to monitor the anticoagulation effects of heparin. The ACT test has since emerged into the intensive care environment to guide clinical assessment and management of haemostasis in postoperative cardiac patients. The aim of this integrative systematic review was to critique the available research evaluating the effectiveness of ACT point-of-care testing in the intensive care unit for adult patients following cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac surgery and any impacts this may have on nursing care. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL and PubMed was undertaken. The search identified five research papers reporting on the use of ACT point-of-care testing in the intensive care unit for adult cardiac surgical patients. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the lack of homogeneity between the papers included. There was a lack of clear evidence for the use of the ACT point-of-care test after cardiac surgery in the intensive care environment. This review has highlighted that conventional laboratory tests are generally more accurate and reliable than this point-of-care test in guiding nursing care management.

  19. How well do physical activity questions perform? A European cognitive testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, J D; Gisle, L; Mimilidis, H; Santos-Hoevener, C; Kruusmaa, E K; Matsi, A; Oja, L; Balarajan, M; Gray, M; Kratz, A L; Lange, C

    2015-01-01

    Only few studies have focused on the cognitive processes of the respondents that are involved when answering physical activity questionnaires (PAQs). This study aimed at examining whether two PAQs work as intended with different segments of the survey population in different cultural settings in Europe. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and the US National Health Interview Survey - Adult Core Physical Activity Questionnaire (NHIS-PAQ) were tested in Belgium, Estonia, Germany and the UK using a standardized cognitive interviewing procedure. IPAQ-SF measures total vigorous physical activity (PA), moderate PA, walking and sitting. NHIS-PAQ measures leisure-time vigorous PA, light and moderate PA and muscle-strengthening PA. In total 62 persons completed cognitive interviews, at least 15 interviews were conducted in each country. Both PAQs performed as intended with young and high-skilled persons and those having a regular exercise schedule. For the others, however, the testing revealed that problems occurred with both PAQs relating to understanding the concepts of '(light and) moderate' and 'vigorous' PA, classifying activities into the provided answer options of different PA intensities, recalling instances of 'normal' activities such as walking and sitting, and calculating the total duration of more than one activity or instance of an activity. The revealed problems with the questionnaires were quite similar in different countries; profound cultural differences were not observed. Both questionnaires were difficult to answer for many respondents and rather user-unfriendly. They are designed to measure an exactness of PA quantity (frequency and duration) and intensity which would be desirable to obtain from a scientific point of view; however, respondents can hardly provide this information for cognitive reasons. Studies investigating the respondents' perspective are useful for improving physical activity information based on

  20. Baroreflex modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during cold pressor test in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that baroreceptor modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and heart rate is altered during the cold pressor test. Ten subjects were exposed to a cold pressor test by immersing a hand in ice water for 3 min while arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and MSNA were recorded. During the second and third minute of the cold pressor test, blood pressure was lowered and then raised by intravenous bolus infusions of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine HCl, respectively. The slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure was more negative (P baroreflex modulation of MSNA is elevated without altering the sensitivity of baroreflex control of heart rate.

  1. Understanding sexual activity and Chlamydia testing rate based on linked national survey and Medicaid claims data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Tao

    Full Text Available Monitoring adherence to national recommendations for annual chlamydia screening of female adolescents and young adult women is important for targeting quality improvement interventions to improve low screening rates. However, accurate measurement of rates may vary depending on the data source used to determine eligible sexually-active women.The 2001-2004 NHANES data linked with Medicaid administrative data by respondent's unique identifier, the 2011-2012 NHANES data, and the 2004 and 2010 Medicaid data were used in this cross-sectional analysis. We defined self-reported sexual activity by self-reported sexual behaviors, claim-identified sexual activity by reproductive-related claims among women who had ≥ one healthcare claim, HEDIS-defined sexual activity by reproductive-related claims among women who were enrolled in Medicaid for ≥330 days and had ≥ one healthcare claim, and chlamydia tests by claims submitted in the 12 months prior to the survey interview.Of Medicaid women aged 18-25 years, 91.5% self-reported to be sexually-active. Of self-reported sexually-active women aged 18-25 years, 92.0% had ≥ one healthcare claim in the 12 months prior to the survey interview; of this subpopulation, only 58.8% were enrolled in Medicaid for ≥ 330 days in the 12 months prior to the survey interview; of this further subpopulation, 74.1% had healthcare claims identifying them as sexually-active in the 12 months prior to the survey interview. Of HEDIS-defined sexually-active women, 42.4% had chlamydia testing.Our study suggests that the number of sexually-active women aged 18-25 years used as the denominator in the chlamydia testing measure could be significantly different, depending upon the definition applied and the data used. Our data highlight the limited representativeness of Medicaid population in the current HEDIS measure on chlamydia testing when a high proportion of women who were enrolled in Medicaid for <330 days had been excluded from

  2. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Chand Thakur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of agricultural soil which is attributed to the use of pesticides containing lead by using activated charcoal. Material and Methods: The lead contamination in agricultural soil and plant dry mass samples which increases due to the effect of pesticides was detected by using Field Portable X-Ray Fluroscence (FP-XRF spectrophotometer. Soil was taken in plastic trays and the plants were grown and watered daily. The collected ground water was also tested. For the estimation of lead in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS was employed. Results: This study suggested the remediation of soil lead content by using activated charcoal. The study also revealed that activated charcoal not only adsorbs lead but also inhibits the accumulation of lead in ground water. Conclusion: This study promotes a cost effective process to treat agricultural lands polluted with leaded pesticides. Water purifiers, refrigerator etc. contain varying amounts of activated charcoal, after usage of these appliances it can be recycled and used as a source of activated charcoal. This can be applied in pesticide contaminated fields either in the form of slurry or by spraying.

  3. Antioxidant, Antibacterial activity and Brine shrimp toxicity test of some Mountainous Lichens from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Paudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty four lichen species belonging to six families were collected from mountainous region of Nepal. The methanol extracts of each species were tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activitiesin vitro. It was found that extracts of twenty one lichen species were active againstB. subtilis and seven species were active againstS. aureus. Similarly, in DPPH assay, three speciesPeltigera sp.,Cladonia sp., andCanoparmelia sp. showed comparable activity with commercial standard, BHA. In ABTS+ assay, extracts ofParmoterma sp.,Ramalina sp.,Peltigera sp. andCladonia sp. showed stronger activity than ascorbic acid. The observed data after comparison with previously published reports indicated that the high altitude lichens contain stronger antioxidant and antibacterial constituents. Similarly, the methanol extracts ofHeterodermia sp. andRamalina sp. showed comparable toxicity effect with commercial standard berberine chloride indicating a potent source of anticancer drugs.

  4. Motivation towards extracurricular activities and motivation at school: A test of the generalization effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Guay, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is a promising avenue for enhancing students' school motivation. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the goal of this study was to test a serial multiple mediator model. In this model, students' perceptions of autonomy support from their extracurricular activity leader predicted their activity-based intrinsic and identified regulations. In turn, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations during the same school year. Finally, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations one year later. A total of 276 youths (54% girls) from disadvantaged neighborhoods were surveyed over two waves of data collection. The proposed mediation model was supported for both types of regulation. These results highlight the generalization effects of motivation from the extracurricular activity context to the school context. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The development and testing of a modular containment system under plutonium active conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.J.; Pengelly, M.G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A Modular Containment System has been designed, constructed and tested under plutonium active conditions at AEE Winfrith. The unit consists of a portable self-contained pressurised suit area, complete with shower entry tunnel and ventilation plant which can be assembled to enclose active plant to enable active operations to be carried out safely by operators dressed in standard pressurised suits. A fundamental feature of the system is the use of strippable coatings which are used to treat the interior surfaces prior to active operations to prevent permanent contamination of the structure. Details of construction are given together with results of trials. Whilst this report describes work with plutonium, the system has clear applications wherever temporary containment of radioactive or toxic materials is needed. (U.K.)

  6. Mucolytic Activity Test of Shallot Extract (Allium Ascalonicum L) by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswati, D. A.; Dhina, M. A.; Mubaroq, S. R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the results of research on the mucolytic activity of shallot extract is proportional to 0.2% N-Acetylcysteine. Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) is efficacious for treating cough. This research was conducted by examining the mucolytic activity of shallot extract made with various dose concentration 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The mucolytic activity test was performed in vitro based on the decrease in the viscosity of the egg whites by using the Brookfield viscometer. The results showed that shallot extract with dose concentration of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% had mucolytic activity by decreasing the viscosity of egg white solution. The effective concentration almost equal to 0.2% N-Acetylcysteine is at 25% concentration.

  7. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of flight tests performed on the F/A active aeroelastic wing airplane is shown. The topics include: 1) F/A-18 AAW Airplane; 2) F/A-18 AAW Control Surfaces; 3) Flight Test Background; 4) Roll Control Effectiveness Regions; 5) AAW Design Test Points; 6) AAW Phase I Test Maneuvers; 7) OBES Pitch Doublets; 8) OBES Roll Doublets; 9) AAW Aileron Flexibility; 10) Phase I - Lessons Learned; 11) Control Law Development and Verification & Validation Testing; 12) AAW Phase II RFCS Envelopes; 13) AAW 1-g Phase II Flight Test; 14) Region I - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 15) Region I - Subsonic 1-g 360 Roll; 16) Region II - Supersonic 1-g Rolls; 17) Region II - Supersonic 1-g 360 Roll; 18) Region III - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 19) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (open-loop); 20) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (closed-loop); 21) AAW Phase II Elevated-g Flight Test; 22) Region I - Subsonic 4-g RPO; and 23) Phase II - Lessons Learned

  8. Final payload test results for the RemoveDebris active debris removal mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Jason L.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Salmon, Thierry; Retat, Ingo; Roe, Mark; Burgess, Christopher; Chabot, Thomas; Pisseloup, Aurélien; Phipps, Andy; Bernal, Cesar; Chaumette, François; Pollini, Alexandre; Steyn, Willem H.

    2017-09-01

    Since the beginning of the space era, a significant amount of debris has progressively been generated in space. Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions have been suggested as a way of limiting and controlling future growth in orbital space debris by actively deploying vehicles to remove debris. The European Commission FP7-sponsored RemoveDebris mission, which started in 2013, draws on the expertise of some of Europe's most prominent space institutions in order to demonstrate key ADR technologies in a cost effective ambitious manner: net capture, harpoon capture, vision-based navigation, dragsail de-orbiting. This paper provides an overview of some of the final payload test results before launch. A comprehensive test campaign is underway on both payloads and platform. The tests aim to demonstrate both functional success of the experiments and that the experiments can survive the space environment. Space environmental tests (EVT) include vibration, thermal, vacuum or thermal-vacuum (TVAC) and in some cases EMC and shock. The test flow differs for each payload and depends on the heritage of the constituent payload parts. The paper will also provide an update to the launch, expected in 2017 from the International Space Station (ISS), and test philosophy that has been influenced from the launch and prerequisite NASA safety review for the mission. The RemoveDebris mission aims to be one of the world's first in-orbit demonstrations of key technologies for active debris removal and is a vital prerequisite to achieving the ultimate goal of a cleaner Earth orbital environment.

  9. Corrosion Testing of Low-Activity Waste Glasses Fiscal Year 1998 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BP McGrail; CW Lindenmeier; HT Schaef; PF Martin

    1998-11-25

    Analytical results are presented on the chemical composition and other physical properties of a glass, given the identification BNFL-A-S98, made at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory' that is representative of the low-activity waste glass composition proposed by BNFL, Inc.* for immobilization of envelope A double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site. This glass was prepared for use in a testing program to be conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Argonne National Laboratory for the purpose of characterizing its long-term corrosion behavior. Detailed examination of the glass microstructure using transmission electron microscopy showed structural features indicative of amorphous phase separation. A remelt was performed on a smaller batch (100 g) to ensure rapid cooling. The glass microstructure was reexamined and showed no evidence of phase separation. Selected long-term (some to 860 d) product consistency tests were terminated, and the leachates were analyzed on tests with three other representative low-activity waste glass formulations (L8- 1, L8-3, and L8-7). The results showed no evidence of corrosion rate acceleration at three times the duration of tests where another well-studied glass, LD6-5412, had been completely altered under identical test conditions. These tests (and others not discussed in this report) provide clear evidence that low-activity waste glasses with at least 20 mass% Na20 can be made that have excellent long-term corrosion resistance. However, glass composition has a large impact on long-term behavior and so careful experiments with several different techniques are essential to ensuring that a particular glass will have good long-term corrosion resistance.

  10. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Among Sexually Active Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorio, M. Rosa; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Higgins, Chandra; Gelberg, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing in a sample of homeless youth. Of 261 youth interviewed, 50% had been sexually active in the past 3 months. Gender variation in sexual behaviors and risk were found. Boys were more likely than girls to engage in anal sex (46% vs. 15%), to have 3 or more sexual partners (46% vs. 17%) and to engage in anonymous sex (38% vs. 21%). Girls were less likely to use condoms consistently and more likely to engage in sex with a partner suspected of having an STI (20% vs. 4%). In the past 3 months, the STI testing rates were similar for boys and girls (46%). However, girls were more likely to have positive STI results (46% vs. 9%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only variable that was an independent predictor of STI testing was having either gotten someone or having become pregnant in the past 3 months. High-risk sexual behaviors did not predict STI testing in our sample. Outreach programs are needed that target sexually active homeless youth for early STI testing and treatment. PMID:16479414

  11. Toxicity of Aqueous Fullerene nC60 to Activated Sludge: Nitrification Inhibition and Microtox Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkui Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing production and use of fullerene nanomaterials raised their exposure potential to the activated sludge during biological wastewater treatment process. In this study, the toxicity of aqueous nanoscaled C60 (nC60 to activated sludge was investigated using nitrification inhibition and Microtox test. The test solutions of nC60 were prepared using two methods: long stirring (Stir/nC60 and toluene exchange (Tol/nC60. The nC60 aggregation in test medium was also evaluated for toxicity assessment. The results showed that the nC60 aggregation behaved differently in two test mediums during the incubation periods. The nC60 toxicity was greatly influenced by the preparation method. Stir/nC60 presented no significant toxicity to both the nitrification sludge and bioluminescent bacteria at the maximum concentration studied. In contrast, the EC20 of Tol/nC60 was obtained to be 4.89 mg/L (3 h for the nitrification inhibition and 3.44 mg/L (30 min for Microtox test, respectively.

  12. Calibration and performance testing of the IAEA Aquila Active Well Coincidence Counter (Unit 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O..; Siebelist, R.; Wenz, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    An Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and a portable shift register (PSR-B) produced by Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., have been tested and cross-calibrated with existing AWCCs used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report summarizes the results of these tests and the cross-calibration of the detector. In addition, updated tables summarizing the cross-calibration of existing AWCCs and AmLi sources are also included. Using the Aquila PSR-B with existing IAEA software requires secondary software also supplied by Aquila to set up the PSR-B with the appropriate measurement parameters

  13. VARIABILITY IN THE PREWEANLING ONTOGENY OF MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF DEVICE, TEST DAY, AND RAT SUPPLIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current developmental neurotoxicity testing guidelines include evaluation of preweanling motor activity in rats. The ontogeny of activity levels as well as within-session habituation may be measured by repeatedly testing subjects at specific days of age. Activity levels are i...

  14. A novel lipid raft-associated glycoprotein, TEC-21, activates rat basophilic leukemia cells independently of the type 1 Fce receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hálová, Ivana; Dráberová, Lubica; Dráber, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2002), s. 213-223 ISSN 1460-2377 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205; GA ČR GA204/00/0204; GA ČR GA310/00/0205; GA AV ČR IAA5052005; GA AV ČR IAA7052006; GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mast cell * plasma membrane * IgE Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  15. Design, realization and testing of an adsorption refrigerator based on activated carbon/ethanol working pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazzica, A.; Palomba, V.; Dawoud, B.; Gullì, G.; Brancato, V.; Sapienza, A.; Vasta, S.; Freni, A.; Costa, F.; Restuccia, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a lab-scale adsorption refrigerator. • Optimization of working pair and adsorber configuration through experimental activity. • Experimental testing of the prototype under real working boundary conditions. - Abstract: In the present paper design, realization and testing of a novel small scale adsorption refrigerator prototype based on activated carbon/ethanol working pair is described. Firstly, experimental activity has been carried out for identification of the best performing activated carbon available on the market, through the evaluation of the achievable thermodynamic performance both under air conditioning and refrigeration conditions. Once identified the best performing activated carbon, the design of the adsorber was developed by experimental dynamic performance analysis, carried out by means of the Gravimetric-Large Temperature Jump (G-LTJ) apparatus available at CNR ITAE lab. Finally, the whole 0.5 kW refrigerator prototype was designed and built. First experimental results both under reference air conditioning and refrigeration cycles have been reported, to check the achievable performance. High Specific Cooling Powers (SCPs), 95 W/kg and 50 W/kg, for air conditioning and refrigeration respectively, were obtained, while the COP ranged between 0.09 and 0.11, thus showing an improvement of the current state of the art.

  16. Application of KRL test to assess total antioxidant activity in pigs: sensitivity to dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Pastorelli, Grazia; Corino, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    The application of Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL) test to assess total blood antioxidant activity in pigs was evaluated. The KRL has been validated and is widely used in humans for assessing the effectiveness of natural or pharmaceutical treatments, and in vitro to evaluate the antioxidant activities of natural or synthetic antioxidants. In this study the sensitivity of the KRL test in assessing the effectiveness of dietary antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E and plant extract) was evaluated in two different phases of pig breeding. The first trial, in post-weaned piglets (40 piglets/group) fed dietary vitamin E supplementation for 60 days, indicated that there was a higher total antioxidant activity (P=0.032) of whole blood and of red blood cells (P=0.001) than for control pigs. The second trial indicated that long-term supplementation of water soluble plant extract (20 pigs/group) from the leaves of Verbenaceae (Lippia spp.) tended (P=0.091) to increase antioxidant activity in the whole blood of treated, rather than control pigs. These results indicate that the KRL might be recommended as one of efficient means for evaluating antioxidant activity of dietary ingredients fed to pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification of Rhodamine WT tracer tests procedure in activated sludge reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knap, Marta; Balbierz, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    One of the tracers recommended for use in wastewater treatment plants and natural waters is Rhodamine WT, which is a fluorescent dye, allowing to work at low concentrations, but may be susceptible to sorption to activated sludge flocs and chemical quenching of fluorescence by dissolved water constituents. Additionally raw sewage may contain other natural materials or pollutants exhibiting limited fluorescent properties, which are responsible for background fluorescence interference. This paper presents the proposed modifications to the Rhodamine WT tracer tests procedure in activated sludge reactors, which allow to reduce problems with background fluorescence and tracer loss over time, developed on the basis of conducted laboratory and field experiments.

  18. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded....... It was hypothesized that active subjects had more efficient pain inhibition compared with inactive subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study with 2 days of data collection. METHODS: Fifty-six (28 females) subjects participated in this study. Subjects were subgrouped into active (n = 30) and inactive (n = 26...

  19. Relationships Among Two Repeated Activity Tests and Aerobic Fitness of Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; May-Rom, Moran; Ekshtien, Aya; Eisenstein, Tamir; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine performance indices of a repeated sprint test (RST) and to examine their relationships with performance indices of a repeated jump test (RJT) and with aerobic fitness among trained volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players performed RST (6 × 30 m sprints), RJT (6 sets of 6 consecutive jumps), and an aerobic power test (20-m Shuttle Run Test). Performance indices for the RST and the RJT were (a) the ideal 30-m run time (IS), the total run time (TS) of the 6 sprints, and the performance decrement (PD) during the test and (b) the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the PD during the test, respectively. No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RST and RJT. Significant correlations were found between PD, IS, and TS in the RST protocol and predicted peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (r = -0.60, -0.75, -0.77, respectively). No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RJT (IJ, TJ, and PD) and peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2. The findings suggest that a selection of repeated activity test protocols should acknowledge the specific technique used in the sport, and that a distinct RJT, rather than the classic RST, is more appropriate for assessing the anaerobic capabilities of volleyball players. The findings also suggest that aerobic fitness plays only a minor role in performance maintenance throughout characteristic repeated jumping activity of a volleyball game.

  20. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for cytomegalovirus active infection in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fontanive Franco

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a main viral infection after kidney transplantation. The diagnostic methods currently employed are pp65 antigenemia and nucleic acid amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and aim at detecting viral replication. Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare by both methods the incidence of CMV active infection in kidney transplant patients and to establishthe best clinical-laboratory correlation. Methods: Thirty sequential kidney transplant recipients were enrolled in a single center prospective cohort study. Peripheral blood samples were drawn from day 15 until the 6th month after transplantation and tested for CMV replication by pp65 antigenemia and quantitative PCR assays (qPCR. Results: Two hundred forty samples were analyzed and the incidence of active infection was similar by both methods. Time elapsed to the first positive test was almost identical but more samples tested positive by qPCR than by antigenemia in a behavior that was almost evenly distributed overtime. Agreement between tests was observed in 217 samples (90.4%; kappa = 0.529; p < 0.001 and in 25 patients the tests were concordant (83.3%; kappa = 0.667; p < 0.001. The evaluation of the diagnostic parameters for CMV replication revealed higher sensitivity for the qPCR test (82.1% against antigenemia (59.0%. Quantitative PCR was also slightly more accurate than antigenemia. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that both methods are suitable and have almost equivalent accuracy for the detection of post-transplant cytomegalovirus replication. The choice for either test must take in consideration the demand, execution capability and cost-effectiveness at each institution.

  1. Testing integrated behavioural and biomedical models of activity and activity limitations in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Elliott, Alison; Hannaford, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The predictive utility of an integrated model of disability is tested. The integrated model incorporates an impairment based model (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)) and the behavioural models. Community dwelling adults (n = 628) completed a postal questionnaire measuring the integrated model. The ability of the model to predict disability in the form of activity limitations (ALs) and walking, in the full community sample and in respondents reporting chronic pain was tested. In both the community and chronic pain samples each version of the integrated model explained a majority (55%-67%) of the variance in ALs but only 11%-29% of the variance in walking behaviour (WB). Impairment directly predicted ALs but did not directly predict WB. Control related cognitions were direct predictors, and mediators, of the relationship between bodily impairment and both ALs and WB. In addition, intentions and outcome expectancies predicted WB. Self-efficacy (SE) was the most consistent predictor of both ALs and WB. An integrated model which combines psychological constructs and impairment is required for an adequate understanding of ALs. By contrast, behavioural models, but not degree of impairment, are necessary to explain activity levels.

  2. Seismic functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical components based on shaking table testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurukovski, D.

    1999-01-01

    The seismic testing for qualification of one sample of the NPP Kozloduy Control Panel type YKTC was carried out under Research Contract no: 8008/Rl, entitled: 'Seismic Functional Qualification of Active Mechanical and Electrical Components Based on Shaking Table Testing'. The tested specimen was selected by the Kozloduy NPP staff, Section 'TIA-2' (Technical Instrumentation and Automatics), however the seismic input parameters were selected by the NPP Kozloduy staff, Section HTS and SC (Hydro-Technical Systems and Engineering Structures). The applied methodology was developed by the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology staff. This report presents all relevant items related to the selected specimen seismic testing for seismic qualification such as: description of the tested specimen, mounting conditions on the shaking table, selection of seismic input parameters and creation of seismic excitations, description of the testing equipment, explanation of the applied methodology, 'on line' and 'off line' monitoring of the tested specimen, functioning capabilities, discussion of the results and their presentation and finally conclusions and recommendations. In this partial project report, two items are presented. The first item presents a review of the existing and used regulations for performing of the seismic and vibratory withstand testing of electro-mechanical equipment. The selection is made based on MEA, IEEE, IEC and former Soviet Union regulations. The second item presents the abstracts of all the tests performed at the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology in Skopje. The selected regulations, the experience of the Institute that has been gathered for the last seventeen years and some theoretical and experimental research will be the basis for further investigations for development of a synthesised methodology for seismic qualification of differently categorized equipment for nuclear power plants

  3. On-track tests of active vertical suspension on a passenger train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazizadeh, Alireza; Persson, Rickard; Stichel, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    The classic way to design the suspension of a rail vehicle is to use passive elements such as dampers and springs; however, as sensors and actuators are getting more affordable and reliable, their potential benefit in the suspension system is increasingly studied. Active suspension can be used to keep ride comfort at an acceptable level or even improve it, while allowing tougher operation conditions or usage of lighter carbodies. Tougher conditions could be interpreted as higher speed or lower track quality, and lighter carbody means higher level of elastic vibrations. This paper is focused on the implementation and tests of active vertical suspension on the secondary suspension of a high-speed passenger electric multiple unit using hydraulic actuators and the skyhook method as the controller. Results from on-track tests indicate large ride comfort improvements.

  4. Testing methods for antimicrobial activity of TiO2 photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Siniša L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of commercial TiO2 photocatalyst products have been developed and extensively studied for prospective and safe antimicrobial application in daily life, medicine, laboratories, food and pharmaceutical industry, waste water treatments and in development of new self-cleaning and antimicrobial materials, surfaces and paints. This paper reviews the studies published worldwide on killing microorganisms, methods for testing the antimicrobial activity, light sources and intensities, as well as calculation methods usually used when evaluating the antimicrobial properties of the TiO2-based products. Additionally, some strengths and weaknesses of the available methods for testing the antimicrobial activity of TiO2 photocatalyst products have been pointed out.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  5. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY TEST OF Ni-Mo/NATURAL ZEOLITE ON PYRIDINE HYDRODENITROGENATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kadarwati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparation, characterization, and catalytic activity test of Ni-Mo/natural zeolite on pyridine hydrodenitrogenation were carried out. Preparation of catalyst was conducted by impregnation method using nickel nitrate hexahydrate and ammonium heptamolibdate precursor as Ni and Mo source respectively. Characterization of catalyst was conducted by using gravimetry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffraction method. Catalytic activity test on pyridine hydrodenitrogenation was carried out by using flow system reactor with hydrogen flow rate variable. The research results showed that the catalyst's total acidity and crystallinity are increased with level of impregnation success of 96.71% and 90.08% respectively. Ni-Mo/natural zeolites able to increase the catalytic conversion up to 71.78% at 350 °C and hydrogen flow rate of 10 mL/min with more highly varied product distribution. Assuming that the pyridine hydrodenitrogenation follows the pseudo first order kinetics.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of NaOCl and chlorhexidine using a contact test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassone Luciana Moura

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the in vitro antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (1% and 5% and chlorhexidine (0.12%, 0.5% and 1%. Bacterial samples (ATCC of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were submitted to a contact test. Solutions were evaluated at different time intervals: immediately, 5 min, 15 min, and 30 min after contact and repeated 10 times. The results of the contact test showed that 0.12% chlorhexidine did not eliminate E. faecalis at any time interval, while 0.5% and 1% chlorhexidine and 1% and 5% sodium hypochlorite did. These results permit us to conclude that to obtain better antimicrobial activity, chlorhexidine in a concentration greater than 0.12% should be used.

  7. Usability testing of a monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Weegen S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sanne van der Weegen,1 Renée Verwey,1,2 Huibert J Tange,3 Marieke D Spreeuwenberg,1 Luc P de Witte1,2 1Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands; 2Research Centre Technology in Care, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, the Netherlands; 3Department of General Practice, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands Introduction: A monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity, consisting of an activity sensor, smartphone application (app, and website for patients and their practice nurses, has been developed: the 'It's LiFe!' tool. In this study the usability of the tool was evaluated by technology experts and end users (people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type 2 diabetes, with ages from 40–70 years, to improve the user interfaces and content of the tool. Patients and methods: The study had four phases: 1 a heuristic evaluation with six technology experts; 2 a usability test in a laboratory by five patients; 3 a pilot in real life wherein 20 patients used the tool for 3 months; and 4 a final lab test by five patients. In both lab tests (phases 2 and 4 qualitative data were collected through a thinking-aloud procedure and video recordings, and quantitative data through questions about task complexity, text comprehensiveness, and readability. In addition, the post-study system usability questionnaire (PSSUQ was completed for the app and the website. In the pilot test (phase 3, all patients were interviewed three times and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI was completed. Results: After each phase, improvements were made, mainly to the layout and text. The main improvement was a refresh button for active data synchronization between activity sensor, app, and server

  8. New materials for actively cooled limiters: results of laboratory and in-pile-TEXTOR tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizlik, K.; Hoven, H.; Gotoh, Y.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Thiele, B.; Wallura, E.

    1984-01-01

    Materials for high heat flux components of the first wall in todays plasma facilities are heat resistant Ni- or Fe-base alloys or fine grain graphites with or without coatings. Next generation plasma machines with longer pulse lengths require improved materials for these components, primarily for actively cooled limiters. The following presentation contributes to the choice of those new materials and the investigations and tests of possible candidates. (author)

  9. How to Learn Effectively in Medical School: Test Yourself, Learn Actively, and Repeat in Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced r...

  10. The active straight leg raising test and mobility of the pelvic joints

    OpenAIRE

    Mens, J. M. A.; Vleeming, Andry; Snijders, Chris J.; Stam, Henk J.; Ginai, Abida Z.

    1999-01-01

    Objective signs to assess impairment in patients who are disabled by peripartum pelvic girdle pain hardly exist. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinical test to quantify and qualify disability in these patients. The study examined the relationship between impaired active straight leg raising (ASLR) and mobility of pelvic joints in patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain, focusing on (1) the reduction of impairment of ASLR when the patient was wearing a pelvic belt, and (2) mot...

  11. Impedimetric test for rapid determination of performic acid (PFA) biocidal activity toward Echerichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Lasik; Renata Dobrucka; Piotr Konieczny

    2013-01-01

      Background. Performic acid has recently become available on a commercial scale for potential use in waste-water disinfection and can become an innovative biocide for various purposes in food processing. The aim of our study was: 1) to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of performic acid as high active and non toxic chemical disinfectant against Escherichi coli (hygiene indicator test  microorganism used in industrial micro- biology) and 2) to evaluate the electrical impedanc...

  12. Underground Test Area Activity Communication/Interface Plan, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rehfeldt, Kenneth [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this plan is to provide guidelines for effective communication and interfacing between Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity participants, including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) and its contractors. This plan specifically establishes the following: • UGTA mission, vision, and core values • Roles and responsibilities for key personnel • Communication with stakeholders • Guidance in key interface areas • Communication matrix

  13. Influence of a prolonged fasting and mild activity on routine laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Antončić, Dragana; Ožanić, Doris; Vladilo, Ivana; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Despite the standardization of the phlebotomy procedure, blood analysis is occasionally requested after recommended hours with the excuse that the patient is still fasting. We aimed to examine the influence of prolonged fasting and mild physical activity on routine laboratory tests. The study was conducted on 30 volunteers (27 female) median age 40y (20-59). Blood samples were taken in the morning (7:00-8:00a.m.) and early afternoon (1:00-2:00p.m.) after prolonged fasting and usual daily activities. Serum glucose (GLU), urea, creatinine, triglyceride, uric acid (UA), iron and electrolytes were analyzed on Roche cobas 6000 c501 and complete blood count on Siemens ADVIA 2120i. Statistical significance between the two measurements was tested using paired t-test or Wilcoxon test according to data distribution. Clinical significance was judged against calculated reference change values (RCV). A statistically significant decrease was found for red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), GLU, urea, creatinine, triglycerides and electrolytes, whereas white blood cell count and iron were significantly increased. Judging against desirable bias derived from biological variation, a significant change was found for all the analytes except MCV, platelet count, UA and triglycerides. A clinically significant change was not found for any of the tested analytes when compared to RCV. Prolonged fasting and mild activity will not influence the medical decision for healthy subjects with normal results. Despite the present statistically significant change, the clinically significant change was not shown. However, the study did not include pathological results which have to be interpreted more carefully. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: An fMRI approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachibana Atsumichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT, which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out and continuous (reading dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone. Results Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46 was present only in the KPT. Conclusions Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance.

  15. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Active Skin Antenna with 3D Printing Array Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An active skin antenna with structural load-bearing and electromagnetic functions is usually installed in the structural surface of mobile vehicles such as aircrafts, warships, and high-speed train. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel active skin antenna which consists of an encapsulation shell, antenna skin, and RF and beam control circuits. The antenna skin which consists of the facesheet, honeycomb, array framework, and microstrip antenna elements was designed by using Bayesian optimization, in order to improve the design efficiency. An active skin antenna prototype with 32 microstrip antenna elements was fabricated by using a hybrid manufacturing method. In this method, 3D printing technology was applied to fabricate the array framework, and the different layers were bonded to form the final antenna skin by using traditional composite process. Some experimental testing was conducted, and the testing results validate the feasibility the proposed antenna skin structure. The proposed design and fabrication technique is suitable for the development of conformal load-bearing antenna or smart skin antenna installed in the structural surface of aircraft, warships, and armored vehicles.

  16. Field Test Results from a 10 kW Wind Turbine with Active Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Bychkova, Veronika; Taylor, Keith; Clingman, Dan; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control devices including synthetic jets and dynamic vortex generators were tested on a 10 kW wind turbine at RPI. Previous work has shown that load oscillations caused by dynamic stall could be modified through the use of active flow control by injecting momentum into the flow field near the leading edge of a dynamically pitching model. In this study, this work has been extended to its logical conclusion, field-testing active flow control on a real wind turbine. The blades in the current study have a 0.28m chord and 3.05m span, no twist or taper, and were retrofitted with six synthetic jets on one blade and ten dynamic vortex generators on a second blade. The third blade of this turbine was not modified, in order to serve as a control. Strain gauges were installed on each blade to measure blades' deflection. A simple closed loop control was demonstrated and preliminary results indicate reduced vibrational amplitude. Future testing will be conducted on a larger scale, 600kW machine at NREL, incorporating information collected during this study.

  17. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release

  18. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  19. Effects of neuroleptics displaying antidepressant activity on behavior of rats in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Z; Janus, K

    1985-08-01

    Levomepromazine, thioridazine and cis-chlorprothixene, neuroleptics with antidepressant activity, trans-chlorprothixene, the therapeutically inactive isomer of chlorprothixene, clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, and imipramine, a classical antidepressant, were studied in the forced swimming test in rats after single or chronic administration. Levomepromazine (1.5 mg/kg), clozapine (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 mg/kg) after single administration, 1 hr before the test, shortened the period of the immobility. After chronic administration only imipramine (10 mg/kg orally, twice daily, for 10 days) diminished the immobility. Levomepromazine, thioridazine, cis-chlorprothixene and trans-chlorprothixene (1.5 mg, orally, twice daily, for 10 days), 15-18 hr after the last dose did not influence the immobility, although the behavioral parameters in the open field test were not depressed. It is concluded that the forced swimming test is not a suitable pharmacological model for revealing antidepressant activities of certain neuroleptics that are useful in treating certain forms of human depression.

  20. Testing and evaluation of the properties of various potential materials for immobilizing high activity waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malow, G.; Beran, V.; Lutze, W.

    1980-01-01

    Second joint annual report of the work performed on the testing and evaluation of materials for immobilizing high activity waste under Community contracts. At Marcoule, active block samples containing HAW from the Marcoule reprocessing plant were cast to the specification of five of the six original reference samples and leach tested at ambient temperature. Phosphate glass -bead samples produced by the Gelsenberg/DWK PAMELA process- were included in the test programme at HMI-Berlin and UKAEA Harwell. Leaching tests of inactive samples with leachants of various pH-values, with ionized water and with natural water compositions representative of certain repository conditions (salt, clay and granite) were added to the Harwell programme. The studies of radiation and thermal effects and the investigation of devitrification phenomena, started in 1977, continued, as samples reached annealing times of 2400 h and doses 4 x 10 17 dpg. The results achieved have so far confirmed most of the favourable preliminary assessments of glass based solidification products. At this stage the programme aims primarily at the understanding of physical and chemical phenomena rather that at verification under realistic waste storage and disposal conditions

  1. Non-irritant concentrations and amounts of active ingredient in drug patch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, Delphine; Menetre, Sophie; Waton, Julie; Poreaux, Claire; Barbaud, Annick

    2014-09-01

    Drug patch tests (DPTs) with medicaments suspected of causing an allergic reaction represent a method of diagnostic testing that is low risk; DPTs can reproduce delayed hypersensitivity to drugs, and entail only a moderate re-exposure of patients to potential offending drugs. We assessed the non-irritating concentrations of DPTs and determined the amounts of active ingredient (AI) contained in the drugs used in the tests. The objectives were to assess the non-irritating concentration of DPTs and determine the amounts of active ingredient (AI) contained in the drugs used in the tests. From a retrospective, single-centre study of all patients investigated during a 6-year period with a drug eruption, each potentially responsible drug was tested with the commercially available preparation diluted to 30% in water, petrolatum, or alcohol. Data collection was performed with a customized computer database. For each type of DPT studied, the numbers of positive and negative test results were recorded. The amount of AI contained in the DPT (as a percentage) was then calculated after weighing of each tablet. Of the 5558 DPTs studied, all were non-irritant. The average concentration of AI was 9.8%; 25% of DPTs had an AI concentration of concentration of > 16%. The AI concentration ranged from 0.05% (digoxin) to 30% (paracetamol lyophilisate). These data provide thresholds for the non-irritating concentration of AI of 68 different drugs, and thresholds for the non-irritating dilution for 82 drugs, and will help to standardize DPT methods. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Instilling positive beliefs about disabilities: pilot testing a novel experiential learning activity for rehabilitation students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Arielle M; Pitonyak, Jennifer S; Nelson, Ian K; Matsuda, Patricia N; Kartin, Deborah; Molton, Ivan R

    2018-05-01

    To develop and test a novel impairment simulation activity to teach beginning rehabilitation students how people adapt to physical impairments. Masters of Occupational Therapy students (n = 14) and Doctor of Physical Therapy students (n = 18) completed the study during the first month of their program. Students were randomized to the experimental or control learning activity. Experimental students learned to perform simple tasks while simulating paraplegia and hemiplegia. Control students viewed videos of others completing tasks with these impairments. Before and after the learning activities, all students estimated average self-perceived health, life satisfaction, and depression ratings among people with paraplegia and hemiplegia. Experimental students increased their estimates of self-perceived health, and decreased their estimates of depression rates, among people with paraplegia and hemiplegia after the learning activity. The control activity had no effect on these estimates. Impairment simulation can be an effective way to teach rehabilitation students about the adaptations that people make to physical impairments. Positive impairment simulations should allow students to experience success in completing activities of daily living with impairments. Impairment simulation is complementary to other pedagogical methods, such as simulated clinical encounters using standardized patients. Implication of Rehabilitation It is important for rehabilitation students to learn how people live well with disabilities. Impairment simulations can improve students' assessments of quality of life with disabilities. To be beneficial, impairment simulations must include guided exposure to effective methods for completing daily tasks with disabilities.

  3. Activation calculation and radiation analysis for China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi, E-mail: zchen@ustc.edu.cn; Qiao, Shiji; Jiang, Shuai; Xu, X. George

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Activation calculation was performed using FLUKA for the main components of CFETR. • Radionuclides and radioactive wastes were assessed for CFETR. • The Waste Disposal Ratings (WDR) were assessed for CFETR. - Abstract: The activation calculation and analysis for the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) will play an important role in its system design, maintenance, inspection and assessment of nuclear waste. Using the multi-particle transport code FLUKA and its associated data library, we calculated the radioactivity, specific activity, waste disposal rating from activation products, nuclides in the tritium breeding blanket, shielding layer, vacuum vessel and toroidal field coil (TFC) of CFETR. This paper presents the calculation results including neutron flux, activation products and waste disposal rating after one-year full operation of the CFETR. The findings show that, under the assumption of one-year operation at the 200 MW fusion power, the total radioactivity inventory will be 1.05 × 10{sup 19} Bq at shutdown and 1.03 × 10{sup 17} Bq after ten years. The primary residual nuclide is found to be {sup 55}Fe in ten years after the shutdown. The waste disposal rating (WDR) values are very low (<<1), according to Class C limits, CFETR materials are qualified for shallow land burial. It is shown that CFETR has no serious activation safety issue.

  4. Test, revision, and cross-validation of the Physical Activity Self-Definition Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzierski, Deborah; Morganstein, Mara S

    2009-08-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test an extended version of the Kendzierski, Furr, and Schiavoni (1998) Physical Activity Self-Definition Model. A revised model using data from 622 runners fit the data well. Cross-validation indices supported the revised model, and this model also provided a good fit to data from 397 cyclists. Partial invariance was found across activities. In both samples, perceived commitment and perceived ability had direct effects on self-definition, and perceived wanting, perceived trying, and enjoyment had indirect effects. The contribution of perceived ability to self-definition did not differ across activities. Implications concerning the original model, indirect effects, skill salience, and the role of context in self-definition are discussed.

  5. Detailed measurements and modelling of thermo active components using a room size test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    measurements in an office sized test facility with thermo active ceiling and floor as well as modelling of similar conditions in a computer program designed for analysis of building integrated heating and cooling systems. A method for characterizing the cooling capacity of thermo active components is described...... based on measurements of the energy balance of the thermo active deck. A cooling capacity of around 60W/m² at a temperature difference of 10K between room and fluid temperature has been found. It is also shown, that installing a lowered acoustic ceiling covering around 50% of the ceiling surface area...... only causes a reduction in the cooling capacity of around 10%. At the same time, the simulation model is able to reproduce the results from the measurements. Especially the heat flows are well predicted with a deviation of only a few percent, while the temperatures are not as well predicted, though...

  6. Test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test for the shoulder and hip joints by unskilled examiners using a manual goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test using a manual goniometer by unskilled examiners. [Subjects and Methods] Active range of motion was measured in 30 students attending U university (4 males, 26 females). Range of motion during flexion and extension of the shoulder and hip joints were measured using a manual goniometer. [Results] Flexion and extension of the shoulder joint (ICC=0.906 and ICC=0.808) and (ICC=0.946 and ICC=0. 955) of the hip joint showed excellent reliabilities. [Conclusion] The active range of motion test using a manual goniometer showed very high test-retest reliability in unskilled examiners. When examiners are aware of the method of the test, an objective assessment can be conducted.

  7. Is it better to select or to receive? Learning via active and passive hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Douglas B; Gureckis, Todd M

    2014-02-01

    People can test hypotheses through either selection or reception. In a selection task, the learner actively chooses observations to test his or her beliefs, whereas in reception tasks data are passively encountered. People routinely use both forms of testing in everyday life, but the critical psychological differences between selection and reception learning remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that selection learning improves learning performance by enhancing generic cognitive processes related to motivation, attention, and engagement. Alternatively, we suggest that differences between these 2 learning modes derives from a hypothesis-dependent sampling bias that is introduced when a person collects data to test his or her own individual hypothesis. Drawing on influential models of sequential hypothesis-testing behavior, we show that such a bias (a) can lead to the collection of data that facilitates learning compared with reception learning and (b) can be more effective than observing the selections of another person. We then report a novel experiment based on a popular category learning paradigm that compares reception and selection learning. We additionally compare selection learners to a set of "yoked" participants who viewed the exact same sequence of observations under reception conditions. The results revealed systematic differences in performance that depended on the learner's role in collecting information and the abstract structure of the problem.

  8. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  9. Perceived characteristics of the environment associated with active travel: development and testing of a new scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutrie Nanette

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental characteristics may be associated with patterns of physical activity. However, the development of instruments to measure perceived characteristics of the local environment is still at a comparatively early stage, and published instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings. We therefore developed and established the test-retest reliability of a new scale for use in a study of the correlates of active travel and overall physical activity in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland. Methods We developed and piloted a 14-item scale based on seven constructs identified from the literature (aesthetics, green space, access to amenities, convenience of routes, traffic, road safety and personal safety. We administered the scale to all participants in a random postal survey (n = 1322 and readministered the scale to a subset of original respondents (n = 125 six months later. We used principal components analysis and Varimax rotation to identify three principal components (factors and derived summary scores for subscales based on these factors. We examined the internal consistency of these subscales using Cronbach's alpha and examined the test-retest reliability of the individual items, the subscale summary scores and an overall summary neighbourhood score using a combination of correlation coefficients and Cohen's kappa with and without weighting. Results Public transport and proximity to shops were the items most likely to be rated positively, whereas traffic volume, traffic noise and road safety for cyclists were most likely to be rated negatively. Three principal components – 'safe and pleasant surroundings', 'low traffic' and 'convenience for walking' – together explained 45% of the total variance. The test-retest reliability of individual items was comparable with that of items in other published scales (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs 0.34–0.70; weighted Cohen

  10. Decarboxylase activity test of the genus Enterococcus isolated from goat milk and cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Kalhotka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic alkalic substances with a biological impact on live organisms. They may cause serious problems to sensitive persons in combination with some medicaments or in case of higher intake. They are present in non-fermented food, usually coming from contaminating microflora, and especially in fermented food where biogenic amines might be produced by microbiota used for procedure. The genus Enterococcus spp. can occur in cheese because their resistance to pasteurizing temperatures is much higher compared to other mesophilic microorganisms. Previous studies have targeted the occurrence and problems of enterococci isolated from cow and sheep milk. The aim of this study was to detect decarboxylase activity of enterococci isolated from goat milk and cheese and to see how the particular temperatures involve decarboxylase activity using a rapid and inexpensive screening method. In this study, bacteria Enterococcus faecium, E. mundtii, E. durans were isolated from 9 samples of goat milk and cheeses. Colonies of bacteria were inoculated on diagnostic medium fortified with amino acids (lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, histidine, tyrosine and tryptophan and acidity indicator. Changes in colour detected decarboxylase activity of enterococci. The only positive reactions were determined in samples containing arginine and tyrosine. Cultivation of bacteria was confirmed by PCR. All of the tested microorganisms showed significant activity of tyrosindecarboxylase and arginindecarboxylase which was regulated by temperature and influenced by duration of cultivation. The test of decarboxylase activity using colour changes is suitable for a relatively rapid and inexpensive detection of microorganisms that are able to produce biogenic amines.

  11. Basic Characteristics of Human Erroneous Actions during Test and Maintenance Activities Leading to Unplanned Reactor Trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Test and maintenance (T and M) activities of nuclear power plants are essential for sustaining the safety of a power plant and maintaining the reliability of plant systems and components. However, the potential of human errors during T and M activities has also the potential to induce unplanned reactor trips or power derate or making safety-related systems unavailable. According to the major incident/accident reports of nuclear power plants in Korea, contribution of human errors takes up about 20% of the total events. The previous study presents that most of human-related unplanned reactor trip events during normal power operation are associated with T and M activities (63%), which are comprised of plant maintenance activities such as a 'periodic preventive maintenance (PPM)', a 'planned maintenance (PM)' and a 'corrective maintenance (CM)'. This means that T and M activities should be a major subject for reducing the frequency of human-related unplanned reactor trips. This paper aims to introduce basic characteristics of human erroneous actions involved in the test and maintenance-induced unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants. The basic characteristics are described by dividing human erroneous actions into planning-based errors and execution-based errors. For the events associated with planning failures, they are, firstly, classified according to existence of the work procedure and then described for what aspects of the procedure or work plan have deficiency or problem. On the other hand, for the events associated with execution failures, they are described from the aspect of external error modes

  12. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Diabetes Caregiver Activity and Support Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Lisa J; Bakas, Tamilyn; Miller, Wendy R; McLennon, Susan M; Huber, Lesa L; Hull, Margie A

    2017-10-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically test the Diabetes Caregiver Activity and Support Scale (D-CASS), a measure of how difficult or easy caregiver activity and supportive behaviors are for family caregivers of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and construct validity were examined in 101 family caregivers of persons with T2DM. Participants were recruited using study brochures distributed at a large hospital in the Midwest and at statewide American Indian Pow Wows. Additionally, study brochures were available via a link on Facebook. Data collection occurred by telephone, face-to-face, or through Facebook using measures with evidence of reliability and validity. Family caregivers were predominately female (82.2%), spouses (50.2%), and American Indian (17%), African American (24%), or white (55%). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and psychometric analyses. Results The psychometric analyses resulted in an 11-item D-CASS with evidence of internal consistency reliability (alpha = .82) and test-retest reliability. Evidence of construct validity was obtained using 3 hierarchical multiple regressions guided by a conceptual model. Factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the D-CASS. Conclusion The 11-item D-CASS is a brief and easy to administer instrument that has evidence of reliability and validity in family caregivers of persons with T2DM.

  13. Characterization of biological activity of cigarette smoke using in vitro tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Chen, B.T.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the influence of exposure mode (whole-body continuous, nose only intermittent, nose-only continuous) on biological activity of cigarette smoke condensates. The mutagenic potency of the extracts was determined using Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA-98 with and without the addition of S-9. The cytotoxicity of the cigarette smoke with and without the addition of S-9 was also determined using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). Mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames test only after the addition of S-9. The optimum mutagenic activity was observed following addition of between 3 and 6% S-9. The average mutagenic potency, when cells were tested at the optimum level of S-9, was 1.5 revertants/mg extract. Cell killing by cigarette smoke extracts was the same for extracts derived from all three exposure modes. There was about 20% cell killing at concentrations of 300 mg extract/mL culture media. No differences were observed in either mutagenic or cytotoxic potency among the smoke extracts produced under different exposure conditions. (author)

  14. A new framework for the interpretation of IgE sensitization tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Ollert, M; Aalberse, R; Austin, M; Custovic, A; DunnGalvin, A; Eigenmann, P A; Fassio, F; Grattan, C; Hellings, P; Hourihane, J; Knol, E; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N; Santos, A F; Schnadt, S; Tzeli, K

    2016-11-01

    IgE sensitization tests, such as skin prick testing and serum-specific IgE, have been used to diagnose IgE-mediated clinical allergy for many years. Their prime drawback is that they detect sensitization which is only loosely related to clinical allergy. Many patients therefore require provocation tests to make a definitive diagnosis; these are often expensive and potentially associated with severe reactions. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be semi-quantified from an IgE sensitization test results. This relationship varies though according to the patients' age, ethnicity, nature of the putative allergic reaction and coexisting clinical diseases such as eczema. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be more precisely estimated from an IgE sensitization test result, by taking into account the patient's presenting features (pretest probability). The presence of each of these patient-specific factors may mean that a patient is more or less likely to have clinical allergy with a given test result (post-test probability). We present two approaches to include pretest probabilities in the interpretation of results. These approaches are currently limited by a lack of data to allow us to derive pretest probabilities for diverse setting, regions and allergens. Also, cofactors, such as exercise, may be necessary for exposure to an allergen to result in an allergic reaction in specific IgE-positive patients. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy is now being aided by the introduction of allergen component testing which may identify clinically relevant sensitization. Other approaches are in development with basophil activation testing being closest to clinical application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pilot Study on the Genetic Background of an Active Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 Test in Finnish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Raivisto, Teija; Kettunen, Kaisa; Kovanen, Leena; Haukka, Jari; Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Elg, Jessica; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2017-05-01

    In periodontitis, genetics and smoking play important roles in host immune system response. The aim of this study is to determine whether the genetic background of initial periodontitis and caries could be detected using an active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 chairside test in Finnish adolescents. Forty-seven participants gave approval for analysis of both oral fluid collection and DNA. An aMMP-8 chairside test was performed on participants (adolescents aged 15 to 17 years), and full-mouth clinical parameters of oral health were assessed including periodontal, oral mucosal, and caries status in Eastern Finland from 2014 to 2015. DNA was extracted from oral fluid samples and genotyped for 71 polymorphisms in 29 candidate genes for periodontitis. Results were analyzed using a logistic regression model. P values were corrected for multiple testing using false discovery rate (<0.05). aMMP-8 chairside test positivity and three or more ≥4 mm pockets were associated with vitamin D receptor (VDR) (rs2228570, P = 0.002, q = 0.04) and MMP3 (rs520540, rs639752, rs679620, P = 0.0009, 0.003, 0.003, q = 0.04, respectively). None of the other single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied showed a significant association with the aMMP-8 chairside test and at least one caries lesion positivity. Genetic polymorphisms of MMP3 and VDR are linked to initial periodontitis in Finnish adolescents, and the aMMP-8 chairside test can eventually detect initial periodontitis in young patients with predisposing genetic background.

  16. Active thermal tracer testing in a shallow aquifer of the Thur valley, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweingruber, Mischa; Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests are one of the standard methods for investigating groundwater processes. Among the range of different test variants, using heat as a tracer has gained substantial interest during the last decade. Temperature measurements have become essential ingredients for example for characterization of river-aquifer interactions and in the field of geothermics. Much less attention than on natural temperature signals has been devoted to induced synthetic temperature signals, even though it is well known that temperature is an easy to measure, invisible but sensitive system property. Design, application and inversion of such active thermal tracer tests represent one focus of our work. We build up on the experience from related field experiments, where heated water was injected and the propagation of the generated thermal anomaly was monitored. In this presentation, we show the results from first field-testing in an alluvial aquifer at the Widen site in the Thur valley in Switzerland. The thermal evolution of groundwater was monitored in summer 2014 during and after several days of heated water injection. By this test, we want to derive insights into the prevailing hydraulic heterogeneity of the shallow aquifer at the site. The results are used for calibration of a two dimensional hydrogeological numerical model. With the calibrated hydraulic conductivity field, the experiment is simulated and the transient evolution of the heat plume is visualized. Hydraulic heterogeneity is identified as one main factor for lateral spreading of the heat plume. The most important result of the experiment is that the significance of the ambient flow field is very high and even with high pumping rates to establish forced gradient conditions its effect cannot be overridden. During the test, precious technical experience was gained, which will be beneficial for subsequent heat tracer applications. For example, the challenge of maintaining a constant injection rate and temperature could

  17. ASTM and VAMAS activities in titanium matrix composites test methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.; Harmon, D. M.; Bartolotta, P. A.; Russ, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium matrix composites (TMC's) are being considered for a number of aerospace applications ranging from high performance engine components to airframe structures in areas that require high stiffness to weight ratios at temperatures up to 400 C. TMC's exhibit unique mechanical behavior due to fiber-matrix interface failures, matrix cracks bridged by fibers, thermo-viscoplastic behavior of the matrix at elevated temperatures, and the development of significant thermal residual stresses in the composite due to fabrication. Standard testing methodology must be developed to reflect the uniqueness of this type of material systems. The purpose of this paper is to review the current activities in ASTM and Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) that are directed toward the development of standard test methodology for titanium matrix composites.

  18. Inhibition of enzyme activity by nanomaterials: potential mechanisms and implications for nanotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccormack, Tyson J; Clark, Rhett J; Dang, Michael K M; Ma, Guibin; Kelly, Joel A; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Goss, Greg G

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether nanoparticle-exposure affects enzyme function and to determine the mechanisms responsible. Silicon, Au, and CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized in house and their physicochemical properties were characterized. The activity of purified lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was inhibited or abolished by all nanoparticles tested. Inhibition was dependent upon particle core and surface-functional group composition. Inhibition of LDH was absent in crude tissue homogenates, in the presence of albumin, and at the isoelectric point of the protein, indicating that nanoparticles bind non-specifically to abundant proteins via a charge interaction. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggests that the structure of LDH may be altered by nanoparticles in a manner different from that of bulk controls. We present new data on the specific physicochemical properties of nanoparticles that may lead to bioactivity and highlight a number of potentially serious problems with common nanotoxicity testing methods.

  19. Comparative antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin tested against Campylobacter jejuni including fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C L; Erwin, M E; Barrett, M S; Jones, R N

    1999-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, as well as other disease states such as meningitis and septic arthritis. In this study, the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) results were compared to a reference agar dilution method using gatifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone. A total of 53 strains of C. jejuni initially isolated from patients in California and Mexico were tested. Results demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.88) between the two utilized in vitro dilution methods. In addition, gatifloxacin activity was compared to that of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole using the Etest. Gatifloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) was approximately eight- to 16-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (Mic90, > 32 micrograms/ml), a commonly used fluoroquinolone for Campylobacter infections. Eight strains highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, > 32 micrograms/ml) were tested for cross resistance against the newer fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) and the rank order of potency was: gatifloxacin (MIC50, 16 micrograms/ml) > trovafloxacin = levofloxacin (MIC50, > 32 micrograms/mL). However, only 25% ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were inhibited by < or = 1 microgram/mL of gatifloxacin or trovafloxacin. These results for gatifloxacin against C. jejuni strains must be further assessed in the context of in vivo trials before the clinical role of this new fluoroquinolone can be determined. The Etest appears to be a simple and precise susceptibility test method for testing C. jejuni isolates against fluoroquinolones and other alternative therapeutic agents.

  20. Thermal fatigue tests with actively cooled divertor mock-ups for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B.; Ibbott, C.; Jacobson, D.; Le Marois, G.; Lind, A.; Lorenzetto, P.; Vieider, G.; Peacock, A.; Ploechl, L.; Severi, Y.; Visca, E.

    1998-01-01

    Mock-ups for high heat flux components with beryllium and CFC armour materials have been tested by means of the electron beam facility JUDITH. The experiments concerned screening tests to evaluate heat removal efficiency and thermal fatigue tests. CFC monoblocks attached to DS-Cu (Glidcop Al25) and CuCrZr tubes by active metal casting and Ti brazing showed the best thermal fatigue behaviour. They survived more than 1000 cycles at heat loads up to 25 MW m -2 without any indication of failure. Operational limits are given only by the surface temperature on the CFC tiles. Most of the beryllium mock-ups were of the flat tile type. Joining techniques were brazing, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding. HIPed and diffusion bonded Be/Cu modules have not yet reached the standards for application in high heat flux components. The limit of this production method is reached for heat loads of approximately 5 MW m -2 . Brazing with and without silver seems to be a more robust solution. A flat tile mock-up with CuMnSnCe braze was loaded at 5.4 MW m -2 for 1000 cycles without damage The first test with a beryllium monoblock joined to a CuCrZr tube by means of Incusil brazing shows promising results; it survived 1000 cycles at 4.5 MW m -2 without failure. (orig.)

  1. 77 FR 60679 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Navy Training and Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... use of active acoustics and underwater detonations. These non-impulsive (sonar) and impulsive... some of the marine mammals present within the Study Area to sound from active sonar, underwater... Command (SPAWAR) testing; and Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) testing...

  2. Development and vulnerability of rat brain and testes reflected by parameters for apoptosis and ornithine decarboxylase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Dalgaard, Majken; Ladefoged, Ole

    2002-01-01

    in development where these processes may be particularly vulnerable to chemicals. We describe reference data on apoptosis and ODC activity in brain and testes. Methods: Brain and testes specimens were obtained during gestational days (G) 15 to 21 and on postnatal days (P) I to 60, and ODC activity and parameters...

  3. A Comparative Energetic Analysis of Active and Passive Emission Control Systems Adopting Standard Emission Test Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Algieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at analysing and comparing the thermal performances of active and passive aftertreatment systems. A one-dimensional transient model has been developed in order to evaluate the heat exchange between the solid and the exhaust gas and to estimate the energy effectiveness of the apparatus. Furthermore, the effect of the engine operating conditions on the performances of emission control systems has been investigated considering standard emission test cycles. The analysis has demonstrated that the active flow control presents the higher thermal inertia and it appears more suitable to maintain the converter initial temperature level for a longer time after variations in engine load. Conversely, the traditional passive flow control is preferable when rapid “cooling” or “heating” of the solid phase is requested. Moreover, the investigation has highlighted the significant influence of the cycle time and converter length on the energetic performances of the aftertreatment apparatus.

  4. Testing FLUKA on neutron activation of Si and Ge at nuclear research reactor using gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazo, J.; Rojas, J. M.; Best, S.; Bruna, R.; Endress, E.; Mendoza, P.; Poma, V.; Gago, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    Samples of two characteristic semiconductor sensor materials, silicon and germanium, have been irradiated with neutrons produced at the RP-10 Nuclear Research Reactor at 4.5 MW. Their radionuclides photon spectra have been measured with high resolution gamma spectroscopy, quantifying four radioisotopes (28Al, 29Al for Si and 75Ge and 77Ge for Ge). We have compared the radionuclides production and their emission spectrum data with Monte Carlo simulation results from FLUKA. Thus we have tested FLUKA's low energy neutron library (ENDF/B-VIIR) and decay photon scoring with respect to the activation of these semiconductors. We conclude that FLUKA is capable of predicting relative photon peak amplitudes, with gamma intensities greater than 1%, of produced radionuclides with an average uncertainty of 13%. This work allows us to estimate the corresponding systematic error on neutron activation simulation studies of these sensor materials.

  5. Active and realistic passive marijuana exposure tested by three immunoassays and GC/MS in urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mule, S.J.; Lomax, P.; Gross, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation.

  6. How to learn effectively in medical school: test yourself, learn actively, and repeat in intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge.

  7. Active and realistic passive marijuana exposure tested by three immunoassays and GC/MS in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mule, S.J.; Lomax, P.; Gross, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation

  8. Tests of monolithic active pixel sensors at national synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: deptuch@ieee.org; Besson, A. [IPHC, CNRS-IN2P3/ULP, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France); Carini, G.A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Siddons, D.P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Szelezniak, M. [IPHC, CNRS-IN2P3/ULP, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France); Winter, M. [IPHC, CNRS-IN2P3/ULP, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France)

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses basic characterization of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) carried out at the X12A beam-line at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Upton, NY, USA. The tested device was a MIMOSA V (MV) chip, back-thinned down to the epitaxial layer. This 1M pixels device features a pixel size of 17x17{mu}m{sup 2} and was designed in a 0.6{mu}m CMOS process. The X-ray beam energies used range from 5 to 12keV. Examples of direct X-ray imaging capabilities are presented.

  9. Development and preliminary testing of a computerized Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peter, Wf; Loos, M; de Vet, Hcw

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ), based on video animations, for assessing activity limitations in patients with hip/knee osteoarthritis (OA), which combines the advantages of self-reported questionnaires and performance-based tests, without many of their limitations...... correlations with performance-based tests (Stair Climbing Test , Timed Up and Go test, 30 second Chair Stand Test ) were calculated. Results 17 basic daily activities were chosen for the AAQ. Video animations were made showing a person performing each activity with 3 to 5 different levels of difficulty......, and to preliminary assess its reliability and validity. We hypothesize that the AAQ correlates highly with performance-based tests, and moderately with self-reports. Methods Item selection was based on 1) the pilot AAQ; 2) pre-specified conditions; 3) the International Classification of Functioning core set for OA...

  10. Reproducibility and criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test and toe touch test for estimating hamstring flexibility in recreationally active young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; Sainz de Baranda, P; De Ste Croix, M; Santonja, F

    2012-11-01

    1) to examine the test-retest reproducibility and criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test (SRT) and the toe touch test (TT) for estimating hamstring flexibility measured through the passive straight leg raise test (PSLR); and 2) to determine whether the SRT cut-off scores may be used for the TT test to identify participants in this sample of young healthy adults as having short hamstring flexibility. Test-retest design. Controlled laboratory environment. 243 active recreationally young adults. Participants performed the SRT, the TT test and PSLR twice in a randomized order with a 4-week interval between trials. Reproducibility was examined using typical percentage error (coefficient of variation [CV]) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as well as their respective confidence limits. Regression and Kappa correlation statistical analyses were performed to study the association of the SRT and TT test with the PSLR test and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between SRT and TT test were calculated to explore differences in the mean differences between these measurements. The finding showed acceptable reproducibility measures for SRT (8.74% CV; 0.92 ICC), TT test (9.86% CV; 0.89 ICC) and PSLR (5.46% CV; 0.85 ICC). The SRT (R² = 0.63) and TT test (R² = 0.49) were significantly associated with PSLR. The 95% LoA between SRT and TT test reported systematic bias (2.84 cm) and wide 95% random error (±9.72 cm). Reproducibility of SRT, TT test and PSLR is acceptable and the criterion-related validity of SRT and TT test is moderate. Furthermore, the SRT cut-off scores should not be used for TT test for the detection of short hamstring muscles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Meroditerpenoids Isolated from the Brown Alga Stypopodium flabelliforme against Several Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valentao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea constitutes one of the most promising sources of novel compounds with potential application in human therapeutics. In particular, algae have proved to be an interesting source of new bioactive compounds. In this work, six meroditerpenoids (epitaondiol, epitaondiol diacetate, epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate, 14-ketostypodiol diacetate and stypodiol isolated from the brown alga Stypopodium flabelliforme were tested for their cell proliferation inhibitory activity in five cell lines. Cell lines tested included human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3, murine macrophages (RAW.267 and Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus. Overall, the compounds showed good activity against all cell lines, with SH-SY5Y and RAW.267 being the most susceptible. Antimicrobial capacity was observed for epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate and stypodiol, with the first being the most active. The results suggest that these molecules deserve further studies in order to evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents.

  12. Structure-activity relationships for chloro- and nitrophenol toxicity in the pollen tube growth test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueuermann, G. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology; Somashekar, R.K. [Bangalore Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kristen, U. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik

    1996-10-01

    Acute toxicity of 10 chlorophenols and 10 nitrophenols with identical substitution patterns is analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. Concentration values of 50% growth inhibition (IC50) between 0.1 and 300 mg/L indicate that the absolute sensitivity of this alternative biotest is comparable to conventional aquatic test systems. Analysis of quantitative structure-activity relationships using lipophilicity (log K{sub ow}), acidity (pK{sub a}), and quantum chemical parameters to model intrinsic acidity, solvation interactions, and nucleophilicity reveals substantial differences between the intraseries trends of log IC50. With chlorophenols, a narcotic-type relationship is derived, which, however, shows marked differences in slope and intercept when compared to reference regression equations for polar narcosis. Regression analysis of nitrophenol toxicity suggests interpretation in terms of two modes of action: oxidative uncoupling activity is associated with a pK{sub a} window from 3.8 to 8.5, and more acidic congeners with diortho-substitution show a transition from uncoupling to a narcotic mode of action with decreasing pK{sub a} and log K{sub ow}. Model calculations for phenol nucleophilicity suggest that differences in the phenol readiness for glucuronic acid conjugation as a major phase-II detoxication pathway have no direct influence on acute PTG toxicity of the compounds.

  13. A novel preterm respiratory mechanics active simulator to test the performances of neonatal pulmonary ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Paolo; Sciuto, Salvatore Andrea; Silvestri, Sergio

    2002-06-01

    A patient active simulator is proposed which is capable of reproducing values of the parameters of pulmonary mechanics of healthy newborns and preterm pathological infants. The implemented prototype is able to: (a) let the operator choose the respiratory pattern, times of apnea, episodes of cough, sobs, etc., (b) continuously regulate and control the parameters characterizing the pulmonary system; and, finally, (c) reproduce the attempt of breathing of a preterm infant. Taking into account both the limitation due to the chosen application field and the preliminary autocalibration phase automatically carried out by the proposed device, accuracy and reliability on the order of 1% is estimated. The previously indicated value has to be considered satisfactory in light of the field of application and the small values of the simulated parameters. Finally, the achieved metrological characteristics allow the described neonatal simulator to be adopted as a reference device to test performances of neonatal ventilators and, more specifically, to measure the time elapsed between the occurrence of a potentially dangerous condition to the patient and the activation of the corresponding alarm of the tested ventilator.

  14. Verification of cardiac mechanics software: benchmark problems and solutions for testing active and passive material behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Sander; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Arens, Sander; Augustin, Christoph M; Baron, Lukas; Blake, Robert; Bradley, Chris; Castro, Sebastian; Crozier, Andrew; Favino, Marco; Fastl, Thomas E; Fritz, Thomas; Gao, Hao; Gizzi, Alessio; Griffith, Boyce E; Hurtado, Daniel E; Krause, Rolf; Luo, Xiaoyu; Nash, Martyn P; Pezzuto, Simone; Plank, Gernot; Rossi, Simone; Ruprecht, Daniel; Seemann, Gunnar; Smith, Nicolas P; Sundnes, Joakim; Rice, J Jeremy; Trayanova, Natalia; Wang, Dafang; Jenny Wang, Zhinuo; Niederer, Steven A

    2015-12-08

    Models of cardiac mechanics are increasingly used to investigate cardiac physiology. These models are characterized by a high level of complexity, including the particular anisotropic material properties of biological tissue and the actively contracting material. A large number of independent simulation codes have been developed, but a consistent way of verifying the accuracy and replicability of simulations is lacking. To aid in the verification of current and future cardiac mechanics solvers, this study provides three benchmark problems for cardiac mechanics. These benchmark problems test the ability to accurately simulate pressure-type forces that depend on the deformed objects geometry, anisotropic and spatially varying material properties similar to those seen in the left ventricle and active contractile forces. The benchmark was solved by 11 different groups to generate consensus solutions, with typical differences in higher-resolution solutions at approximately 0.5%, and consistent results between linear, quadratic and cubic finite elements as well as different approaches to simulating incompressible materials. Online tools and solutions are made available to allow these tests to be effectively used in verification of future cardiac mechanics software.

  15. Results of full scale dry injection tests at MSW-incinerators using a new active absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsvang, K.S.; Helvind, O.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been utilized to reduce the volume of waste to be disposed of. Increasing environmental concerns over the potential air pollution impacts have led to emission limits for pollutants such as HCl, SO 2 , particulate, and more recently also for mercury and dioxins. For a certain size of incinerators, dry sorbent injection is the preferred technology for air pollution control. This paper describes the development of a new active sorbent, Scansorb, which is particularly suited for use in dry injection processes. The new sorbent is a lime based product with adjustable properties. Scansorb can be produced with a specific surface area of 30 to 100 m 2 /g. Pilot plant development work has shown that a considerable reduction in the absorbent quantity can be achieved when Scansorb is used instead of commercial hydrated lime. Full scale tests performed at four different MSW incinerators have confirmed the viability of the new active absorbent. The full scale tests have demonstrated that more than 50% SO 2 removal can be achieved with Scansorb at quantities much less than with commercial hydrated lime

  16. Muscle activation patterns related to diabetic neuropathy in elderly subjects: A Functional Reach Test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranesi, E; Di Nardo, F; Rabini, R A; Ghetti, G G; Burattini, L; Mercante, O; Fioretti, S

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to assess, in healthy elderly, non-neuropathic and neuropathic diabetic subjects, the activation patterns of the main muscles involved in the Functional Reach Test, a well-recognized method to identify elderly subjects at risk of balance impairments. Surface electromyographic analysis of Sternocleidomastoideus, Rectus Abdominis, Erectores Spinae at L4 level, Rectus Femoris, Hamstrings, Tibialis Anterior and Soleus was performed in 10 healthy, 10 diabetic non-neuropathic and 10 diabetic neuropathic subjects. Results showed that in every group the first motor is Tibialis Anterior, that is recruited before the start of the test. An earlier activation of Tibialis Anterior (Pmovement timing and to compensate for the delay in the recruitment of the motor units. This anticipation might be involved in the altered postural control with increased balance impairment detected in diabetic neuropathic patients, and thereby it might also be proposed as an index of neuropathy, evidenced in a simple and non-invasive manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design and Testing of an Active Heat Rejection Radiator with Digital Turn-Down Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Eric; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Miller, Jennifer; Berisford, Daniel; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    NASA's proposed lunar lander, Altair, will be exposed to vastly different external environment temperatures. The challenges to the active thermal control system (ATCS) are compounded by unfavorable transients in the internal waste heat dissipation profile: the lowest heat load occurs in the coldest environment while peak loads coincide with the warmest environment. The current baseline for this fluid is a 50/50 inhibited propylene glycol/water mixture with a freeze temperature around -35 C. While the overall size of the radiator's heat rejection area is dictated by the worst case hot scenario, a turn-down feature is necessary to tolerate the worst case cold scenario. A radiator with digital turn-down capability is being designed as a robust means to maintain cabin environment and equipment temperatures while minimizing mass and power consumption. It utilizes active valving to isolate and render ineffective any number of parallel flow tubes which span across the ATCS radiator. Several options were assessed in a trade-study to accommodate flow tube isolation and how to deal with the stagnant fluid that would otherwise remain in the tube. Bread-board environmental tests were conducted for options to drain the fluid from a turned-down leg as well an option to allow a leg to freeze/thaw. Each drain option involved a positive displacement gear pump with different methods of providing a pressure head to feed it. Test results showed that a start-up heater used to generate vapor at the tube inlet held the most promise for tube evacuation. Based on these test results and conclusions drawn from the trade-study, a full-scale radiator design is being worked for the Altair mission profile.

  18. Survey of active and inactive mines for possible use as in situ test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    A survey of active and inactive mines which might be useful for radioactive waste storage in situ test experiments was conducted. It was performed for Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Office of Waste Isolation. The report covers available information gathered from literature, U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Mining Enforcement and Safety Agency, and a limited number of personal contacts with constructors or operators of facilities. This survey is preliminary in nature and the objective is to develop potential candidate facilities for in situ experiments which warrant further investigation. Included are descriptions of 244 facilities, with all the data about each one which was available within the time restraint of the study. These facility descriptions are additionally indexed by depth of mine, nature of the country rock, mineral mined, and type of entry. A total of 14 inactive mines and 34 active mines has been selected as those most worthy of further investigation for possible service as nuclear waste isolation test facilities. This investigation, being preliminary and having been performed in a very short time period, must be qualified, and the description of the qualification is presented in the body of this report. Qualifications deal primarily with the hazard of having omitted facilities and having incomplete data in some instances. Results indicate sedimentary rock mines of minerals of evaporite origin as a first ranking of preference for in situ testing, followed by other sedimentary rocks and then by mines producing minerals from any type rock where the mine is above the local water table. These are general rules and of course there can be exceptions to them

  19. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  20. A Six-DOF Buoyancy Tank Microgravity Test Bed with Active Drag Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chong; Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Jianping; Zhu, Zhanxia

    2017-10-01

    Ground experiment under microgravity is very essential because it can verify the space enabling technologies before applied in space missions. In this paper, a novel ground experiment system that can provide long duration, large scale and high microgravity level for the six degree of freedom (DOF) spacecraft trajectory tracking is presented. In which, the most gravity of the test body is balanced by the buoyancy, and the small residual gravity is offset by the electromagnetic force. Because the electromagnetic force on the test body can be adjusted in the electromagnetic system, it can significantly simplify the balancing process using the proposed microgravity test bed compared to the neutral buoyance system. Besides, a novel compensation control system based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method is developed to estimate and compensate the water resistance online, in order to improve the fidelity of the ground experiment. A six-DOF trajectory tracking in the microgravity system is applied to testify the efficiency of the proposed compensation controller, and the experimental simulation results are compared to that obtained using the classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method. The simulation results demonstrated that, for the six-DOF motion ground experiment, the microgravity level can reach to 5 × 10-4 g. And, because the water resistance has been estimated and compensated, the performance of the presented controller is much better than the PID controller. The presented ground microgravity system can be applied in on-orbit service and other related technologies in future.

  1. Naproxen degradation test to monitor Trametes versicolor activity in solid-state bioremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria

    2010-07-15

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor has been studied as a potential agent for the removal of environmental pollutants. For long-time solid-phase bioremediation systems a test is required to monitor the metabolic status of T. versicolor and its degradation capability at different stages. A biodegradation test based on the percentage of degradation of a spiked model pharmaceutical (anti-inflammatory naproxen) in 24 h (ND24) is proposed to monitor the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage sludge. ND24 is intended to act as a test complementary to ergosterol quantification as specific fungal biomarker, and laccase activity as extracellular oxidative capacity of T. versicolor. For samples collected over 45 d, ND24 values did not necessarily correlate with ergosterol or laccase amounts but in most cases, they were over 30% degradation, indicating that T. versicolor may be suitable for bioremediation of sewage sludge in the studied period. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of a New Integrated Structure of the Active Suspension System and Emergency Lane Change Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Liu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Lan-chun; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-09-01

    An integrated structure of the active suspension system was proposed in order to solve the problem of the individual control of the height of the body or the adjustable damping of the active suspension system of the electric vehicle, which improve the vibration reduction performance of the vehicle. The air bag was used to replace the traditional spiral spring, and the traditional shock absorber was replaced by the damping adjustable shock absorber, and the control module received the body acceleration sensor and the horizontal height sensor signal. The system controlled adjustable damping coefficient of shock absorber through the height of the car body the output of the air pump relay and the height control valve and the output of the electromagnetic valve of the adjustable damping shock absorber, and the emergency lane change test was carried out under different modes of speed of 60km/h. The experimental results indicated that the damping value was greater, average roll angle, yaw angle and average vehicle lateral acceleration were small when vehicle body was in the state of emergency lane change, which verified the feasibility of the integrated control strategy and structure design of the active suspension system. The research has important theoretical research value and engineering application prospect for designing and controlling strategy of vehicle chassis integrated control system.

  3. Testing of different data libraries in activation analysis of concrete and graphite from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto, M.; Ancius, D.; Ridikas, D.

    2003-01-01

    With the aging of the nuclear park, decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations after their service life is becoming an important issue for the nuclear industry. The radiological characterisation of the equipment and structures present in the reactor and its environment is an essential stage in a decommissioning project since it permits to define and optimize the decommissioning strategy and the disassembling operations. In addition, correct activation estimates are essential for determining the quantity and the nature of the radiological waste generated during decommissioning. The adoption of efficient dismantling procedures and the optimization of the mass flow going to different waste repositories might reduce substantially the total cost of decommissioning. The present work has been done in the framework of the decommissioning and dismantling of the experimental reactor of the University of Strasbourg (RUS). A methodology that combines theoretical calculations and direct measurements has been developed for determining the long-term induced activity in the graphite, concrete and materials present in the reactor. After characterisation of the different elements present in the reactor, it is then possible to plan efficiently the disassembling and dismantling of the system and to optimise the mass flow going to different waste repositories. From a scientific perspective, the comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental values validates the approach and the methodology used in the present study and tests the consistency and the reliability of the nuclear data used for activation analysis. (orig.)

  4. APPLICATION OF RESPIROMETRIC TESTS FOR ASSESSMENT OF METHANOGENIC BACTERIA ACTIVITY IN WASTEWATER SLUDGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cimochowicz-Rybicka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of a methane-rich gas (‘biogas’ is contemporary popular sludges processing technology which allows to generate thermal and/or electric energy. Formal requirements issued by the European Union to promote so called renewable energy resources made these process more attractive leading to its application in WWTPs which were designed based on different sludge handling processes. Authors (as active design engineers noted that dimensioning sludge digestion chamber is usually based on SRT assessment without any emphasis on sludge characteristics. Bio-mass characteristics and the estimation of its activity with respect to methane production are of great importance, from both scientific and practical points of view, as anaerobic digestion appears to be one of crucial processes in municipal wastewater handling and disposal. The authors propose respirometric tests to estimate a biomass potential to produce ‘a biogas’ and several years’ laboratory and full scale experience proved its usefulness and reliability both as a measurement and a design tool applicable in sludge handling. Dimensioning method proposed by authors, allows to construct and optimize operation of digestion chambers based on a methanogenic activity.

  5. A pilot test of the Latin active hip hop intervention to increase physical activity among low-income Mexican-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a hip hop dance intervention, Latin Active, among low-income Mexican-American adolescents. Mexican-descent adolescents tend to have disproportionate rates of low physical activity, overweight status, and obesity. A 5-week intervention design with pretest and post-test self-report measures. Charter middle school (grades 6-9) health/science classes in a low-income neighborhood were the setting for the Latin Active intervention. Overall, 81 participants were recruited; 73 (n  =  41, female; n  =  32, male) provided active parental consent to complete pretest/post-test surveys. Intervention . The Latin Active program included 10 interactive 50-minute lessons that were delivered twice a week during science/health classes. The curriculum was created on the basis of Social Cognitive Theory, Critical Hip Hop Pedagogy, and feedback from key stakeholders. The lessons focused on increasing physical activity as well as neighborhood barriers. The self-report pretest (n  =  73) and post-test (n  =  56) surveys included measures for frequency of vigorous physical activity, self-efficacy, and neighborhood barriers. Analysis . Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences from pretest to post-test results for intervention outcomes by gender. The Latin Active program (with 77% retention at post-test) significantly increased vigorous physical activity and dance (p girls, and it decreased perception of neighborhood barriers (p girl's vigorous physical activity and boy's perception of neighborhood barriers to physical activity. Future research will need to use a randomized, controlled design and investigate the effect of the program on measures of body mass index.

  6. Medication History versus Point-of-Care Platelet Activity Testing in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B; Naidech, Andrew M; Kim, Minjee; Batra, Ayush; Manno, Edward M; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Liotta, Eric M

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated whether reduced platelet activity detected by point-of-care (POC) testing is a better predictor of hematoma expansion and poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) than a history of antiplatelet medication exposure. Patients presenting with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study that collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data. We measured platelet activity using the PFA-100 (Siemens AG, Germany) and VerifyNow-ASA (Accumetrics, CA) systems on admission. We performed univariate and adjusted multivariate analyses to assess the strength of association between those measures and (1) hematoma growth at 24 hours and (2) functional outcomes measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. We identified 278 patients for analysis (mean age 65 ± 15, median ICH score 1 [interquartile range 0-2]), among whom 164 underwent initial neuroimaging within 6 hours of symptom onset. Univariate association with hematoma growth was stronger for antiplatelet medication history than POC measures, which was confirmed in multivariable models (β 3.64 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-6.26], P = .007), with a larger effect size measured in the under 6-hour subgroup (β 7.20 [95% CI 3.35-11.1], P < .001). Moreover, antiplatelet medication history, but not POC measures of platelet activity, was independently associated with poor outcome at 3 months (mRS 4-6) in the under 6-hour subgroup (adjusted OR 3.6 [95% CI 1.2-11], P = .023). A history of antiplatelet medication use better identifies patients at risk for hematoma growth and poor functional outcomes than POC measures of platelet activity after spontaneous ICH. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and testing of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle tracking, pt. 1

    CERN Document Server

    Deptuch, G; Claus, G; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Goerlach, U; Gomoushkin, Yu; Hu, Y; Husson, D; Orazi, G; Turchetta, R; Riester, J L; Winter, M

    2000-01-01

    A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) for charged particle tracking based on a novel detector structure was proposed, simulated, fabricated and tested. The detector designed accordingly to this idea is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated onto the same, standard for a CMOS process, low- resistivity silicon wafer. The individual pixel is comprised of only 3 MOS transistors and a photodiode collecting the charge created in a thin undepleted epitaxial layer. This approach provides the whole detector surface sensitive to radiation (100% fill factor) with reduced pixel pitch (very high spatial resolution). This yields a low cost, high resolution and thin detecting device. The detailed device simulations using ISE-TCAD package have been carried out in order to study a charge collection mechanism and to validate the proposed idea. Consequently, two prototype chips have been fabricated using 0.6 mu m and 0.35 mu m CMOS processes. Special radiation tolerant layout techniques we...

  8. Identification of a Novel Bcl10 Domain that Contributes to NK-kappaB Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    clearance; granulocytes (e.g. neutrophils, basophils), which release endocytic vesicles containing chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and histamine to...cluster (SMAC). At the SMAC, intracellular signaling molecules can more effectively be recruited to the activated TCR and transduce downstream...Intro-10), such as phosphorylation on Serine138 and its effect on Bcl10 in actin polymerization and T cell spreading [56]. Within the NF-ĸB signal

  9. Development of Simulants to Support Mixing Tests for High Level Waste and Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EIBLING, RUSSELLE.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop two different types of simulants to support vendor agitator design studies and mixing studies. The initial simulant development task was to develop rheologically-bounding physical simulants and the final portion was to develop a nominal chemical simulant which is designed to match, as closely as possible, the actual sludge from a tank. The physical simulants to be developed included a lower and upper rheologically bounded: pretreated low activity waste (LAW) physical simulant; LAW melter feed physical simulant; pretreated high level waste (HLW) physical simulant; HLW melter feed physical simulant. The nominal chemical simulant, hereafter referred to as the HLW Precipitated Hydroxide simulant, is designed to represent the chemical/physical composition of the actual washed and leached sludge sample. The objective was to produce a simulant which matches not only the chemical composition but also the physical properties of the actual waste sample. The HLW Precipitated Hydroxide simulant could then be used for mixing tests to validate mixing, homogeneity and representative sampling and transferring issues. The HLW Precipitated Hydroxide simulant may also be used for integrated nonradioactive testing of the WTP prior to radioactive operation

  10. Performance tests of active personal dosemeter developed by cNRTC/NEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Dogan; Kapdan, Enis; Korkmaz, Muharrem

    2017-01-01

    The Active personal dosemeter (APD) developed by Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center/Nuclear Electronic Laboratory (CNRTC/NEL) was calibrated at the reference radiation quality ( 137 Cs). The performance tests were carried out with 137 Cs, 60 Co and X-ray beam qualities in compliance with the standards of International Organization for Standardization ISO4037-1,3 and The International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC61526:2010. Response of the personal dose equivalent was observed to be within the range from -7.6% to +4.2%. The dose equivalent rates were observed with the maximum deviation -26.8% for 0.1 mSv h -1 and within the range from -2.3% to +10.1% for dose rates over 0.5 mSv h -1 . It is found that the APDs have lower readings up to 50% for 33 keV photons and perform a distribution in the acceptable limits for over 33 keV. Angular dependence was tested at 0 deg., ±30 deg. and ±60 deg. in orthogonal plane and the angular dependence of the APDs is within acceptable limits except N40. (authors)

  11. PERFORMANCE TESTS OF ACTIVE PERSONAL DOSEMETER DEVELOPED BY ÇNRTC/NEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Dogan; Kapdan, Enis; Korkmaz, Muharrem

    2017-11-01

    The Active personal dosemeter (APD) developed by Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center/Nuclear Electronic Laboratory (ÇNRTC/NEL) was calibrated at the reference radiation quality (137Cs). The performance tests were carried out with 137Cs, 60Co and X-ray beam qualities in compliance with the standards of International Organization for Standardization ISO4037-1,3 and The International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC61526:2010. Response of the personal dose equivalent was observed to be within the range from -7.6% to +4.2%. The dose equivalent rates were observed with the maximum deviation -26.8% for 0.1 mSv h-1 and within the range from -2.3% to +10.1% for dose rates over 0.5 mSv h-1. It is found that the APDs have lower readings up to 50% for 33 keV photons and perform a distribution in the acceptable limits for over 33 keV. Angular dependence was tested at 0°, ±30° and ±60° in orthogonal plane and the angular dependence of the APDs is within acceptable limits except N40. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Crucible of Creativity: Testing Public Outreach Activities at the Phoenix Comicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Phoenix Comicon (PCC) is a growing four-day pop culture event that features guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. The 2014 and 2015 shows (which drew 75,000+ unique attendees each) featured a science programming track coordinated and organized by Horodyskyj. The track consisted of discussion panels, mixers, shows, interactive displays, and signature events (over 30 hours of programming each year). Topics ranged from planetary sciences to biotechnology to artificial intelligence and event staff were recruited from all levels of experience in academia, industry, and STEM outreach. The PCC science programming track for both 2014 and 2015 received very positive feedback from the audience, PCC management, and even scientists who participated in the event. Panelists and staff received frequent unsolicited praise about the content and events, and surveys showed requests for more science content in future years. Demand for good science programming, especially the kind that links the audience to local scientists, is high. The unique organizational structure of PCC, which draws heavily on the fan community rather than industry professionals, provides a rich test bed for public outreach activities generated by scientists themselves. In 2014, we tested science-based game shows, such as the bloody Exoplanet Survivor. In 2015, we ran a science interactivity booth and an interactive stage show about forensics based on the BBC series Sherlock. I will detail some of the successes and failures of these various events and what we're planning for 2016.

  13. Interspecific metabolic diversity of root-colonizing endophytic fungi revealed by enzyme activity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Dániel G; Kovács, Gábor M

    2016-12-01

    Although dark septate endophytes (DSE) represent a worldwide dispersed form group of root-colonizing endophytic fungi, our knowledge on their role in ecosystem functioning is far limited. In this study, we aimed to test if functional diversity exists among DSE fungi representing different lineages of root endophytic fungal community of semiarid sandy grasslands. To address this question and to gain general information on function of DSE fungi, we adopted api-ZYM and BioLog FF assays to study those non-sporulating filamentous fungi and characterized the metabolic activity of 15 different DSE species. Although there were striking differences among the species, all of the substrates tested were utilized by the DSE fungi. When endophytes characteristic to grasses and non-grass host plants were separately considered, we found that the whole substrate repertoire was used by both groups. This might illustrate the complementary functional diversity of the communities root endophytic plant-associated fungi. The broad spectra of substrates utilized by these root endophytes illustrate the functional importance of their diversity, which can play role not only in nutrient mobilization and uptake of plants from with nutrient poor soils, but also in general plant performance and ecosystem functioning. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples (i.e., Hoke and SUMMA) will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determine using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step-by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  15. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et a1 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determined using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  16. Core-shell column Tanaka characterization and additional tests using active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jufang Wu; Karlsson, Anders; Kjellberg, Viktor

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, core-shell particles have gained more and more attention in fast liquid chromatography separations due to their comparable performance with fully porous sub-2 μm particles and their significantly lower back pressure. Core-shell particles are made of a solid core surrounded by a shell of classic fully porous material. To embrace the developed core-shell column market and use these columns in pharmaceutical analytical applications, 17 core-shell C 18 columns purchased from various vendors with various dimensions (50 mm × 2.1 mm to 100 mm × 3 mm) and particle sizes (1.6-2.7 μm) were characterized using Tanaka test protocols. Furthermore, four selected active pharmaceutical ingredients were chosen as test probes to investigate the batch to batch reproducibility for core-shell columns of particle size 2.6-2.7 μm, with dimension of 100 × 3 mm and columns of particle size 1.6 μm, with dimension 100 × 2.1 mm under isocratic elution. Columns of particle size 2.6-2.7 μm were also tested under gradient elution conditions. To confirm the claimed comparable efficiency of 2.6 μm core-shell particles as sub-2 μm fully porous particles, column performances of the selected core-shell columns were compared with BEH C 18 , 1.7 μm, a fully porous column material as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. TTC- Based Test as an Efficient Method to Determine Antibiofilm Activity of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojniak Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles are a widely used in various life sectors such as in biomedical applications, air and water purification, food production, cosmetics, garments and in various household products. There are several methods for production of silver nanoparticles. Generally, silver nanoparticles can be prepared by chemical methods such as chemical reduction and electrochemical techniques, physical methods, and biological methods such as the use of microorganisms. The biological route of synthesis provides a great diversity in choice for its raw materials such as bacteria, algae, fungi and plants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the tetrazolium/formazan test as a method to determine antibiofilm activity of biological synthetized silver nanoparticles. In this study Bacillus subtilis grown on brewery effluent and produced biosurfactant was used for silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs synthesis. The culture supernatants were used in synthesis of Ag-NPs. The formation of nanoparticles accompanied by colour changes of the used reaction system was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The bacteria isolated from the biofilm of water supply system were used in the evaluation of the antibiofilm activity of biologically synthetized Ag-NPs. To compare the results the commonly used crystal violet assay (CV for biofilm analysis was applied.

  18. Design and Test of an Event Detector for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinson, Brad J [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  19. Design and Test of an Event Detector and Locator for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinson, Brad J [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive{trademark} Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  20. Sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test does not increase the muscle force generation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2011-06-01

    A positive inotropic action by the sympathetic nervous system on skeletal muscles has been observed and investigated in animal and in vitro studies. This action provided a theoretical basis for the putative ergogenic action of catecholamines and adrenergic agonists, although there is no clear evidence of this effect in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of inotropic effects associated to physiological sympathetic activation in healthy subjects. The muscle force capacity was investigated in the tibialis anterior (n = 9 subjects) and in the soleus (n = 9) muscles electrically stimulated with single pulses and double pulses with variable interspike interval (4-1,000 ms) and short pulse trains (frequency: 5-14 Hz) before, during, and after sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test (CPT). CPT significantly decreased by 10.4 ± 7.2 and 10.6 ± 4.4% the force produced by single and double pulse stimulation, respectively, and produced smaller decreases in the force obtained by train stimulation in the tibialis anterior, while no significant changes were observed in either type of contraction in the soleus muscle. CPT failed to induce any increase in the force capacity of the investigated muscles. The prevalent decrease in force evidenced in this study supports the concept that the weakening sympathetic action on type I fiber, already shown to occur in humans, prevails over the putative potentiating action.

  1. Tigecycline activity tested against antimicrobial resistant surveillance subsets of clinical bacteria collected worldwide (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-06-01

    Tigecycline was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2005 and has generally retained activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. We monitored the in vitro activity of this glycylcycline in 2011 for continued potency worldwide. A total of 22,005 unique clinical isolates were consecutively collected in North America (NA; 9232 isolates), Europe (EU; 6776), Latin America (LA; 2016), and Asia-Pacific region (APAC, 3981) and tested for susceptibility according to the reference broth microdilution method recommendations against tigecycline and numerous comparators. Oxacillin (methicillin) resistance rates in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were 49.3%, 30.2%, 42.9%, and 37.8%, and vancomycin resistance rates in enterococci (VRE) were 27.0%, 11.3%, 6.3%, and 4.0% in NA, EU, LA, and APAC, respectively. All MRSA (2839) and >99% of VRE were susceptible to tigecycline. Among Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates varied from 12.6% in the NA to 57.4% in APAC, and only one strain was nonsusceptible to tigecycline. Tigecycline was active against ESBL phenotype (96.5-98.4% susceptible) and meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. (94.3-100.0% susceptible). Only 4 of 213 (1.9%) meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. were tigecycline-nonsusceptible, all with tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 μg/mL (intermediate). Among ceftazidime-nonsusceptible Enterobacter spp., 94.7-98.2% were susceptible to tigecycline. Meropenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter spp. varied from 51.2% in NA to 80.9% in APAC; and 83.8% (LA) to 93.9% (APAC) of strains were inhibited at a tigecycline MIC of ≤2 μg/mL. Tigecycline showed potent activity against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (89.3-98.3% inhibited at ≤2 μg/mL). In summary, tigecycline has sustained potent activity and a broad-spectrum against clinically important bacteria causing infections worldwide, including multidrug

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of linezolid tested against vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Adriana O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE has been described recently in Brazil. This is in contrast to the USA and Europe, where the VRE appeared in the late 1980s. The progressive increase in VRE isolation poses important problems in the antimicrobial therapy of nosocomial infections. Treatment options and effective antimicrobial agents for VRE are often limited and the possibility of transfer of vancomycin genes to other Gram-positive microorganisms continues. In the search for antimicrobial agents for multiresistant Gram-positive cocci, compounds such as linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro activity of the oxazolidinone linezolid and 10 other antimicrobial agents, including quinupristin-dalfopristin, against multiresistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals. Thirty-three vancomycin resistant isolates (17 Enterococcus faecium and 16 E. faecalis, were analyzed. Strains were isolated from patients at São Paulo Hospital, Oswaldo Cruz Hospital, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, Santa Marcelina Hospital, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and Hospital de Clínicas do Paraná. The samples were tested by a broth microdilution method following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. All isolates were molecular typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Linezolid was the most active compound against these multiresistant enterococci, showing 100% inhibition at the susceptible breakpoints. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and teicoplanin showed poor activity against both species. The molecular typing results suggest that there has been interhospital spread of vancomycin resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis among Brazilian hospitals. The results of this study indicate that linezolid is an appropriate therapeutic option for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections in Brazil.

  3. Muscle activity influence on the kinematics of the cervical spine in frontal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehner, Christoph; Schick, Sylvia; Kraus, Michael; Scola, Alexander; Hell, Wolfram; Kramer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The question of muscle activity influence on the cervical spine kinematics during rear-end and frontal crash events has been discussed. Less data are available concerning frontal collisions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the ventral and dorsal neck muscles on the cervical spine kinematics during simulated frontal sled collisions. A frontal collision with a velocity change (delta V) of 10.2 km/h was simulated in a sled test with 10 healthy subjects (7 female; 3 male). A high-speed camera and accelerometers recorded the motion and acceleration data. The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles was recorded with surface electrodes. To avoid cross-talk, an intramuscular recording of the semispinalis capitis muscles was performed with fine-wire electrodes. The sequence of both muscle activities was reproducible in all subjects. The maximal force of the sternocleidomastoid muscle was observed after a median of 152 ms, with 0 defining the time of the trigger signal. With earlier onset of muscle force, maximal dorsal horizontal acceleration of the head (r = -0.600) was reached later and the ventral translation (r = -0.733) and flexion movement (r = -0.755) set in earlier. The maximal force of the semispinalis capitis muscle was observed after a median of 160 ms. If the duration of muscle force was longer, the maximal head flexion (r = 0.685) and the maximal ventral head translation (r = 0.738) were reached later. The sternocleidomastoid muscle force is mainly associated with the horizontal head acceleration and influences the onset of the flexion and translation motion. To summarize, these temporal correlations allow the conclusion that the semispinalis capitis muscle force is mainly associated with the angular head acceleration and influences the duration of the flexion and translation motion.

  4. Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. Suggestions for leisure time activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter some examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet as well as suggestions for leisure time activities are presented. Used and recommended literature is included.

  5. Muscle Activation and Performance During Trunk Strength Testing in High-Level Female and Male Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    For performance and injury prevention in sport, core strength and endurance are focused prerequisites. Therefore we evaluated characteristics of trunk muscle activation and performance during strength-endurance related trunk field tests. Strength-endurance ability, as total time to failure, and activation of trunk muscles was measured in 39 football players of the highest German female football league (Bundesliga) (N = 18, age: 20.7 y [SD 4.4]) and the highest national male under-19 league (N = 21, age: 17.9 y [0.7]) in prone plank, side plank, and dorsal position. Maximal isometric force was assessed during trunk extension and flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion to normalize EMG and to compare with the results of strength-endurance tests. For all positions of endurance strength tests, a continuous increase in normalized EMG activation was observed (P < .001). Muscle activation of the rectus abdominis and external oblique in prone plank position exceeded the maximal voluntary isometric contraction activation, with a significantly higher activation in females (P = .02). We conclude, that in the applied strength-endurance testing, the activation of trunk muscles was high, especially in females. As high trunk muscle activation can infer fatigue, limb strength can limit performance in prone and side plank position, particularly during high trunk muscle activation.

  6. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  7. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  8. Evaluation of the nitrite and leukocyte esterase activity tests for the diagnosis of acute symptomatic urinary tract infection in men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Nys, S.; Bartelds, A.; Donker, G.; Stobberingh, E.; Verbon, A.

    2007-01-01

    For 422 male patients with symptoms indicative of a urinary tract infection, nitrite and leukocyte esterase activity dipstick test results were compared with results of culture of urine samples. The positive predictive value of a positive nitrite test result was 96%. Addition of results of the

  9. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  10. Hepatitis C testing and treatment among active drug users in Amsterdam: results from the DUTCH-C project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenburg, Catharina E. A.; Lambers, Femke A. E.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Schinkel, Janke; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Krol, Anneke; Casteelen, Gerty; van Santen, Gerrit; van den Berg, Charlotte H. S. B.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Prins, Maria; Weegink, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment has shown to be effective, uptake of treatment among active drug users is still low. The Drug Users Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis-C project aims to offer active drug users in Amsterdam HCV testing and treatment using a multidisciplinary

  11. Studies on the hemolytic activity of tentacle extracts of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye: application of orthogonal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huahua; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Cuiping; Guo, Zhanyong; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-02-20

    The present work is first reporting the hemolytic activity of venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye extracted by different phosphate buffer solutions and incubated at different temperature according to the orthogonal test L6(1) x 3(6). Of the seven controllable independent variables, incubated temperature and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) had strongest effect on the hemolytic activity.

  12. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  13. Development and vulnerability of rat brain and testes reflected by parameters for apoptosis and ornithine decarboxylase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Dalgaard, Majken; Ladefoged, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Awareness of effects of chemicals on brain and sex organs during organogenesis is increasing. Balance between apoptosis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity has an essential role for final structure and function of these organs. It is important to localize stages...... in development where these processes may be particularly vulnerable to chemicals. We describe reference data on apoptosis and ODC activity in brain and testes. Methods: Brain and testes specimens were obtained during gestational days (G) 15 to 21 and on postnatal days (P) I to 60, and ODC activity and parameters...

  14. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers' performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding K d values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding K d values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and K d values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and K d values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine sorption.

  15. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine

  16. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlates with hepatic cytochrome P4503A activity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Olsen, A K; Stentoft, K

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) and tacrolimus may result from differences in the activity of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A). The erythromycin breath test is an in vivo assay of hepatic CYP3A activity......, but the method has never been directly validated. The aim of the study was to investigate whether an early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlated with the hepatic CYP3A protein level and catalytic activity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 18 liver transplant recipients, the erythromycin...... breath test was performed within 2 hours after transplantation. A graft biopsy was obtained during surgery and analyzed for the CYP3A protein level by Western blotting and for CYP3A activity with erythromycin demethylation and testosterone 6beta- hydroxylation assays. RESULTS: The erythromycin breath...

  17. Evaluation of the single-pass flow-through test to support a low-activity waste specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Peeler, D.K.

    1995-09-01

    A series of single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests was performed on five reference low-activity waste glasses and a reference glass from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to support a product specification for low-activity waste (LAW) forms. The results showed that the SPFT test provides a means to quantitatively distinguish among LAW glass forms in terms of their forward reaction rate at a given temperature and solution pH. Two of the test glasses were also subjected to SPFT testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Forward reaction rate constants calculated from the ANL test data were 100 to over 1,000 times larger than the values obtained from the SPFT tests conducted at PNL. An analysis of the ANL results showed that they were inconsistent with independent measurements done on glasses of similar composition, the known pH-dependence of the forward rate, and with the results from low surface-area-to-volume, short duration product consistency tests. Because the data set obtained from the SPFT tests done at PNL was consistent with each of these same factors, a detailed examination of the test procedures used at both laboratories was performed to determine the cause(s) of the discrepancy. The omission of background subtraction in the data analysis procedure and the short-duration (on the order of hours) of the ANL tests are factors that may have significantly affected the calculated rates

  18. Promoting Physical Activity in Low-Active Adolescents via Facebook: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial to Test Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana; Hillman, Charles H; Huhman, Marian; McAuley, Edward

    2014-10-30

    The World Wide Web is an effective method for delivering health behavior programs, yet major limitations remain (eg, cost of development, time and resource requirements, limited interactivity). Social media, however, has the potential to deliver highly customizable and socially interactive behavioral interventions with fewer constraints. Thus, the evaluation of social media as a means to influence health behaviors is warranted. The objective of this trial was to examine and demonstrate the feasibility of using an established social networking platform (ie, Facebook) to deliver an 8 week physical activity intervention to a sample of low-active adolescents (N=21; estimated marginal mean age 13.48 years). Participants were randomized to either an experimental (ie, Behavioral) or attentional control (ie, Informational) condition. Both conditions received access to a restricted-access, study-specific Facebook group where the group's administrator made two daily wall posts containing youth-based physical activity information and resources. Primary outcomes included physical activity as assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Interactions and main effects were examined, as well as mean differences in effect sizes. Analyses revealed significant improvements over time on subjectively reported weekly leisure-time physical activity (F1,18=8.426, P=.009, η2 = .319). However, there was no interaction between time and condition (F1,18=0.002, P=.968, η2 = .000). There were no significant time or interaction effects among the objectively measured physical activity variables. Examination of effect sizes revealed moderate-to-large changes in physical activity outcomes. Results provide initial support for the feasibility of delivery of a physical activity intervention to low-active adolescents via social media. Whether by employing behavioral interventions via social media can result in statistically meaningful changes in health-related behaviors and outcomes remains to be

  19. Design and testing of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Deptuch, G; Claus, G; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Gornushkin, Y; Husson, D; Riester, J L; Winter, M

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) for charged particle tracking based on a novel detector structure has been proposed, simulated, fabricated and tested. This detector is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low- resistivity silicon wafer standard for a CMOS process. The individual pixel is comprised of only three MOS transistors and a photodiode collecting the charge created in the thin undepleted epitaxial layer. This approach provides a low cost, high resolution and thin device with the whole detector area sensitive to radiation (100% fill factor). Detailed device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out in order to study the charge. collection mechanism and to validate the proposed idea. In order to demonstrate viability of the technique, two prototype chips were successively fabricated using 0.6 mu m and 0.35 mu m CMOS processes. Both chips have been fully characterized. The pixel conversion gain has been calibrated using a /sup...

  20. In Vitro Phytochemical And Antibacterial Activity Test On Temu Putih Extract Curcuma Zedoaria Against Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Galang Prakosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila bacterium is one of the bacteria which frequently attack fresh water aquaculture and cause the farmer experience terrible loss. In order to cope with the diseases caused by A. hydrophila bacteria the usage of natural antibacteria was more recommended as it does not give negative effects to the environment. One natural antibacteria which can be used against A. hydrophila is from the white turmeric extract Curcuma zedoaria. The aim of this study is to know the active compound content in white turmeric Curcuma zedoaria to determine the most effective solvent and the effective maceration duration to extract Curcuma zedoaria as antibacteria against Aeromonas hydrophila using disc diffusion method. The study used descriptive and experimental method with treatments to 3 different solvents ethanol ethyl acetate and chloroform and 3 repetitions. The data acquired from the results of the study were then analyzed descriptively. Results showed that Curcuma zedoaria extract from the phytochemical test contained saponins alkaloid and flavonoid. The best solvent was ethyl acetate with maceration for 2x24 hours and inhibition area width 11.34 mm.

  1. Activity of human hippocampal formation and amygdala neurons during memory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgren, E; Babb, T L; Crandall, P H

    1978-11-01

    Single and multiple unit recordings were made from fine wires stereotaxically implanted in the hippocampus (HC), hippocampal gyrus (HCG), and amygdala (Am) of psychomotor epileptics. During a series of memory and control tests presented on slides, 21 of 155 HCG units, 15 of 59 HC units, and 2 of 54 Am units showed what appeared to be simple phasic or tonic visual responses. Twenty-seven other units, found only in the HCG, changed firing only during slides requiring a choice ('choice units'). A given choice unit responded during choices indicated verbally or manually, and during tasks requiring recall of Recent Memory, various visual discriminations, and expressions of preference. Choice units were not affected by sensory stimulation or motor activity in contexts not requiring choice. Phasically inhibited choice units had higher firing rates and lower signal-to-noise ratios than tonically excited units. Whether an electrode recorded a choice unit was unrelated to if it recorded a response to hyperventilation, or was in an area of epileptic pathology. Recordings were also made during an interview lasting several hours and eliciting a wide range of behaviors. Five of the 131 HCG units fired in repeated extended bursts, at least 50 times background during recall of word pairs or of the patient's hospital room. The unit response did not occur during numerous control tasks possessing similar overt sensory, motor, and social concomitants, but not requiring Recent Memory.

  2. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenzien, Susan [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Farnham, Irene [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1D, Change 1, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2013a); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). If a participant’s requirement document differs from this QAP, the stricter requirement will take precedence. NNSA/NFO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  3. Underground Test Area Activity Preemptive Review Guidance Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rehfeldt, Kenneth [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Preemptive reviews (PERs) of Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity corrective action unit (CAU) studies are an important and long-maintained quality improvement process. The CAU-specific PER committees provide internal technical review of ongoing work throughout the CAU lifecycle. The reviews, identified in the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) (Sections 1.3.5.1 and 3.2), assure work is comprehensive, accurate, in keeping with the state of the art, and consistent with CAU goals. PER committees review various products, including data, documents, software/codes, analyses, and models. PER committees may also review technical briefings including Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO)-required presentations to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and presentations supporting key technical decisions (e.g., investigation plans and approaches). PER committees provide technical recommendations to support regulatory decisions that are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) and NDEP.

  4. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Krenzien, Susan [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). NNSA/NSO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  5. Benchmark of the SixTrack-Fluka Active Coupling Against the SPS Scrapers Burst Test

    CERN Multimedia

    Mereghetti, A; Cerutti, F

    2014-01-01

    The SPS scrapers are a key ingredient for the clean injection into the LHC: they cut off halo particles quite close to the beam core (e.g.~3.5 sigma) just before extraction, to minimise the risk for quenches. The improved beam parameters as envisaged by the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project required a revision of the present system, to assess its suitability and robustness. In particular, a burst (i.e. endurance) test of the scraper blades has been carried out, with the whole bunch train being scraped at the centre (worst working conditions). In order to take into account the effect of betatron and longitudinal beam dynamics on energy deposition patterns, and nuclear and Coulomb scattering in the absorbing medium onto loss patterns, the SixTrack and Fluka codes have been coupled, profiting from the best of the refined physical models they respectively embed. The coupling envisages an active exchange of tracked particles between the two codes at each turn, and an on-line aperture check in SixTrack, in order ...

  6. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  7. VALIDATION REPORT (PHASE 2) FOR THE FISH SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TEST FOR THE DETECTION OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Petersen, Gitte

    This document presents the validation report (phase 2) of the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT). The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) covers a life-stage where sexual development is particularly sensitive to perturbation caused by endocrine active chemicals. The chemical exposure lasts...... Guideline on the fish sexual development test to the Working Group of the National Coordinators of the Test Guidelines Programme (WNT). The project was included on the Test Guidelines workplan in 2003, and extensive validation of the test method was carried out until 2009. Two validation studies were...... for about 60 days, at the end of which endpoints of ecological relevance like the sex ratio of the exposed fish is calculated and the biomarker endpoint vitellogenin is measured in individual animals. In 2003, Denmark, on behalf of the European Nordic countries, proposed a new project o develop a Test...

  8. Tuberculin testing of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: relationship with peripheral T-cell counts and active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lenice do Rosário; Galvão, Marli Therezinha Gimenez; Machado, Jussara Marcondes; Meira, Domingos Alves; Cunha, Karlla

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate tuberculin test results and relate them to the presence or absence of active tuberculosis, as well as to CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts. The charts of 802 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated between August of 1985 and March of 2003 were reviewed. Of the 185 patients submitted to tuberculin tests (23.1%), 107 (57.8%) were male, and 78 (42.2%) were female. Patients were divided into two study groups: tuberculin test reactors (n = 28); and tuberculin test non-reactors (n = 157). Among the reactors, the mean age was 30.60 years, with a standard deviation of 6.62 years, compared with 34.45 years, with a standard deviation of 10.32 years, among the non-reactors. Most of the individuals tested presented only a mild response to the tuberculin test. We found that, at the time of the test, the percentage of individuals with active tuberculosis was greater in the reactor group than in the non-reactor group. During the test period, 10 reactor group patients and 11 non-reactor group patients presented some clinical form of active tuberculosis. In addition, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were lower than 200 cells/mm(3) in 6 reactor group patients and in 8 non-reactor group patients. Indurations greater than 5 mm were unrelated to higher absolute CD4+ T-cell counts.

  9. Motivational Processes in Online Learning: The Role of Tutorship for Laboratory Activities through the Semistructured Self-Evaluation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Biasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution highlights the role of  affective processes in multimedia learning conducted by e-learning platform used in the General Psychology online laboratory activities, based on semistructured self-evaluation tests following the model proposed by Domenici (2005. These tests include items with a closed- and open-ended structure requiring the student to answer within space restrictions and, in some cases, within context simulations. This enables scorers to give generally univocal and objective scores thereby assuring high test validity and reliability. The focus is on the psychological aspects of the online tutor’s role and its effects on learning levels. Students who completed the online laboratory activities through the semistructured self-evaluation tests (n=252 obtained an average score of 27.7 in the objective examination; students who did not complete the activities or who never even started them (n=186 obtained an average score of 25.7. These differences are statistically significant (F1, 449=38.05; P<0.001. The advantages of online learning are highlighted: developing an active attitude towards learning, enabling the individualisation of learning, and strengthening motivation with regard to knowledge, self-assertiveness, and sociality. This motivational activation reinforces convergent and divergent cognitive skills, owing to the semistructured tests, which facilitate knowledge and study method acquisition.

  10. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, E. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, C. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, C. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, N. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valenta, M. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, D. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Robbins, R. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Thompson, L. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  11. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lindberg, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mercier, Theresa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, William E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eibling, Russell E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reigel, Marissa M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Swanberg, David J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2013-09-30

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF

  12. The Test Case of HD 26965: Difficulties Disentangling Weak Doppler Signals from Stellar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Matías R.; Jenkins, James S.; Tuomi, Mikko; Butler, R. Paul; Soto, Maritza G.; Teske, Johanna K.; Feng, Fabo; Shectman, Stephen A.; Arriagada, Pamela; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Ian B.; Vogt, Steven S.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of a radial velocity signal that can be interpreted as a planetary-mass candidate orbiting the K dwarf HD 26965, with an orbital period of 42.364 ± 0.015 days, or alternatively, as the presence of residual, uncorrected rotational activity in the data. Observations include data from HIRES, PFS, CHIRON, and HARPS, where 1111 measurements were made over 16 years. Our best solution for HD 26965 b is consistent with a super-Earth that has a minimum mass of 6.92 ± 0.79 {M}\\oplus orbiting at a distance of 0.215 ± 0.008 au from its host star. We have analyzed the correlation between spectral activity indicators and the radial velocities from each instrument, showing moderate correlations that we include in our model. From this analysis, we recover a ∼38-day signal, which matches some literature values of the stellar rotation period. However, from independent Mt. Wilson HK data for this star, we find evidence for a significant 42-day signal after subtraction of longer period magnetic cycles, casting doubt on the planetary hypothesis for this period. Although our statistical model strongly suggests that the 42-day signal is Doppler in origin, we conclude that the residual effects of stellar rotation are difficult to fully model and remove from this data set, highlighting the difficulties to disentangle small planetary signals and photospheric noise, particularly when the orbital periods are close to the rotation period of the star. This study serves as an excellent test case for future works that aim to detect small planets orbiting “Sun-like” stars using radial velocity measurements. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Effect of generalised sympathetic activation by cold pressor test on cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Micieli, G; Bosone, D; Losano, G; Bini, R; Cavallini, A; Passatore, M

    1998-07-15

    There is no general agreement regarding several aspects of the role of the sympathetic system on cerebral haemodynamics such as extent of effectiveness, operational range and site of action. This study was planned to identify the effect of a generalised sympathetic activation on the cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans before it is masked by secondary corrections, metabolic or myogenic in nature. A total of 35 healthy volunteers aged 20-35 underwent a 5 min lasting cold pressor test (CPT) performed on their left hand. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in the middle cerebral arteries and arterial blood pressure were recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography and with a non-invasive finger-cuff method, respectively. The ratio of arterial blood pressure to mean blood velocity (ABP/Vm) and Pulsatility Index (PI) were calculated throughout each trial. CPT induced an increase in mean ABP (range 2-54 mmHg depending on the subject) and only a slight, though significant, increase in blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (+2.4 and +4.4% on ipsi- and contralateral side, respectively). During CPT, the ratio ABP/Vm increased and PI decreased in all subjects on both sides. These changes began simultaneously with the increase in blood pressure. The increase in ABP/Vm ratio is attributed to an increase in the cerebrovascular resistance, while the concomitant reduction in PI is interpreted as due to the reduction in the compliance of the middle cerebral artery. The results suggest that generalised increases in the sympathetic discharge, causing increases in ABP, can prevent concomitant increases in CBF by acting on both small resistance and large compliant vessels. This effect is also present when a slight increase in blood pressure occurs, which suggests a moderate increase in the sympathetic discharge, i.e. when ABP remains far below the upper limit of CBF autoregulation.

  14. Comparison of bioenergetics of walking during a multistage incremental shuttle walk test and a 6-min walk test in active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Mario; Duvergé, Sébastien; Kalinova, Émilia; Bui, Hung Tien; Comtois, Alain S

    2017-04-01

    The goal of the present research was to compare the bioenergetics variability of walking, during the 6-min walk test (6-MWT) and a multistage incremental shuttle walk test (MISWT) in an active older population. Twenty-two healthy physically active older adults with a group mean age of 70.4 ± 5.8 years completed the 6-MWT and the MISWT. Heart rate (HR), walking speed and walking [Formula: see text]O 2 were measured throughout each test with a portable metabolic cart. Strong correlations were found for the [Formula: see text]O 2 peak and the walking speed (r = 0.91 and r = 0.89 respectively for 6-MWT and MISWT). Differences in [Formula: see text]O 2 peak values were analysed with a paired Student's t test. Repeated measures ANOVA were conducted to detect differences between tests. The Bland and Altman plot indicates that the average difference between both tests was 2.5 ml kg -1  min -1 . MISWT [Formula: see text]O 2 peak means were significantly greater than the 6-MWT [Formula: see text]O 2 peak mean values (21.6 ± 5.3 vs. 18.9 ± 4.5 ml kg -1  min -1 ) which indicate bioenergetics differences between the two walking tests. Thus, the MISWT and 6-MWT elicited different walking [Formula: see text]O 2 peak and HR suggesting that the MISWT field test challenge the participants to a higher level of cardiovascular and respiratory stress. The walking [Formula: see text]O 2 peak recorded for the MISWT was significantly greater than the 6-MWT. Consequently, both tests seem to measure different facets of the aerobic capacity. MISWT seems to be a better indicator of maximal aerobic power whereas the 6-MWT provides more relevant information regarding aerobic endurance in aging population.

  15. Testing a self-determination theory model of children's physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-09-26

    Understanding children's physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children's physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children's minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children's motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is associated with their objectively-assessed physical

  16. Testing a self-determination theory model of children’s physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding children’s physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children’s physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. Results The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children’s minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children’s motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is

  17. 78 FR 67218 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Company-Run Annual Stress Test Reporting Template and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Mary H. Gottlieb, OCC Clearance Officers, (202) 649-5490, Legislative and Regulatory Activities.... Stuart Feldstein, Director, Legislative and Regulatory Activities Division. [FR Doc. 2013-26869 Filed 11...

  18. Dynamics of changes in the activation of blood coagulation tests at different variants of thromboprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Миколаївна Клигуненко

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study an influence of the different variants of thromboprophylaxis on activation of blood coagulation test on the background of surgical aggression. D-dimer concentration in serum is in direct proportion to fibrinolysis activity and to an amount of lysed fibrin. At the same time fibrinolysis activation is followed with an increase of formation of products of fibrin degradation (PFD that interact with fibrin-monomers and increase the number of SFMC.Materials and methods: After informed consent 200 patients were prospectively divided into groups depending on preparation and regimen of thromboprophylaxis. 1 group (n=30 – ungraded heparin (UGH (5000 ОD for 2 hours before surgery 2 times during 7 days after it. 2 group(n=30 nadraparin calcium 9500 anti-Ха МO (0,3 ml for 2 hours before surgery 2500 МО 1 time for a day 7 days after surgery; 3 group(n=48 – endoxaparin sodium(0,2 ml for 2 hours before surgery 1 time a day 7 days; 4 group(n=29 endoxaparin sodium(0,2ml for 8 hours before surgery, 0,2 ml 1 time a day 7 days; 5 group(n=34 – bemiparin sodium(0,2 ml for 2 hours before surgery 0,2 ml 1 time a day 7 days; 6 group(n=29 bemiparin sodium(0,2ml in 6 hours after surgery 1 time a day 7 days. Patients were comparable on sex, concomitant pathology, class АSA (1-2 and type of surgical intervention. There were studied the number of thrombocytes, prothrombin time (PT, INR AFTT, fibrinogen, Х-а factor activity, antithrombin, 111 (AT111, protein C, SFMC, d-dimer before surgery, on 1,5 and 7 day after it.Results and discussions: On the 1 day of postsurgical period the most influence on D-dimer level had presurgical thromboprophylaxis (TPP with UGH and nadroparin calcium. So the D-dimer level exceeded norm respectively by 67 % (р=0,017 and 65,9 % (р<0,05. In patients of 3 and 4 groups D-dimer level was the lowest that formed deficiency by 56 % (р<0,05 and 52,7 % (р<0,05 from the norm respectively. At the same time an analysis of

  19. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  20. Electromyographic activity after latissimus dorsi transfer: testing of coactivation as a simple tool to assess latissimus dorsi motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Johannes E; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Beitzel, Knut; Minzlaff, Philipp; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Imhoff, Andreas B; Buchmann, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coactivation (CoA) testing as a clinical tool to monitor motor learning after latissimus dorsi tendon transfer. We evaluated 20 patients clinically with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) outcomes scores, visual analog scale, active external rotation (aER), and isometric strength testing in abduction and external rotation. Measurements of aER were performed while the latissimus dorsi was activated in its new function of external rotation with concomitant activation (coactivation) of its native functions (adduction and extension). Bilateral surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during aER measurements and the strength testing procedure (EMG activity ratio: with/without CoA). Patients were divided into two groups (excellent/good vs fair/poor) according to the results of the ASES and UCLA scores. The mean follow-up was 57.8 ± 25.2 months. Subdivided by clinical scores, the superior outcome group lost aER with CoA, whereas the inferior outcome group gained aER (UCLA score: -2.2° ± 7.4° vs +4.3° ± 4.1°; P = .031). Patients with inferior outcomes in the ASES score showed higher latissimus dorsi EMG activity ratios (P = .027), suggesting an inadequate motor learning process. Isometric strength testing revealed that the latissimus dorsi transfer had significantly greater activity compared with the contralateral side (external rotation, P = .008; abduction, P = .006) but did not have comparable strength (external rotation, P = .017; abduction, P = .009). Patients with inferior clinical results were more likely to be dependent on CoA to gain external rotation. Therefore, CoA testing may be used as a tool to evaluate the status of postoperative motor learning after latissimus dorsi transfer. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ventral striatal activity correlates with memory confidence for old- and new-responses in a difficult recognition test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schwarze

    Full Text Available Activity in the ventral striatum has frequently been associated with retrieval success, i.e., it is higher for hits than correct rejections. Based on the prominent role of the ventral striatum in the reward circuit, its activity has been interpreted to reflect the higher subjective value of hits compared to correct rejections in standard recognition tests. This hypothesis was supported by a recent study showing that ventral striatal activity is higher for correct rejections than hits when the value of rejections is increased by external incentives. These findings imply that the striatal response during recognition is context-sensitive and modulated by the adaptive significance of "oldness" or "newness" to the current goals. The present study is based on the idea that not only external incentives, but also other deviations from standard recognition tests which affect the subjective value of specific response types should modulate striatal activity. Therefore, we explored ventral striatal activity in an unusually difficult recognition test that was characterized by low levels of confidence and accuracy. Based on the human uncertainty aversion, in such a recognition context, the subjective value of all high confident decisions is expected to be higher than usual, i.e., also rejecting items with high certainty is deemed rewarding. In an accompanying behavioural experiment, participants rated the pleasantness of each recognition response. As hypothesized, ventral striatal activity correlated in the current unusually difficult recognition test not only with retrieval success, but also with confidence. Moreover, participants indicated that they were more satisfied by higher confidence in addition to perceived oldness of an item. Taken together, the results are in line with the hypothesis that ventral striatal activity during recognition codes the subjective value of different response types that is modulated by the context of the recognition test.

  2. Oral-Fluid Thiol-Detection Test Identifies Underlying Active Periodontal Disease Not Detected by the Visual Awake Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queck, Katherine E; Chapman, Angela; Herzog, Leslie J; Shell-Martin, Tamara; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony; McClure, George David

    2018-03-20

    Periodontal disease in dogs is highly prevalent but can only be accurately diagnosed by performing an anesthetized oral examination with periodontal probing and dental radiography. In this study, 114 dogs had a visual awake examination of the oral cavity and were administered an oral-fluid thiol-detection test prior to undergoing a a full-mouth anesthetized oral examination and digital dental radiographs. The results show the visual awake examination underestimated the presence and severity of active periodontal disease. The thiol-detection test was superior to the visual awake examination at detecting the presence and severity of active periodontal disease and was an indicator of progression toward alveolar bone loss. The thiol-detection test detected active periodontal disease at early stages of development, before any visual cues were present, indicating the need for intervention to prevent periodontal bone loss. Early detection is important because without intervention, dogs with gingivitis (active periodontal disease) progress to irreversible periodontal bone loss (stage 2+). As suggested in the current AAHA guidelines, a thiol-detection test administered in conjunction with the visual awake examination during routine wellness examinations facilitates veterinarian-client communication and mitigates under-diagnosis of periodontal disease and underutilization of dental services. The thiol-detection test can be used to monitor the periodontal health status of the conscious patient during follow-up examinations based on disease severity.

  3. Effect of the environment inside and outside the cage on the activity and behaviour test performance of silver foxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. REKILÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of daily activity in the home cage and the open field test the effect of the internal design and location of cages on the behaviour of silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes during a growth period was evaluated. The inclusion of platforms in cages increased the daytime activity of silver foxes in their home cage, but the inclusion of nest boxes did not. Silver foxes housed at the front of the animal barn were less active during the working day and more active in the evening than were animals housed at the rear. The results of the open field test did not differ significantly between animals housed in cages differing in design. This study demonstrates that the behaviour of silver foxes was only minimally affected by the interior environment of the cage, and that attempts to improve housing design should also take the environment outside the cage into account.;

  4. Mutagenic properties of ethylidene gyromitrin and its metabolites in microsomal activation tests and in the host-mediated assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wright, A; Niskanen, A; Pyysalo, H

    1978-10-01

    Ethylidene gyromitrin (acetaldehyde-N-methyl-N-formylhydrazone) is the main poisonous hydrazine derivative in the edible mushroom false morel (Gyromitra esculenta Pers. Fr.). The mutagenic properties of this compound, and of its metabolites N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine and N-methylhydrazine, were tested by microsomal activation and host-mediated assay. Histidine auxotroph strains of Salmonella typhimurium were used as indicator organisms. Microsomal preparations had no detectable effect on the biological activity of the compounds tested, but the results of host-mediated assay experiments suggested that a bacteriocidic metabolite is formed from ethylidene gyromitrin.

  5. Reproducibility of incremental maximal cycle ergometer tests in healthy recreationally active subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Testing of the ventilatory threshold (VT) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) is relevant for the evaluation of a range of training studies, clinical trials and cross-sectional studies. Due to a possible learning effect, a familiarization test is often performed to increase test......, and the workload was increased by 4 W/10 s thereafter. No familiarization test was performed. RESULTS: VO2 peak increased significantly as the time-averaging interval became shorter (e.g. 5-s interval 48·7 versus 60-s interval 44·8 ml O2 kg(-1) min(-1) ; overall P...-averaging intervals (60, 30, 15, 10 and 5 s) for the determination of VO2 peak to compare test results and reproducibility. METHODS: Thirteen recreational triathletes completed three identical incremental maximal cycle ergometer tests. The initial workload was 75 and 100 watt (W) for women and men, respectively...

  6. Seismic functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical component based on shaking table testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurukovski, D.; Mamucevski, D.

    1996-01-01

    This report involves the description of the experimental seismic and vibration tests of electrical, mechanical and processing equipment that were carried out by using laboratory equipment with high performances. This equipment should generate programmable dynamic excitations, measure and analyze parameters defining dynamic behaviour of the structural and functional capabilities of the tested specimen. Development of testing methodology and criteria is described together with the method for processing the results. Application of the methodology and criteria to selected specimen is included

  7. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  8. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  10. Test to Extract Soil Properties Using the Seismic HammerTM Active Seismic Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Rebekah F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abbott, Robert E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Geologic material properties are necessary parameters for ground motion modeling and are difficult and expensive to obtain via traditional methods. Alternative methods to estimate soil properties require a measurement of the ground's response to a force. A possible method of obtaining these measurements is active-source seismic surveys, but measurements of the ground response at the source must also be available. The potential of seismic sources to obtain soil properties is limited, however, by the repeatability of the source. Explosives, and hammer surveys are not repeatable because of variable ground coupling or swing strength. On the other hand, the Seismic Hammer TM (SH) is consistent in the amount of energy it inputs into the ground. In addition, it leaves large physical depressions as a result of ground compaction. The volume of ground compaction varies by location. Here, we hypothesize that physical depressions left in the earth by the SH correlate to energy recorded by nearby geophones, and therefore are a measurement of soil physical properties. Using measurements of the volume of shot holes, we compare the spatial distribution of the volume of ground compacted between the different shot locations. We then examine energy recorded by the nearest 50 geophones and compare the change in amplitude across hits at the same location. Finally, we use the percent difference between the energy recorded by the first and later hits at a location to test for a correlation to the volume of the shot depressions. We find that: * Ground compaction at the shot-depression does cluster geographically, but does not correlate to known surface features. * Energy recorded by nearby geophones reflects ground refusal after several hits. * There is no correlation to shot volume and changes in energy at particular shot locations. Deeper material properties (i.e. below the depth of surface compaction) may be contributing to the changes in energy propagation. * Without further

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  12. Construct validity of a revised Physical Activity Scale and testing by cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise G; Groenvold, Mogens; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To validate the construct validity of a new version of a Physical Activity Scale (PAS 2) for measuring average weekly physical activity of sleep, work, and leisure time to determine whether a further criterion validation is justified. METHODS: The validity of responses to the questionnaire...... was evaluated by cognitive interviewing in 16 Danish men and women aged 21-70 years. Construct validity was validated in 342 men and women aged 35-66 years by assessing agreement between 24-h MET-scores obtained from average weekly physical activity measured by PAS 2 and a 24-h Physical Activity Scale (PAS 1......), previously found to overestimate physical activity. RESULTS: Cognitive interviewing revealed few problems in the questions on physical activity in different domains. No problems regarding the structure of the questionnaire were identified. The agreement between PAS 1 and PAS 2 MET-scores was high among...

  13. 78 FR 40156 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Copy Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Testing of FDA's General Market Youth Tobacco Prevention Campaigns. DATES: Submit either electronic or... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Copy Testing of FDA's General Market Youth Tobacco...&C Act) to grant FDA authority to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco...

  14. Performance testing of high specific activity waste forms per 10 CFR Part 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1987-03-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste by means of NRC-prescribed tests in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program and includes the current test status and results. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  16. Performance testing of high specific activity waste forms per 10 CFR part 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M.; McConnell, J.W.; Rodgers, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste by means of NRC-prescribed tests in a disposal environment. This paper describes on the resin solidification task of that program and includes the current test status and results

  17. The sensitivity of tests to detect in vivo platelet activation induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No influence on the results of the platelet function tests was found. Tile only test capable of detecting limited injury to the endothelium was the measurement of plasma PF4: The mean platelet life-span (MPLS) shortened, mean platelet density decreased, the circulating platelet aggregate ratio decreased, and plasma levels ...

  18. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... provisions designed to improve energy efficiency. (All references to EPCA refer to the statute as amended... section shall be reasonably designed to produce test results that measure energy efficiency, energy use or.... Products Covered by This Test Procedure Rulemaking DOE defines ``microwave oven'' as a class of kitchen...

  19. Energy shift estimation of demand response activation on domestic refrigerators – A field test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Gudmand-Høyer, Kristian; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the amount of energy that can be shifted during demand response (DR) activation on domestic refrigerator. Though there are many methods for DR activation like load reduction, load shifting and onsite generation, the method under study is load shifting....... Electric heating and cooling equipment like refrigerators, water heaters and space heaters and coolers are preferred for such DR activation because of their energy storing capacity. Accurate estimation of available regulating power and energy shift is important to understand the value of DR activation...

  20. Overview of results of the first phase of validation activities for the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeiter, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.arbeiter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Chen Yuming; Dolensky, Bernhard; Freund, Jana; Heupel, Tobias; Klein, Christine; Scheel, Nicola; Schlindwein, Georg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for application in the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of prototypes of the irradiation capsules of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. - Abstract: The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) is projected to create an experimentally validated database of material properties relevant for fusion reactor designs. The IFMIF High Flux Test Module is the dedicated experiment to irradiate alloys in the temperature range 250-550 Degree-Sign C and up to 50 displacements per atom per irradiation cycle. The High Flux Test Module is developed to maximize the specimen payload in the restricted irradiation volume, and to minimize the temperature spread within each specimen bundle. Low pressure helium mini-channel cooling is used to offer a high integration density. Due to the demanding thermo-hydraulic and mechanical conditions, the engineering design process (involving numerical neutronic, thermo-hydraulic and mechanical analyses) is supported by extensive experimental validation activities. This paper reports on the prototype manufacturing, thermo-hydraulic modeling experiments and component tests, as well as on mechanical testing. For the testing of the 1:1 prototype of the High Flux Test Module, a dedicated test facility, the Helium Loop Karlsruhe-Low Pressure (HELOKA-LP) has been taken into service.

  1. Overview of results of the first phase of validation activities for the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeiter, Frederik; Chen Yuming; Dolensky, Bernhard; Freund, Jana; Heupel, Tobias; Klein, Christine; Scheel, Nicola; Schlindwein, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for application in the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. ► Fabrication of prototypes of the irradiation capsules of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. - Abstract: The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) is projected to create an experimentally validated database of material properties relevant for fusion reactor designs. The IFMIF High Flux Test Module is the dedicated experiment to irradiate alloys in the temperature range 250–550 °C and up to 50 displacements per atom per irradiation cycle. The High Flux Test Module is developed to maximize the specimen payload in the restricted irradiation volume, and to minimize the temperature spread within each specimen bundle. Low pressure helium mini-channel cooling is used to offer a high integration density. Due to the demanding thermo-hydraulic and mechanical conditions, the engineering design process (involving numerical neutronic, thermo-hydraulic and mechanical analyses) is supported by extensive experimental validation activities. This paper reports on the prototype manufacturing, thermo-hydraulic modeling experiments and component tests, as well as on mechanical testing. For the testing of the 1:1 prototype of the High Flux Test Module, a dedicated test facility, the Helium Loop Karlsruhe-Low Pressure (HELOKA-LP) has been taken into service.

  2. Correlation of secretory phospholipase-A2 activity and fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with liver enzymes tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Ghodoosifar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim was to determine whether secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2 activity and fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are correlated with liver enzymes tests. Methods: CSF and serum samples were collected from 49 patients (age 18-65 as part of routine diagnostic testing. Along with serum liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, the fatty acid composition of CSF was measured by gas liquid chromatography. CSF enzyme activities of sPLA2 were measured using the standard assay with diheptanoyl thio-phosphatidylcholin as substrate. Results: The saturated fatty acids (SFAs including palmitic acid and stearic acid were positively, and the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid were negatively correlated with liver enzymes tests. In regression analysis with adjustment for body mass index (BMI, the elevated liver enzymes tests were positively associated with activity of sPLA2 (β > 0.31, P 0.38, P < 0.010 and negatively with total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs (β < -0.40, P < 0.001 contents of CSF. Conclusion: CSF activity of sPLA2 and fatty acids may be linked to peripheral markers of liver function, suggesting an indirect impact of central fatty acids on hepatocytes function and metabolism.

  3. The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities : test-retest reliability and comparison with an accelerometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Woude, Lucas

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). METHODS: Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects'

  4. Differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults : Consequences for norm-based classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Stevens, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.

    This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were

  5. Wind tunnel test on airfoil Riso-B1-18 with an Active Trailing Edge Flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of the wind turbine airfoil Risø-B1-18 equipped with an Active Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF) was carried out. The ATEF was 9% of the total chord, made of piezo electric actuators attached to the trailing edge of a non-deformable airfoil and actuated using an (electric) amplifier...

  6. Test-retest reliability of the scale of participation in organized activities among adolescents in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosakova, Lucia; Kolarcik, Peter; Bobakova, Daniela; Sulcova, Martina; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    Objectives Participation in organized activities is related with a range of positive outcomes, but the way such participation is measured has not been scrutinized. Test-retest reliability as an important indicator of a scale's reliability has been assessed rarely and for "The scale of participation

  7. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Mohamadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.

  8. Design and test of a novel magnetic lead screw for active suspension system in a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore the Magnetic Lead Screw is introduced and its benefits when used with an active suspension system are discussed. Based on a model of a quarter car, the design specifications for the MLS active suspension system are found, which leads to a design study. The design study investigates the relation...

  9. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  10. TCR-Vß8 as alternative to animal testing for quantifying active SEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. SEs cause gastroenteritis and also cause activation of T cells and massive cytokine release. A current method for the detection of active SEs relies on its eme...

  11. Test-retest reliability of the scale of participation in organized activities among adolescents in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosakova, Lucia; Kolarcik, Peter; Bobakova, Daniela; Sulcova, Martina; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2016-04-01

    Participation in organized activities is related with a range of positive outcomes, but the way such participation is measured has not been scrutinized. Test-retest reliability as an important indicator of a scale's reliability has been assessed rarely and for "The scale of participation in organized activities" lacks completely. This test-retest study is based on the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study and is consistent with its methodology. We obtained data from 353 Czech (51.9 % boys) and 227 Slovak (52.9 % boys) primary school pupils, grades five and nine, who participated in this study in 2013. We used Cohen's kappa statistic and single measures of the intraclass correlation coefficient to estimate the test-retest reliability of all selected items in the sample, stratified by gender, age and country. We mostly observed a large correlation between the test and retest in all of the examined variables (κ ranged from 0.46 to 0.68). Test-retest reliability of the sum score of individual items showed substantial agreement (ICC = 0.64). The scale of participation in organized activities has an acceptable level of agreement, indicating good reliability.

  12. Quality control tests of an activity meter to be used as reference for an in situ calibration methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Eduardo de L.; Kuahara, Lilian T.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A., E-mail: educorrea1905@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine is a medical speciality involving the application of radioactive isotopes in diagnosis and/or treatment of disease. In order to ensure that the radiation dose applied to the patient is adequate, the radiopharmaceutical activity must be adequately measured. This work was performed to analyze the behavior of an activity meter Capintec NPL-CRC to be used as a reference for the implementation of a methodology for in situ calibration of nuclear medicine equipment. It were made the daily quality control tests, such as auto zero, background, system test, accuracy test and constancy test, and determination of repeatability and intermediate measurement precision using {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 133}Ba sources.Furthermore, this equipment was used to confirm the check sources activities produced at IPEN and used by the laboratory that produces the radiopharmaceuticals sent to the nuclear medicine services. The results showed a good behavior of this equipment. The maximum variation obtained in the accuracy test was of 1.81% for the {sup 57}Co source. For {sup 137}Cs this variation was of 4.59%, and for {sup 133}Ba, 11.83%. The high value obtained for the last case, indicates the needs of a correction that can be obtained by calibration methods. The result obtained using different reference sources showed a great repeatability with maximum variation of 1.38%. (author)

  13. Initial land reclamation procedures related to possible Pu-cleanup activities at the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

    1976-02-01

    If areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) are to be used for experimental tests of procedures for clean-up of 239 Pu contamination, there are experiences in the Great Basin Desert portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which can serve as guides to reclamation and revegetation of such arid lands. Procedures which will encourage development of the grasses Hilaria jamesii and Oryzopsis hymenoides, as well as the perennial shrubs Eurotia lanata and Atriplex canescens would greatly improve the area as range land

  14. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary R C; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Meads, David M; West, Robert M

    2011-04-11

    Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations) were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form) and health outcomes were assessed. Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ) at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B=-1.79 mm/Hg) and resting heart rate (B=-2.08 beats) and significantly increased body mass index (B=.18 units) compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. © 2011 McEachan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  15. Adaptation, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale in Nigeria (PANES-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Sallis, James F; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Amin, Mariam M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2013-11-01

    This study adapted the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) to the Nigerian context and assessed the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Nigerian version (PANESN). A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original PANES to reflect the built and social environment of Nigeria. The adapted PANES was subjected to cognitive testing and test retest reliability in a diverse sample of Nigerian adults (N = 132) from different neighborhood types. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability, and construct validity was investigated with Analysis of Covariance for differences in environmental attributes between neighborhoods. Four of the 17 items on the original PANES were significantly modified, 3 were removed and 2 new items were incorporated into the final version of adapted PANES-N. Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect (ICC = 0.62-1.00) for all items on the PANES-N, and residents of neighborhoods in the inner city reported higher residential density, land use mix and safety, but lower pedestrian facilities and aesthetics than did residents of government reserved area/new layout neighborhoods. The PANES-N appears promising for assessing environmental perceptions related to physical activity in Nigeria, but further testing is required to assess its applicability across Africa.

  16. Comparison of EUCAST and CLSI broth microdilution methods for the susceptibility testing of 10 systemically active antifungal agents when tested against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-06-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for amphotericin B, flucytosine, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 357 isolates of Candida. The isolates were selected from global surveillance collections to represent both wild-type (WT) and non-WT MIC results for the azoles (12% of fluconazole and voriconazole results were non-WT) and the echinocandins (6% of anidulafungin and micafungin results were non-WT). The study collection included 114 isolates of Candida albicans, 73 of C. glabrata, 76 of C. parapsilosis, 60 of C. tropicalis, and 34 of C. krusei. The overall essential agreement (EA) between EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 78.9% (posaconazole) to 99.6% (flucytosine). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods and species of Candida was assessed using previously determined CLSI epidemiological cutoff values. The overall CA between methods was 95.0% with 2.5% very major (VM) and major (M) discrepancies. The CA was >93% for all antifungal agents with the exception of caspofungin (84.6%), where 10% of the results were categorized as non-WT by the EUCAST method and WT by the CLSI method. Problem areas with low EA or CA include testing of amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and isavuconazole against C. glabrata, itraconazole, and posaconazole against most species, and caspofungin against C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. We confirm high level EA and CA (>90%) between the 2 methods for testing fluconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin against all 5 species. The results indicate that the EUCAST and CLSI methods produce comparable results for testing the systemically active antifungal agents against the 5 most common species of Candida; however, there are several areas where additional

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationships and mixture toxicity of organic chemicals in Photobacterium phosphoreum: the Microtox test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermens, J.; Busser, F.; Leeuwangh, P.; Musch, A.

    1985-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were calculated for the inhibition of bioluminescence of Photobacterium phosphoreum by 22 nonreactive organic chemicals. The inhibition was measured using the Microtox test and correlated with the partition coefficient between n-octanol and water (Poct), molar refractivity (MR), and molar volume (MW/d). At log Poct less than 1 and greater than 3, deviations from linearity were observed. Introduction of MR and MW/d improved the quality of the relationships. The influences of MR or MW/d may be related with an interaction of the tested chemicals to the enzyme system which produces the light emission. The sensitivity of the Microtox test to the 22 tested compounds is comparable to a 14-day acute mortality test with guppies for chemicals with log Poct less than 4. The inhibition of bioluminescence by a mixture of the tested compounds was slightly less than was expected in case of concentration addition. The Microtox test can give a good estimate of the total aspecific minimum toxicity of polluted waters. When rather lipophilic compounds or pollutants with more specific modes of action are present, this test will underestimate the toxicity to other aquatic life.

  18. A new digitized method of the compulsive gnawing test revealed dopaminergic activity of salvinorin A in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Stephen M; Butterweck, Veronika

    2010-09-01

    The compulsive gnawing (CG) test has been used for numerous years as an assay to determine the dopaminergic activity of various compounds. We developed a new method of quantification via a digitization step which allowed a more precise measurement of the gnawing activity. It was the aim of the present study to explore possible dopaminergic effects of salvinorin A (SA), the major active compound of Salvia divinorum, using the new digitized CG test. A group of experiments using male C57BL/6 mice were performed to validate the new method of quantification showing only significant increases of gnawing when the dopamine reuptake inhibitors buproprion (20 mg/kg, p.0.) and nomifensine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were given concomitantly with apomorphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Different concentrations of the SA (1.0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested with positive dopaminergic activity when administered with apomorphine which differed from the semisynthetic counterpart U-69593. Furthermore, the activity observed with SA was unsuccessfully antagonized by the κ-opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine (NorBNI; 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.), while the dopamine antagonist haloperidol did successfully block (0.06 mg/kg, i.p.) the gnawing activity seen with SA. Our data further strengthen the argument that salvinorin A is not a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist and is the first in vivo study that veers from salvinorin A acting solely like its synthetic counterparts. Furthermore, the digitized CG test system used in this study provides a new computational method to accurately detect behavior associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  19. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginar, Nurhan; Yamantürk-Çelik, Pınar; Nurten, Asiye; Güney, Dilvin Berrak

    2016-07-01

    The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test.

  20. Use of the one‐legged hyperextension test and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of active spondylolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, L; Pike, J; Malara, F; Phillips, B; Bennell, K; Brukner, P

    2006-01-01

    Background Active spondylolysis is an acquired lesion in the pars interarticularis and is a common cause of low back pain in the young athlete. Objectives To evaluate whether the one‐legged hyperextension test can assist in the clinical detection of active spondylolysis and to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is equivalent to the clinical gold standard of bone scintigraphy and computed tomography in the radiological diagnosis of this condition. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. Young active subjects with low back pain were recruited. Outcome measures included clinical assessment (one‐legged hyperextension test) and radiological investigations including bone scintigraphy (with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)) and MRI. Computed tomography was performed if bone scintigraphy was positive. Results Seventy one subjects were recruited. Fifty pars interarticulares in 39 subjects (55%) had evidence of active spondylolysis as defined by bone scintigraphy (with SPECT). Of these, 19 pars interarticulares in 14 subjects showed a fracture on computed tomography. The one‐legged hyperextension test was neither sensitive nor specific for the detection of active spondylolysis. MRI revealed bone stress in 40 of the 50 pars interarticulares in which it was detected by bone scintigraphy (with SPECT), indicating reduced sensitivity in detecting bone stress compared with bone scintigraphy (p  =  0.001). Conversely, MRI revealed 18 of the 19 pars interarticularis fractures detected by computed tomography, indicating concordance between imaging modalities (p  =  0.345). There was a significant difference between MRI and the combination of bone scintigraphy (with SPECT)/computed tomography in the radiological visualisation of active spondylolysis (p  =  0.002). Conclusions These results suggest that there is a high rate of active spondylolysis in active athletes with low back pain. The one‐legged hyperextension test is not

  1. Interim susceptibility testing for ceftaroline, a new MRSA-active cephalosporin: selecting potent surrogate β-lactam markers to predict ceftaroline activity against clinically indicated species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Stilwell, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the bio-active form of parenterally administered ceftaroline fosamil, is a unique broad-spectrum cephalosporin with in vitro and in vivo activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and was approved for clinical use by the United States Food and Drug Administration in October 2010. In over a year since ceftaroline fosamil approval, no widely used commercial susceptibility test system has added this new compound to its product, therefore requiring use of alternative agar diffusion methods for clinical microbiology laboratories that want to test clinical isolates for ceftaroline susceptibility. An alternative strategy of applying a surrogate β-lactam class marker agent was assessed here, using results from 14,902 organisms (2008-2010) sampled in the USA. Very high and acceptable accuracy (≥ 99.75%) was observed for predicting ceftaroline susceptibility as follows: 1) use of imipenem or meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at ≤ 8 μg/mL (susceptible and intermediate categories) when testing S. aureus; 2) use of ceftriaxone MIC at ≤ 2 μg/mL (susceptible and intermediate categories) when testing Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as other streptococci (S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae); and 3) use of ceftriaxone, or cefepime, or ceftazidime at ≤ 2 μg/mL (susceptible category) when testing Haemophilus influenzae. Only when testing indicated Enterobacteriaceae species using ceftriaxone susceptibility results did the ceftaroline-nonsusceptible errors increase (4.11%). These presented analyses offer a validated surrogate marker strategy for ceftaroline susceptibility testing, pending development and validation by the commonly used automated systems and agar diffusion commercial methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Artificial Neural Networks for Reducing Computational Effort in Active Truncated Model Testing of Mooring Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Voie, Per Erlend Torbergsen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2015-01-01

    is by active truncated models. In these models only the very top part of the system is represented by a physical model whereas the behavior of the part below the truncation is calculated by numerical models and accounted for in the physical model by active actuators applying relevant forces to the physical...... orders of magnitude faster than conventional numerical methods. The AAN ability to learn and predict the nonlinear relation between a given input and the corresponding output makes the hybrid method tailor made for the active actuators used in the truncated experiments. All the ANN training can be done...... prior to the experiment and with a properly trained ANN it is no problem to obtain accurate simulations much faster than real time-without any need for large computational capacity. The present study demonstrates how this hybrid method can be applied to the active truncated experiments yielding a system...

  3. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of bioflavonoids and structural analogues in the Ames/Salmonella test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohn GR; Stel JJ van der; Stavenuiter JFC; Hamzink MRJ; Kreijl CF; LEO; LBO

    1996-01-01

    De mutagene en antimutagene eigenschappen van bioflavonoiden werden in de bacteriele mutageniteitstest van Ames met Salmonella typhimurium stammen TA98 en TA100 onderzocht. De volgorde van mutagene activiteit voor beide stammen in aanwezigheid van metabole activering was

  4. Antioxidant Activity in the Blood and Testes of the Mottled Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    homogenate fluids were centrifuged separately to harvest the supernatants and analysed for the antioxidant indices. Statistical comparisons were made between the serum and testicular antioxidant indices. Result showed that the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant.

  5. Functional Brain Activation in Response to a Clinical Vestibular Test Correlates with Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; DeDios, Yiri; Kofman, Igor S; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain fMRI activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: Skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either a vestibulo-spinal reflex [saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)], or an ocular muscle response [utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)]. Research suggests that the skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for subjects than the high decibel tones required to elicit VEMPs. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of brain activity. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that pneumatically powered skull taps would elicit a similar pattern of brain activity as shown in previous studies. Our results provide the first evidence of using pneumatically powered skull taps to elicit vestibular activity inside the MRI scanner. A conjunction analysis revealed that skull taps elicit overlapping activation with auditory tone bursts in the canonical vestibular cortical regions. Further, our postural control assessments revealed that greater amplitude of brain activation in response to vestibular stimulation was associated with better balance control for both techniques. Additionally, we found that skull taps elicit more robust vestibular activity compared to auditory tone bursts, with less reported aversive effects, highlighting the utility of this approach for future clinical and basic science research.

  6. The expression of endotoxic activity in the Limulus test as compared to cytokine production in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Howe, Jörg; Gutsman, Thomas; Garidel, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxins) belong to the strongest elicitors of the mammalian immune system due to the induction of a series of cytokines such as tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNFalpha) in immunocompetent cells like mononuclear cells. Since the effects of LPS on human health may be pathologically at too high concentrations (e.g., septic shock syndrome), it is of uttermost importance to have a reliable assay for measuring the concentrations of endotoxins in vitro and in vivo (human body fluids). The activation of the clotting cascade from the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test (LAL), has been the standard and most sensitive assay to detect bacterial endotoxins. However, there are restrictions with this test. It was found in some clinical trials that the results from the LAL test did not correlate with the presence of bacteremia due to Gram-negative organisms or with the mortality but correlated with the presence of fungal bloodstream infections. This resulted from the fact that the LAL assay does not only respond to bacterial endotoxins but is activated also by (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan. Furthermore, in extensive studies the structural requirements for activation of the LAL test were analyzed, and it was found that the LAL activity correlated with pyrogenicity but not with activation of the complement cascade. Furthermore, there was no correlation of the LAL activity with cytokine expression (for example tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleulkins-1 and 6) in mononuclear cells when the 4/2 acyl chain pattern of enterobacterial lipid A was changed, or when the cytokine production induced by LPS from various different species in the whole blood assay was compared with the response from the LAL test. To clarify the questions raised by the different experimental findings, data from literature are summarized to get a more closer insight where the Limulus test confidentially monitors the endotoxicity of LPS and other compounds

  7. Basophil histamine release to Amoxicilloyl-poly-L-lysine compared to amoxicillin in patients with IgE-mediated allergic reactions to amoxicillin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arribas, F; Falkencrone, S; Sola, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amoxicillin (AX) is the betalactam most often involved in IgE-mediated reactions and the diagnosis is mainly based on skin testing (ST) although without optimal sensitivity. We have produced a newly AX derivative, amoxicilloyl-poly-L-lysine (APL), and have analysed its IgE recognition...

  8. A Mobile Application for Easy Design and Testing of Algorithms to Monitor Physical Activity in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Spinsante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses approaches to Human Activity Recognition (HAR with the aim of monitoring the physical activity of people in the workplace, by means of a smartphone application exploiting the available on-board accelerometer sensor. In fact, HAR via a smartphone or wearable sensor can provide important information regarding the level of daily physical activity, especially in situations where a sedentary behavior usually occurs, like in modern workplace environments. Increased sitting time is significantly associated with severe health diseases, and the workplace is an appropriate intervention setting, due to the sedentary behavior typical of modern jobs. Within this paper, the state-of-the-art components of HAR are analyzed, in order to identify and select the most effective signal filtering and windowing solutions for physical activity monitoring. The classifier development process is based upon three phases; a feature extraction phase, a feature selection phase, and a training phase. In the training phase, a publicly available dataset is used to test among different classifier types and learning methods. A user-friendly Android-based smartphone application with low computational requirements has been developed to run field tests, which allows to easily change the classifier under test, and to collect new datasets ready for use with machine learning APIs. The newly created datasets may include additional information, like the smartphone position, its orientation, and the user’s physical characteristics. Using the mobile tool, a classifier based on a decision tree is finally set up and enriched with the introduction of some robustness improvements. The developed approach is capable of classifying six activities, and to distinguish between not active (sitting and active states, with an accuracy near to 99%. The mobile tool, which is going to be further extended and enriched, will allow for rapid and easy benchmarking of new algorithms based

  9. Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    embedded in each doorway. The choice test had two 10-min phases. The first phase was habituation e the test mouse was first placed in the middle chamber...is in line with one clinical study in adults with autism or Asperger’s syndrome (Hollander et al., 2003), an important caveat is possible effects on...AR1002312P2, and AR1002312P3) and the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (P30 HD03110). Brian L. Teng was funded by an Autism Speaks

  10. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2017-01-01

    hazard and risk. These limitations include a lack of certainty regarding: 1) adequately sensitive species and life-stages, 2) mechanistic endpoints that are diagnostic for endocrine pathways of concern, and 3) the linkage between mechanistic responses and apical, adverse outcomes. Furthermore, some...... to prioritize chemicals for testing and provide insights as to the most appropriate assay(s) for characterizing hazard and risk. Other recommendations include adding endpoints for elucidating connections between mechanistic effects and adverse outcomes, identifying potentially sensitive taxa for which test...

  11. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Roldán-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Sit-to-stand (STS tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG, biceps femoris (BF, vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM, the abdominal rectus (AR, erector spinae (ES, rectus femoris (RF, soleus (SO and the tibialis anterior (TA. Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects.

  12. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Jiménez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM), the abdominal rectus (AR), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), soleus (SO) and the tibialis anterior (TA). Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects.

  13. Testing promotes long-term learning via stabilizing activation patterns in a large network of brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keresztes, Attila; Kaiser, Daniel; Kovács, Gyula; Racsmány, Mihály

    2014-11-01

    The testing effect refers to the phenomenon that repeated retrieval of memories promotes better long-term retention than repeated study. To investigate the neural correlates of the testing effect, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging methods while participants performed a cued recall task. Prior to the neuroimaging experiment, participants learned Swahili-German word pairs, then half of the word pairs were repeatedly studied, whereas the other half were repeatedly tested. For half of the participants, the neuroimaging experiment was performed immediately after the learning phase; a 1-week retention interval was inserted for the other half of the participants. We found that a large network of areas identified in a separate 2-back functional localizer scan were active during the final recall of the word pair associations. Importantly, the learning strategy (retest or restudy) of the word pairs determined the manner in which the retention interval affected the activations within this network. Recall of previously restudied memories was accompanied by reduced activation within this network at long retention intervals, but no reduction was observed for previously retested memories. We suggest that retrieval promotes learning via stabilizing cue-related activation patterns in a network of areas usually associated with cognitive and attentional control functions. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Extracurricular activities: Investigating the affects of participation-nonparticipation on the Georgia High School Science Graduation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Ray A.

    Student achievement research suggests that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive impact on the academic and developmental outcomes for adolescents. Specifically, several studies reported that adolescents who participate in extra-curricular activities are more likely to experience increases in academic achievement, self-esteem, high school graduation rates, and pro-social behaviors. On the other hand, there is research suggesting that participation in extracurricular activities may distract students from their academic pursuits. The state of Georgia requires all eleventh grade students to participate in the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT). The GHSGT consists of five separate tests that include (a) English/language arts, (b) math, (c) writing, (d) social studies, and (e) science. Each comprehensive exam is worth 600 points. A high school diploma will be awarded if the student scores at least 500 points on each individual exam. Further, review of student outcomes on the GHSGT revealed that first-time test takers were failing the science portion of the test at a greater percentage than any other subject on the GHSGT. Specifically, the Governor's Office of Student Achievement (GOSA) reported that from 2002 through 2004, a total of 70,451 students or 30.3% of students that were first-time test takers failed the science portion of the GHSGT. As a result, investigating factors that potentially could increase student achievement in science became the impetus for this study. In particular, this study examined the relationships between the levels of student participation in school sponsored extracurricular activities in relation to the level of student achievement in the area of science.

  15. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  16. Phytochemical isolation of compounds from Sceletium tortuosum and activity testing against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itumeleng I. Setshedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major health care problem in tropical regions due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against widely available antimalarial drugs. Traditional societies relied on medicinal plants to treat parasitic infections. As a result, drugs like quinine and artemisinin were isolated from herbs and barks (Varughese et al. 2010. Sceletium tortuosum has been used as medicine for social and spiritual purposes by San hunter gatherers and Khoi pastoralists. Sceletium tortuosum is rich in alkaloids, one of the important classes of natural product producing treatment for parasitic infections (Kayser et al. 2002. Laboratory preparation of extracts of fresh S. tortuosum plant material was conducted mimicking traditional methods of preparation using organic solvents. Mesembrine was isolated from a methanol extract using conventional column chromatography. Sixteen extracts and mesembrine were evaluated for antiplasmodium activity using a plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase culture sensitivity assay with chloroquine as reference drug. Of the sixteen extracts, four showed activity against P. falciparum with IC50 ranging between 1.47 µg/mL and 7.32 µg/mL. Extracts prepared from stored material at -20 °C showed no antiplasmodium activity. The four originally active extracts were re-screened six months later, but the antimalarial activity could not be reproduced. To determine discrepancy in biological results, chemical profiling of the extracts was done using high performance liquid chromatography technique. Differences were observed in the profiles of the active extracts when compared to those of stored plant material. The instability of plant constituents observed could be a result of plant storage suggesting that the plant is best used when fresh.

  17. Phytochemical isolation of compounds from Sceletium tortuosum and activity testing against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itumeleng I. Setshedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major health care problem in tropical regions due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against widely available antimalarial drugs. Traditional societies relied on medicinal plants to treat parasitic infections. As a result, drugs like quinine and artemisinin were isolated from herbs and barks (Varughese et al. 2010. Sceletium tortuosum has been used as medicine for social and spiritual purposes by San hunter gatherers and Khoi pastoralists. Sceletium tortuosum is rich in alkaloids, one of the important classes of natural product producing treatment for parasitic infections (Kayser et al. 2002. Laboratory preparation of extracts of fresh S. tortuosum plant material was conducted mimicking traditional methods of preparation using organic solvents. Mesembrine was isolated from a methanol extract using conventional column chromatography. Sixteen extracts and mesembrine were evaluated for antiplasmodium activity using a plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase culture sensitivity assay with chloroquine as reference drug.Of the sixteen extracts, four showed activity against P. falciparum with IC50 ranging between 1.47 µg/mL and 7.32 µg/mL. Extracts prepared from stored material at -20 °C showed no antiplasmodium activity. The four originally active extracts were re-screened six months later, but the antimalarial activity could not be reproduced. To determine discrepancy in biological results, chemical profiling of the extracts was done using high performance liquid chromatography technique. Differences were observed in the profiles of the active extracts when compared to those of stored plant material.The instability of plant constituents observed could be a result of plant storage suggesting that the plant is best used when fresh.

  18. Using Covert Response Activation to Test Latent Assumptions of Formal Decision-Making Models in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Mathieu; White, Corey; Montagnini, Anna; Burle, Borís

    2015-07-15

    Most decisions that we make build upon multiple streams of sensory evidence and control mechanisms are needed to filter out irrelevant information. Sequential sampling models of perceptual decision making have recently been enriched by attentional mechanisms that weight sensory evidence in a dynamic and goal-directed way. However, the framework retains the longstanding hypothesis that motor activity is engaged only once a decision threshold is reached. To probe latent assumptions of these models, neurophysiological indices are needed. Therefore, we collected behavioral and EMG data in the flanker task, a standard paradigm to investigate decisions about relevance. Although the models captured response time distributions and accuracy data, EMG analyses of response agonist muscles challenged the assumption of independence between decision and motor processes. Those analyses revealed covert incorrect EMG activity ("partial error") in a fraction of trials in which the correct response was finally given, providing intermediate states of evidence accumulation and response activation at the single-trial level. We extended the models by allowing motor activity to occur before a commitment to a choice and demonstrated that the proposed framework captured the rate, latency, and EMG surface of partial errors, along with the speed of the correction process. In return, EMG data provided strong constraints to discriminate between competing models that made similar behavioral predictions. Our study opens new theoretical and methodological avenues for understanding the links among decision making, cognitive control, and motor execution in humans. Sequential sampling models of perceptual decision making assume that sensory information is accumulated until a criterion quantity of evidence is obtained, from where the decision terminates in a choice and motor activity is engaged. The very existence of covert incorrect EMG activity ("partial error") during the evidence accumulation

  19. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…

  20. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...