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Sample records for basket-prove prospective validation

  1. Drug-eluting or bare-metal stents for large coronary vessel stenting? The BASKET-PROVE (PROspective Validation Examination) trial: Study protocol and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, M.; Bertel, O.; Bonetti, P.O.;

    2008-01-01

    refute this hypothesis, we set up an 11-center 4-country prospective trial of 2260 consecutive patients treated with >= 3.0-mm stents only, randomized to receive Cypher (Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, FL), Vision (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Laboratories, IL), or Xience stents (Abbott Vascular). Only...

  2. The Multinomial Model of Prospective Memory: Validity of Ongoing-Task Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.; Smith, Rebekah E.; Boywitt, C. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide additional experimental validation of the multinomial processing tree (MPT) model of event-based prospective memory (Smith & Bayen, 2004). In particular, the parameters that measure trial type detection in the ongoing task were examined. In three experiments with different response instructions, event-based prospective memory tasks were embedded in ongoing color-matching tasks. The results support the validity of the MPT model, that is, manipulati...

  3. Validation of the automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre (ALTAIR): a prospective study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, Jose I; Maderuelo-Fernández, Jose A; Chamoso-Santos, Pablo; Rodríguez-González, Sara; de Paz-Santana, Juan F; Merchan-Cifuentes, Miguel A; Corchado-Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The fundus examination is a non-invasive evaluation of the microcirculation of the retina. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate (reliability and validity) the ALTAIR software platform (Automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre) in order to analyse its utility in different clinical environments. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study in the first phase and a prospective observational study in the second with 4 years of follow-up. The study ...

  4. A prospective validation of the HEART score for chest pain patients at the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backus, B. E.; Six, A. J.; Kelder, J. C.; Bosschaert, M. A. R.; Mast, E. G.; Mosterd, A.; Veldkamp, R. F.; Wardeh, A. J.; Tio, R.; Braam, R.; Monnink, S. H. J.; van Tooren, R.; Mast, T. P.; van den Akker, F.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Poldervaart, J. M.; Hoes, A. W.; Doevendans, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The focus of the diagnostic process in chest pain patients at the emergency department is to identify both low and high risk patients for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The HEART score was designed to facilitate this process. This study is a prospective validation of the HEART score.

  5. Self-report measures of prospective memory are reliable but not valid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Kibreab, Mekale

    2011-03-01

    Are self-report measures of prospective memory (ProM) reliable and valid? To examine this question, 240 undergraduate student volunteers completed several widely used self-report measures of ProM including the Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PMQ), the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire, self-reports of retrospective memory (RetM), objective measures of ProM and RetM, and measures of involvement in activities and events, memory strategies and aids use, personality and verbal intelligence. The results showed that both convergent and divergent validity of ProM self-reports are poor, even though we assessed ProM using a newly developed, reliable continuous measure. Further analyses showed that a substantial proportion of variability in ProM self-report scores was due to verbal intelligence, personality (conscientiousness, neuroticism), activities and event involvement (busyness), and use of memory strategies and aids. ProM self-reports have adequate reliability, but poor validity and should not be interpreted as reflecting ProM ability. PMID:21443331

  6. Validation of the use of POSSUM score in enteric perforation peritonitis - results of a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil KUMAR; Gupta, Amit; Chaudhary, Sujata; Agrawal, Neeraj

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of the study was to present our last 5-years experience of peritonitis and validate POSSUM score in predicting mortality and morbidity in patients of enteric perforation (EP) peritonitis. Methods Data was collected prospectively for all peritonitis cases admitted in single surgical unit from January 2005 to December 2009. Parameters for calculating POSSUM were also retrieved; in these patients, O:E (Observed vs. Expected) ratio of mortality and morbidity were estima...

  7. Validation of the new graded prognostic assessment scale for brain metastases: a multicenter prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prognostic indexes are useful to guide tailored treatment strategies for cancer patients with brain metastasis (BM). We evaluated the new Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) scale in a prospective validation study to compare it with two published prognostic indexes. A total of 285 newly diagnosed BM (n = 85 with synchronous BM) patients, accrued prospectively between 2000 and 2009, were included in this analysis. Mean age was 62 ± 12.0 years. The median KPS and number of BM was 70 (range, 20-100) and 3 (range, 1-50), respectively. The majority of primary tumours were lung (53%), or breast (17%) cancers. Treatment was administered to 255 (89.5%) patients. Only a minority of patients could be classified prospectively in a favourable prognostic class: GPA 3.5-4: 3.9%; recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) 1, 8.4% and Basic Score for BM (BSBM) 3, 9.1%. Mean follow-up (FU) time was 5.2 ± 4.7 months. During the period of FU, 225 (78.9%) patients died. The 6 months- and 1 year-OS was 36.9% and 17.6%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, performance status (P < 0.001), BSBM (P < 0.001), Center (P = 0.007), RPA (P = 0.02) and GPA (P = 0.03) were statistically significant for OS. The survival prediction performances' of all indexes were identical. Noteworthy, the significant OS difference observed within 3 months of diagnosis between the BSBM, RPA and GPA classes/groups was not observed after this cut-off time point. Harrell's concordance indexes C were 0.58, 0.61 and 0.58 for the GPA, BSBM and RPA, respectively. Our data suggest that the new GPA index is a valid prognostic index. In this prospective study, the prediction performance was as good as the BSBM or RPA systems. These published indexes may however have limited long term prognostication capability

  8. Validation of a model for optimal birth weight: a prospective study using serial ultrasounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gavin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to validate a model for optimal birth weight derived from neonatal records, and to test the assumption that preterm births may be considered optimally grown if they are not exposed to common factors that perturb fetal growth. Methods Weights of fetuses were estimated from serial biometric ultrasound scans (N = 2,848 and combined with neonatal weights for a prospective pregnancy cohort (N = 691. Non-Caucasians, fetuses subsequently born preterm and those with diagnosed or suspected determinants of aberrant growth were excluded leaving fetuses assumed to have experienced normal growth. A generalised linear longitudinal growth model for optimal weight was derived, including terms for gestational duration, infant sex, maternal height and birth order. This model was compared to a published model derived solely from birth weights. Results Prior to 30 weeks gestation, the published model yielded systematically lower weights than the model derived from both fetal weight and neonatal weight. From 30 weeks gestation the two models were indistinguishable. Conclusion The model for optimal birth weight was valid for births that have attained at least 30 weeks gestation. The model derived from both fetal and neonatal weights is recommended prior to this gestation.

  9. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two changes: a modified definition for distracting injury and the definition of normal mentation. Methods: This is a prospective, observational cohort study of geriatric fall patients who presented to a Level I trauma center and were not triaged to the trauma bay. Providers enrolled non-intoxicated patients at baseline mental status with no lateralizing neurologic deficits. They recorded midline neck tenderness, signs of trauma, and presence of other distracting injury. Results: We enrolled 800 patients. One patient fall event was excluded due to duplicate enrollment, and four were lost to follow up, leaving 795 for analysis. Average age was 83.6 (range 65-101. The numbers in parenthesis after the negative predictive value represent confidence interval. There were 11 (1.4% cervical spine injuries. One hundred seventeen patients had midline tenderness and seven of these had CSI; 366 patients had signs of trauma to the face/neck, and 10 of these patients had CSI. Using signs of trauma to the head/neck as the only distracting injury and baseline mental status as normal alertness, the modified NEXUS criteria was 100% sensitive (CI [67.9-100] with a negative predictive value of 100 (98.7-100. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a modified NEXUS criteria can be safely applied to low-risk elderly falls.

  10. Validation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules in Iran: A prospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghofrani Hossein

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute ankle injuries are one of the most common reasons for presenting to emergency departments, but only a small percentage of patients – approximately 15% – have clinically significant fractures. However, these patients are almost always referred for radiography. The Ottawa Ankle Rules (OARs have been designed to reduce the number of unnecessary radiographs ordered for these patients. The objective of this study was to validate the OARs in the Iranian population. Methods This prospective survey was done among 200 patients with acute ankle injury from January 2004 to April 2004 in the Akhtar Orthopedics Hospital Emergency Department. Main outcome measures of this survey were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratios (positive and negative of the OARs. Results Sensitivity of the OARs for detecting 37 ankle fractures (23 in the malleolar zone and 14 in the midfoot zone was 100% for each of the two zones, and 100% for both zones. Specificity of the OARs for detecting fractures was 40.50% for both zones, 40.50% for the malleolar zone, and 56.00% for the midfoot zone. Implementation of the OARs had the potential for reducing radiographs by 33%. Conclusion OARs are very accurate and highly sensitive tools for detecting ankle fractures. Implementation of these rules would lead to significant reduction in the number of radiographs, costs, radiation exposure and waiting times in emergency departments.

  11. The predictive validity of prospect theory versus expected utility in health utility measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan-Perpiñan, Jose Maria; Bleichrodt, Han; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2009-12-01

    Most health care evaluations today still assume expected utility even though the descriptive deficiencies of expected utility are well known. Prospect theory is the dominant descriptive alternative for expected utility. This paper tests whether prospect theory leads to better health evaluations than expected utility. The approach is purely descriptive: we explore how simple measurements together with prospect theory and expected utility predict choices and rankings between more complex stimuli. For decisions involving risk prospect theory is significantly more consistent with rankings and choices than expected utility. This conclusion no longer holds when we use prospect theory utilities and expected utilities to predict intertemporal decisions. The latter finding cautions against the common assumption in health economics that health state utilities are transferable across decision contexts. Our results suggest that the standard gamble and algorithms based on, should not be used to value health. PMID:19833400

  12. Prospective Study of One Million Deaths in India: Rationale, Design, and Validation Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over 75% of the annual estimated 9.5 million deaths in India occur in the home, and the large majority of these do not have a certified cause. India and other developing countries urgently need reliable quantification of the causes of death. They also need better epidemiological evidence about the relevance of physical (such as blood pressure and obesity, behavioral (such as smoking, alcohol, HIV-1 risk taking, and immunization history, and biological (such as blood lipids and gene polymorphisms measurements to the development of disease in individuals or disease rates in populations. We report here on the rationale, design, and implementation of the world's largest prospective study of the causes and correlates of mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We will monitor nearly 14 million people in 2.4 million nationally representative Indian households (6.3 million people in 1.1 million households in the 1998-2003 sample frame and 7.6 million people in 1.3 million households in the 2004-2014 sample frame for vital status and, if dead, the causes of death through a well-validated verbal autopsy (VA instrument. About 300,000 deaths from 1998-2003 and some 700,000 deaths from 2004-2014 are expected; of these about 850,000 will be coded by two physicians to provide causes of death by gender, age, socioeconomic status, and geographical region. Pilot studies will evaluate the addition of physical and biological measurements, specifically dried blood spots. Preliminary results from over 35,000 deaths suggest that VA can ascertain the leading causes of death, reduce the misclassification of causes, and derive the probable underlying cause of death when it has not been reported. VA yields broad classification of the underlying causes in about 90% of deaths before age 70. In old age, however, the proportion of classifiable deaths is lower. By tracking underlying demographic denominators, the study permits quantification of absolute mortality rates

  13. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients

    OpenAIRE

    John Tran; Donald Jeanmonod; Darin Agresti; Khalief Hamden; Jeanmonod, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI) in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two ...

  14. Nomogram predicting response after chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer using sequential PETCT imaging: A multicentric prospective study with external validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop and externally validate a predictive model for pathologic complete response (pCR) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) based on clinical features and early sequential 18F-FDG PETCT imaging. Materials and methods: Prospective data (i.a. THUNDER trial) were used to train (N = 112, MAASTRO Clinic) and validate (N = 78, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore) the model for pCR (ypT0N0). All patients received long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery. Clinical parameters were age, gender, clinical tumour (cT) stage and clinical nodal (cN) stage. PET parameters were SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and maximal tumour diameter, for which response indices between pre-treatment and intermediate scan were calculated. Using multivariate logistic regression, three probability groups for pCR were defined. Results: The pCR rates were 21.4% (training) and 23.1% (validation). The selected predictive features for pCR were cT-stage, cN-stage, response index of SUVmean and maximal tumour diameter during treatment. The models’ performances (AUC) were 0.78 (training) and 0.70 (validation). The high probability group for pCR resulted in 100% correct predictions for training and 67% for validation. The model is available on the website (www.predictcancer.org). Conclusions: The developed predictive model for pCR is accurate and externally validated. This model may assist in treatment decisions during CRT to select complete responders for a wait-and-see policy, good responders for extra RT boost and bad responders for additional chemotherapy

  15. Early identification of struggling in medical education: a prospective cohort study of the validity of tutor judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Mørcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit

    2015-01-01

    controlling for grades obtained in preceeding exams. Lack of participation, lack of commitment, poor academic performance, poor social interactions and general signs of distress were the main indicators of struggling identified. Teachers’ informal judgements of in-class behavior may be an untapped source of...... early diagnosis of struggling in medical school based on informal teacher judgements of in-class behavior. The study design was a prospective cohort study and the outcome/truth criteria were anatomy failure and medical school drop out. Six weeks into a anatomy course, anatomy tutors attemted to identify...... signs of struggling. By week six, the tutors were able to detect approximately ¼-1/3 of the students who eventually failed or dropped out, and for ¾ of the strugglers they identified, they were correct in their judgments. Informal tutor judgements showed incremental validity for both outcomes when...

  16. Prospective validation of the “rhino conjunctivitis allergy-control-SCORE©” (RC-ACS©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häfner Dietrich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently we reported the validation of the “Allergy-Control-SCORE© (ACS” which assesses symptom severity as well as medication use on three dimensions lung, nose and eyes. The aim of this study was to test the validity of the score for eyes and nose. Methods One-hundred-twenty-one consenting subjects (age 19-65y, including 81 patients with allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (RC and 40 healthy controls, participated in the study. Patients rated daily nasal and eye symptoms using a 4-point scale (none, mild, moderate, and severe and their use of anti-symptomatic medication. Validation criteria were pollen counts in the course of the study period. Discrimination capacity was analyzed by comparing the rhino-conjunctivitis Allergy-Control-SCORE© (RC-ACS© values of allergic patients and healthy controls. Convergent reliability was assessed by correlating RC-ACS© values with the global severity of allergy, the quality of life, and the allergy-related medical consultations. Retest reliability was assessed by the correlation of the repeated measured RC-ACS© scores during each of two consecutive weeks. Results Convergent reliability analysis indicated a significant correlation between RC-Allergy-Control-SCORE© and global severity of allergy (r = 0.691; p r = 0.757; p r = 0.329; p = 0.0019. RC-Allergy-Control-SCORE© showed a good retest reliability (r = 0.813; p  Conclusions The RC-ACS© can be considered as valid and reliable to assess the severity of rhino-conjunctivitis severity in clinical trials and observational studies.

  17. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation

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    Hinchcliff Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of ‘machine generated’ sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Methods Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. Results There was a near perfect (99.5% agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Conclusions Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor to parse, abstract and assemble

  18. Prospective international validation of the Quality of Life in Myelodysplasia Scale (QUALMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gregory A.; Efficace, Fabio; Buckstein, Rena J.; Tinsley, Sara; Jurcic, Joseph G.; Martins, Yolanda; Steensma, David. P; Watts, Corey D.; Raza, Azra; Lee, Stephanie J.; List, Alan F.; Klaassen, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Disease-specific measures of quality of life can improve assessment of disease-related symptoms and psychosocial sequelae. We report on the development and validation of the Quality of Life in Myelodysplasia Scale (QUALMS), a 38-item assessment tool for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In 2014–2015, a multi-center cohort of patients with myelodysplasia completed the QUALMS, as well as the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Anemia Scale (FACT-An); a second administration was undertaken three to six months later. A total of 255 patients from the United States, Canada and Italy participated. Median age was 72 years, 56.1% were men, and the International Prognostic Scoring System distribution was 40.4% low, 42.0% intermediate-1, 13.3% intermediate-2 and 2.3% high. QUALMS scores ranged from 24 to 99 (higher scores are better), with a mean of 67.2 [standard deviation (SD)=15.2]. The measure was internally consistent (α=0.92), and moderately correlated with the multi-item QLQ-C30 scales and the FACT-An (r=−0.65 to 0.79; all Pchanges for patients hospitalized or with infections between administrations (both P<0.01). These data suggest the QUALMS is a valuable tool for assessing MDS-specific quality of life in the modern treatment era. PMID:26944474

  19. Validation of Verbal Autopsy in Perinatal Deaths – A Prospective Study in Belgaum District, Karnataka, India

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    Mubashir Angolkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first goal of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and the fourth goal of Millennium Development are to reduce under-five mortality rate. In India, data is available for aprox. 3% of the perinatal deaths. The need for good quality data on perinatal deaths is mandatory for public health planning and resources allocation. This has lead to a renewed interest in Verbal autopsy (VA in poor resource settings. Objective: To validate a simplified community-based VA instrument. Materials and Methods: A simplified community-based VA instrument was developed. The sample size of 50 was calculated at power – 80%, significance – 5% and sensitivity – 70%. ANMs were trained to assign COD according to the ICD – 10. Following which they administered Verbal Autopsies for every perinatal death occurring in their area. A panel of 3 Physicians was formed who reviewed the VA data and assigned cause of death according to the ICD–10. Kappa Statistics was used to measure the degree of agreement between the ANM and Physician panel assigned COD. Results: Out of 50 Perinatal Deaths, the COD assigned by ANM and the COD assigned by the Physician panel were same for 40 of the perinatal deaths, which showed the agreement of 80% [Kappa Statistics = 0.838; P = 0.000 (<0.001] which indicates statistically significant agreement. There was agreement of 93% for 14 Stillbirths and 75% agreement for 36 Early Neonatal Deaths.

  20. Validation of a 20-year forecast of US childhood lead poisoning: Updated prospects for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990-2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, window replacement, and lead paint, are the American Housing Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, and the National Lead Paint Survey. Blood lead data are principally from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. New data now make it possible to validate the midpoint of the forecast time period. For the year 2000, the model predicted 23.3 million pre-1960 housing units with lead paint hazards, compared to an empirical HUD estimate of 20.6 million units. Further, the model predicted 498,000 children with elevated blood lead levels (EBL) in 2000, compared to a CDC empirical estimate of 434,000. The model predictions were well within 95% confidence intervals of empirical estimates for both residential lead paint hazard and blood lead outcome measures. The model shows that window replacement explains a large part of the dramatic reduction in lead poisoning that occurred from 1990 to 2000. Here, the construction of the model is described and updated through 2010 using new data. Further declines in childhood lead poisoning are achievable, but the goal of eliminating children's blood lead levels ≥10 μg/dL by 2010 is unlikely to be achieved without additional action. A window replacement policy will yield multiple benefits of lead poisoning prevention, increased home energy efficiency, decreased power plant emissions, improved housing affordability, and other previously unrecognized benefits. Finally, combining housing and health data could be applied to forecasting other housing-related diseases and injuries

  1. Harmonizing FDG PET quantification while maintaining optimal lesion detection: prospective multicentre validation in 517 oncology patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quak, Elske [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Robin, Philippe; Bourhis, David; Salaun, Pierre-Yves [University Hospital and EA3878 (GETBO) IFR 148, Nuclear Medicine Department, Brest (France); Hofman, Michael S.; Callahan, Jason; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J. [East Melbourne and University of Melbourne, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Desmonts, Cedric [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, INSERM 1199, Caen (France); Normandie University, Caen (France)

    2015-12-15

    Point-spread function (PSF) or PSF + time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction may improve lesion detection in oncologic PET, but can alter quantitation resulting in variable standardized uptake values (SUVs) between different PET systems. This study aims to validate a proprietary software tool (EQ.PET) to harmonize SUVs across different PET systems independent of the reconstruction algorithm used. NEMA NU2 phantom data were used to calculate the appropriate filter for each PSF or PSF+TOF reconstruction from three different PET systems, in order to obtain EANM compliant recovery coefficients. PET data from 517 oncology patients were reconstructed with a PSF or PSF+TOF reconstruction for optimal tumour detection and an ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM3D) reconstruction known to fulfil EANM guidelines. Post-reconstruction, the proprietary filter was applied to the PSF or PSF+TOF data (PSF{sub EQ} or PSF+TOF{sub EQ}). SUVs for PSF or PSF+TOF and PSF{sub EQ} or PSF+TOF{sub EQ} were compared to SUVs for the OSEM3D reconstruction. The impact of potential confounders on the EQ.PET methodology including lesion and patient characteristics was studied, as was the adherence to imaging guidelines. For the 1380 tumour lesions studied, Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean ratio between PSF or PSF+TOF and OSEM3D of 1.46 (95 %CI: 0.86-2.06) and 1.23 (95 %CI: 0.95-1.51) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}, respectively. Application of the proprietary filter improved these ratios to 1.02 (95 %CI: 0.88-1.16) and 1.04 (95 %CI: 0.92-1.17) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}, respectively. The influence of the different confounding factors studied (lesion size, location, radial offset and patient's BMI) was less than 5 %. Adherence to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for tumour imaging was good. These data indicate that it is not necessary to sacrifice the superior lesion detection and image quality achieved by newer reconstruction techniques in

  2. Harmonizing FDG PET quantification while maintaining optimal lesion detection: prospective multicentre validation in 517 oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Point-spread function (PSF) or PSF + time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction may improve lesion detection in oncologic PET, but can alter quantitation resulting in variable standardized uptake values (SUVs) between different PET systems. This study aims to validate a proprietary software tool (EQ.PET) to harmonize SUVs across different PET systems independent of the reconstruction algorithm used. NEMA NU2 phantom data were used to calculate the appropriate filter for each PSF or PSF+TOF reconstruction from three different PET systems, in order to obtain EANM compliant recovery coefficients. PET data from 517 oncology patients were reconstructed with a PSF or PSF+TOF reconstruction for optimal tumour detection and an ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM3D) reconstruction known to fulfil EANM guidelines. Post-reconstruction, the proprietary filter was applied to the PSF or PSF+TOF data (PSFEQ or PSF+TOFEQ). SUVs for PSF or PSF+TOF and PSFEQ or PSF+TOFEQ were compared to SUVs for the OSEM3D reconstruction. The impact of potential confounders on the EQ.PET methodology including lesion and patient characteristics was studied, as was the adherence to imaging guidelines. For the 1380 tumour lesions studied, Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean ratio between PSF or PSF+TOF and OSEM3D of 1.46 (95 %CI: 0.86-2.06) and 1.23 (95 %CI: 0.95-1.51) for SUVmax and SUVpeak, respectively. Application of the proprietary filter improved these ratios to 1.02 (95 %CI: 0.88-1.16) and 1.04 (95 %CI: 0.92-1.17) for SUVmax and SUVpeak, respectively. The influence of the different confounding factors studied (lesion size, location, radial offset and patient's BMI) was less than 5 %. Adherence to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for tumour imaging was good. These data indicate that it is not necessary to sacrifice the superior lesion detection and image quality achieved by newer reconstruction techniques in the quest for harmonizing quantitative

  3. An integrated disease/pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model suggests improved interleukin-21 regimens validated prospectively for mouse solid cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Elishmereni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-21 is an attractive antitumor agent with potent immunomodulatory functions. Yet thus far, the cytokine has yielded only partial responses in solid cancer patients, and conditions for beneficial IL-21 immunotherapy remain elusive. The current work aims to identify clinically-relevant IL-21 regimens with enhanced efficacy, based on mathematical modeling of long-term antitumor responses. For this purpose, pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD data were acquired from a preclinical study applying systemic IL-21 therapy in murine solid cancers. We developed an integrated disease/PK/PD model for the IL-21 anticancer response, and calibrated it using selected "training" data. The accuracy of the model was verified retrospectively under diverse IL-21 treatment settings, by comparing its predictions to independent "validation" data in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma-challenged mice (R(2>0.90. Simulations of the verified model surfaced important therapeutic insights: (1 Fractionating the standard daily regimen (50 µg/dose into a twice daily schedule (25 µg/dose is advantageous, yielding a significantly lower tumor mass (45% decrease; (2 A low-dose (12 µg/day regimen exerts a response similar to that obtained under the 50 µg/day treatment, suggestive of an equally efficacious dose with potentially reduced toxicity. Subsequent experiments in melanoma-bearing mice corroborated both of these predictions with high precision (R(2>0.89, thus validating the model also prospectively in vivo. Thus, the confirmed PK/PD model rationalizes IL-21 therapy, and pinpoints improved clinically-feasible treatment schedules. Our analysis demonstrates the value of employing mathematical modeling and in silico-guided design of solid tumor immunotherapy in the clinic.

  4. Prospective, open-label study to validate proper use of the Versacloz™ (clozapine oral suspension kit by people with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre AD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthony D Andre Interface Analysis Associates, Saratoga, CA, USA Purpose: This study was designed to validate that people with schizophrenia can correctly, safely, and effectively prepare doses of Versacloz™ using the Versacloz oral suspension kit and instructions for use (IFU.Materials and methods: This was a prospective, open-label, simulated-use validation study of 61 people with schizophrenia who were stabilized on clozapine or were clozapine-naive and stabilized on another antipsychotic treatment. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: untrained (n=46 and trained (n=15. Participants were asked to select the proper syringe and prepare two test doses of 1, 3.5, or 5 mL, as randomly assigned. Participants in the untrained group did not receive any training on using the kit, but had access to kit materials, including packaging and the IFU; both test dose preparations were unaided. Participants in the trained group received brief training from the moderator, and then prepared one test dose during training and one unaided test dose during the study period. Prepared placebo doses were not ingested. Performance and behavior were assessed in 14 critical tasks identified in the user failure mode and effects analysis. Test dose failures or dose errors (threshold ±0.1 mL were assessed. Subjective participant assessments of usability were captured in interviews and IFU comprehension was probed.Results: A total of 107 test doses were prepared: 92 and 15 by the untrained and trained groups, respectively. Overall success for unassisted dose preparation was 87.9%; all test failures (failure to shake the bottle or failure to obtain the correct test dose occurred in the untrained group. All participants selected the correct syringe for their assigned dose.Conclusion: This study shows that the Versacloz oral suspension kit and IFU can be correctly, safely, and effectively used to prepare doses by people with schizophrenia, with few instances of

  5. Predicting Reoffence in Sexual Offender Subtypes: A Prospective Validation Study of the German Version of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Rettenberger; Reinhard Eher

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of a prospective, longitudinal research project to evaluate the reliability and validity of different recidivism risk assessment methods for sexual offenders under community supervision for scientific and practical use in the German-speaking part of Europe. In this paper we present the German adaptation of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG), a specific risk assessment tool for sexual offenders that was developed and published in 1998 in Canada. We examined int...

  6. Saving time and money: a validation of the self ratings on the prospective NIMH life-chart method (NIMH-LCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Born, Christoph; Amann, Benedikt L; GRUNZE, HEINZ; Post, Robert M.; Schärer, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background: Careful observation of the longitudinal course of bipolar disorders is pivotal to finding optimal treatments and improving outcome. A useful tool is the daily prospective Life-Chart Method, developed by the National Institute of Mental Health. However, it remains unclear whether the patient version is as valid as the clinician version. Methods: We compared the patient-rated version of the Lifechart (LC-self) with the Young-Mania-Rating Scale (YMRS), Inventory of Depressive Symptom...

  7. The High-Dose Aldesleukin “Select” Trial: A Trial to Prospectively Validate Predictive Models of Response Treatment in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, David F.; Cheng, Su-Chun; Signoretti, Sabina; Margolin, Kim A.; Clark, Joseph I.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Dutcher, Janice P.; Logan, Theodore F.; Curti, Brendan D.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Appleman, Leonard; Wong, Michael K.K.; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Oleksowicz, Leslie; Vaishampayan, Ulka N.; Mier, James W.; Panka, David J.; Bhatt, Rupal S.; Bailey, Alexandra S.; Leibovich, Bradley C.; Kwon, Eugene D.; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F.; Belldegrun, Arie S.; Figlin, Robert A.; Pantuck, Allan J.; Regan, Meredith M.; Atkins, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose High-dose aldesleukin (HD IL-2) received FDA approval for the treatment of mRCC in 1992, producing a 14% objective response rate (ORR) and durable remissions. Retrospective studies suggested that clinical and pathologic features could predict for benefit. The Cytokine Working Group conducted this prospective trial to validate proposed predictive markers of response to HD IL-2. Experimental Design Standard HD IL-2 was administered to prospectively evaluate whether the ORR of mRCC patients with “good” predictive pathologic features based on an “integrated selection” model (ISM) (e.g. clear-cell histology sub-classification and carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA-9) IHC staining) was significantly higher than the ORR of a historical, unselected population. Archived tumor was collected for pathologic analysis including tumor programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Results 120 eligible patients enrolled between 11/06 and 7/09; 70% were MSKCC intermediate risk, 96% had clear cell RCC and 99% had prior nephrectomy. The independently assessed ORR was 25% (30/120, 95% CI = 17.5%–33.7%, p=0.0014) (3 CR, 27 PR) and was higher than a historical ORR. Thirteen patients (11%) remained progression-free at 3 years and the median OS was 42.8 months. ORR was not statistically different by ISM classification (“good-risk” 23% vs. “poor-risk” 30%, (p=0.39)). ORR was positively associated with tumor PD-L1 expression (p=0.01) by IHC. Conclusions In this prospective, biomarker validation study, HD IL-2 produced durable remissions and prolonged survival in both “good” and “poor-risk” patients. The proposed ISM was unable to improve the selection criteria. Novel markers (e.g. tumor PD-L1expression) appeared useful, but require independent validation. PMID:25424850

  8. Predicting Reoffence in Sexual Offender Subtypes: A Prospective Validation Study of the German Version of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rettenberger

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a prospective, longitudinal research project to evaluate the reliability and validity of different recidivism risk assessment methods for sexual offenders under community supervision for scientific and practical use in the German-speaking part of Europe. In this paper we present the German adaptation of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG, a specific risk assessment tool for sexual offenders that was developed and published in 1998 in Canada. We examined interrater reliability, concurrent validity and predictive validity of the German version of the instrument with a sample of 254 male sexual offenders arrested in the Austrian penal system. The German SORAG showed good results for interrater reliability and concurrent validity. The predictive validity was determined using subgroups of the sample based on each offender’s index offence. The results were predominantly good, but the ability of the instrument to predict sexual and violent recidivism varied depending on offender type. The best results could be obtained for the prediction of re-imprisonment. The conclusion of this study is that the German version of the SORAG performs equally well and is most useful in predicting serious reoffenses.

  9. Prospective validation of a risk calculator which calculates the probability of a positive prostate biopsy in a contemporary clinical cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Heidi A.; Kranse, Ries; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van der Poel, Henk G.; Busstra, Martijn; Kil, Paul; Oomens, Eric H.; de Jong, Igle J.; Bangma, Chris H.; Roobol, Monique J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prediction models need validation to assess their value outside the development setting. Objective: To assess the external validity of the European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) Risk Calculator (RC) in a contemporary clinical cohort. Methods: The RC calculates

  10. A Multi-Center Prospective Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Tool for Severe Clostridium difficile Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Na, Xi

    2015-04-23

    Prediction of severe clinical outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is important to inform management decisions for optimum patient care. Currently, treatment recommendations for CDI vary based on disease severity but validated methods to predict severe disease are lacking. The aim of the study was to derive and validate a clinical prediction tool for severe outcomes in CDI.

  11. Prospective validation of immunological infiltrate for prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer--a substudy of the neoadjuvant GeparQuinto trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Issa-Nummer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We have recently described an increased lymphocytic infiltration rate in breast carcinoma tissue is a significant response predictor for anthracycline/taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate the tumor-associated lymphocyte infiltrate as predictive marker for response to anthracycline/taxane-based NACT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The immunological infiltrate was prospectively evaluated in a total of 313 core biopsies from HER2 negative patients of the multicenter PREDICT study, a substudy of the neoadjuvant GeparQuinto study. Intratumoral lymphocytes (iTuLy, stromal lymphocytes (strLy as well as lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC were evaluated by histopathological assessment. Pathological complete response (pCR rates were analyzed and compared between the defined subgroups using the exact test of Fisher. RESULTS: Patients with lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC had a significantly increased pCR rate of 36.6%, compared to non-LPBC patients (14.3%, p<0.001. LPBC and stromal lymphocytes were significantly independent predictors for pCR in multivariate analysis (LPBC: OR 2.7, p = 0.003, strLy: OR 1.2, p = 0.01. The amount of intratumoral lymphocytes was significantly predictive for pCR in univariate (OR 1.2, p = 0.01 but not in multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR 1.2, p = 0.11. CONCLUSION: Confirming previous investigations of our group, we have prospectively validated in an independent cohort that an increased immunological infiltrate in breast tumor tissue is predictive for response to anthracycline/taxane-based NACT. Patients with LPBC and increased stromal lymphocyte infiltration have significantly increased pCR rates. The lymphocytic infiltrate is a promising additional parameter for histopathological evaluation of breast cancer core biopsies.

  12. Tradução, adaptação e validação preliminar do Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire's (PRMQ translation, adaptation and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Benites

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Falhas de memória são comuns no cotidiano. Contudo, elas podem indicar ocorrências de problemas cognitivos, principalmente entre idosos. O artigo traz a tradução e a adaptação do Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ. O instrumento, no original constituído de 16 itens, avalia auto-relatos de falhas de memória prospectiva e retrospectiva. O estudo contou com 642 participantes, com idade variando entre 16 e 81 anos, recrutados em uma universidade e em grupos comunitários. A análise fatorial exploratória dos dados do PRMQ apontou a validade de construto apenas para oito itens. Então, optou-se por reconsiderar mais dois itens que apresentaram carga fatorial aceitável e compor uma escala de 10 itens, sendo cinco para cada dimensão da memória. A correlação para validade convergente e discriminante foi realizada com o Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória para idosos (MAC-Q, em uma amostra de 38 participantes idosos, com idade média de 69 anos. O PRMQ-10 apresentou validade e confiabilidade (a = 0,80, com boas perspectivas para uso em pesquisa.Memory failures are common in daily life. However, these failures could indicate cognitive problems, mainly in elders. This study presents the translation and adaptation of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ to Portuguese. The questionnaire measures prospective and retrospective self-report memory failures through 16 items. There were 642 participants aged between 16 and 81 years recruited in a university and in community groups. The exploratory factor analysis revealed the construct validity only for eight items. So, it was reconsidered two of the original 16 items that showed acceptable factorial load and tested a questionnaire of 10 items. Convergent and concurrent validity was tested in a sample of 38 participants aged around 69 years, through the Elders' Subjective Perception of Memory Complaints Questionnaire (MAC-Q. As

  13. Validation of control of allergic rhinitis and asthma test for children (CARATKids)--a prospective multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Linhares, DV; fonseca, ja; Borrego, LM; Matos, A; Pereira, AM; Sá-Sousa, A; Gaspar, A.; Mendes, C; Moreira, C.; Gomes, E; Rebelo, FF; Cidrais-Rodrigues, JC; Onofre, JM; Azevedo, LF; Alfaro, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test for Children (CARATKids) is the first questionnaire that assesses simultaneously allergic rhinitis and asthma control in children. It was recently developed, but redundancy of questions and its psychometric properties were not assessed. This study aimed to (i) establish the final version of the CARATKids questionnaire and (ii) evaluate its reliability, responsiveness, cross-sectional validity, and longitudinal validity. METHODS: ...

  14. Predictive validity of the UK clinical aptitude test in the final years of medical school: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Husbands, Adrian; Mathieson, Alistair; Dowell, Jonathan; Cleland, Jennifer; MacKenzie, Rhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was designed to address issues identified with traditional methods of selection. This study aims to examine the predictive validity of the UKCAT and compare this to traditional selection methods in the senior years of medical school. This was a follow-up study of two cohorts of students from two medical schools who had previously taken part in a study examining the predictive validity of the UKCAT in first year. Methods The sample consisted of ...

  15. Prospective validation of two models for ultrasonographic diagnosis of cirrhosis Validación prospectiva de dos modelos de diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática mediante ultrasonografía

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Alberto Macías-Rodríguez; Paloma Rendón-Unceta; María Teresa Ramos-Clemente-Romero; Luis Manuel Troiteiro-Carrasco; María Dolores Serrano-León

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to perform a prospective validation and comparative analysis of two ultrasonographic diagnostic scores of cirrhosis in patients with silent liver disease. Design: cross-sectional study, prospective and blind. ROC curves evaluated the diagnostic utility of: a) Bologna score (BS): assessment of liver surface nodularity and portal flow velocity, and b) Cadiz score (CS): assessment of liver echostructure, portal vein caliber and spleen area. Liver biopsy was considered the gold standar...

  16. Validity and reproducibility of self-administered joint counts. A prospective longitudinal followup study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prevoo, MLL; Kuper, IH; vantHof, MA; vanLeeuwen, MA; vandePutte, LBA; vanRiel, PLCM

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the reproducibility and validity of self-administered joint counts (JC), measuring tenderness, swelling and the combination of both, in a longitudinal study, Methods. At the outpatient department a form self-administered by patients (SAI-form), was used to measure joint inv

  17. The validity of student tutors’ judgments in early detection of struggling in medical school. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Mørcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit

    2016-01-01

    early diagnosis of struggling in medical school based on informal teacher judgements of in-class behavior. The study design was a prospective cohort study and the outcomes/truth criteria were anatomy failure and medical school drop out. Six weeks into an anatomy course, student tutors attempted to...... students for signs of struggling. By week six, the student tutors were able to detect approximately 1/4–1/3 of the students who eventually failed or dropped out, and for ¾ of the strugglers they identified, they were correct in their judgments. Informal student tutor’s judgements showed incremental......-class behavior may be an untapped source of information in the early identification of struggling medical students with added value above and beyond formal testing....

  18. Independent prospective validation of a predictive test for risk of radiation induced fibrosis based on the gene expression pattern in fibroblasts irradiated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In a previously published study, we established a predictive test for the risk of radiation-induced fibrosis based on the gene expression pattern in cultured fibroblast irradiated in vitro. The present study was conducted to seek an independent prospective validation of the predictive test in a cohort of patients given curative radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: The study cohort comprised 160 consecutive head and neck cancer patients given curative radiotherapy between 2000 and 2004. The patients were treated according to the DAHANCA protocols. The patients were scored for subcutaneous fibrosis as part of routine follow up. Fibroblast culture was established from skin biopsies. The fibroblasts were irradiated in vitro using a fractionation scheme of 3 times 3.5 Gy. The expression of 9 genes was assessed before and after irradiation of the cells using real time PCR. Results: Based on the radiation-induced expression of the assessed genes, the material was divided into 136 patients having the ‘sensitive expression profile’ and 24 patients having the ‘resistant expression profile’. Within the subset of patients with the ‘sensitive profile’, the cumulative risk of severe fibrosis was 34% at 9 years (Kaplan–Meier) whereas no patients with the ‘resistant profile’ developed severe fibrosis (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Our study provided an independent prospective validation of the previously established predictive test for radiation induced fibrosis. In agreement with our initial findings, the classifier was able to identify a smaller subset of patients that seems to be rather radioresistant and could therefore potentially be considered for dose escalation

  19. External Validation and Calibration of IVFpredict: A National Prospective Cohort Study of 130,960 In Vitro Fertilisation Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew D.A.C.; Kate Tilling; Debbie A Lawlor; Nelson, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurately predicting the probability of a live birth after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is important for patients, healthcare providers and policy makers. Two prediction models (Templeton and IVFpredict) have been previously developed from UK data and are widely used internationally. The more recent of these, IVFpredict, was shown to have greater predictive power in the development dataset. The aim of this study was external validation of the two models and comparison of thei...

  20. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score): A Prospective Cohort Study with External Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkel Brabrand; Annmarie Touborg Lassen; Torben Knudsen; Jesper Hallas

    2015-01-01

    Background Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival. Methods and Findings This observational prospective cohort study used t...

  1. Healthy Team Healthy U: A Prospective Validation of an Evidence-based Worksite Health Promotion and Wellness Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn eGoldberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of a research tested, team-based health promotion and wellness program combined with digital technologies and implemented in a diverse worksite setting among hospital, clinic and university employees. Methods: A prospective cohort study of employees completing biometrics and questionnaires before and after the initial 12-session wellness program and its 12-session booster, one year later. Results: After both the initial intervention and booster, blood pressure and weight were reduced, with greater reductions among employees with pre-hypertension and hypertension and those with a BMI > 25. After both the initial intervention and booster, there was a significant increase in, 1 daily intake of fruit and vegetable servings; 2 days per week of > 30 minutes of exercise; 3 days per week of strength training and 4 levels of moderately vigorous and vigorous daily physical activity. Self-reported indices of depression and work related stress were reduced, while participants reported increased happiness after the initial program and booster. Post booster, average sleep quality and sleep duration increased, among higher risk employees reporting < 6 hours of daily sleep. Employees reported receiving encouragement from co-workers to engage in healthful activities, exercising with fellow employees more, and indicated they would recommend the program to co-workers. Longitudinal analysis revealed the durability of the initial intervention outcomes with further beneficial effects after the booster. Conclusion: A research-tested, comprehensive team-based health promotion and wellness program, combined with digital technologies, positively impacted employee health behaviors, mood, sleep, worker cohesion and biometrics among a diverse multi-site workforce. Positive program effects were durable, with enhanced results after the booster.

  2. External validation and calibration of IVFpredict: a national prospective cohort study of 130,960 in vitro fertilisation cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D A C Smith

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting the probability of a live birth after in vitro fertilisation (IVF is important for patients, healthcare providers and policy makers. Two prediction models (Templeton and IVFpredict have been previously developed from UK data and are widely used internationally. The more recent of these, IVFpredict, was shown to have greater predictive power in the development dataset. The aim of this study was external validation of the two models and comparison of their predictive ability.130,960 IVF cycles undertaken in the UK in 2008-2010 were used to validate and compare the Templeton and IVFpredict models. Discriminatory power was calculated using the area under the receiver-operator curve and calibration assessed using a calibration plot and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The scaled modified Brier score, with measures of reliability and resolution, were calculated to assess overall accuracy. Both models were compared after updating for current live birth rates to ensure that the average observed and predicted live birth rates were equal. The discriminative power of both methods was comparable: the area under the receiver-operator curve was 0.628 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.625-0.631 for IVFpredict and 0.616 (95% CI: 0.613-0.620 for the Templeton model. IVFpredict had markedly better calibration and higher diagnostic accuracy, with calibration plot intercept of 0.040 (95% CI: 0.017-0.063 and slope of 0.932 (95% CI: 0.839-1.025 compared with 0.080 (95% CI: 0.044-0.117 and 1.419 (95% CI: 1.149-1.690 for the Templeton model. Both models underestimated the live birth rate, but this was particularly marked in the Templeton model. Updating the models to reflect improvements in live birth rates since the models were developed enhanced their performance, but IVFpredict remained superior.External validation in a large population cohort confirms IVFpredict has superior discrimination and calibration for informing patients, clinicians and

  3. A clinicopathological study of early-stage synchronous bilateral breast cancer: a retrospective evaluation and prospective validation of potential risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate potential risk factors for synchronous bilateral breast cancer sBBC. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients diagnosed and treated with operable bilateral breast cancer (BBC between June 2007 and December 2011. Risk factors for sBBC were evaluated in this cohort and further validated in a prospective observational validation analysis of patients between January 2012 and December 2012. Patients treated with operable unilateral breast cancer during the same period were used as a control group. RESULTS: A total of 11,247 patients with primary breast cancer underwent operations at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between June 2007 and December 2012. The incidence of sBBC was 1.6%. The age at diagnosis (HR = 2.4, 95% C.I.: 1.4-4.0, p = 0.001, presence of sclerosing adenosis (HR = 11.8, 95% C.I.: 5.3-26.3, p<0.001, lobular carcinoma component involvement (HR = 5.6, 95% C.I.: 2.6-12.1, p<0.001, and family history of first-degree relatives with breast cancer (HR = 2.0, 95% C.I.: 1.1-3.4, p<0.001 were independent risk factors for sBBC. A subsequent validation study failed to confirm the significance of family history. No significant difference on survival was found between patients with early-stage sBBC and control cases. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with the presence of sclerosing in the affected breast, and lobular carcinoma component involvement may be at high risk for developing sBBC. This study supports the hypothesis that the host-carcinoma biological relationship, especially for the tumor microenvironment, played a critical role in the carcinogenesis of sBBC.

  4. The development and validation of a technology-integrated learning environments instrument to measure the contributions of online communications to prospective science teachers' learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Sunhee

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Technology-Integrated Learning Environments Survey (TILES) instrument to assess prospective science teachers' perceptions of their online learning environments and to provide psychometric evidence of validity and reliability for the instrument. First, the original draft instrument development started with defining the three constructs of pedagogy, technology, and practice from the hypothetical Technology-Integrated Learning Environments model. Second, 63 initial items with a five-point Likert-type scale were generated to represent the three constructs. Third, each of the initial items was reviewed for clarity and appropriateness of item content by an expert panel consisting of one faculty and four graduate students in science education. Fourth, based on the panel's judgments, 40 items were selected for the first draft instrument and revised to clearly represent the contents of the corresponding construct. Fifth, the first instrument was administered to 43 prospective elementary science teachers in two sections of SCIED 458-Teaching Elementary School Science at The Pennsylvania State University at the end (14th week) of spring semester 2000. Sixth, item analysis was conducted to select internally consistent items constituting each of the pedagogy, technology, and practice constructs. Seventh, internal consistency reliability was assessed across the three constructs. The second draft instrument development started with the extension of the Technology-Integrated Learning Environments model to fit online communications learning environments in prospective science teacher education. An online communications learning environment was hypothesized to have a hierarchical structure in that two underlying subconstructs resided in each of the three constructs: reflection and collaboration in pedagogy, multiple ideas and time flexibility in technology, and feedback and autonomy in practice. At the eighth step of the TILES instrument

  5. Collaborative Ocular Oncology Group Report No. 1: Prospective Validation of a Multi-Gene Prognostic Assay in Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Michael D.; Worley, Lori A.; Char, Devron H.; Augsburger, James J.; Correa, Zelia M; Nudleman, Eric; Aaberg, Thomas M.; Altaweel, Michael M.; Bardenstein, David S.; Finger, Paul T.; Gallie, Brenda L.; Harocopos, George J.; Hovland, Peter G.; McGowan, Hugh D.; Milman, Tatyana; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi; Simpson, E. Rand; Smith, Morton E.; Wilson, David J.; Wirostko, William J.; Harbour, J. William

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the prognostic performance of a 15 gene expression profiling (GEP) assay that assigns primary posterior uveal melanomas to prognostic subgroups: class 1 (low metastatic risk) and class 2 (high metastatic risk). Design Prospective, multicenter study. Participants 459 patients with posterior uveal melanoma were enrolled from 12 independent centers. Testing Tumors were classified by GEP as class 1 or class 2. The first 260 samples were also analyzed for chromosome 3 status using a single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Net reclassification improvement analysis was performed to compare the prognostic accuracy of GEP to the 7th edition clinical Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) classification and to chromosome 3 status. Main Outcome Measures Patients were managed for their primary tumor and monitored for metastasis. Results The GEP assay successfully classified 446/459 (97.2%) cases. The GEP was class 1 in 276 cases (61.9%) and class 2 in 170 cases (38.1%). Median follow-up was 17.4 months (mean, 18.0 months). Metastasis was detected in 3 (1.1%) class 1 cases and 44 (25.9%) class 2 cases (log rank test, P<10−14). Although there was an association between GEP class 2 and monosomy 3 (Fisher exact test, P<0.0001), 54/260 (20.8%) tumors were discordant for GEP and chromosome 3 status, among which GEP demonstrated superior prognostic accuracy (log rank test, P=0.0001). Using multivariate Cox modeling, GEP class had a stronger independent association with metastasis than any other prognostic factor (P<0.0001). Chromosome 3 status did not contribute additional prognostic information that was independent of GEP (P=0.2). At three years follow-up, the net reclassification improvement of GEP over TNM classification was 0.43 (P=0.001) and 0.38 (P=0.004) over chromosome 3 status. Conclusions The GEP assay had a high technical success rate and was the most accurate prognostic marker among all of the factors analyzed. GEP provided a highly significant

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Computed Tomography Colonography and Colonoscopy: A Prospective and Validated Analysis of 231 Paired Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Detection of colorectal tumors with computed tomography colonography (CTC) is an alternative to conventional colonoscopy (CC), and clarification of the diagnostic performance is essential for cost-effective use of both technologies. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of CTC compared with CC. Material and Methods: 231 consecutive CTCs were performed prior to same-day scheduled CC. The radiologist and endoscopists were blinded to each other's findings. Patients underwent a polyethylene glycol bowel preparation, and were scanned in prone and supine positions using a single-detector helical CT scanner and commercially available software for image analysis. Findings were validated (matched) in an unblinded comparison with video-recordings of the CCs and re-CCs in cases of doubt. Results: For patients with polyps 5 mm and 10 mm, the sensitivity was 69% (95% CI 58-80%) and 81% (68-94%), and the specificity was 91% (84-98%) and 98% (93-100%), respectively. For detection of polyps 5 mm and 10 mm, the sensitivity was 66% (57-75%) and 77% (65-89%). A flat, elevated low-grade carcinoma was missed by CTC. One cancer relapse was missed by CC, and a cecal cancer was missed by an incomplete CC and follow-up double-contrast barium enema. Conclusion: CC was superior to CTC and should remain first choice for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. However, for diagnosis of lesions 10 mm, CTC and CC should be considered as complementary methods

  7. Diagnostic Performance of Computed Tomography Colonography and Colonoscopy: A Prospective and Validated Analysis of 231 Paired Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnesen, R.B.; Benzon, E. von; Adamsen, S.; Svendsen, L.B.; Raaschou, H.O.; Hart Hansen, O. [Dept. of Surgery and Dept. of Radiology, Hilleroed Hospital, Hi lleroed (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Detection of colorectal tumors with computed tomography colonography (CTC) is an alternative to conventional colonoscopy (CC), and clarification of the diagnostic performance is essential for cost-effective use of both technologies. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of CTC compared with CC. Material and Methods: 231 consecutive CTCs were performed prior to same-day scheduled CC. The radiologist and endoscopists were blinded to each other's findings. Patients underwent a polyethylene glycol bowel preparation, and were scanned in prone and supine positions using a single-detector helical CT scanner and commercially available software for image analysis. Findings were validated (matched) in an unblinded comparison with video-recordings of the CCs and re-CCs in cases of doubt. Results: For patients with polyps 5 mm and 10 mm, the sensitivity was 69% (95% CI 58-80%) and 81% (68-94%), and the specificity was 91% (84-98%) and 98% (93-100%), respectively. For detection of polyps 5 mm and 10 mm, the sensitivity was 66% (57-75%) and 77% (65-89%). A flat, elevated low-grade carcinoma was missed by CTC. One cancer relapse was missed by CC, and a cecal cancer was missed by an incomplete CC and follow-up double-contrast barium enema. Conclusion: CC was superior to CTC and should remain first choice for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. However, for diagnosis of lesions 10 mm, CTC and CC should be considered as complementary methods.

  8. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10spa) in Colombia. A Blinded Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Cadavid, Luis Fernando; Gutiérrez-Achury, Alejandra María; Ruales-Suárez, Karem; Rengifo-Varona, Maria Leonor; Barros, Camilo; Posada, Andrés; Romero, Carlos; Galvis, Ana María

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia might affect 12 % of the general population, and its complications include pneumonia, malnutrition, social isolation, and death. No validated Spanish symptom survey exists to quantify dysphagia symptoms among Latin Americans. Therefore, we performed a prospective cohort study in a tertiary care university hospital to validate the Spanish version of the 10-Item Eating-Assessment-Tool (EAT-10spa) for use in Colombia. After an interdisciplinary committee of five bilingual specialists evaluated the EAT-10spa (translated and validated in Spain) and deemed it appropriate for the Colombian culture, its feasibility, reliability, validity, sensitivity to change, and diagnostic capacity were evaluated. As a reference standard, we used the flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing and a standardized clinical evaluation. All assessments were blinded. In total, 133 subjects were included (52 % women, mean age 55 years) and completed the EAT-10spa (median completion time: 2 min [IQR 1-3 min]), 39 % of whom had an elementary-level education. Cronbach's α coefficient: 0.91; test-retest intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.94. The Spearman's correlation coefficient of the EAT-10spa with the 8-point penetration-aspiration scale was 0.54 (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC-ROC) for dysphagia and aspiration were 0.79 (P < 0.001) and 0.81 (P < 0.001), respectively. The best cut-off points for dysphagia and aspiration were EAT-10spa ≥2 (sensitivity 93.6 %, specificity 36.4 %) and EAT-10spa ≥4 (sensitivity 94.3 %, specificity 49.5 %), respectively. A reduction in the EAT-10 ≥3 was the best cut-off point for a clinically significant improvement (AUC-ROC 0.83; P < 0.0001). The EAT-10spa showed excellent psychometric properties and discriminatory capacity for use in Colombia. PMID:26803775

  9. Predicting the risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Men and Women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and external validation of the QKidney® Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland Carol

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Kidney Disease is a major cause of morbidity and interventions now exist which can reduce risk. We sought to develop and validate two new risk algorithms (the QKidney® Scores for estimating (a the individual 5 year risk of moderate-severe CKD and (b the individual 5 year risk of developing End Stage Kidney Failure in a primary care population. Methods We conducted a prospective open cohort study using data from 368 QResearch® general practices to develop the scores. We validated the scores using two separate sets of practices - 188 separate QResearch® practices and 364 practices contributing to the THIN database. We studied 775,091 women and 799,658 men aged 35-74 years in the QResearch® derivation cohort, who contributed 4,068,643 and 4,121,926 person-years of observation respectively. We had two main outcomes (a moderate-severe CKD (defined as the first evidence of CKD based on the earliest of any of the following: kidney transplant; kidney dialysis; diagnosis of nephropathy; persistent proteinuria; or glomerular filtration rate of We derived separate risk equations for men and women. We calculated measures of calibration and discrimination using the two separate validation cohorts. Results Our final model for moderate-severe CKD included: age, ethnicity, deprivation, smoking, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, treated hypertension, congestive cardiac failure; peripheral vascular disease, NSAID use and family history of kidney disease. In addition, it included SLE and kidney stones in women. The final model for End Stage Kidney Failure was similar except it did not include NSAID use. Each risk prediction algorithms performed well across all measures in both validation cohorts. For the THIN cohort, the model to predict moderate-severe CKD explained 56.38% of the total variation in women and 57.49% for men. The D statistic values were high with values of 2.33 for

  10. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissing Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. Methods Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external reference. Results A total of 6134 medical events were reported at the COPSAC interviews. Additional 586 medical events were recorded by family practitioners but not reported at the interview. There were no missed events related to asthma, eczema or allergy. Respiratory, infectious and skin related symptoms showed completeness above 90%, other diseases showed lower completeness around 77%. There was no meaningful influence from concurrent asthma or socioeconomics. Conclusions The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives, atopic disease, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. Our findings support the validity of parental interviews in longitudinal cohort studies investigating atopic disease and illness in childhood.

  11. Heart rate at discharge and long-term prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in stable and acute coronary syndromes — results from the BASKET PROVE trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Kaiser, Christoph; Sandsten, Karl Erik; Alber, Hannes; Wanitschek, Maria; Iversen, Allan; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Sune; Soerensen, Rikke; Rickli, Hans; Zurek, Marzena; Fahrni, Gregor; Bertel, Osmund; De Servi, Stefano; Erne, Paul; Pfisterer, Matthias; Galatius, Søren; investigators, for the BASKET-PROVE

    2013-01-01

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with mortality in a number of heart diseases. We examined the long-term prognostic significance of HR at discharge in a contemporary population of patients with stable angina (SAP), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), and ST...

  12. Perfusion-metabolism coupling in recurrent gliomas: a prospective validation study with {sup 13}N-ammonia and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangembam, Bangkim Chandra; Karunanithi, Sellam; Sharma, Punit; Kc, Sudhir Suman; Kumar, Rajeev; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi (India); Julka, Pramod Kumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, New Delhi (India)

    2014-10-15

    We assessed the validity of ''perfusion-metabolism coupling'' hypothesis in recurrent glioma with {sup 13}N-ammonia ({sup 13}N-NH{sub 3}) PET/CT and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) PET/CT. Fifty-six consecutive patients (age, 38.8 ± 12.1 years; 62.5 % males) with histologically proven and previously treated glioma presenting with clinical suspicion of recurrence were prospectively enrolled and evaluated with {sup 13}N-NH{sub 3} PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. PET/CT images were evaluated both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Tumor to white matter uptake ratio (T/W) and tumor to gray matter uptake ratio (T/G) were calculated and analyzed for both the modalities. A combination of clinico-radiological follow-up, repeated imaging, and biopsy (when available) were considered as the reference standard. Based on the reference standard, 27/56 patients had recurrence. {sup 13}N-NH{sub 3} PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were concordant in 55/56 patients. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of {sup 13}N-NH{sub 3}PET/CT were 77.8, 86.2, 84.0, 80.7, and 82.1 %, respectively, and for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were 77.8, 89.7, 87.5, 81.2, and 83.9 %, respectively. There was excellent agreement between results of {sup 13}N-NH{sub 3} PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT (k = 0.964; P < 0.001). The performances of {sup 13}N-NH{sub 3} PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were not significantly different between high-grade and low-grade glioma (P = 1.000). A strong positive correlation was noted between the uptake ratios derived on the two modalities (ρ = 0.866, P < 0.001 for T/W; ρ = 0.918, P < 0.001 for T/G). A combination of {sup 13}N-NH{sub 3} PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT demonstrates that perfusion and metabolism are coupled in recurrent gliomas. These tracers target two different but interrelated aspects of the same pathologic process and can be used as surrogates for each other. (orig.)

  13. Clinical Reliability and Validity of Prospective Memory Test for Schizophrenics%前瞻性记忆测验对精神分裂症患者的临床信度和效度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林平; 谢孟杰; 邹义壮; 郜肖肖; 张勇; 温玉杰; 郑文静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop Prospective Memory Test and explore its reliability and validity in normal and schizophrenic popula-tion. Methods According to the structure of prospective memory, Prospective Memory Test was developed based on the previous researches. 40 inpatients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy subjects were assessed with Prospective Memory Test and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition, Chinese (WMS-Ⅳ). Results Factor analysis extracted 2 main factors, named time-based prospective memory (TBPM) and event-based prospective memory (EBPM), including 10 items. The average score of Prospective Memory Test was lower in the patients than in the healthy controls by 1~2 standard deviations (P1,累计贡献率46.1%),10个条目的因子载荷均≥0.4。精神分裂症组前瞻性记忆任务平均分比正常对照组低1~2个标准差(P<0.001)。判别分析显示,测验的特异性为93.3%,敏感性为72.5%;与金标准符合率为81.4%。精神分裂症组前瞻性记忆测验总分和分测验评分与WMS-Ⅳ总分均呈正相关(r=0.44~0.53, P<0.001)。条目间Cronbach'sα=0.76,基于时间的前瞻性记忆分测验的Cronbach'sα=0.68;基于事件的前瞻性记忆分测验的Cronbach'sα=0.59。测验的分半信度为0.65(P<0.001)。结论前瞻性记忆测验对精神分裂症患者具有较好的临床信度和效度。

  14. Newest-generation drug-eluting and bare-metal stents combined with prasugrel-based antiplatelet therapy in large coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeger, Raban; Pfisterer, Matthias; Alber, Hannes; Eberli, Franz; Galatius, Søren; Naber, Christoph; Pedrazzini, Giovanni; Rickli, Hans; Jensen, Jan Skov; Vuilliomenet, André; Gilgen, Nicole; Kaiser, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In the BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitäts Trial PROspective Validation Examination (BASKET-PROVE), drug-eluting stents (DESs) had similar 2-year rates of death and myocardial infarction but lower rates of target vessel revascularization and major adverse cardiac events compared with bare-metal sten...... (BMSs). However, comparative clinical effects of newest-generation DES with biodegradable polymers vs second-generation DES or newest-generation BMS with biocompatible coatings, all combined with a prasugrel-based antiplatelet therapy, on 2-year outcomes are not known....

  15. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed...... birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an...

  16. Empirically Derived Dehydration Scoring and Decision Tree Models for Children With Diarrhea: Assessment and Internal Validation in a Prospective Cohort Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Adam C.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Rege, Soham; Chu, Chieh; Schmid, Christopher H.; Alam, Nur H

    2015-01-01

    The DHAKA Dehydration Score and the DHAKA Dehydration Tree are the first empirically derived and internally validated diagnostic models for assessing dehydration in children with acute diarrhea for use by general practice nurses in a resource-limited setting. Frontline providers can use these new tools to better classify and manage dehydration in children.

  17. Adverse events of interferon beta-1a: a prospective multi-centre international ICH-GCP-based CRO-supported external validation study in daily practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.H.; Sindic, C.; Sanders, E.; Hawkins, S.; Linssen, W.; Munster, E. van; Frequin, S.T.F.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to methodological shortcomings the available post-registration data on the adverse events (AEs) occurring in interferon beta-1a (INFb-1a)-treated patients fail to adequately validate phase III data and only partially inform on safety in daily practice. We assessed AEs in relapsing re

  18. Development and validation of serum bilirubin nomogram to predict the absence of risk for severe hyperbilirubinaemia before discharge: a prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romagnoli Costantino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early discharge of healthy late preterm and full term newborn infants has become common practice because of the current social and economic necessities. Severe jaundice, and even kernicterus, has developed in some term infants discharged early. This study was designed to elaborate a percentile-based hour specific total serum bilirubin (TSB nomogram and to assess its ability to predict the absence of risk for subsequent non physiologic severe hyperbilirubinaemia before discharge. Methods A percentile-based hour-specific nomogram for TSB values was performed using TSB data of 1708 healthy full term neonates. The nomogram's predictive ability was then prospectively assessed in five different first level neonatal units, using a single TSB value determined before discharge. Results The 75 th percentile of hour specific TSB nomogram allows to predict newborn babies without significant hyperbilirubinemia only after the first 72 hours of life. In the first 48 hours of life the observation of false negative results did not permit a safe discharge from the hospital. Conclusion The hour-specific TSB nomogram is able to predict all neonates without risk of non physiologic hyperbilirubinemia only after 48 to 72 hours of life. The combination of TSB determination and risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia could facilitate a safe discharge from the hospital and a targeted intervention and follow-up.

  19. Prospective Study Validating Inter- and Intraobserver Variability of Tissue Compliance Meter in Breast Tissue of Healthy Volunteers: Potential Implications for Patients With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accurate detection of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is crucial in management of breast cancer survivors. Tissue compliance meter (TCM) has been validated in musculature. We validate TCM in healthy breast tissue with respect to interobserver and intraobserver variability before applying it in RIF. Methods and Materials: Three medical professionals obtained three consecutive TCM measurements in each of the four quadrants of the right and left breasts of 40 women with no breast disease or surgical intervention. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed interobserver variability. The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were used to assess intraobserver variability within each rater. Results: The median age was 45 years (range, 24-68 years). The median bra size was 35C (range, 32A-40DD). Of the participants, 27 were white (67%), 4 black (10%), 5 Asian (13%), and 4 Hispanic (10%). ICCs indicated excellent interrater reliability (low interobserver variability) among the three raters, by breast and quadrant (all ICC ≥0.99). The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient both indicated low intraobserver variability within each rater (right vs. left breast), stratified by quadrant (all r≥ 0.94, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The interobserver and intraobserver variability is small using TCM in healthy mammary tissue. We are now embarking on a prospective study using TCM in women with breast cancer at risk of developing RIF that may guide early detection, timely therapeutic intervention, and assessment of success of therapy for RIF.

  20. Validation of prospective whole-body bone marrow dosimetry by SPECT/CT multimodality imaging in {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 rituximab radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucek, Jan A. [Fremantle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fremantle (Australia); Turner, J. Harvey [Fremantle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fremantle (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Medicine and Pharmacology (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is emerging as a promising treatment strategy. Myelosuppression is the dose-limiting toxicity and may be particularly problematic in patients heavily pretreated with chemotherapy. Reliable dosimetry is likely to minimise toxicity and improve treatment efficacy, and the aim of this study was to elucidate the complex problems of dosimetry of RIT by using an integrated SPECT/CT system. As a part of a clinical trial of {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 rituximab RIT of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, we employed a patient-specific prospective dosimetry method utilising the whole-body effective half-life of antibody and the patient's ideal weight to calculate the administered activity for RIT corresponding to a prescribed radiation absorbed dose of 0.75 Gy to the whole body. A novel technique of quantitation of bone marrow uptake with hybrid SPECT/CT imaging was developed to validate this methodology by using post-RIT extended imaging and data collection. A strong, statistically significant correlation (p=0.001) between whole-body effective half-life of antibody and effective marrow half-life was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was found that bone marrow activity concentration was proportional to administered activity per unit weight, height or body surface area (p<0.001). The results of this study show the proposed whole-body dosimetry method to be valid and clinically applicable for safe, effective RIT. (orig.)

  1. Validation of Two MODIS Aerosols Algorithms with SKYNET and Prospects for Future Climate Satellites Such as the GCOM-C/SGLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules R. Dim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential improvements of aerosols algorithms for future climate-oriented satellites such as the coming Global Change Observation Mission Climate/Second generation Global Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI are discussed based on a validation study of three years’ (2008–2010 daily aerosols properties, that is, the aerosol optical thickness (AOT and the Ångström exponent (AE retrieved from two MODIS algorithms. The ground-truth data used for this validation study are aerosols measurements from 3 SKYNET ground sites. The results obtained show a good agreement between the ground-truth data AOT and that of one of the satellites’ algorithms, then a systematic overestimation (around 0.2 by the other satellites’ algorithm. The examination of the AE shows a clear underestimation (by around 0.2–0.3 by both satellites’ algorithms. The uncertainties explaining these ground-satellites’ algorithms discrepancies are examined: the cloud contamination affects differently the aerosols properties (AOT and AE of both satellites’ algorithms due to the retrieval scale differences between these algorithms. The deviation of the real part of the refractive index values assumed by the satellites’ algorithms from that of the ground tends to decrease the accuracy of the AOT of both satellites’ algorithms. The asymmetry factor (AF of the ground tends to increase the AE ground-satellites discrepancies as well.

  2. DUNDRUM-2: Prospective validation of a structured professional judgment instrument assessing priority for admission from the waiting list for a Forensic Mental Health Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Grainne

    2011-07-03

    Abstract Background The criteria for deciding who should be admitted first from a waiting list to a forensic secure hospital are not necessarily the same as those for assessing need. Criteria were drafted qualitatively and tested in a prospective \\'real life\\' observational study over a 6-month period. Methods A researcher rated all those presented at the weekly referrals meeting using the DUNDRUM-1 triage security scale and the DUNDRUM-2 triage urgency scale. The key outcome measure was whether or not the individual was admitted. Results Inter-rater reliability and internal consistency for the DUNDRUM-2 were acceptable. The DUNDRUM-1 triage security score and the DUNDRUM-2 triage urgency score correlated r = 0.663. At the time of admission, after a mean of 23.9 (SD35.9) days on the waiting list, those admitted had higher scores on the DUNDRUM-2 triage urgency scale than those not admitted, with no significant difference between locations (remand or sentenced prisoners, less secure hospitals) at the time of admission. Those admitted also had higher DUNDRUM-1 triage security scores. At baseline the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve for a combined score was the best predictor of admission while at the time of admission the DUNDRUM-2 triage urgency score had the largest AUC (0.912, 95% CI 0.838 to 0.986). Conclusions The triage urgency items and scale add predictive power to the decision to admit. This is particularly true in maintaining equitability between those referred from different locations.

  3. Effects of Treatment Intensification on Acute Local Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Prospective Observational Study Validating CTCAE, Version 3.0, Scoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence and severity of acute local toxicity in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT), with or without chemotherapy (CHT), using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0), scoring system. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2006, 149 patients with head and neck cancer treated with RT at our center were prospectively evaluated for local toxicity during treatment. On a weekly basis, patients were monitored and eight toxicity items were recorded according to the CTCAE v3.0 scoring system. Of the 149 patients, 48 (32%) were treated with RT alone (conventional fractionation), 82 (55%) with concomitant CHT and conventional fractionation RT, and 20 (13%) with accelerated-fractionation RT and CHT. Results: Severe (Grade 3-4) adverse events were recorded in 28% (mucositis), 33% (dysphagia), 40% (pain), and 12% (skin) of patients. Multivariate analysis showed CHT to be the most relevant factor independently predicting for worse toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia, weight loss, salivary changes). In contrast, previous surgery, RT acceleration and older age, female gender, and younger age, respectively, predicted for a worse outcome of mucositis, weight loss, pain, and dermatitis. The T-score method confirmed that conventional RT alone is in the 'low-burden' class (T-score = 0.6) and suggests that concurrent CHT and conventional fractionation RT is in the 'high-burden' class (T-score = 1.15). Combined CHT and accelerated-fractionation RT had the highest T-score at 1.9. Conclusions: The CTCAE v3.0 proved to be a reliable tool to quantify acute toxicity in head and neck cancer patients treated with various treatment intensities. The effect of CHT and RT acceleration on the acute toxicity burden was clinically relevant

  4. Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brabrand

    Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.

  5. Development and validation of a risk score for chronic kidney disease in HIV infection using prospective cohort data from the D:A:D study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice. METHODS AND...... independent cohorts. In the D:A:D study, 641 individuals developed CKD during 103,185 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; incidence 6.2/1,000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7-6.7; median follow-up 6.1 y, range 0.3-9.1 y). Older age, intravenous drug use, hepatitis C coinfection, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4...

  6. Validation of a multimarker model for assessing risk of type 2 diabetes from a five-year prospective study of 6784 Danish people (Inter99)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urdea, Mickey; Kolberg, Janice; Wilber, Judith; Gerwien, Robert; Moler, Edward; Rowe, Michael; Jorgensen, Paul; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improved identification of subjects at high risk for development of type 2 diabetes would allow preventive interventions to be targeted toward individuals most likely to benefit. In previous research, predictive biomarkers were identified and used to develop multivariate models to...... fasting glucose or metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The PreDx DRS provides the absolute risk of diabetes conversion in five years for subjects identified to be "at risk" using the clinical factors....... assess an individual's risk of developing diabetes. Here we describe the training and validation of the PreDx Diabetes Risk Score (DRS) model in a clinical laboratory setting using baseline serum samples from subjects in the Inter99 cohort, a population-based primary prevention study of cardiovascular...

  7. Harmonizing SUVs in multicentre trials when using different generation PET systems: prospective validation in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnon, Charline; Quak, Elske [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Desmonts, Cedric [Caen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Gervais, Radj; Do, Pascal; Dubos-Arvis, Catherine [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Thoracic Oncology, Caen (France); Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Centre Francois Baclesse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Caen cedex 5 (France)

    2013-07-15

    We prospectively evaluated whether a strategy using point spread function (PSF) reconstruction for both diagnostic and quantitative analysis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients meets the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for harmonization of quantitative values. The NEMA NU-2 phantom was used to determine the optimal filter to apply to PSF-reconstructed images in order to obtain recovery coefficients (RCs) fulfilling the EANM guidelines for tumour positron emission tomography (PET) imaging (PSF{sub EANM}). PET data of 52 consecutive NSCLC patients were reconstructed with unfiltered PSF reconstruction (PSF{sub allpass}), PSF{sub EANM} and with a conventional ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm known to meet EANM guidelines. To mimic a situation in which a patient would undergo pre- and post-therapy PET scans on different generation PET systems, standardized uptake values (SUVs) for OSEM reconstruction were compared to SUVs for PSF{sub EANM} and PSF{sub allpass} reconstruction. Overall, in 195 lesions, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that the mean ratio between PSF{sub EANM} and OSEM data was 1.03 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.12] and 1.02 (95 % CI 0.90-1.14) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}, respectively. No difference was noticed when analysing lesions based on their size and location or on patient body habitus and image noise. Ten patients (84 lesions) underwent two PET scans for response monitoring. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria, there was an almost perfect agreement between OSEM{sub PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2} (current standard) and OSEM{sub PET1}/PSF{sub EANM-PET2} or PSF{sub EANM-PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2} with kappa values of 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91-1.00) and 0.99 (95 % CI 0.96-1.00), respectively. The use of PSF{sub allpass} either for pre- or post-treatment (i.e. OSEM{sub PET1}/PSF{sub allpass-PET2} or PSF{sub allpass-PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2}) showed

  8. The diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children (DUTY: protocol for a diagnostic and prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Harriet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is common in children, and may cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. However, obtaining a urine sample from young children in primary care is challenging and not feasible for large numbers. Evidence regarding the predictive value of symptoms, signs and urinalysis for UTI in young children is urgently needed to help primary care clinicians better identify children who should be investigated for UTI. This paper describes the protocol for the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY study. The overall study aim is to derive and validate a cost-effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care acutely unwell. Methods/design DUTY is a multicentre, diagnostic and prospective observational study aiming to recruit at least 7,000 children aged before their fifth birthday, being assessed in primary care for any acute, non-traumatic, illness of ≤ 28 days duration. Urine samples will be obtained from eligible consented children, and data collected on medical history and presenting symptoms and signs. Urine samples will be dipstick tested in general practice and sent for microbiological analysis. All children with culture positive urines and a random sample of children with urine culture results in other, non-positive categories will be followed up to record symptom duration and healthcare resource use. A diagnostic algorithm will be constructed and validated and an economic evaluation conducted. The primary outcome will be a validated diagnostic algorithm using a reference standard of a pure/predominant growth of at least >103, but usually >105 CFU/mL of one, but no more than two uropathogens. We will use logistic regression to identify the clinical predictors (i.e. demographic, medical history, presenting signs and symptoms and urine dipstick analysis results most strongly associated with a positive urine culture result. We will

  9. Loan prospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Florian; Inderst, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We offer a theoretical framework to analyze corporate lending when loan officers must be incentivized to prospect for loans and to transmit the soft information they obtain in that process. We explore how this multi-task agency problem shapes loan officers' compensation, banks' use of soft information in credit approval, and their lending standards. When competition intensifies, prospecting for loans becomes more important and banks' internal agency problem worsens. In response to more compet...

  10. The REFER (REFer for EchocaRdiogram protocol: a prospective validation of a clinical decision rule, NT-proBNP, or their combination, in the diagnosis of heart failure in primary care. Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait Lynda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. As mortality rates are high, it is important that patients seen by general practitioners with symptoms suggestive of heart failure are identified quickly and treated appropriately. Identifying patients with heart failure or deciding which patients need further tests is a challenge. All patients with suspected heart failure should be diagnosed using objective tests such as echocardiography, but it is expensive, often delayed, and limited by the significant skill shortage of trained echocardiographers. Alternative approaches for diagnosing heart failure are currently limited. Clinical decision tools that combine clinical signs, symptoms or patient characteristics are designed to be used to support clinical decision-making and validated according to strict methodological procedures. The REFER Study aims to determine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of our previously derived novel, simple clinical decision rule, a natriuretic peptide assay, or their combination, in the triage for referral for echocardiography of symptomatic adult patients who present in general practice with symptoms suggestive of heart failure. Methods/design This is a prospective, Phase II observational, diagnostic validation study of a clinical decision rule, natriuretic peptides or their combination, for diagnosing heart failure in primary care. Consecutive adult primary care patients 55 years of age or over presenting to their general practitioner with a chief complaint of recent new onset shortness of breath, lethargy or peripheral ankle oedema of over 48 hours duration, with no obvious recurrent, acute or self-limiting cause will be enrolled. Our reference standard is based upon a three step expert specialist consensus using echocardiography and clinical variables and tests. Discussion Our clinical decision rule offers a potential solution to the diagnostic challenge of providing a timely and

  11. Clouded Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As the European debt crisis deepens,the word economy has yet to find its footing despite signs of growth and renewed confidence.While the developed world faces the challenge of fiscal indebtedness,many developing countries are feeling the pinch of capital inflows and trade downturn.Global Economic Prospects 2010,the latest report by the World Bank,discussed these issues.Edited excerpts follow:

  12. Prospect redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

    1995-01-01

    The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

  13. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results

  14. Validation of the revised international prognostic scoring system (IPSS-R) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a report from the prospective European LeukaemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, L. de; Smith, A.; Johnston, T.W.; Haase, D.; Droste, J.; Fenaux, P.; Symeonidis, A.; Sanz, G.; Hellstrom-Lindberg, E.; Cermak, J.; Germing, U.; Stauder, R.; Georgescu, O.; MacKenzie, M.; Malcovati, L.; Holm, M.S.; Almeida, A.M.; Madry, K.; Slama, B.; Guerci-Bresler, A.; Sanhes, L.; Beyne-Rauzy, O.; Luno, E.; Bowen, D.; Witte, T.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Baseline characteristics, disease-management and outcome of 1000 lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients within the European LeukaemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) Registry are described in conjunction with the validation of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). The EUMDS regist

  15. Prospective teachers information and communication technology metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Akdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the perceptions of the prospective teachers for the Information and Communications Technology (ICT terms have a remarkable potential to provide input for technology integration plans and ICT trainings. Within this context, the purpose of this study is to discover the metaphors constructed by prospective teachers for the ICT terms. Data were gathered from 180 prospective teachers through survey. 977 valid metaphors constructed by the participants were grouped into conceptual categories for the six ICT terms. The most common conceptual categories are “developing and changing” for technology, “making life easy” for computers and search engines, “limitless and endless” for the Internet, “means of communication” for social networks, and “addictive items” for video games. Future research should concentrate on investigating the match and mismatches between intended use of the ICT tools and the perception of the prospective teachers.

  16. The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test with Chinese brain injured patients%中文版剑桥前瞻性记忆测试量表的信度和标准效度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗子芮; 窦祖林; 郑金利; 陈颖蓓

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨中文版剑桥前瞻性记忆测试(C-CAMPROMPT)用于评估中国脑损伤患者的各种信度和标准效度.方法 按程序将英文版剑桥前瞻性记忆测试(CAMPROMPT)翻译成中文.30例"正常人"作为信度组和39例临床观察发现存在记忆功能障碍的脑损伤患者作为效度组入选本研究.采用相关分析、Cronbach α系数法分析量表的重测信度、测试者间信度、复本信度、同质性信度及标准效度.结果 信度测试的相关系数和Cronbach α系数为0.697~0.951.效度分析结果显示,C-CAMPROMPT总分和基于事件任务得分与Rivermead行为记忆测试(RBMT)各领域得分呈正相关,基于时间任务与中文版Stroop字-颜色测试(C-SCWT)回溯性记忆任务得分呈负相关.结论 C-CAMPROMPT具有良好的信度和效度,可用于临床评估中国脑损伤患者的前瞻性记忆功能.%Objective To evaluate the reliability and criteria validity of the Chinese Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (C-CAMPROMPT) for testing Chinese patients with acquired brain injury. Methods The CAMPROMPT was translated into Chinese. The translated Version was then used with 30 'normal persons' and 39 with acquired brain injury and memory problems. Correlation analysis and Cronbach's a were used to evaluate reliability and criteria validity of the C-CAMPROMPT. Results Correlation and Cronbach's a were in the range 0.697 to 0.951.The total and event-based scores were positively corrlated with all three field Chinese Version of Rivermead Behavior Memory Test scores. Time-based C-CAMPROMPT scores,however,were negatively correlated with Chinese Version of the Stroop Word-Color Test results. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the C-CAMPROMPT were high enough to be used to test the prospective memory of acquired brain injury patients in the clinic.

  17. The Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization/American College of Rheumatology provisional criteria for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: prospective validation of the definition of improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruperto, N; Ravelli, A; Oliviera, S;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization (PRINTO) core set of outcome measures to develop a validated definition of improvement for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Thirty-seven experienced pediatric...... rheumatologists from 27 countries, each of whom had specific experience in the assessment of juvenile SLE patients, achieved consensus on 128 patient profiles as being clinically improved or not improved. Using the physicians' consensus ratings as the gold standard measure, the chi-square, sensitivity......, specificity, false-positive and false-negative rates, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and kappa level of agreement for 597 candidate definitions of improvement were calculated. Only definitions with a kappa value greater than 0.7 were retained. The top definitions were selected based...

  18. Predictive Validity of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations in Predicting All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease-Specific Mortality in a National Prospective Cohort Study of Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-06-01

    The predictive validity of the Pooled Cohort risk (PCR) equations for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and all-cause mortality among a national sample of US adults has yet to be evaluated, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed up through December 31, 2011, to ascertain mortality status via the National Death Index probabilistic algorithm. The analyzed sample included 11,171 CVD-free adults (40-79 years of age). The 10-year risk of a first atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event was determined from the PCR equations. For the entire sample encompassing 849,202 person-months, we found an incidence rate of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93-1.07) all-cause deaths per 1000 person-months and an incidence rate of 0.15 (95% CI, 0.12-0.17) CVD-specific deaths per 1000 person-months. The unweighted median follow-up duration was 72 months. For nearly all analyses (unadjusted and adjusted models with ASCVD expressed as a continuous variable as well as dichotomized at 7.5% and 20%), the ASCVD risk score was significantly associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality (P<.05). In the adjusted model, the increased all-cause mortality risk ranged from 47% to 77% based on an ASCVD risk of 20% or higher and 7.5% or higher, respectively. Those with an ASCVD score of 7.5% or higher had a 3-fold increased risk of CVD-specific mortality. The 10-year predicted risk of a first ASCVD event via the PCR equations was associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among those free of CVD at baseline. In this American adult sample, the PCR equations provide evidence of predictive validity. PMID:27180122

  19. CANDU market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1994 survey of prospective markets for CANDU reactors discusses prospects in Turkey, Thailand, the Philippines, Korea, Indonesia, China and Egypt, and other opportunities, such as in fuel cycles and nuclear safety. It was concluded that foreign partners would be needed to help with financing

  20. Alignment validation

    CERN Document Server

    Golling, T

    2007-01-01

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under construction at CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector and the muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignment information is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  1. SANSMIC Validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David

    2014-08-01

    SANSMIC is solution mining software that was developed and utilized by SNL in its role as geotechnical advisor to the US DOE SPR for planning purposes. Three SANSMIC leach modes - withdrawal, direct, and reverse leach - have been revalidated with multiple test cases for each mode. The withdrawal mode was validated using high quality data from recent leach activity while the direct and reverse modes utilized data from historical cavern completion reports. Withdrawal results compared very well with observed data, including the location and size of shelves due to string breaks with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 10% and relative radius differences from 1.5 - 3%. Profile comparisons for the direct mode were very good with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 12% and relative radius differences from 5 - 7%. First, second, and third reverse configurations were simulated in order to validate SANSMIC over a range of relative hanging string and OBI locations. The first-reverse was simulated reasonably well with relative leached volume differences ranging from 1 - 9% and relative radius differences from 5 - 12%. The second-reverse mode showed the largest discrepancies in leach profile. Leached volume differences ranged from 8 - 12% and relative radius differences from 1 - 10%. In the third-reverse, relative leached volume differences ranged from 10 - 13% and relative radius differences were ~4 %. Comparisons to historical reports were quite good, indicating that SANSMIC is essentially the same as documented and validated in the early 1980's.

  2. The PROSPECT Physics Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ashenfelter, J; Band, H R; Barclay, G; Bass, C D; Berish, D; Bowden, N S; Bowes, A; Bryan, C D; Brodsky, J P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, R; Classen, T; Commeford, K; Davee, D; Dean, D; Deichert, G; Diwan, M V; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Gaison, J K; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilje, K; Glenn, A; Goddard, B W; Green, M; Han, K; Hans, S; Heeger, K M; Heffron, B; Jaffe, D E; Jones, D; Langford, T J; Littlejohn, B R; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McKeown, R D; Mendenhall, M P; Mueller, P; Mumm, H P; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Norcini, D; Pushin, D; Qian, X; Romero, E; Rosero, R; Seilhan, B S; Sharma, R; Sheets, S; Surukuchi, P T; Varner, R L; Viren, B; Wang, W; White, B; White, C; Wilhelmi, J; Williams, C; Wise, T; Yao, H; Yeh, M; Yen, Y -R; Zangakis, G; Zhang, C; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment, PROSPECT, is designed to make a precise measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium reactor and probe eV-scale sterile neutrinos by searching for neutrino oscillations over meter-long distances. PROSPECT is conceived as a 2-phase experiment utilizing segmented $^6$Li-doped liquid scintillator detectors for both efficient detection of reactor antineutrinos through the inverse beta decay reaction and excellent background discrimination. PROSPECT Phase I consists of a movable 3-ton antineutrino detector at distances of 7 - 12 m from the reactor core. It will probe the best-fit point of the $\

  3. Pisciculture marine : Elements de prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: To develop its 2005-2009 strategic plan, IFREMER made two prospective analysis studies in 2003: a thematic prospective analysis and a sectorial prospective analysis. The "aquafarming" sectorial prospective analysis, based primarily on an IFREMER idea, particularly brought to light the difference in nature of problems posed by the future evolution of shellfish farming, fish farming and other stockbreeding (pearl farming and shrimp farming). In addition, the prospective analyses m...

  4. Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…

  5. The Validity of Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Vincent; Vissers, Geert; Heijne, Gerton

    1998-01-01

    Explores the concept of validity in relation to games and simulations, including four aspects of validity that apply to simulations and games (psychological reality, structural validity, process validity, and predictive validity). Factors that may threaten validity during game design are discussed, and suggestions are made to avert these threats.…

  6. Prospects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad overviews presented on the future prospects and conditions of nuclear power. Several graphs and diagrams are shown on energy consumption, energy demand, energy sources, pollution by power plants, mineral fuel inventories, fissionable material inventories, renewable energy sources. The conditions of future utilization of nuclear power and nuclear power plants are discussed. (R.P.)

  7. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review se...

  8. Prospective memory research: why is it relevant?

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegel, M; Martin, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Points out that there are at least three reasons why research in prospective memory is highly relevant. Relevance of prospective memory for everyday life; Clinical relevance of prospective memory; Theoretical relevance of prospective memory.

  9. The uranium market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical analysis of the uranium market points out the cyclical nature of the market and suggests that the spot price, exploration levels, and mill capacity utilization rate are dependent on economic factors. An examination of the current uranium market suggests that the effects of the forecasted surplus supply, the diminishing returns in exploration and the long lead times and high costs of development may mean that future production levels are uncertain. The general prospects for the uranium industry are also uncertain because of barriers to trade, environmental regulations and public opinion. The paper concludes that by the use of long term contracts, appropriate inventory policy and greater discussion between producers and consumers the prospects for the uranium market can be made more certain and further imbalances in demand and supply can be avoided. (author)

  10. Radimetric autotransported prospecting survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure of prospection of minerals (''carborne''). It is characterized to be rapid and low costly if a sufficiently dense highway network is available or if transit with a vehicle across the fields is possible. Instruments, methods and results that may be obtained are given. The detector, a scintillation counter, is mounted on the top of an appropiate car registering continuously the measured values. Subsequently data are put on cartography, obtaining thus the values of iso-radiactivity which determine the values of ''background'' and the favorable zones for pursuing prospection work by other methods. The application of the method to the zone of the Chihuidos, province of Neuquen, is described in details and the obtained conclusions are given. (author)

  11. a prospective comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jäckel, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine effectiveness and safety of homoeopathic vs. conventional treatment for children with atopic eczema in usual care. In a prospective multicentre comparative observational non-randomized study 135 patients (1-14 years old, homoeopathy n=48 vs. conventional n=87) with moderate atopic eczema were included. Treatment was left to the physicians´preferences in both groups. The primary endpoint was the SCORAD (SCOring Atopic Dermatitis) after 6 months. Secondary outcom...

  12. Growth Prospects in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Algeria analyzes the growth prospects of the Algerian economy. Drawing on the findings of the empirical growth literature, the paper combines growth accounting and cross-country growth regressions to examine the role of macroeconomic and institutional factors in driving economic growth. It reviews the past growth performance in Algeria and explores the reasons underpinning the recent pickup in nonhydrocarbon GDP growth. The paper also analyzes labor market devel...

  13. Bright Economic Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minqiu

    2004-01-01

    @@ India is expected to register an 8.2% growth rate for the 2003-04 fiscal year. The overall economic situation this year has been satisfactory despite the scaled down 6-6.5% growth rate for the new fiscal year due to oil price hikes, reduced monsoon volume and some 7% inflation. Judging from the following factors, bright prospects are in store for the country down the road.

  14. Prospective memory in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A. George; Crystal, Jonathon D.

    2011-01-01

    The content of prospective memory is comprised of representations of an action to perform in the future. When people form prospective memories, they temporarily put the memory representation in an inactive state while engaging in other activities, and then activate the representation in the future. Ultimately, successful activation of the memory representation yields an action at an appropriate, but temporally distant, time. A hallmark of prospective memory is that activation of the memory re...

  15. Astronautics summary and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Anatoly Ivanovich; Menshikov, Valery Alexandrovich

    2003-01-01

    The monograph by A.I.Kiselev, A.A. Medvedev and Y.A.Menshikov, Astronautics: Summary and Prospects, aroused enthusiasm both among experts and the public at large. This is due to the felicitous choice of presentation that combines a simple description of complex space matters with scientificsubstantiation of the sub­ jectmatter described. The wealth of color photos makes the book still more attractive, and it was nominated for an award at the 14th International Moscow Book Fair, being singled out as the "best publication of the book fair". The book's popularity led to a second edition, substantially revised and enlarged. Since the first edition did not sufficiently cover the issues of space impact on ecology and the prospective development of space systems, the authors revised the entire volume, including in it the chapter "Space activity and ecology" and the section "Multi-function space systems". Using the federal monitoring system, now in the phase of system engi­ neering, as an example, the authors consi...

  16. Prospects for oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a prelude to drawing conclusions about oil price prospects in the short term, market fundamentals and perceptions are outlined. A net world oil demand growth of close to one million barrels/day above 1991 is expected in 1992. This will result largely in an increased call on OPEC crude oil since supplies from countries outside OPEC are likely to remain static. There is scope for increasing OPEC crude oil production to the necessary level but it will need to be carefully phased with respect to demand in order to avoid a stock overhang which could unsettle the market and undermine OPEC's objective of supporting oil price levels. Market fundamentals, such as production capacity and the revenue needs of the OPEC members, indicate a continuation at least until next year of the basket price in its current relatively narrow range between $15 and $20/bbl, with perhaps some temporary fluctuations. A view of the demand and supply balance during the next few years suggests there is little awaiting beyond the horizon to change this prospect. (UK)

  17. Computer Education and Instructional Technology Prospective Teachers’ Perceptions of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmü Gülsüm DURUKAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the “technology” perception of prospective computer and instructional technologies (CEIT teachers by metaphors. For this purpose the study was carried out with 53 first-year prospective teachers studying in the Department of CEIT in a public university in the fall term of 2014-2015 academic year. The forms consisting of the statement “Technology is like ……………because ………” written few times were used as a data collection tool. Phenomenography design was used in the study and the data were analyzed by content analysis. According to the study's findings, it was found that out of 118 valid metaphors developed by the prospective teachers, 103 of them were included in positive category, 7 were in negative category and 8 were in the neutral category.

  18. Relational visual cluster validity

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Y.; Harrison, R F

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of cluster validity plays a very important role in cluster analysis. Most commonly used cluster validity methods are based on statistical hypothesis testing or finding the best clustering scheme by computing a number of different cluster validity indices. A number of visual methods of cluster validity have been produced to display directly the validity of clusters by mapping data into two- or three-dimensional space. However, these methods may lose too much information to corre...

  19. Prospective Memory Performance across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kliegel, Matthias; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Wei

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored age differences in event-based prospective memory (PM) across adolescence. The tasks consisted of an ongoing task (OT; i.e., personality questionnaire items, math problems) and an embedded prospective task that required participants to remember to make a special response whenever they encountered a PM cue…

  20. The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

  1. Prospects for HTS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes fabricated or under consideration using HTS include Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), rotating electrical machines including synchronous ac and dc homopolar motors and drives, generators and condensers, underground transmission cables, utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation, and specialty magnets such as high field inserts. In this paper the requirements, progress toward these requirements, and the prospects for the future are reviewed

  2. Prospects at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  4. Oil price prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, four different, popular approaches to the analysis of oil price movements will be considered and an alternative method will be proposed. Whilst we await the development of a rigorous theoretical framework within which to evaluate the phenomenon of oil price movements some progress may be effected by an amalgam of approaches, with the traditional supply and demand model being supplemented by observations regarding political and social developments in particular countries or regions, together with an assessment of emerging and prospective technological achievements. In this way it should be possible to identify the critical influences at work, from which it should also be possible to select either the single most important variable or combination of variables, affecting the oil price. Moreover, it is my belief that the crucial variables influencing the oil price almost certainly, are more likely to be political and social, rather than economic. In this context and notwithstanding the fact that there is only a minimal level of surplus productive capacity in the world oil industry at present (perhaps 1-2 million b/d albeit rising rapidly), it is reasonable to conclude that oil prices will average around $18-19 a barrel for North Sea Brent in 1992 and 1993, with oscillations of $2-4 a barrel either side, rising slightly in 1994 to $19-20 a barrel and to $20-21 a barrel in 1995. Thereafter, the most likely outcome is for a rise in line with inflation (say $ a barrel/annum) with no prospect of an upward spike, because demand will be weaker than most commentators expect up to the year 2000, whilst OPEC oil supplies will be substantially higher than the consensus forecast. (author)

  5. Progress and prospects of calculation methods for radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in calculation methods for radiation shielding are reviewed based on the activities of research committees related to radiation shielding fields established in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. A technological roadmap for the field of radiation shielding; progress and prospects for specific shielding calculation methods such as the Monte Carlo, discrete ordinate Sn transport, and simplified methods; and shielding experiments used to validate calculation methods are presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Prospect theory in the health domain: A quantitative assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Attema, Arthur; Brouwer, Werner; L'Haridon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    International audience It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Cumulative prospect, theory (CPT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, CPT's full, function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to, simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in this domain., We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for g...

  7. A quantification of prospect theory in the health domain

    OpenAIRE

    Attema, Arthur E.; Werner B.F. Brouwer; Olivier L'Haridon

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Prospect theory (PT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, PT’s full function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in the health domain. We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for gains can be explained by probabilisti...

  8. Leaf nitrogen spectral reflectance model of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) based on PROSPECT: simulation and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guijun; Zhao, Chunjiang; Pu, Ruiliang; Feng, Haikuan; Li, Zhenhai; Li, Heli; Sun, Chenhong

    2015-01-01

    Through its association with proteins and plant pigments, leaf nitrogen (N) plays an important regulatory role in photosynthesis, leaf respiration, and net primary production. However, the traditional methods of measurement leaf N are rooted in sample-based spectroscopy in laboratory. There is a big challenge of deriving leaf N from the nondestructive field-measured leaf spectra. In this study, the original PROSPECT model was extended by replacing the absorption coefficient of chlorophyll in the original PROSPECT model with an equivalent N absorption coefficient to develop a nitrogen-based PROSPECT model (N-PROSPECT). N-PROSPECT was evaluated by comparing the model-simulated reflectance values with the measured leaf reflectance values. The validated results show that the correlation coefficient (R) was 0.98 for the wavelengths of 400 to 2500 nm. Finally, N-PROSPECT was used to simulate leaf reflectance using different combinations of input parameters, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to establish the relationship between the N-PROSPECT simulated reflectance and the corresponding leaf nitrogen density (LND). The inverse of the PLSR-based N-PROSPECT model was used to retrieve LND from the measured reflectance with a relatively high accuracy (R2=0.77, RMSE=22.15 μg cm-2). This result demonstrates that the N-PROSPECT model established in this study can accurately simulate nitrogen spectral contributions and retrieve LND.

  9. Validation of simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Muniza; Pedersen, Stig Andur

    2012-01-01

    In philosophy of science, the interest for computational models and simulations has increased heavily during the past decades. Different positions regarding the validity of models have emerged but the views have not succeeded in capturing the diversity of validation methods. The wide variety of...... models has been somewhat narrow-minded reducing the notion of validation to establishment of truth. This article puts forward the diversity in applications of simulation models that demands a corresponding diversity in the notion of validation....

  10. The Concept of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van Heerden, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    This article advances a simple conception of test validity: A test is valid for measuring an attribute if (a) the attribute exists and (b) variations in the attribute causally produce variation in the measurement outcomes. This conception is shown to diverge from current validity theory in several respects. In particular, the emphasis in the…

  11. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  12. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    -validation) on all data sets. Within its own design and scope, cross-validation is in reality a sub-optimal simulation of test set validation, crippled by a critical sampling variance omission, as it manifestly is based on one data set only (training data set). Other re-sampling validation methods are shown to...... suffer from the same deficiencies. The PPV are universal and can be applied to all situations in which the assessment of performance is desired: prediction-, classification-, time series forecasting-, modeling validation. The key element of PPV is the Theory of Sampling (TOS), which allow insight into...

  13. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  14. Prospect of ultralight airplanes development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam KONICZEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristic of ultralight airplanes, rules and current interest of them. The purpose is to determine prospect of ultralight airplanes development on the basis of Civil Aviation Authority statistics analysis and trend of aviation market.

  15. Work ethics: An Islamic prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Islamic principles completely cover all prospects of life including working in organization. The impact of management style used in an organization play an important role in employee commitment towards its work. This paper is an effort to explore impact of Islamic work ethic on human resource of organization including the prospective of work conflict, job satisfaction, job turn over, turnover intentions and organizational commitment. Data for current study was collected personally through que...

  16. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions on

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eraslan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the opinions of prospective mathematics teachers in Teaching Practice course taken at the last semester of the teacher education program. For this purpose, 47 prospective teachers taking Teaching Practice wrote and submitted one or two-page reflection of their school-based experiences at the end of the semester. Their written responses were examined and analyzed qualitatively. Findings indicated that (1) there exist not enough opportunities for practice...

  17. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Comments on model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper points out the importance and usefulness of recognizing the separate roles of processes and geometric structures in predictive modeling of the performance of a nuclear waste repository or underground injection disposal of toxic wastes. Based on this a validation procedure is proposed. Furthermore, two stages and three elements of validation are described and discussed. Finally, comments are made on the choice of measurables to be used to compare modeling results and field data in the validation procedure. 8 refs

  19. Validity in qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanić, Marja

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses several issues related to validity in qualitative research and, more specifically, explores the ways in which validity has been discussed and applied in research with qualitative interviews. The central question is to what extent, if at all, traditional positivist validity criteria are applicable, but also relevant, for evaluation of research with qualitative interviewing. The qualitative interview has been chosen as the focal point of this paper because of its peculiarit...

  20. Validation of HEDR models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computer models for estimating the possible radiation doses that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the validation of these models. In the HEDR Project, the model validation exercise consisted of comparing computational model estimates with limited historical field measurements and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the models. The results of any one test do not mean that a model is valid. Rather, the collection of tests together provide a level of confidence that the HEDR models are valid

  1. Validation of HEDR models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computer models for estimating the possible radiation doses that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the validation of these models. In the HEDR Project, the model validation exercise consisted of comparing computational model predictions with limited historical field measurements and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the models. The results of any one test do not mean that a model is valid. Rather, the collection of tests together provide a level of confidence that the HEDR models are valid

  2. Validation: the eluding definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'validation' is featured prominently in the literature on radioactive high-level waste (HLW) disposal. There exists, however, no unique definition of 'validation' although it is generally understood to be related to model testing using experiments. This paper reviews the several definitions of 'validation' and proposes their categorization into three main classes. The first class links validation to the goal of predicting the physical world as faithfully as possible. This view has been criticized as being unattainable and, in any event, unsuitable for setting goals for the safety analyses. Other definitions (Class 2) are strictly operational, and associate validation only to situations where the models can be tested against observational data. In this view, the decision to retain a predictive model for use in safety assessments does not belong to the remit of 'validation'. The third class of definitions focuses, instead, 'validation' on the quality of the decision-making process, which shifts the debate from validation in the observational sense to 'reasonable assurance' and 'confidence building'. In this third view, one cannot determine when a model or a suite of models are actually 'validated'. The lack of consensus on the meaning of 'validation' is linked to its short history as a technical term. The first technical definition dates from the mid-fifties. The term was adopted thereafter in the computer field and elevated to its present status by the computer revolution of the seventies and early eighties. The term has made its appearance in some HLW safety standards only in the late eighties and it is virtually unmentioned in the low-level waste standards for disposal safety. The continued informal use of the term 'validation' in the field of HLW disposal can become cause for endless speculations. The paper proposes either abandoning the use of this term or agreeing to a common definition. (author) 36 refs

  3. SOSS ICN Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    Under the NASA-KAIA-KARI ATM research collaboration agreement, SOSS ICN Model has been developed for Incheon International Airport. This presentation describes the model validation work in the project. The presentation will show the results and analysis of the validation.

  4. An SAT® Validity Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  5. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke; Vondeling, Hindrik

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting to an....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding...... a total of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were...

  6. Work-site musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimat

  7. Revisiting the age-prospective memory-paradox: the role of planning and task experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hering, A.; Cortez, S.A.; Kliegel, M.; Altgassen, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating age-related differences in prospective memory performance using a paradigm with high ecological validity and experimental control. Thirty old and 30 young adults completed the Dresden Breakfast task; a meal preparation task in the lab that comprises several s

  8. Prospective memory in healthy Chinese people: the latent structure of the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Qing, Yonghong; Wu, Qiuping; Shum, David

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the latent structure of the Chinese version of the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) using confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 264 healthy Chinese participants (118 men and 146 women) took part in the study and their ages ranged from 17 to 90 years. There was no gender effect upon the frequency of prospective memory (PM) forgetting but age and education were found to be correlated significantly with these frequencies in the current sample. Results of the study also showed that the model with the best fit had a tripartite structure which consisted of a general memory factor (with all items loading on it) plus a basic activities of daily living as well as an instrumental activities of daily living factor. Furthermore, this tripartite model was robust across subgroups with respect to gender, education, and age. These findings provide support for the construct validity of the original CAPM and demonstrate its utility in another culture. PMID:20155572

  9. Completeness and validity in a national clinical thyroid cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars; Overgaard, Jens; Bentsen, Jens; Hahn, Christoffer Holst; Schytte, Sten; Pedersen, Henrik Baymler; Christiansen, Peer; Godballe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although a prospective national clinical thyroid cancer database (DATHYRCA) has been active in Denmark since January 1, 1996, no assessment of data quality has been performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate completeness and data validity in the Danish national clinical thyroid...... cancer database: DATHYRCA. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: National prospective cohort. Denmark; population 5.5 million. Completeness of case ascertainment was estimated by the independent case ascertainment method using three governmental registries as a reference. The reabstracted record method was used to...... extended governmental databases, it is possible to establish national clinical cancer databases with a satisfactory completeness and validity. The DATHYRCA database is considered reliable in terms of describing thyroid carcinoma at a national level....

  10. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  11. Model Validation Status Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M and O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  12. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Læserbrev, som kritiserer det store UK Prospective Diabetes Study's forfattere for at overfortolke deres fund, idet marginalt signifikante p-værdier tages som udtryk for slående effekt (af at sænke blodsukkeret). Det sker selvom der f.eks. indgår effektvariabler, som kunne påvirkes af patienternes...

  13. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  14. Handbook for Prospective Single Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marindin, Hope

    This handbook for prospective single adoptive parents provides information on locating and adopting a child, necessary clothing and supplies for children of various ages, health and day care arrangements, expenses incurred after adoption, various financial benefits and subsidies available to the adoptive parent, and legal and financial provisions…

  15. Prospects for the upgraded Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans and prospects for the next Fermilab collider running period, Run II (beginning in 1999), are described. The upgrades to the accelerator are discussed in the context of expected achievable instantaneous and integrated luminosity. Upgrades to the two collider detectors, CDF and D0, along with physics potential for Run II are also described. Options for Fermilab beyond Run II are mentioned

  16. Validation of Smartphone Based Retinal Photography for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalakshmi, Ramachandran; Arulmalar, Subramanian; Usha, Manoharan; Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Kareemuddin, Khaji Syed; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of “fundus on phone’ (FOP) camera, a smartphone based retinal imaging system, as a screening tool for diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection and DR severity in comparison with 7-standard field digital retinal photography. Design Single-site, prospective, comparative, instrument validation study. Methods 301 patients (602 eyes) with type 2 diabetes underwent standard seven-field digital fundus photography with both Carl Zeiss fundus camera and indig...

  17. The validity of the distress thermometer in prostate cancer populations

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Youlden, Danny R; Holland, Jimmie C.; Dunn, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Background The Distress Thermometer (DT) is widely recommended for screening for distress after cancer. However, the validity of the DT in men with prostate cancer and over differing time points from diagnosis has not been well examined. Method Receiver operating characteristics analyses were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the DT compared with three commonly used standardised scales in two prospective and one cross-sectional survey of men with prostate cancer (n = 740, 189 and 46...

  18. Prospective Memory: The Future for Future Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Gonen-Yaacovi; Burgess, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory is the ability to remember to execute future intentions and thoughts. It is probably the newest established field of memory research. We provide a selective review of work conducted in the last two decades with respect to the following issues: (1) the different types and characteristics of prospective tasks, (2) the theoretical models of the cognitive processes supporting prospective memory, (3) prospective memory performance in younger and older adults and (4) the findings...

  19. Instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the promise of new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents is great, the process of bringing these agents to commercialization remains in its infancy. There are no PET products today that have gone through the full clinical and chemistry development process required to gain marketing approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (Fda). The purpose of this paper was to review validation from the perspective of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) section of an Fda filing, as well as the validation requirements described in Fda good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations, guidance documents and general chapters of the US Pharmacopoeia (Usp). The review includes discussion of validation from development to commercial production of PET radiopharmaceuticals with a special emphasis on equipment and instrumentation used in production and testing. The goal is to stimulate a dialog that leads to the standardization of industry practices and regulatory requirements for validation practices in PET.

  20. Cross validation in LULOO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The leave-one-out cross-validation scheme for generalization assessment of neural network models is computationally expensive due to replicated training sessions. Linear unlearning of examples has recently been suggested as an approach to approximative cross-validation. Here we briefly review the...... linear unlearning scheme, dubbed LULOO, and we illustrate it on a systemidentification example. Further, we address the possibility of extracting confidence information (error bars) from the LULOO ensemble....

  1. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  2. HEDR model validation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computational ''tools'' for estimating the possible radiation dose that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the planned activities to ''validate'' these tools. In the sense of the HEDR Project, ''validation'' is a process carried out by comparing computational model predictions with field observations and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the model

  3. Introduction to Validity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    The designing of a test paper strictly follows the specification of the relevant Testing Syllabus, which covers various skills and abilities needed for real communicative situation. A test with high content validity is likely to have a positive impact upon the teaching. Therefore, a test with a high content validity will undoubtedly promote the college English education and it will certainly facilitate the implementation of the Syllabus.

  4. Validating year 2000 compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Deursen, van, A; Klint, Paul; Sellink, M.P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Validating year 2000 compliance involves the assessment of the correctness and quality of a year 2000 conversion. This entails inspecting both the quality of the conversion emph{process followed, and of the emph{result obtained, i.e., the converted system. This document provides an overview of the techniques that can be used to validate year 2000 compliance. It includes typical code fragments, and a discussion of existing technology, impact analysis, solution strategies, code correction, test...

  5. Validation suite for MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteller, R. D. (Russell D.)

    2002-01-01

    Two validation suites, one for criticality and another for radiation shielding, have been defined and tested for the MCNP Monte Carlo code. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on experiments so that calculated and measured results can be compared in a meaningful way. The cases in the validation suites are described, and results from those cases are discussed. For several years, the distribution package for the MCNP Monte Carlo code1 has included an installation test suite to verify that MCNP has been installed correctly. However, the cases in that suite have been constructed primarily to test options within the code and to execute quickly. Consequently, they do not produce well-converged answers, and many of them are physically unrealistic. To remedy these deficiencies, sets of validation suites are being defined and tested for specific types of applications. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on benchmark experiments. Consequently, the results from the measurements are reliable and quantifiable, and calculated results can be compared with them in a meaningful way. Currently, validation suites exist for criticality and radiation-shielding applications.

  6. Prospective Memory Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Iris W.; Berg, Ina J.; Deelman, Betto G.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty adults received training in prospective memory; 23 who received training in reducing worries about forgetfulness and 22 controls formed a comparison group. Results of a telephone task and a prospective categorization task revealed significant but small effects for the prospective memory group. After 3 months, the comparison group's…

  7. Cryotherapy for Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Term Results of a Prospective Study from a Single Institution

    OpenAIRE

    S. Alvarez Rodríguez; Arias Fúnez, F.; Bueno Bravo, C.; Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, R.; Sanz Mayayo, E.; V. Hevia Palacios; Burgos Revilla, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC) treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. ...

  8. Progress and prospects of superalloys - applications and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the application and prospects of superalloys have been discussed. These application includes aircraft engine and ground gas turbines, nuclear reactors including fuel containment, sour gas wells, coal gasification heat exchangers, chemical industries and petroleum industries. Production of superalloy GH3030 and development of national superalloys CH151, GH11, GH220, DZ3, DZ4, DZ17G, DZ38G and DD3 have been explained in this paper in P.R. China. (A.B.)

  9. Validation of a Method for Measuring Medical Students' Critical Reflections on Professionalism in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…

  10. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  11. Validation of analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Rius, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall discuss the concept of method validation, describe the various elements and explain its close relationship with fitness for purpose. Method validation is based on the assumption that a series of requirements are fulfilled and we shall explain how these requirements are selected, the way in which evidence is supplied and what work has to be carried out in the laboratory. The basic principles of method validation and the different ways to validate a methodology, by inter-laboratory comparison or performing an in-house validation, are also described.En este artículo se discute el concepto de validación del método, se describen los elementos que la componen y se explica la fuerte relación entre la validación y las características de ajuste. El método de validación se basa en el cumplimiento de una serie de requerimientos, se explica como seleccionar esos requerimientos, la forma en que se suministran evidencias, y que trabajo se debe llevar a cabo en el laboratorio. También se describen, los principios básicos del método de validación y los diferentes caminos para validar una metodología, tanto en la comparación entre laboratorios o como cuando se lleva a cabo una validación dentro del laboratorio.

  12. Validation of Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka van der Kooij

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of games for behavioral change has seen a surge in popularity but evidence on the efficacy of these games is contradictory. Anecdotal findings seem to confirm their motivational value whereas most quantitative findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT are negative or difficult to interpret. One cause for the contradictory evidence could be that the standard RCT validation methods are not sensitive to serious games’ effects. To be able to adapt validation methods to the properties of serious games we need a framework that can connect properties of serious game design to the factors that influence the quality of quantitative research outcomes. The Persuasive Game Design model [1] is particularly suitable for this aim as it encompasses the full circle from game design to behavioral change effects on the user. We therefore use this model to connect game design features, such as the gamification method and the intended transfer effect, to factors that determine the conclusion validity of an RCT. In this paper we will apply this model to develop guidelines for setting up validation methods for serious games. This way, we offer game designers and researchers handles on how to develop tailor-made validation methods.

  13. Prospects for Future Collider Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-01-01

    One item on the agenda of future colliders is certain to be the Higgs boson. What is it trying to tell us? The primary objective of any future collider must surely be to identify physics beyond the Standard Model, and supersymmetry is one of the most studied options. it Is supersymmetry waiting for us and, if so, can LHC Run 2 find it? The big surprise from the initial 13-TeV LHC data has been the appearance of a possible signal for a new boson X with a mass ~750 GeV. What are the prospects for future colliders if the X(750) exists? One of the most intriguing possibilities in electroweak physics would be the discovery of non-perturbative phenomena. What are the prospects for observing sphalerons at the LHC or a future collider?

  14. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eraslan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the opinions of prospective mathematics teachers in Teaching Practice course taken at the last semester of the teacher education program. For this purpose, 47 prospective teachers taking Teaching Practice wrote and submitted one or two-page reflection of their school-based experiences at the end of the semester. Their written responses were examined and analyzed qualitatively. Findings indicated that (1 there exist not enough opportunities for practice teaching, little or no feedback from their supervising teachers, no links between pure mathematics courses and school mathematics. On the other hand, they stated that they get benefit from the teaching courses such as Teaching Methodology I-II, and Instructional Technology and Developing Materials, feel like the real teacher of their classrooms and get to know more about the real classroom environment and school students. Key words:

  15. Repeated validation of parental self-reported smoking during pregnancy and infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne E; Tobiassen, Mette; Jensen, Tina K;

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during fetal life and infancy is closely related to the smoking habits of the parents. Estimates of exposure to ETS require valid and detailed information on changes in cigarette smoking over time. The objective was to test the validity of self......-reported smoking among parents during pregnancy and early childhood was high. Repeated interviews and CO measurements in a prospective study design did not change the validity, indicating a low risk of information bias. A structured interview combined with measurement of exhaled CO is a valid and reliable method...

  16. Prospects for an independent Kurdistan?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    The last ninety years of Kurdish history demonstrates their political progression towards statehood. Examination of this history and US policy during this period allows us to analyze the circumstances that prevented Kurdish statehood. The three levels of analysis utilized allow analysis of Kurdish history with regards to the individual, the state and the international system. Such analysis assists in determining the prospect for independence of the Iraqi Kurds today. An Iraqi Kurdish declara...

  17. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  18. Prospects for de-automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  19. A prospective treatment for sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidi Bonjar, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, 2College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: The present paper proposes a prospective auxiliary treatment for sepsis. There exists no record in the published media on the subject. As an auxiliary therapy, efficacious extracorporeal removal of sepsis-causing bacterial antigens and their toxins (BATs) from the blood of septic patients is discussed. The principa...

  20. A prospective treatment for sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidi Bonjar MR; Shahidi Bonjar L

    2015-01-01

    Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, 2College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: The present paper proposes a prospective auxiliary treatment for sepsis. There exists no record in the published media on the subject. As an auxiliary therapy, efficacious extracorporeal removal of sepsis-causing bacterial antigens and their toxins (BATs) from the blood of septic patients is discussed. The principal compon...

  1. Youth Policy:Future prospects?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenham, Aniela Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Editorial to Special edition: The Next Five Years: Prospects for Young People. OVER THE LAST thirty years scholars have drawn attention to how young people’s lives have become more complicated, fragmented and difficult to navigate (Furlong and Cartmel, 1997). While youth transitions are now recognised as non-linear and more complex, policy has predominantly focused upon transitions that are deemed problematic as a result of their association with ‘poor’ welfare outcomes (teenage pregnancy, NE...

  2. Antiaging therapy: a prospective hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidi Bonjar MR; Shahidi Bonjar L

    2015-01-01

    Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This hypothesis proposes a new prospective approach to slow the aging process in older humans. The hypothesis could lead to developing new treatments for age-related illnesses and help humans to live longer. This hypothesis has no previous docum...

  3. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  4. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  5. Validating Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of experimental protocols and strengthening their reliability are well justified and they foster rather than preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. Thus, their presence indicates thriving rather than crisis of experimental neurobiology.

  6. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about psychologi......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...... psychological stress during pregnancy. METHODS: Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological...... stress) and 3 (high psychological stress). Women with an intermediate level of psychological stress (scores of 7-11) were considered the reference group. Scores of 0-6 were defined as a low level of psychological stress and scores of 12-36 as the highest level. The association between psychological...

  7. Sensitivity analysis and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of performance assessment modelling for high-level radioactive waste disposal in geologic repositories, evaluating model uncertainties is a key factor in estimating radionuclide transport rate and extrapolating thousands of years into the future. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed to determine the relationships among the input and output variables of a mathematical model through numerical methods. Because post-closure performance assessment relies heavily on models, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses will become an integral part of the model evaluation and validation process. Model validation is also needed to establish the credibility of predictions to the technical community, and to achieve grater public confidence in the long-term safety of a geologic repository. In this paper, the role of sensitivity analysis as a part of near-field performance assessment will be discussed in terms of model validation. A description of the ENTRY (the Engineered Scale Test and Research Facility) project for validation study will also be presented. (au) (17 refs., 5 figs.)

  8. Validation of informal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Galanis, Nikolaos; Mayol Sarroca, Enric; Alier Forment, Marc; García Peñalvo, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our PhD research proposal for the Education in the Knowledge Society program of the University of Salamanca. Our research centers on defining a framework for structuring and validating an individual's informal learning in order to be able to represent the competences gained through informal means, alongside their formal curriculum

  9. Validation and test report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, T. Bull

    2012-01-01

    . As a consequence of extensive movement artefacts seen during dynamic contractions, the following validation and test report consists of a report that investigates the physiological responses to a static contraction in a standing and a supine position. Eight subjects performed static contractions of the ankle...

  10. A valid licence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    A valid licence Tuesday, April 20, 2010 Dr Hans Spoolder and Dr Paul Ingenbleek, of Wageningen University and Research Centres, share their thoughts on improving farm animal welfare in Europe At the presentation of the European Strategy 2020 on 3rd March, President Barroso emphasised the need for Eu

  11. The dialogic validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    This paper is inspired by dialogism and the title is a paraphrase on Bakhtin's (1981) "The Dialogic Imagination". The paper investigates how dialogism can inform the process of validating inquiry-based qualitative research. The paper stems from a case study on the role of recognition in...

  12. The Chimera of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policy over the past 40 years has focused on the importance of accountability in school improvement. Although much of the scholarly discourse around testing and assessment is technical and statistical, understanding of validity by a non-specialist audience is essential as long as test results drive our educational…

  13. Pain is associated with prospective memory dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ashley K; Basso, Michael R; Candilis, Philip J; Combs, Dennis R; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) pertains to the execution of a future goal or behavior. Initial research implies that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are apt to show impaired prospective memory for activities of daily living. Yet, PM impairment does not occur in all people with MS. Thus, some other variable besides disease status alone may contribute to PM dysfunction in people with MS. Chronic pain may be such a variable. Approximately 50-70% of people with MS experience significant pain, and such pain has been thought to diminish memory function. To investigate this possibility, 96 patients with MS and 29 healthy subjects were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST; Woods, S. P., Iudicello, J. E., Moran, L. M, Carey, C. L., Dawson, M. S., & Grant, I. (2008). HIV-associated prospective memory impairment increases risk of dependence in everyday functioning. Neuropsychology, 22, 110-117.), a well-validated measure of prospective memory, and the Medical Outcomes Study Pain Effects Scale (PES; Fischer, J. S., Rudick, R. A., Cutter, G. R., & Reingold, S. C. (1999). The multiple sclerosis functional composite measure (MSFC): An integrated approach to MS clinical outcome assessment. National MS Society Clinical Outcomes Assessment Task Force. Multiple Sclerosis, 5, 244-250.) to assess chronic pain. After controlling for demographic variables and disability severity, subjective pain accounted for significant variance in PM, particularly for time-based intentions over sustained delay periods. These data accord well with assertions that pain may degrade ability to remember new intentions and suggests that pain is associated with PM dysfunction in people with MS. PMID:25338929

  14. Analyzing E-mail communication of prospective learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag SAXENA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing E-mail communication of prospective learners Vibha JOSHIAnurag SAXENA Reader School of Management IGNOU, New Delhi, INDIA ABSTRACT Today, computer has replaced all means of communication significantly. E-mail is the most popular means of communication through computers. It has vanished the boundaries between the cities, countries and continents. Earlier Studies that used this medium, had shown evidence of higher quality of responses and also significant cost savings feature of this method (mainly for convenience of dispatch for research purposes. In this communication, an attempt has been made to utilize email responses of prospective learners in education discipline based programs offered through open learning system. The inception of this study is linked to the creation of website (http://www.ignou.ac.in/ and availability of information related to all activated and prospective programs of studies, various school of studies, faculty email addresses and faculty vis-à-vis program coordinator in the University. The present study analyzed 65 email responses received from July 2002 to till date by the researcher on her email ID. These respondents got the email ID from the University website and due to their eagerness to attain qualifications in the field of education/guidance/educational management, sent an e-mail to the program coordinator(s. These email responses were analyzed in order to visualize the learner profiles and viability of the ongoing as well as prospective programs of studies. This paper tries to analyze the e-mail responses of the people who either by surfing IGNOU’s website or from other sources came to know about the various programs of studies offered by the School of Education. The study validates that there is an amount of hidden information even in the curiosity of the learners.

  15. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life Questionnaire" into Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; Marta Sánchez-Cazalilla; Javier Molina-Infante; Isabel Pérez-Martínez; José M. Tenias; Jesús Barrio; Óscar Nantes; Constanza Ciriza de los Ríos; Antonia Perelló; Ángel Arias

    2014-01-01

    Background: The "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life (EoE-QoL-A) Questionnaire" was developed in English as a valid, reliable, and disease-specific health-related QoL measure. This research aims to adapt and validate this questionnaire for Spanish-speaking patients. Patients and methods: A multicenter, observational, prospective study was conducted at 8 Spanish hospitals. The cultural adaptation of the original EoE-QoL-A questionnaire was undertaken through a standardized 3-phase p...

  16. Validation of the nausea and vomiting of pregnancy specific health related quality of life questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Lacasse Anaïs; Bérard Anick

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The only existing NVP-specific quality of life (QOL) questionnaire is the "Health-Related Quality of Life for Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy" (NVPQOL). However, the reliability and validity of the NVPQOL have never been established. In order to justify its usage, the internal consistency and criterion validity of the NVPQOL questionnaire must be ascertained. Methods A prospective observational study including pregnant women attending CHU Sainte-Justine or René-Laenne...

  17. Characteristics of validation in radiation sterilization and some practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization validation is one of the required conditions for Japanese enterprises dealing with medical device sterilization to receive authorization from Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The guideline for sterilization validation has been released in 1998 based on international standard ISO11137 (1995, 2006). In this paper are presented the characteristics of the radiation sterilization validation of medical device and its practical problems with history of the changes. The process through which the the sterilization radiation dose in radiation sterilization is determined is explained (ISO11137-2) in comparison with the cases of moist heat sterilization and ethylene oxide sterilization. Here standard distribution of resistance (SDR) is measured in advance for a variety of microorganisms, and the resistance is compared to SDR and bioburden. The manuals for ordinance or laws, specification and standard, and the confirmation of several qualifications such as installation, operational and performance are briefly introduced. Future prospects are also given. (S. Ohno)

  18. Prospects for $K^+ \\to \\pi^+ \

    CERN Document Server

    Palladino, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The rare decays K+ -> p + n -n are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleaness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The physics prospects and the status of the experiment will be reviewed after the commissioning run of 2014 and the data taking in 2015.

  19. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    OpenAIRE

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the stat...

  20. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation studies at atmospheric neutrino experiments. While the current data gives some tentalising hints regarding the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and $\\delta_{CP}$, the hints are not statistically significant. We summarise the sensitivity to these sub-dominant three-generation effects from the next-generation proposed atmospheric neutrino experiments. We next present the prospects of new physics searches such as non-standard interactions, sterile neutrinos and CPT violation studies at these experiments.

  1. Renewable energy prospects for implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Renewable Energy: Prospects for Implementation contains papers that were originally commissioned by the journal Energy Policy for a series on renewable energy appearing between January 1991 to September 1992. In view of the fast-changing demands on conventional energy supply to meet environmental imperatives, it seemed timely to reproduce here a selection of those papers with a new introduction and a revised concluding chapter by the Editor of the series, Dr Tim Jackson, a research fellow with the Stockholm Environment Institute. The book is organized into four parts. The papers in Part I

  2. PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS' SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    TAMANNA KAUSHAL

    2013-01-01

    Teachers play a prominent role in national and social reconstruction and in transmission of wisdom, knowledge and experiences of one generation, to another generation. This study was carried out to identify the prospective teachers' Sense of responsibility towards environment at bachelor of education level in National Capital Region (NCR). The sample comprised of 100 prospective teachers (males & females) of B. Ed colleges. Data was collected from prospective teachers, through an En...

  3. Preprint ARPPS Augmented Reality Pipeline Prospect System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Han, Yong; Hao, DongSheng; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICONIP. Outdoor augmented reality geographic information system (ARGIS) is the hot application of augmented reality over recent years. This paper concludes the key solutions of ARGIS, designs the mobile augmented reality pipeline prospect system (ARPPS), and respectively realizes the machine vision based pipeline prospect system (MVBPPS) and the sensor based pipeline prospect system (SBPPS). With the MVBPPS's realization, this paper studies the neu...

  4. Prospective Memory Development Through Childhood into Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Bialek, Anna Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study looked at prospective memory development between 7-15 years of age (N=57). Past research has draw no coherent picture of prospective memory development due to variations in prospective memory tasks employed, motivation not being suppressed, time-based and event-based memory not being distinguished and time delay between intention formation and intention execution not being controlled. The present study aimed to overcome these issues and draw a more coherent picture of prospe...

  5. Prospective memory and chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Habota, Tina; Cameron, Jan; McLennan, Skye N; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Peter G Rendell

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience a number of debilitating symptoms, which impact on activities of daily living and result in poor quality of life. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, has not been investigated in this group. However, emerging evidence suggests CHF patients have difficulties with cognitive processes related to prospective memory. Self-care, which partly relies on prospective memory, is essential in sympto...

  6. Teseo code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report some validation tests for the TESEO code are described. The TESEO code was developed at ENEA - Clementel Center in the framework of the C2RV code sequence. This code sequence produces multigroup resonance cross sections for fast reactor analysis. It consists of the codes TESEO, MC2-II, GERES, ANISN, MEDIL. The TESEO code processes basic nuclear data in ENDF-B format and produces an ultrafine group (2082 groups) cross section library for the MC2-II code. To validate the TESEO algorithms, the data produced by TESEO code were compared with the data produced by other well-tested codes which use different algorithms. No substantial differences was found between these data and the data produced by TESEO code. TESEO algorithms showed high reliability. A detailed study of TESEO calculation options was carried out. Their use and functions are shown to inform the user of the code

  7. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  8. Software Validation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS collaboration operates an extensive set of protocols to validate the quality of the offline software in a timely manner. This is essential in order to process the large amounts of data being collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 without complications on the offline software side. We will discuss a number of different strategies used to validate the ATLAS offline software; running the ATLAS framework software, Athena, in a variety of configurations daily on each nightly build via the ATLAS Nightly System (ATN) and Run Time Tester (RTT) systems; the monitoring of these tests and checking the compilation of the software via distributed teams of rotating shifters; monitoring of and follow up on bug reports by the shifter teams and periodic software cleaning weeks to improve the quality of the offline software further.

  9. Validating Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of ex...

  10. A Role for Memory in Prospective Timing informs Timing in Prospective Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Waldum, Emily R.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2012-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (TBPM) tasks require the estimation of time in passing – known as prospective timing. Prospective timing is said to depend on an attentionally-driven internal clock mechanism, and is thought to be unaffected by memory for interval information (for reviews see, Block, Hancock, & Zakay, 2010; Block & Zakay, 1997). A prospective timing task that required a verbal estimate following the entire interval (Experiment 1) and a TBPM task that required production of a targ...

  11. Work ethics: An Islamic prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic principles completely cover all prospects of life including working in organization. The impact of management style used in an organization play an important role in employee commitment towards its work. This paper is an effort to explore impact of Islamic work ethic on human resource of organization including the prospective of work conflict, job satisfaction, job turn over, turnover intentions and organizational commitment. Data for current study was collected personally through questionnaires from 18 branches of seven banks of Pakistan who practices Islamic banking. In total, 150 Muslims employees were targeted as respondent of current study, while response rate was above 85%. Results show that there is significant impact of Islamic work ethics on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and rewards while Islamic work ethic has no significant relation with intention to quit job. Out of seven, only three hypotheses were fully supported, while two were partially supported, however number of rejected hypothesis were two. Islamic work ethics are source to built greater morale in employees resulting greater job satisfaction. Adopting Islamic work ethics improves organizational commitment, source of motivation as well as reduces the negative intentions of quitting job.

  12. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  13. Change, Stability and Context: Prospective Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Abdurrahman; Cokadar, Hulusi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore and compare first-year and fourth-year prospective teachers' perceptions of good teaching, a good teacher, and a good student. A questionnaire with close- and open-ended questions was administered to 142 first-year and 138 fourth-year prospective teachers enrolled in the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University.…

  14. Prospective Memory Training in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the results of a training program for prospective remembering. The goal of the training was to improve prospective memory by associating cues from the retrieval situation with the to be remembered information. The training group consisted of 20 participants, aged between 45 and

  15. Prospective Elemantary Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroglu Akgul, Esra; Oztuna Kaplan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined "prospective elementary science teachers' epistemological beliefs". Forty-nine prospective elementary science teachers participated into research. The research was designed in both quantitative and qualitative manner, within the context of "Special Methods in Science Teaching I" course. Participants' epistemological…

  16. Validated dynamic flow model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The purpose with this deliverable 2.5 is to use fresh experimental data for validation and selection of a flow model to be used for control design in WP3-4. Initially the idea was to investigate the models developed in WP2. However, in the project it was agreed to include and focus on a additive...... model turns out not to be useful for prediction of the flow. Moreover, standard Box Jenkins model structures and multiple output auto regressive models proves to be superior as they can give useful predictions of the flow....

  17. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  18. Radiation detectors: needs and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important applications for x- and γ-ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high-Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI2, have shown steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties

  19. Prospects of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is briefly reviewed, emphasizing the National Ignition Facility (NIF) project in the US and the Megajoule project in France. Critical aspects of target performance such as symmetry and stability of capsule implosions and interaction physics in hohlraum targets are discussed. The advantages of heavy-ion beam drivers and corresponding research programs are pointed out with reference to the long-term prospects for ICF power production. The new concept of the fast ignition of precompressed fuel by petawatt, picosecond laser pulses is also covered. The laser plasma group at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) is one of the European institutes funded by EURATOM for an ICF keep-in-touch activity, and we highlight results obtained at MPQ relevant to the recent progress of ICF. (author)

  20. Nuclear power prospects in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its programme to assist the development of nuclear power, IAEA undertakes, on r e quest, reviews of the prospects for nuclear power in individual Member States. A general finding of the Pakistan report is that nuclear power should be considered 'a leading contender for the supply of future energy needs'. A principal reason for this is that the conventional energy resources available, both of hydroelectric energy and of fossil fuels, appear insufficient by themselves to give in the long run the high per capita consumption of electricity which is characteristic of a developed country. Thus, an alternative source of energy to supplement the existing resources appears desirable. The analysis comparing nuclear power economics with those of conventional alternatives is performed separately for the Karachi area, for West Pakistan and for East Pakistan, since the power supply systems serving these regions are not now, nor in the near future likely to be, interconnected

  1. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)

  2. Prospects in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakov, A A; Nemets, V M

    2006-01-01

    Tendencies in five main branches of atomic spectrometry (absorption, emission, mass, fluorescence and ionization spectrometry) are considered. The first three techniques are the most widespread and universal, with the best sensitivity attributed to atomic mass spectrometry. In the direct elemental analysis of solid samples, the leading roles are now conquered by laser-induced breakdown and laser ablation mass spectrometry, and the related techniques with transfer of the laser ablation products into inductively-coupled plasma. Advances in design of diode lasers and optical parametric oscillators promote developments in fluorescence and ionization spectrometry and also in absorption techniques where uses of optical cavities for increased effective absorption pathlength are expected to expand. Prospects for analytical instrumentation are seen in higher productivity, portability, miniaturization, incorporation of advanced software, automated sample preparation and transition to the multifunctional modular archite...

  3. Status and development of uranium prospection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiometric prospection, gamma measuring equipment is widely used. Simple instruments, so-called scintillometers, can only measure total radiation while spectrometers permit separate measurements of uranium, thorium, or calcium via daughter products of their decay chains. Depending on the target investigated, airborne, carborne, or footborne methods are employed. In radon prospection the gaseous decay product radon is measured as a sign of hidden uranium enrichment in ground air or water from springs. Due to its high solubility, uranium is well suited for geochemical prospection where uranium concentrations in bodies of water, river sediments, soil and rock types are determined. There is a trend in uranium prospection towards the discovery of hidden orifications. Novel techniques, e.g. airborne geochemistry, isotope chemistry, tracer element measurement, etc. are being tested with a view to their suitability for uranium prospection. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MKO

  4. Geochemical methodology for gold prospect ion in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the history of gold prospection in Uruguay. In this study there are considered the geochemical aspects, the gold performance, the applicability to mining prospection and the gold prospection aluvionar

  5. Audit Validation Using Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements to increase quality audit processes in enterprises are defined. It substantiates the need for assessment and management audit processes using ontologies. Sets of rules, ways to assess the consistency of rules and behavior within the organization are defined. Using ontologies are obtained qualifications that assess the organization's audit. Elaboration of the audit reports is a perfect algorithm-based activity characterized by generality, determinism, reproducibility, accuracy and a well-established. The auditors obtain effective levels. Through ontologies obtain the audit calculated level. Because the audit report is qualitative structure of information and knowledge it is very hard to analyze and interpret by different groups of users (shareholders, managers or stakeholders. Developing ontology for audit reports validation will be a useful instrument for both auditors and report users. In this paper we propose an instrument for validation of audit reports contain a lot of keywords that calculates indicators, a lot of indicators for each key word there is an indicator, qualitative levels; interpreter who builds a table of indicators, levels of actual and calculated levels.

  6. Major dietary patterns and risk of frailty in older adults: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    León-Muñoz, Luz M.; García-Esquinas, Esther; López-García, Esther; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence of the role of certain nutrients as risk factors for frailty. However, people eat food, rather than nutrients, and no previous study has examined the association between dietary patterns empirically derived from food consumption and the risk of frailty in older adults. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 1,872 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥60 years recruited between 2008 and 2010. At baseline, food consumption was obtained with a valid...

  7. Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cuilin; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Wang, Dong; Ley, Sylvia H; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the association between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors before pregnancy (healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking) and the risk of gestational diabetes. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Nurses’ Health Study II, United States. Participants: 20 136 singleton live births in 14 437 women without chronic disease. Main outcome measure Self reported incident gestational diabetes diagnosed by a physician, validated by medical re...

  8. Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cuilin; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Wang, Dong; Ley, Sylvia H; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the association between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors before pregnancy (healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking) and the risk of gestational diabetes. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study II, United States. Participants 20 136 singleton live births in 14 437 women without chronic disease. Main outcome measure Self reported incident gestational diabetes diagnosed by a physician, validated by medical record...

  9. Remembering about Intended Actions: review of Studies on Prospective Memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Albiński, Rafał

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to acquaint the reader with the subject of prospective memory, especially in its event-based form. Definition of prospective memory is presented in the text along with discussion concerning the place of prospective memory in the broadly understood memory research area. Critical features of prospective tasks and two types of processes (automatic and controlled) mediating prospective memory are described. Also presented is the multi-process framework of prospective mem...

  10. Prediction of risk of death and myocardial infarction in the six months after presentation with acute coronary syndrome: prospective multinational observational study (GRACE)

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Keith A. A.; Dabbous, Omar H; Robert J. Goldberg; Pieper, Karen S.; Eagle, Kim A.; Werf, Frans; Avezum, Alvaro; Goodman, Shaun G; Flather, Marcus D; Frederick A Anderson; Granger, Christopher B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical risk prediction tool for estimating the cumulative six month risk of death and death or myocardial infarction to facilitate triage and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome.DESIGN: Prospective multinational observational study in which we used multivariable regression to develop a final predictive model, with prospective and external validation.SETTING: Ninety four hospitals in 14 countries in Europe, North and South America, Australia, and New Z...

  11. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Barks, PhD, ARNP

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study’s purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS, Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI, Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p < 0.001 and negatively with muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale, r = –0.44, p = 0.001, supporting SPS construct validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha. Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research.

  12. Reliability and validity of Leicester Cough Questionnaire Korean version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jong-Min; Jung, In-Chul; Kang, Weechang; Kim, Seung-Su; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a self-administered questionnaire developed in England and validated for reliability. We developed a Korean translation of this questionnaire by applying a sequential forward and backward translation approach. The purpose of this study is to validate the Korean version of the LCQ (LCQ-K) in Korean patients with chronic cough. A multicenter prospective study was undertaken with 100 chronic cough patients who consented to participate in the study. The LCQ-K includes eight physical items, seven psychological items, and four social items. Visual analog scale (VAS) of cough, Borg Cough Scale (BCS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as external comparators. Participants included 52 women and 48 men with ages ranging from 18 years to 69 years. The concurrent validity comparing LCQ-K to VAS, BCS, and SF-36 yielded statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients. The LCQ-K showed good reliability in three domains, with Cronbach's α coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.87 (total: 0.91). Test-retest reliability was investigated with single measure intraclass correlation coefficients, which were found to be practically and statistically significant (p = 0.005). Responsiveness was validated by effective size ranging from 1.16 to 1.40 in each domain. LCQ-K is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and quality of life of Korean patients with chronic cough. PMID:24906688

  13. Validation and Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    and experimentally inclined modellers on one hand, and attempts to forge new collaborations with medical scientists on the other. Apart from the scientific interest of the population of models approach for tackling variability, the trial also offers a good illustration of the epistemology of experiment......Systems biology is currently making a bid to show that it is able to make an important contribution to personalised or precision medicine. In order to do so, systems biologists need to find a way of tackling the pervasive variability of biological systems that is manifested in the medical domain...... as inter-subject variability. This need is simultaneously social and epistemic: social as systems biologists attempt to engage with the interests and concerns of clinicians and others in applied medical research; epistemic as they attempt to develop new strategies to cope with variability in the validation...

  14. Validation of EMP bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  15. Prospect theory in the health domain: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attema, Arthur E; Brouwer, Werner B F; I'Haridon, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, CPT's full function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in this domain. We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for gains can be explained by probabilistic pessimism. Utility for gains is almost linear. For losses, we find less weighting of probability 1/2 and concave utility. This contrasts with the common finding of convex utility for monetary losses. However, CPT was proposed to explain choices among lotteries involving monetary outcomes. Life years are arguably very different from monetary outcomes and need not generate convex utility for losses. Moreover, utility of life duration reflects discounting, causing concave utility. PMID:24103499

  16. Quality assessment in prospective nuchal translucency screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Christiansen, M; Sundberg, K;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and apply a quality control system in a Down syndrome screening study using nuchal translucency as an interventional marker. METHODS: In a prospective Down syndrome screening study fetal nuchal translucency thickness was measured in 9236 of the 10 045 examined pregnancies....... For quality assessment two models were introduced: firstly, image-scoring evaluation of the nuchal translucency thickness measurements and secondly, establishment of the distributions of nuchal translucency multiples of the median over time and the influence of intervention. RESULTS: The observer...... variability in the image-scoring evaluation was high with a kappa value of 0.48 in the overall validation. A revised model showed better interobserver agreement with a kappa value of 0.58; however, comparing the individual criteria the differences were still unsatisfactory, i.e. we found highly significant...

  17. Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth. PMID:21161351

  18. Antiaging therapy: a prospective hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar MR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This hypothesis proposes a new prospective approach to slow the aging process in older humans. The hypothesis could lead to developing new treatments for age-related illnesses and help humans to live longer. This hypothesis has no previous documentation in scientific media and has no protocol. Scientists have presented evidence that systemic aging is influenced by peculiar molecules in the blood. Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, and Harvard University in Cambridge discovered elevated titer of aging-related molecules (ARMs in blood, which trigger cascade of aging process in mice; they also indicated that the process can be reduced or even reversed. By inhibiting the production of ARMs, they could reduce age-related cognitive and physical declines. The present hypothesis offers a new approach to translate these findings into medical treatment: extracorporeal adjustment of ARMs would lead to slower rates of aging. A prospective “antiaging blood filtration column” (AABFC is a nanotechnological device that would fulfill the central role in this approach. An AABFC would set a near-youth homeostatic titer of ARMs in the blood. In this regard, the AABFC immobilizes ARMs from the blood while blood passes through the column. The AABFC harbors antibodies against ARMs. ARM antibodies would be conjugated irreversibly to ARMs on contact surfaces of the reaction platforms inside the AABFC till near-youth homeostasis is attained. The treatment is performed with the aid of a blood-circulating pump. Similar to a renal dialysis machine, blood would circulate from the body to the AABFC and from there back to the body in a closed circuit until ARMs were sufficiently depleted from the blood. The

  19. Assessing prospects for small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear power plants, like that of many other technologies, has been characterized by substantial growth in spread, numbers, equipment and plant sizes, with economies of scale generally favouring the large plants. Small and medium sized nuclear power plants, or SMPRs, are generally understood to be plants below the sizes being exploited commercially in industrialized countries. Such plants could be more readily adapted to smaller electric grids, particularly in developing countries, fulfilling requirements of low load growth, or serve remote locations or special purposes. The SMPR range is currently understood as the 200 to 500 megawatt (MWe) size for the generation of electricity and sometimes smaller for process-steam and/or low-temperature heat supply. For statistical purposes a size limit of 600 MWe has been in use by IAEA for some years. By this criterion some 140 nuclear power plants, or more than one-third of the world total, could be considered SMPRs. However, most of them are rather old vintage. Prospects are assessed under headings: indications of revived interest; today's SMPR supply situation; evolving IAEA programme - new study; market indications; economic competitiveness and financing aspects. (author)

  20. Nuclear power: policy and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.M.S. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This comprehensive book covers many aspects of nuclear power. The first section is on the technical background and covers the physical principles, nuclear reactor types, the nuclear fuel cycle and the uses of nuclear energy other than to generate electricity. The next section deals with areas of public interest; radiation, safety, risks, waste management and decommissioning. Experience of nuclear power, its development, current position and future prospects in the United States of America, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, India and the developing countries is discussed in section III. The opportunities for the civil nuclear industry are considered in the next section; the present world scene, the potential possible if nuclear power is developed, the incentives for developing this method, the constraints on this development and a summary of the past, present and future of nuclear power is made. The appendices, on discounting and the case for economic growth are also included. All the chapters and the appendices are indexed separately (24 chapters in total). (U.K.).

  1. Experimental prospects of hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main subject of this report is to take a general view on the experiment with several tens of TeV hadron colliders. Intensive studies have been carried out about the physics and the detectors for such hadron machines. The experimental prospect of hadron colliders based on the studies and the view of the author are presented. To obtain a fundamental knowledge on the experiment with hadron colliders, the general properties of hadron scattering should be investigated. First, the total cross sections and charged particle multiplicity are estimated, and hard scattering process is reviewed. The cross sections for some interesting hard scattering process are summarized. The most serious problem for the experiment with hadron colliders is to pick out useful signals from enormous QCD back-ground processes, and a possibility of finding heavy Higgs bosons is discussed in detail as an example. On the basis of these studies, the requirement which general purpose detectors should satisfy is considered. Also the important machine parameters from experimental viewpoint are discussed. High energy hadron colliders have a potentiality to reveal new physics in TeV region, but the preparation for unexpected physics is necessary. (Kako, I.)

  2. North American tidal power prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, W. W., Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Prospects for North American tidal power electrical generation are reviewed. Studies by the US Army Corps of Engineers of 90 possible generation schemes in Cobscook Bay, ME, indicated that maximum power generation rather than dependable capacity was the most economic method. Construction cost estimates for 15 MW bulb units in a single effect mode from basin to the sea are provided; five projects were considered ranging from 110-160 MW. Additional tidal power installations are examined for: Half-Moon Cove, ME (12 MW, 18 ft tide); Cook Inlet, AK, which is shown to pose severe environmental and engineering problems due to fish migration, earthquake hazards, and 300 ft deep silt deposits; and the Bay of Fundy, Canada. This last has a 17.8 MW plant under construction in a 29 ft maximum tide area. Other tidal projects of the Maritime Provinces are reviewed, and it is noted that previous economic evaluations based on an oil price of $16/barrel are in need of revision.

  3. Prospects for Future Helioseismology Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Philip H.

    The progress afforded by present and past helioseismology missions has been the topic of this and numerous previous conferences. The primary conclusion of the 1983 NASA study on prospects for solar oscillations have been basically confirmed. That is, part of the job can be done on the ground but a significant part can only be done from space. While we have made significant progress, it is also clear that additional opportunities to use helioseismic techniques to better understand stellar interiors remain. Recent advances in local helioseismology in particular point to additional observing requirements. These include larger field of view at high resolution in order to follow magnetic region development, longer baselines in longitude to probe the bottom of the convection zone and below, and a high latitude vantage point to examine processes near the rotation axis. Several possible missions have been discussed recently to address these issues. They include SONAR, Farside Observer, Solar Polar Imager, and Solar Probe. The basic concepts of these missions will be discussed along with the continuing role for enhanced ground based observations.

  4. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the state for the business. The article used methods of system analysis, comparison, forecasting and modelling. It analyses the process of evolution of the simplified taxation system, accounting and reporting from the moment of its adoption until today. The article presents the structure of the quantitative composition of single tax payers depending on the selected groups. It marks out and characterises administrative and fiscal factors that do not facilitate further development of entrepreneurship in Ukraine. In the result of the conducted studies the article outlines problem aspects of organisation of taxation of the small business and offers specific and real ways of their overcoming or partial solution.

  5. Prospects of geothermal resource exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has only occurred during the past 50 years by drilling wells in aquifers close to magmas and producing either dry steam or hot water. The world's production of electricity from geothermal energy is over 6000 MWe and is still growing. The direct use of geothermal energy for major urban communities has been developed recently by exploitation of aquifers in sedimentary basins under large towns. Scaling up the extraction of heat implies the exploitation of larger and better located fields requiring an appropriate method of extraction; the objective of present attempts in USA, Japan and Europe is to create heat exchangers by the circulation of water between several deep wells. Two field categories are considered: the extension of classical geothermal fields beyond the aquifer areas, and areas favoured by both a high geothermal gradient, fractures inducing a natural permeability at large scale, and good commercial prospects (such as in the Rhenan Graben). Hot dry rocks concept has gained a large interest. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 11 refs

  6. Dual Pathways to Prospective Remembering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Mcdaniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the multiprocess framework (McDaniel & Einstein, 2000, the cognitive system can support prospective memory (PM retrieval through two general pathways. One pathway depends on top-down attentional control processes that maintain activation of the intention and/or monitor the environment for the triggering or target cues that indicate that the intention should be executed. A second pathway depends on (bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes, processes that are often triggered by a PM target cue; critically spontaneous retrieval is assumed to not require monitoring or active maintenance of the intention. Given demand characteristics associated with experimental settings, however, participants are often inclined to monitor, thereby potentially masking discovery of bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes. In this article, we discuss parameters of laboratory PM paradigms to discourage monitoring and review recent behavioral evidence from such paradigms that implicate spontaneous retrieval in PM. We then re-examine the neuro-imaging evidence from the lens of the multiprocess framework and suggest some critical modifications to existing neuro-cognitive interpretations of the neuro-imaging results. These modifications illuminate possible directions and refinements for further neuro-imaging investigations of PM.

  7. Status and prospects for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the formation of United Reprocessors (U.R.G.) in 1976 by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (B.N.F.L.) in the United Kingdom, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (C.E.A.) in France and K.E.W.A. Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungs-Gesellschaft MBH (K.E.W.A.) in Germany, collaboration is now well established for the marketing of their reprocessing services for irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors. In addition collaboration in the continued evolution of the technology has progressed and an extensive research and development programme has been established, the results of which are exchanged between the shareholders. During 1976 the U.K. Government has given approval to B.N.F.L. to sign further contracts with foreign customers, subject to certain conditions. In France, the fuel cycle activities of the C.E.A. have been vested in a new company (Compagnie Generale Des Matieres Nucleaires (C.O.G.E.M.A.)) and their La Hague plant has commenced reprocessing operations on irradiated oxide fuel. In Germany, an agreement has been signed between K.E.W.A. and P.W.K. for the pre-project study for the proposed German plant. Against this background this paper reviews the present status of reprocessing by the shareholders of U.R.G. and the prospects for reprocessing

  8. Procreative beneficence and the prospective parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herissone-Kelly, P

    2006-03-01

    Julian Savulescu has given clear expression to a principle-that of "procreative beneficence"-which underlies the thought of many contemporary writers on bioethics. The principle of procreative beneficence (PPB) holds that parents or single reproducers are at least prima facie obliged to select the child, out of a range of possible children they might have, who will be likely to lead the best life. My aim in this paper is to argue that prospective parents, just by dint of their being prospective parents, are in fact not obliged to act on PPB. That is, there is something about their filling the role of prospective parents that exempts them from selecting the child with the best life. I urge that it is more realistic to view prospective parents as bound by a principle of acceptable outlook, which holds that they ought not to select children whose lives will contain an unacceptable amount of suffering. PMID:16507665

  9. Hypnosis Attenuates Executive Cost of Prospective Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Gyula; Szendi, István; Juhász, Marianna; Kovács, Zoltán Ambrus; Boncz, István; Keresztes, Attila; Pajkossy, Péter; Racsmány, Mihály

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory is the ability to formulate and carry out actions at the appropriate time or in the appropriate context. This study aimed to identify the effect of hypnosis on prospective memory performance and to analyze the involvement of executive control processes in intention realization in a hypnotically altered state of consciousness. In 1 experiment, manipulating hypnotic instruction in a within-subject fashion, the authors explored the event-based prospective memory performance of 23 volunteers in 3 conditions: baseline, expectation, and execution. The primary result was that executing prospective memory responses, at the same accuracy rate, produced a significantly lower cost of ongoing responses in terms of response latency in the hypnotic state than in wake condition. PMID:26894423

  10. Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Lim...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Limited Data Set This file contains select claim level data and is derived from 2010 hospital outpatient PPS...

  11. Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160136.html Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects But it's not ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with vision problems may face a higher risk of unemployment, ...

  12. Caolines Program. N1 area prospective soundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about The Caolines program. After several stages was designed a network of drilling to be developed in prospective areas. The support of this network was a geological cartography performed in a devonian region.

  13. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dardenne, Yves M.

    2016-02-02

    Apparatus, systems, and methods for nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting include the steps of identifying an area; collecting samples; sample preparation; identification, assay, and analysis; and relating the samples to the area.

  14. Physics prospects at a linear + - collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saurabh D Rindani

    2006-10-01

    The talk described the prospects of studying standard model parameters as well as scenarios beyond the standard model, like the minimal supersymmetric standard model, theories with extra dimensions and theories with extra neutral gauge bosons, at a future linear + - collider.

  15. Overview of the uranium prospecting in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is about Uranium prospection in Uruguay by DINAMIGE experts. They were explained the radioactive properties elements in Uranium and its importance as a fuel oil for electric energy generation

  16. Haematuria analysed--a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillatt, D A; O'Reilly, P H

    1987-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of haematuria were studied prospectively. The results showed a high proportion (52%) of serious urological disease. The need for thorough investigation of even minor degrees of haematuria is again emphasized.

  17. Stellar opacity validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pennec, M.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Ducret, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the radiative transfer in stars where opacities seem to raise problems : β-Cephei and solar-type stars. We first concentrate on the iron bump (log T = 5.25), responsible for β-Cephei pulsations through the κ-mechanism. To discriminate between the different opacity calculations used to predict their oscillations, new well-qualified calculations are used and compared to OP calculations. In parallel with this theoretical work, an experiment has been conducted at LULI 2000 in 2011 on iron and nickel. We show that this extended study pushes for the revision of the tables in the conditions corresponding to the iron bump region, at least for nickel. We will then deal with the Sun case for which we are preparing an opacity experiment on a high-energy laser, in some conditions of the radiative zone (T = [2 - 15 ×10^{6} K] and ρ = [0.2 - 150 g/cm^{3}]). To reach these high temperatures and densities at LTE and validate or not plasma effects and line widths, we are exploring an approach called the Double Ablation Front, driven by plasma radiative effects. The 1D simulations performed with the code CHIC show that with this technique, we could reach conditions equivalent to the conditions of half of the solar radiative zone.

  18. Spare Items validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing difficulty for purchasing safety related spare items, with certifications by manufacturers for maintaining the original qualifications of the equipment of destination. The main reasons are, on the top of the logical evolution of technology, applied to the new manufactured components, the quitting of nuclear specific production lines and the evolution of manufacturers quality systems, originally based on nuclear codes and standards, to conventional industry standards. To face this problem, for many years different Dedication processes have been implemented to verify whether a commercial grade element is acceptable to be used in safety related applications. In the same way, due to our particular position regarding the spare part supplies, mainly from markets others than the american, C.N. Trillo has developed a methodology called Spare Items Validation. This methodology, which is originally based on dedication processes, is not a single process but a group of coordinated processes involving engineering, quality and management activities. These are to be performed on the spare item itself, its design control, its fabrication and its supply for allowing its use in destinations with specific requirements. The scope of application is not only focussed on safety related items, but also to complex design, high cost or plant reliability related components. The implementation in C.N. Trillo has been mainly curried out by merging, modifying and making the most of processes and activities which were already being performed in the company. (Author)

  19. Enhanced XML Validation Using SRML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Kalman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data validation is becoming more and more important with the ever-growing amount of data being consumed and transmitted by systems over the Internet. It is important to ensure that the data being sent is valid as it may contain entry errors, which may be consumed by different systems causing further errors. XML has become the defacto standard for data transfer. The XML Schema Definition language (XSD was created to help XML structural validation and provide a schema for data type restrictions, however it does not allow for more complex situations. In this article we introduce a way to provide rule based XML validation and correction through the extension and improvement of our SRML metalanguage. We also explore the option of applying it in a database as a trigger for CRUD operations allowing more granular dataset validation on an atomic level allowing for more complex dataset record validation rules.

  20. Analyzing Ukraine's prospects for NATO membership

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Derek W.

    2008-01-01

    Ukraine has a resume of achievements in its relations with NATO since 1991. However, at the 2008 Bucharest Summit, the NATO Allies chose not to offer Ukraine a Membership Action Plan. This thesis examines Ukraine's prospects for NATO membership, and investigates the hypothesis that Ukraine's membership aspirations are most affected by two sets of independent variables -- internal and external. The two key internal variables that affect the prospects for Ukraine's accession to NATO are public ...

  1. Uranium prospection methods illustrated with examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium exploration methods are briefly reviewed: aerial (radiometric, spectrometric), surface (mapping, radiometric, geophysical, geochemical), sub-surface (well logging, boring) and mining methods in the different steps of a mine project: preliminary studies, general prospecting, detailed prospecting deposit area and deposit estimation. Choice of methods depends strongly on geographic and geologic environment. Three examples are given concerning: an intragranitic deposit Limousin (France), a deposit spatially related to a discordance Athabasca (Canada) and a sedimentary deposit Manyingee (Western Australia)

  2. Injuries to polo riders: a prospective evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Paz, M.; Aponte-Tinao, L.; Muscolo, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the incidence, nature, and severity of injuries to polo riders competing in the 1996 Argentine High Polo season. METHODS: Assessment, documentation, and provision of care for all injuries sustained during the 1996 season by one of the authors. Riders were also surveyed retrospectively for their previous polo injuries. RESULTS: 34 riders took part in the study. Nine injuries were sustained prospectively and 55 injuries were reviewed retrospectively (64 ...

  3. Fairness in prospective payment: a clustering approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Stefos, T; LaVallee, N; Holden, F

    1992-01-01

    Problems of fairness in prospective payment have existed since the inception of this regulatory method in the early 1980s. While prospective payment ostensibly has sought to reward efficient producers and provide disincentives for inefficient producers of health care, many hospitals have been penalized financially as a consequence of facing systematic factors beyond their control. This article defines homogenous peer groups of Department of Veterans Affairs providers for the purpose of establ...

  4. Prospective Lymphedema Surveillance in a Clinic Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Chance-Hetzler; Jane Armer; Maggie Van Loo; Blake Anderson; Robin Harris; Rebecca Ewing; Bob Stewart

    2015-01-01

    The potential impact of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is quite extensive, yet it often remains under-diagnosed until the later stages. This project examines the effectiveness of prospective surveillance in post-surgical breast cancer patients. A retrospective analysis of 49 out of 100 patients enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study at a Midwestern breast center evaluates: (1) time required for completion of bilateral limb measurements and Lymphedema Breast Cancer Questionnaire (...

  5. Training course on radiometric prospecting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A training course on radiometric prospecting techniques was presented by the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the South African Geophysical Association and the Geological Society of South Africa. Various aspects related to uranium prospecting were discussed e.g. the uranium supply and demand position, the basic physics of radioactivity, uranium geochemistry, mineralogy and mobility, the instrumentation and techniques used in uranium exploration, for example, borehole logging, radon emanometry and airborne radiometric surveys and also data processing and interpretation methods

  6. How important is importance for prospective memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan eWalter; Beat eMeier

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover...

  7. DADOS-Prospective: an open source application for Web-based prospective data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Lam

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized, prospective trials involving multi-institutional collaboration have become a central part of clinical and translational research. However, data management and coordination of multi-center studies is a complex process that involves developing systems for data collection and quality control, tracking data queries and resolutions, as well as developing communication procedures. We describe DADOS-Prospective, an open-source Web-based application for collecting and managing prospective data on human subjects for clinical and translational trials. DADOS-Prospective not only permits users to create new clinical research forms (CRF and supports electronic signatures, but also offers the advantage of containing, in a single environment, raw research data in downloadable spreadsheet format, source documentation and regulatory files stored in PDF format, and audit trails. Results Feedback from formal and field usability tests was used to guide the design and development of DADOS-Prospective. To date, DADOS-Prospective has been implemented in five prospective clinical studies at our institution. Four of these studies are still in the CRF creation phase and one study has been entirely launched. Conclusion DADOS-Prospective has significant advantages over existing Web-based data collecting programs. At our institution, it has been demonstrated to be an efficient tool for prospective clinical studies.

  8. Validation scheme for diagnostic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to develop a scheme for the validation of assays developed in the research laboratory for the successful transfer and implementation in the diagnostic laboratory. Although logistically, temporally and economically challenging, proper validation minimizes the chance of failure and increases the possibility of successful transfer and implementation in the diagnostic laboratory. A properly validated assay, which includes good design, good quality control and good documentation, reduces the chances of liability and increases confidence in the assay both nationally and internationally

  9. SHIELD verification and validation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, C.

    1992-02-01

    This document outlines the verification and validation effort for the SHIELD, SHLDED, GEDIT, GENPRT, FIPROD, FPCALC, and PROCES modules of the SHIELD system code. Along with its predecessors, SHIELD has been in use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for more than ten years. During this time the code has been extensively tested and a variety of validation documents have been issued. The primary function of this report is to specify the features and capabilities for which SHIELD is to be considered validated, and to reference the documents that establish the validation.

  10. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard; Gepshtein, Sergei

    2015-09-01

    The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation") and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period"). We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation. PMID:26367309

  11. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Snider

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation" and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period". We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation.

  12. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF STAPLER HAEMORRHOIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Study the efficacy of stapled haemorrhoidectomy using circular stapler in terms of benefits as duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, postoperative pain, time to return to normal daily or social activity and usefulness as for patient satisfaction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study using circular stapler for grade II, grade III and grade IV haemorrhoids between age group 20 to 70 years was done over a period of Jun 2011 to Nov 2013. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: Study enrolled 30 symptomatic patients. 21(70% were males and 9(30% females. Most common complaint was bleeding per rectum in 29 (96.66% patients followed by itching 11 (36.66% patients & constipation 8 (26.66% patients. 19(63.33% patients were grade III haemorrhoids, 6 (20% were grade II and rest 5 (16.66% grade IV. Mean operative time was 31.76 minutes for our team with same surgeon operating all cases. Postoperative pain recorded using VAS score was max 24 hours after the surgery with mean VAS 2.31 + 0.46(VAS -1 no pain. During stay 28(93.33% patients required Step 1 pain analgesics (NSAIDS while only 2(6.66% were put on Step 2(opioids. Mean hospital stay of patients was 34.96 hours (1.45 days. 28(93.33% patients were able to return to social activity by day 8 post operatively. 28(93.33% were complication free while others had minor problems dealt accordingly. No recurrences in 6months follow up in all patients with 28(93.33% patients reporting satisfaction for their treatment through the procedure. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhoids is a socially embarrassing disorder and this new procedure of stapler haemorrhoidectomy delivers a smile and dignity especially to Indian patients. Hence it should practiced and promoted for patients benefit.

  13. Photovoltaic electricity prospects in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although considerable progress has been achieved in supplying electricity to most parts of Oman, due to its population dispersion, economic constraints and the short duration of the national electrification-programme to date (i.e. less than 30 years), there are still some locations without this desirable service. Electricity is the premium form of energy, because it is clean, as well as being flexible and highly efficient at its point-of-use. The availability of the first few kilowatts of electricity to a previously non-electrified home greatly improves the quality of life for its inhabitants, far more so than any subsequent equal increment of supplied power. For instance, this initial provision could energise artificial lighting, as well as a telephone, a T.V. set, or a refrigerator and so enhance significantly the life-style quality of a household. Photovoltaic (PV) technology has already demonstrated its effectiveness and holds great promise for electricity generation but, at present, is a relatively high capital-cost process. Nevertheless, it provides an opportunity to generate electricity quietly via a semi-conductor system, using no rotating parts, and requiring no fossil-fuel input because it depends on insolation and so emits no pollutants. Therefore, for some applications, e.g. railway signalling or buoy illumination, it is, even now, in common usage worldwide. PV-electricity generation tends to be more cost effective in the 'sun-belt' region from about 40oN to 40oS: Oman lies within this region, i.e. between 17oN and 26oN, and hence the prospects for its exploitation there on a large scale are good. (author)

  14. [Prospective evaluation of antidepressant discontinuation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, I; Lejoyeux, M; Adès, J

    1998-01-01

    The authors prospectively assessed symptoms induced by the interruption of antidepressants in 16 patients (11 women and 5 men), aged from 33 to 85 years (mean = 52.4 +/- 16.4), treated with antidepressants since at least two weeks. All patients were free of alcohol abuse or dependence disorder and of other dependence to psychoactive substances. None of them presented medical illness. Diagnosis were made by separate evaluations by two authors and confirmed with a semistructered assessment instrument: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (Lifetime Version). All patients were submitted to a brutal discontinuation of their antidepressant agent. Patients were assessed twice, before the interruption of the antidepressant, and 72 hours later. Effects of antidepressant interruption were assessed by several means. Modification of anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed with Cassano and al.'s scale SESSH including an evaluation of anxiety, agitation, irritability, anergy, difficulty on concentrating, depersonalization, sleep and appetite disorders, muscle pains, nausea, tremor, sweating, altered taste, hyperosmia, paresthesias, photophobia, motor incoordination, dizziness, hyperacousia pain, delirium. Fourteen of the 16 patients (87.5%) presented modifications of their somatic or psychic state 3 days after the interruption of the antidepressant treatment. Most frequent symptoms were: increase in anxiety (31%), increase in irritability (25%), sleep disorders (19%), decrease of anergia and fatigue (19%). Mean scores of anxiety and depression were not significantly modified by the withdrawal. Following TCAs interruption (7 patients) most frequent symptoms were sleep disorders; increase in anxiety, nausea. Among patients withdrawn from SSRIs (6 patients), most frequent symptoms were increase in anxiety, increase in irritability

  15. Energy intensities: Prospects and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous chapter, the author described how rising activity levels and structural change are pushing toward higher energy use in many sectors and regions, especially in the developing countries. The extent to which more activity leads to greater energy use will depend on the energy intensity of end-use activities. In this chapter, the author presents an overview of the potential for intensity reductions in each sector over the next 10-20 years. It is not the author's intent to describe in detail the various technologies that could be employed to improve energy efficiency, which has been done by others (see, for example, Lovins ampersand Lovins, 1991; Goldembert et al., 1987). Rather, he discusses the key factors that will shape future energy intensities in different parts of the world, and gives a sense for the changes that could be attained if greater attention were given to accelerate efficiency improvement. The prospects for energy intensities, and the potential for reduction, vary among sectors and parts of the world. In the majority of cases, intensities are tending to decline as new equipment and facilities come into use and improvements are made on existing stocks. The effect of stock turnover will be especially strong in the developing countries, where stocks are growing at a rapid pace, and the Former East Bloc, where much of the existing industrial plant will eventually be retired and replaced with more modern facilities. While reductions in energy intensity are likely in most areas, there is a large divergence between the technical and economic potential for reducing energy intensities and the direction in which present trends are moving. In the next chapter, the author presents scenarios that illustrate where trends are pointing, and what could be achieved if improving energy efficiency were a focus of public policies. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. The measurement of instrumental ADL: content validity and construct validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S

    1993-01-01

    A new measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), which is able to discriminate among the large group of elderly who do not depend on help, was tested for content validity and construct validity. Most assessments of functional ability include Physical ADL (PADL) and Instrumental ADL....... The measure of Instrumental ADL included 30 activities in relation to tiredness and reduced speed. Construct validity was tested by the Rasch model for item analysis; internal validity was specifically addressed by assessing the homogeneity of items under different conditions. The Rasch item analysis...... of IADL showed that 14 items could be combined into two qualitatively different additive scales. The IADL-measure complies with demands for content validity, distinguishes between what the elderly actually do, and what they are capable of doing, and is a good discriminator among the group of elderly...

  17. Experimental validation of UTDefect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports on conducted experiments and computer simulations of ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT). Experiments and simulations are compared with the purpose of validating the simulation program UTDefect. UTDefect simulates ultrasonic NDT of cracks and some other defects in isotropic and homogeneous materials. Simulations for the detection of surface breaking cracks are compared with experiments in pulse-echo mode on surface breaking cracks in carbon steel plates. The echo dynamics are plotted and compared with the simulations. The experiments are performed on a plate with thickness 36 mm and the crack depths are 7.2 mm and 18 mm. L- and T-probes with frequency 1, 2 and 4 MHz and angels 45, 60 and 70 deg are used. In most cases the probe and the crack is on opposite sides of the plate, but in some cases they are on the same side. Several cracks are scanned from two directions. In total 53 experiments are reported for 33 different combinations. Generally the simulations agree well with the experiments and UTDefect is shown to be able to, within certain limits, perform simulations that are close to experiments. It may be concluded that: For corner echoes the eight 45 deg cases and the eight 60 deg cases show good agreement between experiments and UTDefect, especially for the 7.2 mm crack. The amplitudes differ more for some cases where the defect is close to the probe and for the corner of the 18 mm crack. For the two 70 deg cases there are too few experimental values to compare the curve shapes, but the amplitudes do not differ too much. The tip diffraction echoes also agree well in general. For some cases, where the defect is close to the probe, the amplitudes differ more than 10-15 dB, but for all but two cases the difference in amplitude is less than 7 dB. 6 refs

  18. Quality of life after pulmonary embolism: validation of the French version of the PEmb-QoL questionnaire.

    OpenAIRE

    Rochat M.; Méan M.; Limacher A.; Hugli O.; Klok F.A.; Cohn D.M.; Aujesky D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The PEmb-QoL is a validated 40-item questionnaire to quantify health-related quality of life in patients having experienced pulmonary embolism (PE). It covers six health dimensions: frequency of complaints, activities of daily living limitations, work-related problems, social limitations, intensity of complaints, and emotional complaints. Originally developed in Dutch and English, we sought to prospectively validate the psychometric properties of a French version of the PEmb-QoL.Me...

  19. Quality of life after pulmonary embolism: validation of the French version of the PEmb-QoL questionnaire.

    OpenAIRE

    Rochat, Mathilde; Méan, Marie; Limacher, Andreas; Hugli, Olivier; Klok, Frederikus A; Cohn, Danny M; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2014-01-01

    Background The PEmb-QoL is a validated 40-item questionnaire to quantify health-related quality of life in patients having experienced pulmonary embolism (PE). It covers six health dimensions: frequency of complaints, activities of daily living limitations, work-related problems, social limitations, intensity of complaints, and emotional complaints. Originally developed in Dutch and English, we sought to prospectively validate the psychometric properties of a French version of the PEmb-QoL. M...

  20. Quality of life after pulmonary embolism, validation of the French version of the PEmb-QoL questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Rochat M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The PEmb-QoL is a validated 40-item questionnaire to quantify health-related quality of life in patients having experienced pulmonary embolism (PE). It covers six health dimensions: frequency of complaints, activities of daily living limitations, work-related problems, social limitations, intensity of complaints, and emotional complaints. Originally developed in Dutch and English, we sought to prospectively validate the psychometric properties of a French version of the PEmb-QoL. ...

  1. Prognosis in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: External validation of the IMPACT models and the role of extracranial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Lingsma, Hester; Andriessen, Teuntje; Haitsema, Iain; Horn, Janneke; van der Naalt, Joukje; Franschman, Gaby; Maas, Andrew; Vos, Pieter; Steyerberg, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several prognosticmodels to predict outcomein traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been developed, but feware externally validated. We aimed to validate the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) prognostic models in a recent unselected patient cohort and to assess the additional prognostic value of extracranial injury. METHODS: The Prospective Observational COhort Neurotrauma (POCON) registry contains 508 patients with moderate...

  2. Prospect relativity: How choice options influence decision under risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, N; Chater, N.; Stott, H. P.; Reimers, S.

    2003-01-01

    In many theories of decision under risk (e.g., expected utility theory, rank-dependent utility theory, and prospect theory), the utility of a prospect is independent of other options in the choice set. The experiments presented here show a large effect of the available options, suggesting instead that prospects are valued relative to one another. The judged certainty equivalent for a prospect is strongly influenced by the options available. Similarly, the selection of a preferred prospect is ...

  3. Managing Real-time Collaboration in Validated Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Itahriouan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Content Management Systems (CMS provide to its users the ability to publish on the Web with no need to have experience in developing web pages, this way CMS also participates in the expansion of reducing quality of content placed on the web similarly to Web 2.0 tools. The mechanism of validating content indicates a high level of quality content control while putting users as main players according to Web 2.0 standards, from this prospects we develop Validated Content Management System VCMS as a new Web 2.0 tool that supports content validation mechanism. The VCMS system requires collaboration between users when content is being static validated. Real-time synchronization between users during collaboration on the same project can make this process easier and brings more rapidity to content publication while maintaining the mechanisms that allows quality control in our system. In this article we present the technic of implementing real time interaction between users during collaboration on the same content. We focus on promoting the What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG editor to support Real-time collaboration between multiple content generators. . The approach presented in this paper can be integrated to any collaborative Content Management System and also can be used in all collaborative applications that generate Web content such as blogs or wikis offering to these tools the feature of collaborating on the same content between multiple users in real-time.

  4. Failure mode and effects analysis outputs: are they valid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebl Nada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA is a prospective risk assessment tool that has been widely used within the aerospace and automotive industries and has been utilised within healthcare since the early 1990s. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of FMEA outputs within a hospital setting in the United Kingdom. Methods Two multidisciplinary teams each conducted an FMEA for the use of vancomycin and gentamicin. Four different validity tests were conducted: · Face validity: by comparing the FMEA participants’ mapped processes with observational work. · Content validity: by presenting the FMEA findings to other healthcare professionals. · Criterion validity: by comparing the FMEA findings with data reported on the trust’s incident report database. · Construct validity: by exploring the relevant mathematical theories involved in calculating the FMEA risk priority number. Results Face validity was positive as the researcher documented the same processes of care as mapped by the FMEA participants. However, other healthcare professionals identified potential failures missed by the FMEA teams. Furthermore, the FMEA groups failed to include failures related to omitted doses; yet these were the failures most commonly reported in the trust’s incident database. Calculating the RPN by multiplying severity, probability and detectability scores was deemed invalid because it is based on calculations that breach the mathematical properties of the scales used. Conclusion There are significant methodological challenges in validating FMEA. It is a useful tool to aid multidisciplinary groups in mapping and understanding a process of care; however, the results of our study cast doubt on its validity. FMEA teams are likely to need different sources of information, besides their personal experience and knowledge, to identify potential failures. As for FMEA’s methodology for scoring failures, there were discrepancies

  5. Ecological reality and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cale, Jr, W. G.; Shugart, H. H.

    1980-01-01

    Definitions of model realism and model validation are developed. Ecological and mathematical arguments are then presented to show that model equations which explicitly treat ecosystem processes can be systematically improved such that greater realism is attained and the condition of validity is approached. Several examples are presented.

  6. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  7. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  8. Neurocutaneous syndrome: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radheshyam Purkait

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurocutaneous syndromes (NCS are a group of genetic disorders that produce a variety of developmental abnormalities of the skin along with an increased risk of neurological complications. Cutaneous manifestations usually appear early in life and progress with time, but neurological features generally present at a later age. There is a paucity of data regarding the evolution of skin lesions and their correlation with the central nervous system involvement in children. Aim: The primary objective was to track the course of skin lesions in various forms of NCS in the pediatric age group. Our secondary aim was to assess whether there was any predictive value of the lesions in relation to the neurological manifestations. Materials and Methods: This prospective longitudinal study was conducted at a tertiary care pediatric dermatology referral clinic of the Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal. Children between the age group 0 and 12 years were included in the study on the basis of standard diagnostic criteria for different NCS, during the period from March, 2000 to February, 2004, and each of the enrolled cases were followed up for a duration of six years. Results: The study population comprised of 67 children (35 boys, 32 girls.The mean age of presentation was 33.8±27.8 months (range 10 days to 111 months. The various forms of NCS observed was neurofibromatosis 1(NF1 (n=33, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC (n=23, Sturge Weber syndrome (n=6, ataxia telangiectasia (n=2, PHACE syndrome (n=1, incontinentia pigmenti (n=1, and hypomelanosis of Ito (n=1. The presentations were varied, ranging from predominantly cutaneous to primarily neurological, depending on the disease entity and age group concerned. There was a significant increase in the number of café au lait macules (CALMs with time (P=0.0002 in NF1, unlike that of hypopigmented macules of TSC (P=0.15. Statistically, no relation was documented between the evolution of skin

  9. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    OpenAIRE

    Beat eMeier; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results s...

  10. How to Validate Design : Validating Design Using Target Group Interview

    OpenAIRE

    Uhmavaara, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the topic of design validation. The theoretical aspects concentrate on design process and different attributes of design that can be measured. The objective was to gain knowledge on how design solutions can be validated or improved. The aim was also to find out if the validation data could be useful for designers. In addition to the theory, this thesis consists of a practical part, which includes a design case for a client, and a target group interview that aims to valida...

  11. Validation of the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) in self-referred patients in a European emergency department.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshove-Bolk, J.; Mencl, F.; Rijswijck, B.T. van; Simons, M.P.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) triage algorithm in predicting resource consumption and disposition by self-referred patients in a European emergency department. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational cohort study using a convenience sample of self-referred emergenc

  12. The Measurement of Executive Function at Age 3 Years: Psychometric Properties and Criterion Validity of a New Battery of Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Blair, Clancy B.; Wirth, R. J.; Greenberg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the psychometric properties and criterion validity of a newly developed battery of tasks that were designed to assess executive function (EF) abilities in early childhood. The battery was included in the 36-month assessment of the Family Life Project (FLP), a prospective longitudinal study of 1,292 children…

  13. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 8 to Part 748 - Information Required in Requests for Validated End-User (Veu) Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... structure, ownership and business of the prospective validated end-user. Include a description of the entity..., as appropriate; technical parameters for the items including performance specifications; and end-use... overview of any business activity or corporate relationship that the entity has with either government...

  15. The application actualities and prospects of geophysical methods to uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of geophysical methods to uranium prospect are briefly introduced, and the effects as well as problems in using those methods are analysed respectively. Combining with the increasing demand of uranium resources for Chinese nuclear power development and the higher requirements of geophysical techniques, the developing directions and the thoughts of geophysical techniques in uranium prospecting were proposed. A new pattern with producing, teaching and researching together is brought forward to develop advancing uranium prospecting key technologies and to break through technological bottlenecks depending on independent innovation. Integrated geophysical methods for prospecting uranium deposits are suggested. The method includes geophysical techniques as follows: gravity, magnetic, seismic, radioactive, remote sensing, and geochemical method in some proving grounds. Based on the experimental research, new uranium deposits prospecting models with efficient integrated geophysical methods can be established. (authors)

  16. An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tobin

    Full Text Available To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers. In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed.

  17. Prospect theory in the valuation of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Maurice L; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    Prospect theory is the prominent nonexpected utility theory in the estimation of health state preference scores for quality-adjusted life year calculation. Until recently, the theory was not considered to be developed to the point of implementation in economic analysis. This review focuses on the research and evidence that tests the implementation of prospect theory into health state valuation. The typical application of expected utility theory assumes that a decision maker has stable preferences under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Under prospect theory, preferences are dependent on whether the decision maker regards the outcome of a choice as a gain or loss, relative to a reference point. The conceptual preference for standard gamble utilities in the valuation of health states has led to the development of elicitation techniques. Empirical evidence using these techniques indicates that when individual preferences are elicited, a prospect theory consistent framework appears to be necessary for adequate representation of individual health utilities. The relevance of prospect theory to policy making and resource allocation remains to be established. Societal preferences may not need the same attitudes towards risks as individual preferences, and may remain largely risk neutral. PMID:19807267

  18. Validation of the CoRE Questionnaire for a Medical Journal Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Suhail A R; Salzman-Scott, Sherry A; Onitilo, Adedayo A

    2016-01-01

    If a peer review instrument asks concrete questions (defined as items that can only generate disagreement if reviewers have different degrees of expertise), then questionnaires could become more meaningful in terms of resolving subjectivity thus leading to more reviewer agreement. A concrete item questionnaire with well-chosen questions can also help resolve disagreement when reviewers have the same level of expertise. We have recently created the core-item reviewer evaluation (CoRE) questionnaire for which decision-threshold score levels have been created, but which have not been validated. This prospective validation of these thresholds for the CoRE questionnaire demonstrated strong agreement between reviewer recommendations and their reported score levels when tested prospectively at Clinical Medicine and Research. We conclude that using the CoRE questionnaire will help reduce peer reviewer disagreement. More importantly, when reviewer expertise varies, editors can more easily detect this and decide which opinion reflects the greater expertise. PMID:26192007

  19. Validation of EAF-2005 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Validation procedures applied on EAF-2003 starter file, which lead to the production of EAF-2005 library, are described. The results in terms of reactions with assigned quality scores in EAF-20005 are given. Further the extensive validation against the recent integral data is discussed together with the status of the final report 'Validation of EASY-2005 using integral measurements'. Finally, the novel 'cross section trend analysis' is presented with some examples of its use. This action will lead to the release of improved library EAF-2005.1 at the end of 2005, which shall be used as the starter file for EAF-2007. (author)

  20. A Survey on Internal Validity Measure for Cluster Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Jegatha Deborah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Data Clustering is a technique of finding similar characteristics among the data set which are always hidden in nature and grouping them into groups, called as clusters. Different clustering algorithms exhibit different results, since they are very sensitive to the characteristics of original data set especially noise and dimension. The quality of such clustering process determines the purity of cluster and hence it is very important to evaluate the results of the clustering algorithm. Due to this, Cluster validation activity had been a major and challenging task. The major factor which influences cluster validation is the internal cluster validity measure of choosing the optimal number of clusters. The main objective of this article is to present a detailed description of the mathematical working of few cluster validity indices and not all, to classify these indices and to explore the ideas for the future promotion of the work in the domain of cluster validation. In addition to this, a maximization objective function is defined assuming to provide a cluster validation activity.

  1. Military nuclear activities. Strategic prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special dossier aims at providing some key articles about France's deterrence doctrine. It provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges and questions about military nuclear activities and opens up some future prospects about this question. The dossier comprises 37 papers dealing with: 1 - Military nuclear activities: yesterday, today, tomorrow (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Deterrence according to French President Francois Hollande: continuation, precision and inflexions (Tertrais, B.); 3 - French deterrence warrantor of our independence in the 21. century (Rouillard, G.); 4 - The deterrence concept prior to the nuclear weapon era (Widemann, T.); 5 - France: the strategic marine force in operation (Guillaume, L.M.); 6 - Relevance of the airborne component in the nuclear deterrence strategy (Steininger, P.); 7 - Deterrence stakes for the Directorate General of Armaments (Guillemette, A.); 8 - The Charles-de-Gaulle aircraft carrier: the deterrence voice from the sea (Wodka-Gallien, P.); 9 - Deterrence: missions of the army's radiation protection department (Amabile, J.C.; Granger-Veyron, N.; Carbonnieres, H. de); 10 - The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French defense strategy (Roche, N.); 11 - DCNS, general contractor in the service of deterrence (Guillou, H.); 12 - The airborne nuclear component for MBDA (Bouvier, A.); 13 - Ballistic missile of the marine nuclear component: industrial stakes (Pastre, B.); 14 - Beyond defense against missiles: a US anti-deterrence strategy (Baconnet, A.); 15 - Deterrence dynamics in South Asia (Monsonis, G.); 16 - Military nuclear activities in East Asia (Brisset, J.V.); 17 - North Korea would own nuclear weapons, so what? (Hemez, R.); 18 - About the risk of nuclear warfare in Europe (Tchernega, V.); 19 - Present day nuclear activities: deterrence and gesticulation (Wedin, L.); 20 - Belgian F-16 replacement: nuclear dimension (Dumoulin, A.); 21 - Israel and nuclear deterrence (Razoux, P.); 22 - Nuclear

  2. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  3. Prognostic scoring systems-validation and their utility in patients with abdominal sepsis in colon peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Teleanu, G; Iordache, F; Beuran, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to analyze and validate the CR-POSSUM score in patients with peritonitis of colonic origin, considering mortality forecasting ability. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of the Surgery Clinic in the Emergency Hospital in Bucharest in January 2008-December 2011. Patients operated on for peritonitis of colonic origin were included in this study. The prognostic CR-POSSUM scores and Mannheim peritonitis index were calculated by using data fr...

  4. Isolated prospective confabulation in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: a case for reality filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnider, Armin; Nahum, Louis; Pignat, Jean-Michel; Leemann, Béatrice; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Wissmeyer, Michael; Ptak, Radek

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old man suffered severe amnesia and disorientation, accompanied by content-specific confabulation, due to an alcoholic Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. For months, he was deeply concerned about a single obligation that he thought he had to respond to, but which he had already assumed 20 years previously. This monothematic, prospective confabulation was associated with failures of reality filtering as previously documented in behaviorally spontaneous confabulation and disorientation: the patient failed to suppress the interference of currently irrelevant memories and to abandon anticipations that were no longer valid (impaired extinction capacity). Magnetic resonance imaging showed damage to the mamillary bodies and the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus. Positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed extended orbitofrontal hypometabolism. We suggest that isolated prospective confabulation shares the core feature (acts and thoughts based on currently irrelevant memory), mechanism (failure of reality filtering), and anatomical basis (orbitofrontal dysfunction) with behaviorally spontaneous confabulations. PMID:22512690

  5. Complications of ERCP: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete; Matzen, Peter; Schulze, Svend; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    included in this prospective study. Complications were assessed at the time of ERCP and by postal/telephone contact at 30-days after the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 1177 ERCPs were included in the analysis, of which 56.2% were therapeutic. The 30-day complication rate was 15.9%; the procedure...... analysis. Risk of pancreatitis was increased with age under 40 years ( p = 0.0078), placement of stent ( p = 0.031), and a dilated bile duct ( p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study confirms that the complication rate of ERCP including therapeutic procedures is high. Cardiopulmonary complications...

  6. Prospects for stability in a nuclear subcontinent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explore the prospects for stability in a nuclear sub-continent. The nonproliferation regimes and nuclear threat reduction, nonproliferation regimes and south asia - is there a meeting point?; maintaining a threshold of strategic autonomy at least cost: continuity in the evolution of India's nuclear policies; role of nuclear doctrines and the state of the armed forces in South Asia; nuclear weapons, deterrence and stability in the international system: South Asian dynamics; assessing China's Asian role and security policies; Kargil war to current threat of war: prospects for stability; discussion; international terrorism and its impact on South Asian stability; a view from Bangladesh etc. are some of the topics covered

  7. Base Flow Model Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is the systematic "building-block" validation of CFD/turbulence models employing a GUI driven CFD code (RPFM) and existing as well as new data sets...

  8. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs. PMID:12083280

  9. Static Validation of XSL Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Olesen, Mads Østerby; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    XSL Transformations (XSLT) is a programming language for defining transformations among XML languages. The structure of these languages is formally described by schemas, for example using DTD or XML Schema, which allows individual documents to be validated. However, existing XSLT tools offer no...... static guarantees that, under the assumption that the input is valid relative to the input schema, the output of the transformation is valid relative to the output schema. We present a validation technique for XSLT based on the XML graph formalism introduced in the static analysis of JWIG Web services...... and XACT XML transformations. Being able to provide static guarantees, we can detect a large class of errors in an XSLT stylesheet at the time it is written instead of later when it has been deployed, and thereby provide benefits similar to those of static type checkers for modern programming...

  10. Modelling Freshwater Resources at the Global Scale: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Petra; Douville, Herve; Guntner, Andreas; Schmied, Hannes Muller; Wada, Yoshihide

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatially and temporally resolved water flows and water storage variations for all land areas of the globe is required to assess water resources, water scarcity and flood hazards, and to understand the Earth system. This quantification is done with the help of global hydrological models (GHMs). What are the challenges and prospects in the development and application of GHMs? Seven important challenges are presented. (1) Data scarcity makes quantification of human water use difficult even though significant progress has been achieved in the last decade. (2) Uncertainty of meteorological input data strongly affects model outputs. (3) The reaction of vegetation to changing climate and CO2 concentrations is uncertain and not taken into account in most GHMs that serve to estimate climate change impacts. (4) Reasons for discrepant responses of GHMs to changing climate have yet to be identified. (5) More accurate estimates of monthly time series of water availability and use are needed to provide good indicators of water scarcity. (6) Integration of gradient-based groundwater modelling into GHMs is necessary for a better simulation of groundwater-surface water interactions and capillary rise. (7) Detection and attribution of human interference with freshwater systems by using GHMs are constrained by data of insufficient quality but also GHM uncertainty itself. Regarding prospects for progress, we propose to decrease the uncertainty of GHM output by making better use of in situ and remotely sensed observations of output variables such as river discharge or total water storage variations by multi-criteria validation, calibration or data assimilation. Finally, we present an initiative that works towards the vision of hyper resolution global hydrological modelling where GHM outputs would be provided at a 1-km resolution with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Modelling Freshwater Resources at the Global Scale: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Petra; Douville, Hervé; Güntner, Andreas; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of spatially and temporally resolved water flows and water storage variations for all land areas of the globe is required to assess water resources, water scarcity and flood hazards, and to understand the Earth system. This quantification is done with the help of global hydrological models (GHMs). What are the challenges and prospects in the development and application of GHMs? Seven important challenges are presented. (1) Data scarcity makes quantification of human water use difficult even though significant progress has been achieved in the last decade. (2) Uncertainty of meteorological input data strongly affects model outputs. (3) The reaction of vegetation to changing climate and CO2 concentrations is uncertain and not taken into account in most GHMs that serve to estimate climate change impacts. (4) Reasons for discrepant responses of GHMs to changing climate have yet to be identified. (5) More accurate estimates of monthly time series of water availability and use are needed to provide good indicators of water scarcity. (6) Integration of gradient-based groundwater modelling into GHMs is necessary for a better simulation of groundwater-surface water interactions and capillary rise. (7) Detection and attribution of human interference with freshwater systems by using GHMs are constrained by data of insufficient quality but also GHM uncertainty itself. Regarding prospects for progress, we propose to decrease the uncertainty of GHM output by making better use of in situ and remotely sensed observations of output variables such as river discharge or total water storage variations by multi-criteria validation, calibration or data assimilation. Finally, we present an initiative that works towards the vision of hyperresolution global hydrological modelling where GHM outputs would be provided at a 1-km resolution with reasonable accuracy.

  12. Validation: an overview of definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term validation is featured prominently in the literature on radioactive high-level waste disposal and is generally understood to be related to model testing using experiments. In a first class, validation is linked to the goal of predicting the physical world as faithfully as possible but is unattainable and unsuitable for setting goals for the safety analyses. In a second class, validation is associated to split-sampling or to blind-tests predictions. In the third class of definition, validation focuses on the quality of the decision-making process. Most prominent in the present review is the observed lack of use of the term validation in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal. The continued informal use of the term validation in the field of high level wastes disposals can become cause for misperceptions and endless speculations. The paper proposes either abandoning the use of this term or agreeing to a definition which would be common to all. (J.S.). 29 refs

  13. 4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml-1 delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml g-1 body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 µm and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The

  14. The Effect of Using Writer's Workshop Approach on Developing Basic Writing Skills (Mechanics of Writing) of Prospective Teachers of English in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of using a program based on the writing workshop approach on developing basic writing skills of prospective teachers of English in Hurgada faculty of Education. For that purpose, the researcher constructed and validated a teaching program based on the writing workshop approach, checklist of the…

  15. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Meldi Plasseraud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p=0.003 with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher’s exact test p=2.1×10-13 and p=0.04, resp.. The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920.

  16. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  17. Prospects of Employment Growth in Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Motkuri, Venkatanarayana

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines the changes in work participation rates, participation rate in education and the growth of employment, and explores the prospects of employment growth in the state of Andhra Pradesh (India) in the scenario of declining population growth which acts as a limiting factors for the further employment growth.

  18. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis was...... than the exception in deaths in alcoholics....

  19. Organic solvent nanofiltration: prospects and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key lines of research in a new field of the membrane science and technology, viz., organic solvent nanofiltration, are considered. The prospects for its use in chemical, petrochemical and food industries are discussed. Attention is focused on membranes developed for this method.

  20. Do Marital Prospects Dissuade Unmarried Fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    weaker marriage-market prospects may be strong enough to explain higher unmarried birth rates. Relative to the existing literature, the essential contributions of the model are to allow for accumulation of children over the lifecycle and for the marriage of single mothers. We use the model, in...

  1. Business Tourism in Sochi: Issues and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Galina M. Romanova; Andrey V. Apukhtin; Lyudmila A. Beloslutseva

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the current problems and pe rspectives of business tourism in Sochi. The development of this segment of tourism may attract extra thousands of tourists. Development prospects of Sochi is associated with the forthcoming tourist boom and reincarnation of this local - popular resort into the international tourist destination. Business tourism is supposed to become an integral part of the...

  2. Prospects for New Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2010-01-01

    High-energy collisions at the LHC are now starting. The new physics agenda of the LHC is reviewed, with emphasis on the hunt for the Higgs boson (or whatever replaces it) and supersymmetry. In particular, the prospects for discovering new physics in the 2010-2011 run are discussed.

  3. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Integers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Stacy; Bateiha, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the degree to which prospective elementary teachers had developed a meaningful and conceptual understanding of what integers are and explored their development of models for multiplication with integers that are related to everyday activities. Additionally, this study explored how these understandings informed…

  4. Metamaterial localized resonance sensors: prospects and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The prospects and limitations of metamaterial localized resonance sensors are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Gold split-ring resonators are employed as the model system where the light induced LC-resonance yields a figure-of-merit, sensitivity divided by linewidth, up to 54...

  5. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Gabriela; Castro, Encarnación

    2012-01-01

    We present the findings of a study on prospective elementary teachers' proportional reasoning. After describing some of the teachers' performance in solving multiplicative structure problems that involve ratios and relations of direct proportionality between quantities, we were able to establish classifications of their answers according to…

  6. Russia's Precious Metals Market: Condition and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTLYAR A. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The region of existence of phases in equilibrium with the solid solution based on palladium.Presented to analyze the current situation in the market of precious metals in Russia.Provides information about the production and processing of precious metals.Prospects for the most likely path of development of the Russian market of precious metals.

  7. Status and prospects of the fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the status and prospects of the fusion technology in particular, with respect to the description of the present tokamak devices and future reactors is carried out. Issues to be reviewed include: superconducting magnets, heating and current-drive systems, plasma control, maintainence, materials, tritium breeding and blanket systems. The costs of the fusion electricity and environmental aspects are also considered

  8. Neutrino Experiments: Status, Recent Progress, and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Brice, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino physics has seen an explosion of activity and new results in the last decade. In this report the current state of the field is summarized, with a particular focus on progress in the last two years. Prospects for the near term (roughly 5 years) are also described.

  9. Prospective associations between loneliness and emotional intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, A.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Qualter, P.

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness has been linked cross-sectionally to emotional skill deficits (e.g., Zysberg, 2012), but missing from the literature is a longitudinal examination of these relationships. The present study fills that gap by examining the prospective relationships between loneliness and emotional functioni

  10. Prospective associations between loneliness and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wols, A; Scholte, R H J; Qualter, P

    2015-02-01

    Loneliness has been linked cross-sectionally to emotional skill deficits (e.g., Zysberg, 2012), but missing from the literature is a longitudinal examination of these relationships. The present study fills that gap by examining the prospective relationships between loneliness and emotional functioning in young adolescents in England. One hundred and ninety-six adolescents aged 11-13 years (90 females) took part in the study and completed the youth version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-YV) and the peer-related subscale of the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA) at two time points, which were 10 months apart. Prospective associations were obtained for male and female adolescents separately using cross-lagged statistical techniques. Our results showed prospective links between understanding and managing emotions and loneliness for both females and males. Perceiving and using emotions were prospectively linked to loneliness in males only. Possible explanations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25576768

  11. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  12. Attitude level of prospective science teachers towards assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ridwan; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.

    2016-02-01

    A descriptive study about attitude level of prospective science teachers towards assessment was conducted with the involvement of 67 prospective science teachers from four state universities in western part of the Indonesian region and middle part of Indonesia region. Data collected by using the questionnaire consisted of four aspects, id est. prospective science teachers attitude towards assessment (cognitive level of assessment, type of assessment, and criterion of evaluation), prospective science teachers instructional practice, internal difficulties that prospective science teachers experienced related to their assessment skills, and the use of assessment process of prospective science teachers. Determination of attitude level detected from prospective science teachers was carried out in descriptive statistics, in the form of respondent average values. Research finding shows that attitude level of prospective science teachers towards assessment can be categorized as "close to constructivist".

  13. Geochemical prospect ion results of Mariscala aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the metalical mining prospect ion in Mariscala aerial photo. Lavalleja district belong to the Mining inventory programme of Uruguay.

  14. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major ...

  15. Dietary arsenic intake and subsequent risk of cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Takachi, Ribeka; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and has been linked to adverse health outcomes, including cancer. However, the effects of arsenic exposure from food on health are still unknown. We researched to examine the association between arsenic exposure from food and incidence of cancer in a Japanese population. Methods We conducted a population-based prospective study in 90,378 Japanese men and women aged 45–74 years. Participants responded to a validated questionnaire that included 138 fo...

  16. Quality data validation: Comprehensive approach to environmental data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental data validation consists of an assessment of three major areas: analytical method validation; field procedures and documentation review; evaluation of the level of achievement of data quality objectives based in part on PARCC parameters analysis and expected applications of data. A program utilizing matrix association of required levels of validation effort and analytical levels versus applications of this environmental data was developed in conjunction with DOE-ID guidance documents to implement actions under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order in effect at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This was an effort to bring consistent quality to the INEL-wide Environmental Restoration Program and database in an efficient and cost-effective manner. This program, documenting all phases of the review process, is described here

  17. Validity of mesothelin in occupational medicine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Smolková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Malignant mesothelioma (MM is the most serious asbestos-related disease. Its increasing incidence is alarming, suggesting the need for as early diagnosis as possible. This 4.5-year prospective longitudinal study aimed at assessing the benefit of measuring serum mesothelin as a marker for diagnosing malignant mesothelioma in individuals with previous occupational exposure to asbestos, as a part of their clinical follow-up care. Material and Methods: The study comprised 309 participants (235 males, 74 females with a mean age of 58.9 years (standard deviation (SD = 9.8 and a mean duration of exposure to asbestos dust of 13.4 years (SD = 9.3. From 2009 to June 2013, all subjects were followed at a department of occupational medicine in Olomouc. Apart from the standard parts of medical examination (history, physical examination, simple chest radiographs and spirometry, the patients’ serum mesothelin levels were determined by the Mesomark immunoenzymatic diagnostic assay. Statistical analysis of the validity of serum mesothelin level measurement was carried out with respect to the diagnosis of MM. Results: Among the participants, 16 (5.2% individuals (14 males and 2 females were diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma. Based on the detected mesothelin levels, their validity for prediction of malignant mesothelioma was calculated as follows: sensitivity – 0.75, specificity – 0.962, positive predictive value – 0.706, negative predictive value – 0.969, positive and negative likelihood ratios – 19.95 and 0.26, respectively, and diagnostic odds ratio – 76.8, at a 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: The high specificity was identified indicating the low false positivity as well. In the case of detecting elevated soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP levels in formerly asbestos-exposed individuals, the possibility of the presence of MM should be included into the clinical consideration. The high negative predictive value denotes

  18. Reflections on Common Mistakes of Prospective Teachers During Practicum

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zafar Iqbal; Mehmood Ul Hassan; Muhammad Qasim Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the common mistakes of prospective teachers during practicum. Major objective of the paper was to study the common mistakes of prospective teachers during practicum. Quantitative data was collected through questionnaire from 800 prospective teachers and 80 prospective teachers (i.e 10% of total sample) were observed. Descriptive analysis was made to see the tendencies of the quantitative data and qualitative data was analyzed though content analysis approach. During practi...

  19. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate geometric forms called lexigrams with real-world referents, was given a prospective memory test. Panzee selected between two foods the one she wanted...

  20. Transparent Meta-Analysis of Prospective Memory and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bob Uttl

    2008-01-01

    Prospective memory (ProM) refers to our ability to become aware of a previously formed plan at the right time and place. After two decades of research on prospective memory and aging, narrative reviews and summaries have arrived at widely different conclusions. One view is that prospective memory shows large age declines, larger than age declines on retrospective memory (RetM). Another view is that prospective memory is an exception to age declines and remains invariant across the adult lifes...

  1. Whoops, I did it Again: Commission Errors in Prospective Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory research almost exclusively examines remembering to execute an intention, but the ability to forget completed intentions may be similarly important. We had younger and older adults perform a prospective memory task (press Q when you see corn or dancer), and then told them that the intention was completed. Participants later performed a lexical decision task (Phase 2) in which their prospective memory cues reappeared. Initial prospective memory performance was similar betwee...

  2. Memory complaints and prospective memory performance across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Eschen, A; Mattli, F; Sutter, C; Zöllig, J

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of prospective and retrospective memory failures from six age groups was gathered using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). Objective performance measures were obtained with a laboratory prospective memory task. Findings revealed more prospective than retrospective memory complaints in all age groups except in young children. While overall reported memory failures were similar in the adult groups, fewer failures were reported for the two children group...

  3. Process validation for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  4. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that result in having dreams come true. This paper primarily addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. It also addresses the latter problem in discussing what are relevant measures critical for aeroacoustics that should be used in validating LES codes. These new diagnostic techniques deliver measurements and flow statistics of increasing sophistication and capability, but what of their accuracy? And what are the measures to be used in validation? This paper argues that the issue of accuracy be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it is argued that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound.

  5. Independent validation of ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of its inspection strategy for the Sizewell-B PWR station, the Central Electricity Generating Board (in part now Nuclear Electric) decided that the ultrasonic inspection procedures for the incredibility of failure components would be subjected to independent confirmation of their adequacy. The incorporation of validation into a large-scale inspection strategy was unique at the time (1982), indeed remains so today. The CEGB's general philosophy is one of diversity, redundancy and validation. In order to carry out independent validation of the specific procedures and ultrasonic operators to be used during the manufacture and in-service inspection of the reactor pressure vessel and steam plant components, the Inspection Validation Centre (IVC) has operated as a contractor to Nuclear Electric with special arrangements in place to guarantee independence. The setting-up and early methods of operation of IVC are briefly reviewed, the most recent operational experience summarized and the technical significance of the validations to date discussed. (author). 1 fig

  6. 50 CFR 27.64 - Prospecting and mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 27.64 Section 27.64 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Property § 27.64 Prospecting and mining. Prospecting, locating, or filing mining claims on...

  7. Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Alternative Conceptions about Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Yezdan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain prospective chemistry teachers' conceptions about acids and bases concepts. Thirty-eight prospective chemistry teachers were the participants. Data were collected by means of an open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Analysis of data indicated that most prospective teachers did not have…

  8. Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

  9. Predictors of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Mantyla, Timo

    2009-01-01

    This study identified age differences in time-based prospective memory performance in school-aged children and explored possible cognitive correlates of age-related performance. A total of 56 7- to 12-year-olds performed a prospective memory task in which prospective memory accuracy, ongoing task performance, and time monitoring were assessed.…

  10. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  11. A Multinomial Model of Event-Based Prospective Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2004-01-01

    Prospective memory is remembering to perform an action in the future. The authors introduce the 1st formal model of event-based prospective memory, namely, a multinomial model that includes 2 separate parameters related to prospective memory processes. The 1st measures preparatory attentional processes, and the 2nd measures retrospective memory…

  12. Key problems in validation of intelligent models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei; MA Ping; YANG Ming; WANG Zi-cai

    2009-01-01

    To provide a realistic simulation environment for users, intelligent models have become key compo-nents in military simulations. After the analysis of modeling nature of intelligent models, the validation criteria for defining the validation points and validation metrics for measuring the agreements between human expertsand intelligent models were presented. Further, such methods as graphical comparison, feature analysis and face validation were discussed according to the characteristics of intelligent models. Based on the validation cri-teria, validation metrics and validation methods, the intelligent models can be effectively validated, which has been proved in current developed intelligent models.

  13. Validation of TRAB-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRAB-3D is a reactor dynamics code with three-dimensional neutronics coupled to core and circuit thermal-hydraulics. The code, entirely developed at VTT, can be used in transient and accident analyses of boiling (BWR) and pressurized water (PWR) reactors with rectangular fuel bundle geometry. The validation history of TRAB-3D includes calculation of international benchmark exercises, as well as comparisons with measured data from real plant transients. The most recent validation case is a load rejection test performed at the Olkiluoto 1 nuclear power plant in 1998 in connection with the power uprating project. The fact that there is local power measurement data available from this test makes it a suitable case for three-dimensional core model validation. The agreement between the results of the TRAB-3D calculation and the measurements is very good. (orig.)

  14. Communication-based positioning systems: past, present and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews positioning systems in the context of communication systems. First, the basic positioning technique is described for location based service (LBS) in mobile communication systems. Then the high integrity global positioning system (iGPS) is introduced in terms of aspects of what it is and how the low Earth orbit (LEO) Iridium telecommunication satellites enhance the global positioning system (GPS). Emphasis is on the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) which is mainly based on commercial geostationary (GEO) communication satellites, including decommissioned GEO and inclined geosynchronous communication satellites. Characterized by its low cost, high flexibility, wide-area coverage and ample frequency resources, a distinctive feature of CAPS is that its navigation messages are generated on the ground, then uploaded to and forwarded by the communication satellites. Fundamental principles and key technologies applied in the construction of CAPS are presented in detail from the CAPS validation phase to its experimental system setup. A prospective view of CAPS has concluded it to be a seamless, high accuracy, large capacity navigation and communication system which can be achieved by expanding it world wide and enhancing it with LEO satellites and mobile base stations. Hence, this system is a potential candidate for the next generation of radio navigation after GPS. (invited reviews)

  15. Major Achievements and Prospect of the ATLAS Integral Effect Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Yong Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation, has been operated by KAERI. The reference plant of ATLAS is the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor, 1400 MWe. Since 2007, an extensive series of experimental works were successfully carried out, including large break loss of coolant accident tests, small break loss of coolant accident tests at various break locations, steam generator tube rupture tests, feed line break tests, and steam line break tests. These tests contributed toward an understanding of the unique thermal-hydraulic behavior, resolving the safety-related concerns and providing validation data for evaluation of the safety analysis codes and methodology for the advanced pressurized water reactor, APR1400. Major discoveries and lessons found in the past integral effect tests are summarized in this paper. As the demand for integral effect tests is on the rise due to the active national nuclear R&D program in Korea, the future prospects of the application of the ATLAS facility are also discussed.

  16. Prospective Analysis of Risk for Hypothyroidism after Hemithyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Beisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate risk factors and to develop a simple scoring system to grade the risk of postoperative hypothyroidism (PH. Methods. In a controlled prospective study, 109 patients, who underwent hemithyroidectomy for a benign thyroid disease, were followed up for 12 months. The relation between clinical data and PH was analyzed for significance. A risk scoring system based on significant risk factors and clinical implications was developed. Results. The significant risk factors of PH were higher TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone level and lower ratio of the remaining thyroid weight to the patient’s weight (derived weight index. Based on the log of risk factor, preoperative TSH level greater than 1.4 mU/L was assigned 2 points; 1 point was for 0.8–1.4 mU/L. The derived weight index lower than 0.8 g/kg was assigned 1 point. A risk scoring system was calculated by summing the scores. The incidences of PH were 7.3%, 30.4%, and 69.2% according to the risk scores of 0-1, 2, and 3. Conclusion. Risk factors for PH are higher preoperative TSH level and lower derived weight index. Our developed risk scoring system is a valid and reliable tool to identify patients who are at risk for PH before surgery.

  17. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: ongoing clinical challenges and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Karukote, Amputch; Ruthirago, Doungporn; Panikkath, Deepa; Panikkath, Ragesh

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is an uncommon disorder characterized by increased intracranial pressure without radiological or laboratory evidence of intracranial pathology except empty sella turcica, optic nerve sheath with filled out cerebrospinal fluid spaces, and smooth-walled nonflow-related venous sinus stenosis or collapse. This condition typically affects obese women. The incidence of IIH is increasing with the rising prevalence of obesity. Persistent headache is the most common symptom. Visual impairment is a serious complication that may not be recognized by the patients. This paper reviews clinical manifestations, diagnostic challenges, and current treatments of IIH in adults. Various imaging modalities have been studied on their validity for detection of IIH and papilledema. This review also includes new studies on medical, surgical, and interventional management of this condition. Acetazolamide and topiramate are the only two medications that have been studied in randomized controlled trials about their efficacy in treatment of IIH. In patients who have severe visual impairment or progressive visual deterioration despite medical management, surgical or interventional treatment may be considered. The efficacy and complications of cerebrospinal fluid diversion, optic nerve sheath fenestration, and endovascular venous stenting reported in the last 3 decades have been summarized in this review. Finally, the prospective aspects of biomarkers and treatments are proposed for future research. PMID:26929666

  18. A Review of Water Isotopes in Atmospheric General Circulation Models: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Xi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable water isotopologues, mainly 1H2O, 1H2HO (HDO, and H12O18, are useful tracers for processes in the global hydrological cycle. The incorporation of water isotopes into Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs since 1984 has helped scientists gain substantial new insights into our present and past climate. In recent years, there have been several significant advances in water isotopes modeling in AGCMs. This paper reviews and synthesizes key advances accomplished in modeling (1 surface evaporation, (2 condensation, (3 supersaturation, (4 postcondensation processes, (5 vertical distribution of water isotopes, and (6 spatial δ18O-temperature slope and utilizing (1 spectral nudging technique, (2 higher model resolutions, and (3 coupled atmosphere-ocean models. It also reviews model validation through comparisons of model outputs and ground-based and spaceborne measurements. In the end, it identifies knowledge gaps and discusses future prospects of modeling and model validation.

  19. Assessment of juveniles testimonies’ validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozortseva E.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of the English language publications concerning the history and the current state of differential psychological assessment of validity of testimonies produced by child and adolescent victims of crimes. The topicality of the problem in Russia is high due to the tendency of Russian specialists to use methodical means and instruments developed abroad in this sphere for forensic assessments of witness testimony veracity. A system of Statement Validity Analysis (SVA by means of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA and Validity Checklist is described. The results of laboratory and field studies of validity of CBCA criteria on the basis of child and adult witnesses are discussed. The data display a good differentiating capacity of the method, however, a high level of error probability. The researchers recommend implementation of SVA in the criminal investigation process, but not in the forensic assessment. New perspective developments in the field of methods for differentiation of witness statements based on the real experience and fictional are noted. The conclusion is drawn that empirical studies and a special work for adaptation and development of new approaches should precede their implementation into Russian criminal investigation and forensic assessment practice

  20. Validity of Management Control Topoi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Lennart; Nørreklit, Hanne; Israelsen, Poul

    2004-01-01

    The validity of research and company topoi for constructing/analyzing relaity is analyzed as the integration of the four aspects (dimensions): fact, possibility (logic), value and comunication. Main stream, agency theory and social constructivism are critizied for reductivism (incomplete...

  1. Generalization of Selection Test Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, G. A.; Taylor, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    This is part three of a three-part series concerned with the empirical development of homogeneous families of insurance company jobs based on data from the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). This part involves validity generalizations within the job families which resulted from the previous research. (Editor/RK)

  2. Validation process of simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented a methodology on empirical validation about any detailed simulation model. This king of validation it is always related with an experimental case. The empirical validation has a residual sense, because the conclusions are based on comparisons between simulated outputs and experimental measurements. This methodology will guide us to detect the fails of the simulation model. Furthermore, it can be used a guide in the design of posterior experiments. Three steps can be well differentiated: Sensitivity analysis. It can be made with a DSA, differential sensitivity analysis, and with a MCSA, Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. Looking the optimal domains of the input parameters. It has been developed a procedure based on the Monte-Carlo methods and Cluster techniques, to find the optimal domains of these parameters. Residual analysis. This analysis has been made on the time domain and on the frequency domain, it has been used the correlation analysis and spectral analysis. As application of this methodology, it is presented the validation carried out on a thermal simulation model on buildings, Esp., studying the behavior of building components on a Test Cell of LECE of CIEMAT. (Author) 17 refs

  3. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings wit...... the mean value enclosure of an integral operator and uses interval Bernstein polynomials for enclosing the solution. Two numerical examples are given, using two orders of approximation and using different numbers of discretization points.......This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings with...... intervals as initial values. A modification of the mean value enclosure of discrete mappings is considered, namely the extended mean value enclosure which in most cases leads to even better enclosures. These methods have previously been described in connection with discretizing solutions of ordinary...

  4. Transparent meta-analysis of prospective memory and aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (ProM refers to our ability to become aware of a previously formed plan at the right time and place. After two decades of research on prospective memory and aging, narrative reviews and summaries have arrived at widely different conclusions. One view is that prospective memory shows large age declines, larger than age declines on retrospective memory (RetM. Another view is that prospective memory is an exception to age declines and remains invariant across the adult lifespan. The present meta-analysis of over twenty years of research settles this controversy. It shows that prospective memory declines with aging and that the magnitude of age decline varies by prospective memory subdomain (vigilance, prospective memory proper, habitual prospective memory as well as test setting (laboratory, natural. Moreover, this meta-analysis demonstrates that previous claims of no age declines in prospective memory are artifacts of methodological and conceptual issues afflicting prior research including widespread ceiling effects, low statistical power, age confounds, and failure to distinguish between various subdomains of prospective memory (e.g., vigilance and prospective memory proper.

  5. Prospect theory, reference points, and health decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Schwartz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In preventative health decisions, such as the decision to undergo an invasive screening test or treatment, people may be deterred from selecting the test because its perceived disutility relative to not testing is greater than the utility associated with prevention of possible disease. The prospect theory editing operation, by which a decision maker's reference point is determined, can have important effects on the disutility of the test. On the basis of the prospect theory value function, this paper develops two approaches to reducing disutility by directing the decision maker's attention to either (actual past or (expected future losses that result in shifted reference points. After providing a graphical description of the approaches and a mathematical proof of the direction of their effect on judgment, we briefly illustrate the potential value of these approaches with examples from qualitative research on prostate cancer treatment decisions.

  6. Prospect of MH-Ni Batteries Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shaoping; Xing Zhiqiang; Liang Wanlong; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The development trend and promising application prospects of high-power MH-Ni battery were reviewed by studying and comparing the current high-power batteries research area.High-power MH-Ni batiery has good performlife with 500 ~ 1000 times, abundant material resource, especially abundant rare earth resource in China, high-rate discharging, rapid charging, good safety as well as no pollution, etc., which is regarded as the most promising storage battery for electric vehicles.The performance of high power MH-Ni battery can be brought into play fully and ensure electric vehicles performance if it is equipped with appropriate chargers, controlling system and electric motors.Facing opportunities and challenges, MH-Ni battery has promising application prospects on hybrid electric automobile, electric bicycle and a variety of small sized electric vehicles by improving its technology constantly and developing market actively.

  7. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  8. M-Commerce In Indonesia: Problems & Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyoto Indonesia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary observation of the latest m-Commerce problems and prospects in Indonesia. Every year the Indonesian mobile market has grown, from 175.1 million subscribers in 2009 to 222.7 million in 2010 and then to more than 240 million subscribers by 2011. However, the fact is that the m-Commerce adoption in Indonesia has still been low and slow. Mobile commerce or commonly abbreviated as m-Commerce is still considered as something new in Indonesia. The purposes of this paper are to describe the m-Commerce development trends in Indonesia, to identify problems faced by Indonesia, to identify its prospects in Indonesia, and to propose alternative solutions to the problems that have been identified. This paper attempts to help business managers to understand the problems of m-Commerce and to be capitalize on the advantages of m-Commerce.

  9. PROSPECTS OF ISLAMIC BANKING: REFLECTIONS FROM PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Akram; Mamoona Rafique; Hassan Mobeen Alam

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the growth and development phases as well as prospects of Islamic banking in Pakistan. The role of Islamic banking is explained with special regards to corporate social responsibility (CSR) as now days this concept is growing vastly. Awareness in public also has been growing and people are moving towards Islamic banking system. As we live in a Muslim country so it is very essential to have some basic knowledge about the Islamic banking. In this paper growth and performan...

  10. AN ECONOMIC FORECAST AND POLICY PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Roger E. Brinner

    1992-01-01

    The economy is stagnating today because everyone is waiting for someone else to restart the recovery. Consumers are deferring major purchases until job prospects are rosier. Businesses are pushing down their inventories and payrolls until their order books surge. In essence the economic fundamentals are sound, but at this point, we need a new catalyst for recovery. It is time to implement policies that directly stimulate investment including a self-financing equipment tax credit for productiv...

  11. Growth Prospects in China and India Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Herd; Sean Dougherty

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the growth prospects of China and India through a growth accounting analysis. Consistent time series for capital stock and employment are constructed using available survey data, and recent revisions to the national accounts for both countries are incorporated. The results allow for a discussion of the sources of growth in both countries, and a consideration of each country's rate of potential growth in light of the outlook for national savings, as demographic shifts occur...

  12. Evaluation of Learning Approaches for Prospective Physics

    OpenAIRE

    SELÇUK, Gamze SEZGİN; ÇALIŞKAN, Serap; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine prospective physics teachers\\' learning approaches and to investigate the relationships among this variable, students\\' gender, class level and academic success. Total number of 141 students, Physics Education Department, Education Faculty of Buca, Dokuz Eylul University, is participated to this research. Data of the research were collected by Learning Approaches Scale (α=0,.81). The analysis of the data clearly indicates that prospectiv...

  13. Prospects in MPGDs development for neutron detection

    OpenAIRE

    Guerard, Bruno; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Murtas, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Multi Wires Proportional Chambers (MWPC), Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) used in HEP to detect MIPs offer better spatial resolution, counting rate capability, and radiation hardness; their fabrication is also more reproducible. Provided similar advantages are applicable to detect neutrons, MPGDs might contribute significantly to the development of neutron scientific instrumentation. In order to evaluate the prospects of neutron MPGDs, it is worth knowing the applications which...

  14. Red flags in prospective contractors' financial statements.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Man-ying, Nicole

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis attempts to identify warning signals in the contractors financial statement, or 'red flags', which may be used to identify those prospective contractors who are likely to become delinquent in the performance of their contracts. A 'red flags' list compiled from the current literature was sent to financial analysts in the thirty-eight Financial Service Branches, Defense Contract Management Command Area Offices(FSDCMAOs) to d...

  15. Overview of Tourism Development Prospects in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Ranga

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to reflect the current profile of tourism in Nepal and to carry-out deep learning about the prospects of tourism development in Nepal along with interrelated national strategies and plans. This thesis investigates on the major role played by tourism for the development of a nation and initiations that are taken by government and local bodies to be in line with tourism development. For this thesis, analyzing the infrastructural support for the tourism development in Ne...

  16. Geophysical prospection in South Abusir, Egypt, 2002

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman; Bárta, M.

    Istambul : CIPA The ICOMOS & ISPRS Committee for Documentation of Cultural Heritage, 2003 - (Orhan Altan, M.), s. - ISBN 975-561-245-1. ISSN 1682-1750. [New Perspectives To Save the Cultural Heritage, CIPA 2003 International Symposium. Antalya (TR), 30.09.2003-04.10.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8002910 Keywords : Abusir * geophysical prospection * tomb Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Prospective analysis. Nuclear deterrence in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a prospective analysis of the long-term future of nuclear weapons, and particularly the future of French nuclear deterrence after 2015. The selected time period is 2025-2030. The principal objective is to reflect on what the nuclear world might look like during the first part of the 21 st century, beyond the modernization decisions already planned or envisaged, and to draw conclusions for the future of the French deterrent. (author)

  18. A Review and Prospect on Herbicide Adjuvants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The history, present status and future prospects of adjuvants application in herbicides were briefly reviewed. Adjuvants can be separated into two groups, activator adjuvants and utility adjuvants. The former directly enhances the efficacy of a herbicide through increasement of herbicide absorption, spreading, cuticular penetration, rainfastness and retention enhancement, and photodegradation of the herbicide can also be decreased. And the latter is utilized for improving application characteristics, behaviors and physical properties of herbicides and reducing or minimizing unwanted side effects on application.

  19. Prospective Predictors of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Evangelos; Wong-Tom, Wing M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common overuse injuries. Objective: To assess the collective evidence of predisposing factors to PFPS. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1960–June 2010), EMBASE (1980–June 2010), and CINAHL (1982–June 2010). Study Selection: Studies were included if patients were asymptomatic at baseline testing (free of PFPS) and were prospectively followed for the development of the disorder. Only studies that assessed at least 1 variable that can be meas...

  20. Prospect Theory, Mental Accounting, and Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Grinblatt; Bing Han

    2001-01-01

    The tendency of some investors to hold on to their losing stocks, driven by prospect theory and mental accounting, creates a spread between a stock's fundamental value and its equilibrium price, as well as price underreaction to information. Spread convergence, arising from the random evolution of fundamental values and updating of reference prices, generates predictable equilibrium prices that will be interpreted as possessing momentum. Cross-sectional empirical tests are consistent with the...

  1. The technological prospective of non nuclear channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study concerns the electric power demand in 2050. It examines the three non nuclear sectors of production: the natural gas combined cycle power plants, the wind turbines among the renewable energies and the cogeneration electric power - heat in the ternary and building sector. The necessity of the network adaptation to the european competition and the decentralized production of electric power will suppose new investments of transport and storage. (A.L.B.)

  2. Human Capital Prospective on Corporate Opportunity Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Koutu, Khushboo

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurial activities within firms have been a centre of attraction for researchers in past years. Human capital is yet another unexplored prospective affecting and contributing towards entrepreneurship. To understand how individual operate entrepreneurially within firm, we intend to explore how human capital is developed and how structure and practices in internal and external environment of the firm (in this case focusing on Samsung Electronics Corporation) affects human capital develo...

  3. Automation of electric vehicle and development prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This thesis introduces the basic principle of operation for electric vehicle. Through analysing its impact on environment and combining the reality and application, making a prospect concerning electric vehicles’ sales market. In introduction of operative principle for electric vehicle, firstly are all vehicles’ types illustrated. Then through examples, its necessary components and automation control system are explained. In aspect of environment, real explanations and examples are giv...

  4. Prospective Deficits and the Asian Currency Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Craig Burnside; Martin Eichenbaum; Sergio Rebelo

    1998-01-01

    This paper argues that the recent Southeast Asian currency crisis was caused by large prospective deficits associated with implicit bailout guarantees to failing banking systems. We articulate this view using a simple dynamic general equilibrium model whose key feature is that a speculative attack is inevitable once the present value of future government deficits rises. This is true regardless of the government's foreign reserve position or the initial level of its debt. While the government ...

  5. Prospects for Asymmetric PNe with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Huggins, P J

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter and sub-millimeter observations have made fundamental contributions to our current understanding of the transition from AGB stars to white dwarfs. The approaching era of ALMA brings significantly enhanced observing capabilities at these wavelengths and promises to push back the frontiers in a number of ways. We examine the scientific prospects of this new era for PNe, with an emphasis on how developments may contribute to the goals of the asymmetric PNe community.

  6. Quantum-Gravity Phenomenology: Status and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few years part of the quantum-gravity community has adopted a more optimistic attitude toward the possibility of finding experimental contexts providing insight on non-classical properties of spacetime. I review those quantum-gravity phenomenology proposals which were instrumental in bringing about this change of attitude, and I discuss the prospects for the short-term future of quantum-gravity phenomenology.

  7. Radioactivity prospecting with plastic scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A location of buried fault is of particular concern for the development of groundwater resources in the rocky mountainous areas because groundwater tend to occur around the fault. The gamma-ray radioactivity prospecting with the NaI detector is one of tools to detect the location of buried fault and was successful in some regions. However, few studies on the relationships between the fault, groundwater, and the gamma-ray were reported. The buried fault in the dam-site where the surface soil was stripped showed that many springs were observed along the fissures in granodiorite of CM and CH levels on the both sides of the main fault zone. The radioactivity prospecting across the main fault zone showed that 214Bi and 214Bi/208Tl decrease over the main fault zone. These phenomena are interpreted as the leaching of the uranium. The fluctuation of 222Rn concentration showed the peak at the point near the f1 fault. 222Rn concentration over the areas of springs showed the low concentration. The high 222Rn concentration did not have any influence on 214Bi and 214Bi/208Tl. Our results request the rethinking of the current principle of the gamma-ray radioactivity prospecting that the reason of high 214Bi is caused by upward 222Rn along the open cracks in fault zone. The NaI detector for the radioactivity prospecting is heavy and expensive. PS detector is lightweight and inexpensive compared with NaI detectors. In order to make a large-scale detector with low price, a three-layered PS detector has been developed. Experiments show that the PS detector can discriminate the energies of gamma-rays. (author)

  8. Viewpoint: Canadian competition policy: progress and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ross

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of competition policy - in particular the economics of competition policy - in Canada today and considers its prospects going forward. It argues that: (i) the importance of competition policy has become accepted widely in Canada and indeed throughout much of the world; (ii) competition policy design and enforcement is in general well done in Canada; (iii) economists, including many Canadians, have played a central role in the development of an efficient and effe...

  9. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  10. Examining Media Literacy Levels of Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskın INAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As in many other countries, following the 2007-2008 education year when media literacy courses began to be included in the curricula, media literacy has become one of the discussion topics among educators and decision makers in Turkey. Discussion topics related to media literacy have included who is going to give the media literacy courses, what qualifications will be sought out in media literacy education teachers, what will be included in the media literacy curriculum in terms of its content, and at what level the media literacy course will be given. The current study which aims to examine media literacy levels of prospective teachers utilized thesurvey method. The sample of the study included prospective teachers (480 attending Elementary School Education, Social Studies Education and Turkish Language Education departments in the Education Faculty at the Dumlupinar University in the 2008-2009 education year. The results of the study showed that prospective teachers have a low level of reaction to media messages, do not educate people around enough about the effects of media, but make use of different sources of media to gain information, and are cognizant of media literacy.

  11. Development of the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory (BAPM) for use with traumatic brain injury populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, David W K; Fleming, Jennifer; Hohaus, Lydia; Shum, David

    2011-12-01

    Impairment of prospective memory (PM) is a common problem following traumatic brain injury (TBI) which can affect functional outcomes. PM failures in everyday life can be assessed using self-report questionnaires; however, existing measures tend to be lengthy, which may be problematic for individuals with fatigue and other cognitive impairments. This study aimed to develop a short form of the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) and examine its psychometric properties. Using theoretical and statistical considerations, the number of items on the CAPM was reduced to 16 including equal numbers representing the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) subscales. The psychometric properties of the new measure, named the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory (BAPM), were examined by secondary analysis of data from two samples of community dwelling adults (aged 17 to 91 years, n = 527, and 15 to 60 years, n = 95) with no history of brain injury, and a sample of rehabilitation patients with moderate to severe TBI (n = 45). Results indicate that the BAPM has a robust factor structure, strong agreement with the original CAPM, acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and evidence of criterion-related validity with psychosocial integration as the point of reference for people with TBI. PMID:22150453

  12. Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kandárová, Helena; Letašiová, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory ...

  13. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  14. Construct Validity: Advances in Theory and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Milton E.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of psychological constructs are validated by testing whether they relate to measures of other constructs as specified by theory. Each test of relations between measures reflects on the validity of both the measures and the theory driving the test. Construct validation concerns the simultaneous process of measure and theory validation. In this chapter, we review the recent history of validation efforts in clinical psychological science that has led to this perspective, and we review f...

  15. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O' Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  16. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  17. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback. PMID:15564053

  18. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg; Barak, Vivian; Molina, Rafael; Hayes, Daniel F; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Bossuyt, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are playing increasingly important roles in the detection and management of patients with cancer. Despite an enormous number of publications on cancer biomarkers, few of these biomarkers are in widespread clinical use. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss the key steps in...... advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance of...... the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be...

  19. Validation of radiation sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented

  20. Validation studies of seismic PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity and limitations of seismic probabilistic risk assessment methods are examined by determining how uncertainties due to inherent variability, modeling assumptions, and incomplete data effect risk estimates and inferences. The analysis was performed using the plant logic for the Limerick Generating Station for illustrative purposes. The role of uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis and component fragility modeling was assessed. Although the seismic hazard dominates core damage probability calculations, the component fragility modeling may be significant in seismic margin studies. (orig.)

  1. MODIS Hotspot Validation over Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Veerachai Tanpipat; Prayoonyong Nuchaiya; Kiyoshi Honda

    2009-01-01

    To ensure remote sensing MODIS hotspot (also known as active fire products or hotspots) quality and precision in forest fire control and management in Thailand, an increased level of confidence is needed. Accuracy assessment of MODIS hotspots utilizing field survey data validation is described. A quantitative evaluation of MODIS hotspot products has been carried out since the 2007 forest fire season. The carefully chosen hotspots were scattered throughout the country and within the protected ...

  2. Validity of Ligand Efficiency Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Christopher W; Erlanson, Daniel A.; Hopkins, Andrew L.; Keserü, György M; Leeson, Paul D.; Rees, David C.; Reynolds, Charles H.; Richmond, Nicola J.

    2014-01-01

    A recent viewpoint article (Improving the plausibility of success with inefficient metrics. ACS Med. Chem. Lett.2014, 5, 2–5) argued that the standard definition of ligand efficiency (LE) is mathematically invalid. In this viewpoint, we address this criticism and show categorically that the definition of LE is mathematically valid. LE and other metrics such as lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) can be useful during the multiparameter optimization challenge faced by med...

  3. Jack knifing for semivariogram validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The semivariogram function fitting is the most important aspect of geostatistics and because of this the model chosen must be validated. Jack knifing may be one the most efficient ways for this validation purpose. The objective of this study was to show the use of the jack knifing technique to validate geostatistical hypothesis and semivariogram models. For that purpose, topographical heights data obtained from six distinct field scales and sampling densities were analyzed. Because the topographical data showed very strong trend for all fields as it was verified by the absence of a sill in the experimental semivariograms, the trend was removed with a trend surface fitted by minimum square deviation. Semivariogram models were fitted with different techniques and the results of the jack knifing with them were compared. The jack knifing parameters analyzed were the intercept, slope and correlation coefficient between measured and estimated values, and the mean and variance of the errors calculated by the difference between measured and estimated values, divided by the square root of the estimation variances. The ideal numbers of neighbors used in each estimation was also studied using the jack knifing procedure. The jack knifing results were useful in the judgment of the adequate models fitted independent of the scale and sampling densities. It was concluded that the manual fitted semivariogram models produced better jack knifing parameters because the user has the freedom to choose a better fit in distinct regions of the semivariogram.

  4. The Challenges and Prospects of E-learning in National Open University of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukayode Solomon Aboderin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the challenges and prospects of e-learning in National Open University of Nigeria. It sought to find out Attitudes of students towards e-learning. The study investigated the various challenges of e-learning in NOUN. Also the studies investigated prospects of e-learning, availability of e-learning facilities and also determine the ICT competence of NOUN students. The design of the study is a descriptive survey type. The sample for the study consisted of 250 students randomly selected from all the faculties in National Open University of Nigeria, Akure Study Center. 50 students were drawn from each faculty using simple random sampling technique giving a total of 250 students (respondents. A questionnaire titled “Challenges and Prospects of E-learning in National Open University of Nigeria” designed by the research was used to collect data. The instrument was validated by expert in Computer Science, Educational Technology and Test and Measurement. To ensure the reliability of the instrument, a Cronbach alpha statistics technique was employed and a reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained. This value is high enough for a study of this nature. The data collected were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics such as frequency count, percentage and bar chart. The result of the findings showed that: NOUN students show positive attitude towards the use of e-learning. Majority of the respondents agreed that NOUN does not have enough e-learning equipment and facilities. There are challenges affecting the utilization of e-learning in NOUN for instructional purposes. The study also revealed that e-exam adopted by NOUN contributes to students’ ICT competence and prospects of e-learning if fully implemented.

  5. Population based external validation of a European predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization of premature infants born 33 to 35 weeks of gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone G; Fullarton, John R; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier;

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively collected population-based data on 2529 Danish infants born at 33 to 35 weeks of gestation were used to validate an European predictive model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization. The model was found to be robust with a diagnostic accuracy of 65.9% to distinguish bet...

  6. A clinical decision rule for the use of plain radiography in children after acute wrist injury: development and external validation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Slaar (Annelie); M.M.J. Walenkamp (Monique); A. Bentohami (Abdelali); M. Maas (Mario); R.R. van Rijn (Rick); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); L.C. Jager (L. Cara); N.L. Sosef (Nico L.); R. van Velde (Romuald); J.M. Ultee (Jan); J.C. Goslings (Carel); N.W.L. Schep (Niels)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In most hospitals, children with acute wrist trauma are routinely referred for radiography. Objective: To develop and validate a clinical decision rule to decide whether radiography in children with wrist trauma is required. Materials and methods: We prospectively developed a

  7. Predictive Accuracy of the PanCan Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model -External Validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; van Riel, Sarah J.; Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Jacobs, Colin; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü; Scholten, Ernst Th; Skovgaard, Lene T.; van Ginneken, Bram; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. Methods: From th...

  8. SOFTWARE METRICS VALIDATION METHODOLOGIES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the software measurement validations, assessing the validation of software metrics in software engineering is a very difficult task due to lack of theoretical methodology and empirical methodology [41, 44, 45]. During recent years, there have been a number of researchers addressing the issue of validating software metrics. At present, software metrics are validated theoretically using properties of measures. Further, software measurement plays an important role in understanding and controlling software development practices and products. The major requirement in software measurement is that the measures must represent accurately those attributes they purport to quantify and validation is critical to the success of software measurement. Normally, validation is a collection of analysis and testing activities across the full life cycle and complements the efforts of other quality engineering functions and validation is a critical task in any engineering project. Further, validation objective is to discover defects in a system and assess whether or not the system is useful and usable in operational situation. In the case of software engineering, validation is one of the software engineering disciplines that help build quality into software. The major objective of software validation process is to determine that the software performs its intended functions correctly and provides information about its quality and reliability. This paper discusses the validation methodology, techniques and different properties of measures that are used for software metrics validation. In most cases, theoretical and empirical validations are conducted for software metrics validations in software engineering [1-50].

  9. Integrative analysis to select cancer candidate biomarkers to targeted validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Henry; Domingues, Romênia R.; Granato, Daniela C.; Yokoo, Sami; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Winck, Flavia V.; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P.; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Filgueiras, Paulo R.; Cruz, Karen S. P.; Barbuto, José Alexandre; Poppi, Ronei J.; Minghim, Rosane; Telles, Guilherme P.; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Fox, Jay W.; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted proteomics has flourished as the method of choice for prospecting for and validating potential candidate biomarkers in many diseases. However, challenges still remain due to the lack of standardized routines that can prioritize a limited number of proteins to be further validated in human samples. To help researchers identify candidate biomarkers that best characterize their samples under study, a well-designed integrative analysis pipeline, comprising MS-based discovery, feature selection methods, clustering techniques, bioinformatic analyses and targeted approaches was performed using discovery-based proteomic data from the secretomes of three classes of human cell lines (carcinoma, melanoma and non-cancerous). Three feature selection algorithms, namely, Beta-binomial, Nearest Shrunken Centroids (NSC), and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Features Elimination (SVM-RFE), indicated a panel of 137 candidate biomarkers for carcinoma and 271 for melanoma, which were differentially abundant between the tumor classes. We further tested the strength of the pipeline in selecting candidate biomarkers by immunoblotting, human tissue microarrays, label-free targeted MS and functional experiments. In conclusion, the proposed integrative analysis was able to pre-qualify and prioritize candidate biomarkers from discovery-based proteomics to targeted MS. PMID:26540631

  10. The technological prospective of the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective analysis of the nuclear park for the period 200-2050 is particularly devoted to scenario of the park evolution, allowing a gradually control of the plutonium inventory and as the same time the minimization of long life radioactive wastes production as the plutonium content. Scenario with multi-recycling illustrate the long dated interest of the reprocessing to acquire and keep the control of the plutonium inventory and decrease the volume and the possible radiotoxicity of ultimate wastes and to optimize the use of natural energy resources in the perspective of the nuclear energy contribution to the sustainable development. (A.L.B.)

  11. A Prospect of Earthquake Prediction Research

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Yosihiko

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes occur because of abrupt slips on faults due to accumulated stress in the Earth's crust. Because most of these faults and their mechanisms are not readily apparent, deterministic earthquake prediction is difficult. For effective prediction, complex conditions and uncertain elements must be considered, which necessitates stochastic prediction. In particular, a large amount of uncertainty lies in identifying whether abnormal phenomena are precursors to large earthquakes, as well as in assigning urgency to the earthquake. Any discovery of potentially useful information for earthquake prediction is incomplete unless quantitative modeling of risk is considered. Therefore, this manuscript describes the prospect of earthquake predictability research to realize practical operational forecasting in the near future.

  12. PROSPECTS OF FISHING INDUSTRY IN GOA

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Morakar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the fishing industry, its prospects and sustainability in Goa. Fishing activities are playing an important role in the Goan economy and is one of the extractive occupations of mankind and older than agriculture. In fact, fish forms an integral part of Goan life and is a staple food. Indeed, people are so fond of fish that no meal is complete without fish dish. The per capita consumption of fish is higher than the National average. The State o...

  13. Potential Prospects of Turkey in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgulu, Mehmet Emre

    2010-01-01

    As the global crisis surrounds us, Turkey, as a country with huge prospects, needs to establish new political and commercial links with the rest of the world in order to lessen the effects of the global crisis. This can be a way to take the load off Turkey’s shoulders. These links can be found in the continent Africa. As the host of world’s several fastest growing economies, the continent offers new opportunities for Turkey. These opportunities can be utilized as either in the form of Foreign...

  14. Detection Prospects of the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CnuB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CnuB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CnuB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHEC\

  15. Prospective of petroleum products 2002-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective provides a complete panorama of the requirements in the refining industry of Mexico at short, medium and long terms. Here subjects such as: fuels quality, historical and expected investments and prices, International situation of the installed refining capacity, the demand and regional balance of petroleum products at year 2001, the regulatory framework and the organization of the petroleum sector, the realized investments in the last nine years, Saving programs and efficient use of energy and the applicable regulations to this sector for its optimum use are treated. At the end of this book there are annexes with the abbreviations, acronyms and, conversion factors as well as the fundamental definitions. (Author)

  16. Future Prospects at Electron-Positron Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Roney, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    This review will present the future prospects for physics at electron-positron colliders running near the Upsilon(4S) as well as at the charm and tau thresholds. It includes a review of the Belle II and SuperB projects. Also reviewed are the plans for BES III, which operates near the charm threshold at the IHEP BEPC machine in Bejing and the status of the Super Charm/Tau Factory proposed for the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk.

  17. LOFAR: Recent Imaging Results and Future Prospects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    George Heald; Michael R. Bell; Andreas Horneffer; André R. Offringa; Roberto Pizzo; Sebastiaan van der Tol; Reinout J. van Weeren; Joris E. van Zwieten; James M. Anderson; Rainer Beck; Ilse van Bemmel; Laura Bîrzan; Annalisa Bonafede; John Conway; Chiara Ferrari; Francesco De Gasperin; Marijke Haverkorn; Neal Jackson; Giulia Macario; John McKean; Halime Miraghaei; Emanuela Orrù; David Rafferty; Huub Röttgering; Anna Scaife; Aleksandar Shulevski; Carlos Sotomayor; Cyril Tasse; Monica Trasatti; Olaf Wucknitz

    2011-12-01

    The Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) is under construction in the Netherlands and in several surrounding European countries. In this contribution, we describe the layout and design of the telescope, with particular emphasis on the imaging characteristics of the array when used in its `standard imaging’ mode. After briefly reviewing the calibration and imaging software used for LOFAR image processing, we show some recent results from the ongoing imaging commissioning efforts. We conclude by summarizing future prospects for the use of LOFAR in observing the little-explored low-frequency Universe.

  18. LHCb Physics and 2010-11 prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzini, Stefano

    2011-10-01

    LHCb is one of the four major experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider, and is specifically dedicated to the measurement of CP-violation and rare decays in the beauty and charm quark sectors. By employing data from early LHC runs it is possible to assess the performance of the detector and to better understand the potential of the LHCb flavour programme. After a brief introduction of the motivations and of the relevant physics goals, the prospects about key CP-violation and rare decay measurements will be presented. Emphasis will be given to those topics where results with particular sensitivity to New Physics are expected during the 2010-11 run.

  19. The Chinese Stock Market: Development and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangmei Fan; Yanrui Wu; Nicolaas Groenewold

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the development of the Chinese stock market, analyses the market scale and structure, and sheds light on the prospects of the market. The development of the stock market can be classified into four stages, namely, the early stage of stock market development (1983-1991), the transition of the regulatory system (1992-1996), the Red Chips craze and the deflation (1997-1999), and WTO entry and state share reduction (2000-present). We argue that the current struct...

  20. M-Commerce In Indonesia: Problems & Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Suyoto Indonesia

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary observation of the latest m-Commerce problems and prospects in Indonesia. Every year the Indonesian mobile market has grown, from 175.1 million subscribers in 2009 to 222.7 million in 2010 and then to more than 240 million subscribers by 2011. However, the fact is that the m-Commerce adoption in Indonesia has still been low and slow. Mobile commerce or commonly abbreviated as m-Commerce is still considered as something new in Indonesia. The purposes of this p...

  1. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory: Status and Prospectives

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator (LS) detector, which is planed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and measure the oscillation parameters at the sub-percent level using reactor antineutrino oscillations. As a multipurpose neutrino experiment, JUNO is also capable of measuring supernova burst neutrinos, the diffuse supernova neutrino background, geo-neutrinos, solar neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos. After a brief introduction to the physics motivation, we discuss the status of the JUNO project, including the design of the detector systems. Finally the latest civil progress and future prospectives are also highlighted.

  2. Geologic formation prospect of uranium Irian Jaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was resulted from compilation of regional geologic mapping and uranium prospection in which it was considered in making exploration program. Method used was literary study of geologic information which was connected with uranium deposit occurrence. From the 26 formations identified as a formation based on physical characteristics and U grade in stream sediments and rocks, there were 2 specific formation groups which were good enough to be dealt in exploration program that is Kemblangan Group and Aifam Group. (author); 8 refs; 4 figs

  3. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author)

  4. Technidilaton Phenomenology and Prospects for Production

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, E

    1994-01-01

    An effective Lagrangian for the technidilaton and its interactions with matter is constructed. Properties of the technidilaton are compared with those of the Higgs boson. Technidilaton decays and production channels are investigated. Main technidilaton decays are suppressed compared to the Higgs boson and the most important production mechanism is due to gluon fusion. Prospects for technidilaton production and detection at $e^+e^-$ colliders and the SSC are examined. LEP 1, LEP 2 and SSC can find or rule out a technidilaton with a mass up to $10~GeV$, $40~GeV$ and $230~GeV$ respectively.

  5. Prospects for fusion - The winds of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research opportunities and priorities in inertial confinement fusion and magnetic fusion are assessed from the viewpoints of national energy circumstances and policy and current fusion science and technology. The status and prospects of the inertial confinement fusion program are reviewed along with the achievements of the magnetic fusion program in compact ignition tokamak and engineering test reactor research and development. The status of international collaboration on an engineering test reactor is addressed and the role of universities and industry in fusion research directed toward demonstration and commercialization is evaluated

  6. EDRN Pre-Validation of Multiplex Biomarker in Urine — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this proposal is to begin to establish an EDRN “pre-validation” trial of a multiplex set of transcripts, including the ETS gene fusions, in post-DRE urine sediments. As can be evidenced by our preliminary data, we have established the utility of this multiplex urine test (which includes TMPRSS-ERG, SPINK1, PCA3 and GOLPH2) in a cohort of prospectively collected urine sediments from the University of Michigan EDRN CEVC site (collected by co-I, Dr. John Wei). In this proposal, we will run this multiplex assay on prospectively collected post-DRE urines collected from other EDRN sites. The idea is to couple this “pre-validation” study with an EDRN validation trial under consideration for the Gen-Probe PCA3 urine test (directed by Drs. John Wei and Harry Rittenhouse).

  7. Career Prospects and Effort Incentives: Evidence from Professional Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Miklós-Thal, Jeanine; Ullrich, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to empirically test the prediction that future career prospects create implicit efforts incentives because researchers cannot randomly "assign" career prospects to economic agents. To overcome this challenge, we use data from professional soccer, where employees of the same club face different external career opportunities depending on their nationality. We test whether the career prospect of being selected to a Euro Cup national team affects players' pre-Cup performances, usi...

  8. CREATIVITY AND TEACHING COMPETENCY OF PROSPECTIVE B.ED TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    F. L. Antony GRACIOUS; F. L. Jasmine ANNE SHYLA; ANNARAJA, P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study Creativity and Teaching Competency of prospective B.Ed teachers was probed to find the relationship between Creativity and Teaching Competency of Prospective B.Ed Teachers. Data for the study were collected using self made Teaching Competency Scale and Creativity Scale. The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for selecting the sample. The sample consists of 242 Prospective B.Ed Teachers. For analyzing data; 't' test and Pearson's product moment co-efficien...

  9. Event-based prospective memory in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A. George; Pizzo, Matthew J; Crystal, Jonathon D.

    2013-01-01

    People plan to act in the future when an appropriate event occurs, a capacity known as event-based prospective memory [1]. Prospective memory involves forming a representation of a planned future action, subsequently inactivating the representation, and ultimately reactivating it at an appropriate point in the future. Recent studies suggest that monkeys, chimpanzees, and rats display elements of prospective memory [2–5], but it is uncertain if the full sequence (activation-inactivation-reacti...

  10. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Azizuddin eKhan

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5-10 % of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic’s children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexic...

  11. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5–10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics...

  12. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-Hübsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to ...

  13. Prospective teachers’ opinions of argument culture in the classroom environment

    OpenAIRE

    Senar ALKIN-ŞAHİN; Nihan DEMİRKASIMOĞLU

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the opinions of prospective teachers’ related to argument culture in the classroom environment. The data stems from a phenomenological study including 12 prospective teachers attending the education faculty of a Turkish state university for the 2013-2014 academic year. Data collected from focus group interviews were thematically analyzed. Findings indicated that prospective teachers were aware of the pedagogical value of the argument culture. Argument culture was mostly ...

  14. Turbulence Modeling Verification and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been in routine use for more than a quarter of a century. It is currently employed not only for basic research in fluid dynamics, but also for the analysis and design processes in many industries worldwide, including aerospace, automotive, power generation, chemical manufacturing, polymer processing, and petroleum exploration. A key feature of RANS CFD is the turbulence model. Because the RANS equations are unclosed, a model is necessary to describe the effects of the turbulence on the mean flow, through the Reynolds stress terms. The turbulence model is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in RANS CFD, and most models are known to be flawed in one way or another. Alternative methods such as direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) rely less on modeling and hence include more physics than RANS. In DNS all turbulent scales are resolved, and in LES the large scales are resolved and the effects of the smallest turbulence scales are modeled. However, both DNS and LES are too expensive for most routine industrial usage on today's computers. Hybrid RANS-LES, which blends RANS near walls with LES away from walls, helps to moderate the cost while still retaining some of the scale-resolving capability of LES, but for some applications it can still be too expensive. Even considering its associated uncertainties, RANS turbulence modeling has proved to be very useful for a wide variety of applications. For example, in the aerospace field, many RANS models are considered to be reliable for computing attached flows. However, existing turbulence models are known to be inaccurate for many flows involving separation. Research has been ongoing for decades in an attempt to improve turbulence models for separated and other nonequilibrium flows. When developing or improving turbulence models, both verification and validation are important

  15. CREATIVITY AND TEACHING COMPETENCY OF PROSPECTIVE B.ED TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Antony GRACIOUS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study Creativity and Teaching Competency of prospective B.Ed teachers was probed to find the relationship between Creativity and Teaching Competency of Prospective B.Ed Teachers. Data for the study were collected using self made Teaching Competency Scale and Creativity Scale. The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for selecting the sample. The sample consists of 242 Prospective B.Ed Teachers. For analyzing data; 't' test and Pearson's product moment co-efficient were the statistical techniques used. Finding shows there was no significant relationship between Creativity and Teaching Competency of prospective B.Ed teachers.

  16. A logic generator and validator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The on-line monitoring of a power plant (or any process plant) has three primary functions: data acquisition, data analysis, and data presentation. Relative to the second of these functions, advanced methods for generating reliable data analysis computer codes are presented. The results are illustrated for a safety parameter display system that provides operators with a computer-graphic summary of a nuclear power plant's safety status. In the conventional method of analysis code production, the systems analyst or designer generates rules by which the plant status is being evaluated, while the transcription of those rules to a computer code is done separately by a programmer. Subsequently, the analysis code produced by the programmer must be validated against the specifications prepared by the systems analyst. A logic generator and logic validator are presented to streamline these processes. The logic generator acquires the relevant specifications through a systematic dialogue with the designer and then translates them automatically into an efficient computer logic code, thus solvin the problem of a designer who is not a programmer interfacing with a programmer who is not a designer. The logic generator enhances code reliability in two ways. First, it encourages the systems analyst to produce more reliable and relevant specifications because of the logical structured order in which the interactive session is being conducted. Second, because of the mass production mode b which the logic codes are being generated, proving once the correctness of the code production process ensures the accuracy of all codes to be generated in the future. In the postproduction stage, a logic validator enhances code reliability by displaying a structura overview of the data analysis code, allowing the user an additional opportunity for code evaluation

  17. METHODS FOR TESTING DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana ZAIŢ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents three methods which can be used to assess discriminant validity for multi-item scales. Q-sorting is presented as a method that can be used in early stages of research, being more exploratory, while the chi-square difference test and the average variance extracted analysis are recommended for the confirmatory stages of research. The paper describes briefly the three methods and presents evidence from two surveys that aimed to develop a scale for measuring perceived risk in e-commerce.

  18. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  19. Validation of a new tool to assess health-related quality of life in psoriasis: the PSO-LIFE questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Dauden Esteban; Herrera Enrique; Puig Lluis; Sánchez-Carazo José; Toribio Jaime; Caloto Ma; Nocea Gonzalo; Roset Montse; Lara Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Several questionnaires have been used to measure health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with psoriasis, few have been adapted for use in Spain; none of them was developed specifically for the Spanish population. The purpose of the study was to validate and assess the sensitivity to change of a new questionnaire to measure HRQOL in patients with psoriasis (PSO-LIFE). Methods Observational, prospective, multicenter study performed in centers around Spain. Patient...

  20. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Ou, Huang-tz; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18–45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and af...

  1. The Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule for suspected cardiac chest pain: derivation and external validation

    OpenAIRE

    Body, Richard; Carley, Simon; McDowell, Garry; Pemberton, Philip; Burrows, Gillian; Cook , Gary; Lewis, Philip S; Smith, Alexander; Mackway-Jones, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to derive and validate a clinical decision rule (CDR) for suspected cardiac chest pain in the emergency department (ED). Incorporating information available at the time of first presentation, this CDR would effectively risk-stratify patients and immediately identify: (A) patients for whom hospitalisation may be safely avoided; and (B) high-risk patients, facilitating judicious use of resources. Methods In two sequential prospective observational cohort studies at heterogene...

  2. Statistical validity of interleukin-6 as a biomarker for the diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Sriparna Basu; Shashikant Dewangan; Shampa Anupurva; Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Use of empirical antibiotics in neonates with risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) is a common practice. A laboratory parameter is needed to help in the accurate diagnosis of EOS to avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to compare the statistical validity of cord blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) with conventional sepsis screening as an early diagnostic marker for EOS. Eighty-seven neonates with antenatal risk factors for sepsis...

  3. The Power of Personality: The Comparative Validity of Personality Traits, Socioeconomic Status, and Cognitive Ability for Predicting Important Life Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Brent W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Shiner, Rebecca; Caspi, Avshalom; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of personality traits to predict important life outcomes has traditionally been questioned because of the putative small effects of personality. In this article, we compare the predictive validity of personality traits with that of socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive ability to test the relative contribution of personality traits to predictions of three critical outcomes: mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment. Only evidence from prospective longitudinal studies was ...

  4. Screening for major depressive disorder in adults with cerebral glioma: an initial validation of 3 self-report instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Alasdair G; McNamara, Shanne; MacKinnon, Mairi; Fraser, Mary; Rampling, Roy; Carson, Alan; Grant, Robin

    2012-01-01

    No depression screening tool is validated for use in cases of cerebral glioma. To address this, we studied the operating characteristics of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Depression subscale) (HAD-D), the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9), and the Distress Thermometer (DT) in glioma patients.We conducted a twin-center prospective observational cohort study of major depressive disorder (MDD), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition, in adults with a new...

  5. Validation Testing of the Rational Behavior Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Victor L.; Shorkey, Clayton T.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the Rational Behavior Inventory was investigated by examining its relationship with four other measures of personality in addition to class standing and age. Results supported the validity of the measure. (JKS)

  6. Prospects for Supersymmetry at the LHC & Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Run 1 of the LHC has provided three new motivations for supersymmetry: the need to stabilize the electroweak vacuum, the mass of the Higgs boson, and the fact that its couplings are Standard Model-like (so far). The prospects for discovering (and measuring) supersymmetry during future runs of the LHC are discussed in the frameworks of the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to Higgs masses (NUHM1,2) and the phenomenological MSSM with 10 arbitrary soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters (pMSSM10). In addition to the classic searches for missing transverse energy, searches for long-lived charged sparticles may also be promising. If supersymmetry does show up at the LHC, there are good prospects for measurements of the spectrum that can be compared with the indirect indications from other experiments. On the other hand, a higher-energy future circular proton-proton collider may be the best option for discovering supersymmetry if it does not appear at the L...

  7. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: practice and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an established technique for detecting rare isotopes, at isotope ratios in the range ∼10-12 to ∼10-15. As the name indicates, the technique uses an accelerator to produce high-energy ion beams, which are then analyzed by mass spectrometry. AMS is not only useful for determining anthropogenic or cosmogenic isotopes, but can also be used for trace element analysis, because every element except In has an isotope for which no other element has a stable isobar. This is significant for semiconductors and mineral analysis. The success of AMS arises from three factors: the use of negative ions at injection, which can suppress isobars (e.g.in the case of C-14); the stripping process at the accelerator terminal, which destroys molecular ions; and the high energy of the accelerated particles, which, by overcoming detector background, permits the use of sensitive particle identification and detection techniques. The 'standard' AMS isotopes are Be-10, C-14, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, Ni-59, I-129. Prospective isotopes include Mn-53, Fe-60, Se-79, Tc-99, Pd-107, Sn-126, Cs-135. The following developed or prospective techniques are briefly discussed: total stripping; resonant ionization; static electric field ionization; the gas-filled magnet; isobaric laundering; negative molecular ions; laser photodetachment; X-ray identification. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Seizures after stroke : a prospective clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanuka A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the most common causes of epilepsy in elderly. However, there have been very few prospective studies to define the incidence, pattern and outcome of seizures in stroke. Most studies are based on retrospective analysis of hospital records. Hence, we planned this prospective study to see the clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic characteristics of seizures in stroke and their outcome, from a north Indian tertiary care centre. Over a span of approximately 6 years, 269 consecutive patients with stroke were studied and followed up. Thirty-five (13% of these developed seizures, primarily related to stroke, during mean follow up period of 15.9 months. Twenty of these had infarctions while 15 had haemorrhages. Involvement of the cortical region was seen in most of the patients with seizures. In these patients, 86% of the lesions involved cortical areas exclusively or in addition to subcortical areas on CT scan of the brain. Twenty-seven (77% developed early seizures, two third of them had immediate post-stroke seizures. None of the patients with early onset seizures developed recurrent seizures or epilepsy, while 50% of late onset seizures developed epilepsy. No specific EEG pattern was found in those who later developed epilepsy. In the present study, early onset seizures after stroke were rather common and did not affect outcome and did not recur even when not treated with anti-epileptics. Late onset seizures were less common but were associated with recurrent seizures.

  9. Development environmental attitude of prospective science teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last three decades or so, we have witnessed the growing concern of human beings, all over the world, to adopt measures to conserve and preserve environment of the planet earth, because the same has been threatened by human activity and by way of our unparalleled intervention in the otherwise balanced environment. This awareness and concern has emerged as a need of incorporating environmental Issues into the normal curricula, so that we can educate the young generation to become informed decision-makers of the future. UNESCO and UNEP have advocated (since the last three decades) to teach environmentalised science to students. In Pakistan, there have been attempts to change curricula in accordance with the need of the time. Teachers need new kinds of skills, attitudes and commitment to teach science in an environmentalised fashion. This article discusses the impact of a semester-course on change in environmental attitudes of prospective science-teachers. A pre-test, post-test method was used to ascertain any change in environmental attitude of prospective science-teachers, after studying the environmental education course. It has been shown that there was a change in the environmental attitude of science-teachers as a result of the one-semester course, but the change or the level of attitude was not substantial or satisfactory. There seems to be a need of adopting a comprehensive approach to environmental education, and introducing teaching of environmental concepts at a very early age. (author)

  10. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia. walareqi@yahoo.com (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

  11. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul

    2015-04-01

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

  12. Prospective study of definite caterpillar exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balit, Corrine R; Geary, Merilyn J; Russell, Richard C; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to caterpillars results in a variety of clinical effects depending on the species involved. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical effects from caterpillar exposures within Australia. Cases were recruited prospectively from calls to a poison information centre. Subjects were included if they had a definite exposure and they had collected the caterpillar or cocoon. The caterpillars were identified to genus and species level where possible. There were 36 included cases: two were contact exposures to caterpillar contents, one was an ingestion of a caterpillar and the remaining 33 patients had definite reactions from caterpillar or cocoon exposure. There were five families of caterpillars identified in the study: Arctiidae, Limacodidae, Anthelidae, Lymantriidae and Sphingidae, many of which occur worldwide. Clinical effects ranged from severe pain to an urticarial response depending on the species involved. There were no adverse effects following ingestion in this study. Treatment consisted primarily of removal of the caterpillar or cocoon. Other treatment measures consisted of symptomatic treatment such as ice packs and antihistamines. This is the first prospective study of caterpillar exposures within Australia and demonstrates that exposures can result in a variety of reactions depending on the family and species involved. PMID:14602121

  13. Prospective Lymphedema Surveillance in a Clinic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance-Hetzler, Janet; Armer, Jane; Van Loo, Maggie; Anderson, Blake; Harris, Robin; Ewing, Rebecca; Stewart, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The potential impact of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is quite extensive, yet it often remains under-diagnosed until the later stages. This project examines the effectiveness of prospective surveillance in post-surgical breast cancer patients. A retrospective analysis of 49 out of 100 patients enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study at a Midwestern breast center evaluates: (1) time required for completion of bilateral limb measurements and Lymphedema Breast Cancer Questionnaire (LBCQ); (2) referral to LE management with limb volume increase (LVI) and/or LBCQ symptoms; and (3) cost of LE management at lower LVI (≥5%-≤10%) versus traditional (≥10%). Findings revealed a visit timeframe mean of 40.3 min (range = 25-60); 43.6% of visits were ≤30-min timeframe. Visit and measurement times decreased as clinic staff gained measurement experience; measurement time mean was 17.9 min (range = 16.9-18.9). LBCQ symptoms and LVI were significantly (p < 0.001) correlated to LE referral; six of the nine patients referred (67%) displayed both LBCQ symptoms/LVI. Visits with no symptoms reported did not result in referral, demonstrating the importance of using both indicators when assessing early LE. Lower threshold referral provides compelling evidence of potential cost savings over traditional threshold referral with reported costs of: $3755.00 and $6353.00, respectively (40.9% savings). PMID:26308061

  14. Prospective Lymphedema Surveillance in a Clinic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Chance-Hetzler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE is quite extensive, yet it often remains under-diagnosed until the later stages. This project examines the effectiveness of prospective surveillance in post-surgical breast cancer patients. A retrospective analysis of 49 out of 100 patients enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study at a Midwestern breast center evaluates: (1 time required for completion of bilateral limb measurements and Lymphedema Breast Cancer Questionnaire (LBCQ; (2 referral to LE management with limb volume increase (LVI and/or LBCQ symptoms; and (3 cost of LE management at lower LVI (≥5%–≤10% versus traditional (≥10%. Findings revealed a visit timeframe mean of 40.3 min (range = 25–60; 43.6% of visits were ≤30-min timeframe. Visit and measurement times decreased as clinic staff gained measurement experience; measurement time mean was 17.9 min (range = 16.9–18.9. LBCQ symptoms and LVI were significantly (p < 0.001 correlated to LE referral; six of the nine patients referred (67% displayed both LBCQ symptoms/LVI. Visits with no symptoms reported did not result in referral, demonstrating the importance of using both indicators when assessing early LE. Lower threshold referral provides compelling evidence of potential cost savings over traditional threshold referral with reported costs of: $3755.00 and $6353.00, respectively (40.9% savings.

  15. SOFTWARE METRICS VALIDATION METHODOLOGIES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    K.P. Srinivasan; T. Devi

    2014-01-01

    In the software measurement validations, assessing the validation of software metrics in software engineering is a very difficult task due to lack of theoretical methodology and empirical methodology [41, 44, 45]. During recent years, there have been a number of researchers addressing the issue of validating software metrics. At present, software metrics are validated theoretically using properties of measures. Further, software measurement plays an important role in understanding...

  16. MODIS Hotspot Validation over Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerachai Tanpipat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure remote sensing MODIS hotspot (also known as active fire products or hotspots quality and precision in forest fire control and management in Thailand, an increased level of confidence is needed. Accuracy assessment of MODIS hotspots utilizing field survey data validation is described. A quantitative evaluation of MODIS hotspot products has been carried out since the 2007 forest fire season. The carefully chosen hotspots were scattered throughout the country and within the protected areas of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Three areas were selected as test sites for validation guidelines. Both ground and aerial field surveys were also conducted in this study by the Forest Fire Control Division, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conversation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand. High accuracy of 91.84 %, 95.60% and 97.53% for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 fire seasons were observed, resulting in increased confidence in the use of MODIS hotspots for forest fire control and management in Thailand.

  17. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  18. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  19. Site characterization and validation - Inflow to the validation drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogeological experiments have had an essential role in the characterization of the drift site on the Stripa project. This report focuses on the methods employed and the results obtained from inflow experiments performed on the excavated drift in stage 5 of the SCV programme. Inflows were collected in sumps on the floor, in plastic sheeting on the upper walls and ceiling, and measured by means of differential humidity of ventilated air at the bulkhead. Detailed evaporation experiments were also undertaken on uncovered areas of the excavated drift. The inflow distribution was determined on the basis of a system of roughly equal sized grid rectangles. The results have highlighted the overriding importance of fractures in the supply of water to the drift site. The validation drift experiment has revealed that in excess of 99% of inflow comes from a 5 m section corresponding to the 'H' zone, and that as much as 57% was observed coming from a single grid square (267). There was considerable heterogeneity even within the 'H' zone, with 38% of such samples areas yielding no flow at all. Model predictions in stage 4 underestimated the very substantial declines in inflow observed in the validation drift when compared to the SDE; this was especially so in the 'good' rock areas. Increased drawdowns in the drift have generated less flow and reduced head responses in nearby boreholes by a similar proportion. This behaviour has been the focus for considerable study in the latter part of the SCV project, and a number of potential processes have been proposed. These include 'transience', stress redistribution resulting from the creation of the drift, chemical precipitation, blast-induced dynamic unloading and related gas intrusion, and degassing. (au)

  20. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    direction of observed targets is beneficial for improved detection of potential linear remains (e.g. Great Wall in Han-dynasty surrounding the Yumen Frontier Pass) owing to the formation of dihedral and helix scatterings based on the theory of radar physics. Morevorer, spatial resolution of multi-mode SAR images for archaeology was compared in the sites of Niya, Yumen Frontier Pass and suspected protectorate of the western regions. Results indicated that high resolution tended to easier detection of ancient targets through the identification of backscattering anomalies. Finally, interferometric analysis was also evaluated to provide complementary information rather than the backscattering. The variation of coherence is closely related to the physical parameters of observed surface, e.g. soil moisture, mild-relief as well as materials; and consequently it is useful for the relic feature enhancement and identification, validated by the PALSAR coherence images in Niya site. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Hundred Talents Program of the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Y2ZZ27101B). The PALSAR data were provided by the European Space Agency to the authors through the Category-1 Project Id. 28640. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2013, Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar in Archaeology and Cultural Landscape: An Overview. Archaeological Prospection, 20, 71-78, doi: 10.1002/arp.1452 [2] Chen F., Masini N., Yang R., Milillo P., Feng D., Lasaponara R., 2015 A Space View of Radar Archaeological Marks: First Applications of COSMO-SkyMed X-Band Data. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 24-50; doi:10.3390/rs70100024. [3] Cigna, F.; Tapete, D.; Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N. Amplitude change detection with Envisat ASAR to image the cultural landscape

  1. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Esophageal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Duell, Eric J.; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; Touillaud, Marina; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Vicente Argüelles, Marcial; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Ziara, Gianna; Crowe, Francesca L.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Grote, Verena A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Hjartåker, Anette; Landberg, Rikard; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively investigated dietary flavonoid intake and esophageal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,312 adult subjects from 10 European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires...... flavonoid intake was inversely associated with esophageal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) (log2) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 0.98) but not in multivariable models (HR (log2) = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.10). After covariate adjustment, no statistically significant association was found between any...... flavonoid subclass and esophageal cancer, EAC, or ESCC. However, among current smokers, flavonols were statistically significantly associated with a reduced esophageal cancer risk (HR (log2) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94), whereas total flavonoids, flavanols, and flavan-3-ol monomers tended to be inversely...

  2. Validity of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuto; Suzuki, Yoshio; Oguma, Nobuhide; Ishihara, Junko; Nakai, Ayumi; Yasuda, Jun; Yokoyama, Yuri; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    Background Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have been developed and validated for various populations. To our knowledge, however, no FFQ has been validated for young athletes. Here, we investigated whether an FFQ that was developed and validated to estimate dietary intake in middle-aged persons was also valid for estimating that in young athletes. Methods We applied an FFQ that had been developed for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study with modification to the duration of recollection. A total of 156 participants (92 males) completed the FFQ and a 3-day non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR). Validity of the mean estimates was evaluated by calculating the percentage differences between the 24hDR and FFQ. Ranking estimation was validated using Spearman’s correlation coefficient (CC), and the degree of miscategorization was determined by joint classification. Results The FFQ underestimated energy intake by approximately 10% for both males and females. For 35 nutrients, the median (range) deattenuated CC was 0.30 (0.10 to 0.57) for males and 0.32 (−0.08 to 0.62) for females. For 19 food groups, the median (range) deattenuated CC was 0.32 (0.17 to 0.72) for males and 0.34 (−0.11 to 0.58) for females. For both nutrient and food group intakes, cross-classification analysis indicated extreme miscategorization rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions An FFQ developed and validated for middle-aged persons had comparable validity among young athletes. This FFQ might be useful for assessing habitual dietary intake in collegiate athletes, especially for calcium, vitamin C, vegetables, fruits, and milk and dairy products. PMID:26902164

  3. Validation of maritime spectral features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Matthew J.

    In 1991 a research team led by Klaus Hasselmann developed a general technique to build synthetic aperture radar (SAR) spectra from scans of the ocean surface; however these techniques were verified on older equipment. The algorithms input a SAR spectrum from an ocean spectrum, an inversion from SAR spectrum to ocean spectrum, and determine the threshold of the azimuthal cutoff. Originally designed for platforms that have since fulfilled their missions, the question remains as to whether the algorithms are valid with newer systems such as TerraSAR-X operated by German Aerospace Centre (DLR). One of the larger differences that may skew data analysis by these algorithms is that TerraSAR-X has much finer resolution, pixels being on the scale of 5--10 meters (or less), while older satellites returned images with pixel scaling on the order of kilometers. The finer pixel scaling allows for more detail to be recovered and analyzed, specifically the individual waves on the ocean surface become visible. To that end, algorithms developed for older satellites will be employed on data collected from TerraSAR-X and compared to ground truth data in order to assess the compatibility of existing algorithms. During the course of the validation, several sets of code, written in Matlab, will be employed and discussed, each providing a different approach, more focused results. In aggregate a clearer picture will emerge describing the accuracy that older algorithms have with newer machinery. The imagery data, being satellite borne, comes with individual collection geometry that needs to be addressed in the processing as well, currently through parsing the accompanying metadata. The determination that these algorithms indeed work with newer systems and the validation of an azimuthal cutoff demonstrate that little fine tuning of older algorithms is needed at these higher resolutions. While the Hasselmann algorithms become cumbersome to use, a new approach to the algorithms yield useful

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDED INQUIRY SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS TO IMPROVE SCIENCE LITERACY SKILL OF PROSPECTIVE MI TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. S. Putra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce valid, practical and effective guided inquiry model science learning materials to enhance science literacy skill of prospective MI teachers. The tryout of the materials was implementedto students of MI teacher educationof Unipdu Jombang at academic year of 2015/2016 semesters 3 using One Group Pretest Posttest Design. The data collections were done using observation, testing, and questionnaires. Data were analysed using descriptive analysis of quantitative, qualitative and non-parametric statistical tests. The findings of the research were: 1 the learning materials were valid; 2 Practicality of the materials was tested through the implementation of lesson plans, while the learners’ activity wereappropriate to the guided inquirymodel; and 3 The effectiveness of the learning materials in terms of improvement of learning outcomes of students was seen from the n-gain with high category and increasing mastery of science literacy skills of learners also scored n-gain with high category and the response of students to the device and the implementation of learning is very positive. It was concluded that the materials were valid, practical, and effective to enhance science literacy skills of prospective MI teachers.

  5. Scottish validation study of cancer registration data childhood leukaemia 1968-1981: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to validate central registration data on all childhood leukaemia cases in Scotland between 1968 and 1981 in line with the Black Enquiry concerning West Cumbria. Missing files precluded a complete verification, but minor errors of registration were found in 44% of cases. A small number of important mistakes of omission (eight cases), wrong diagnosis (six cases) and postal code errors (nine cases) were found which might affect epidemiological studies of these relatively rare diseases. Precise and verified prospective data collection at the time of diagnosis is essential if the spatial distribution of childhood cancers is being studied. (author)

  6. The gastro-esophageal reflux disease questionnaire using Indonesian language: A language validation survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marcellus Simadibrata; Aziz Rani; Pangestu Adi; Ali Djumhana; Murdani Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to test the usefulness of the Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GERDQ) in the diagnosis of GERD, to validate the GERDQ written in Indonesian language, and to evaluate the reliability of the GERDQ for use in Indonesian-speaking GERD patients (Virginia study).Methods: This was a prospective survey of 40 patients diagnosed with GERD, based on an endoscopic examination, in 3 cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya) from 15 January ...

  7. Prospective Physics Teachers' Awareness of Radiation and Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoglu, Aslihan Kartal; Ates, Özlem; Bakaç, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate prospective physics teachers' knowledge of and attitude towards radiation and radioactivity. Participants of this study are 56 prospective physics teachers. A questionnaire related with the knowledge about radiation and radiation fear was conducted. The results of this study showed that most of the…

  8. Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Perspectives and Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz-Akar, Gülseren

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between prospective secondary mathematics teachers' perspectives and their mathematical knowledge for teaching in action. Data from two prospective teachers' practice-teachings, one in geometry and one in algebra, their lesson plans and self-reflections were analyzed with Teacher Perspectives and Knowledge…

  9. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions on Different Aspects of Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Ahmet; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative-case study examined how portfolio and portfolio assessment were perceived by prospective teachers. The participants were 23 prospective teachers from seven different teaching areas from a Turkish university. A semi-structured individual interview was conducted. The interview schedule included 15 open-ended questions. The main…

  10. Early Childhood Prospective Teacher Pedagogical Belief Shifts over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartuli, Sue; Rohs, Jovanna

    2009-01-01

    Prospective teachers' shifts of pedagogical beliefs over time were examined in this study. There were significant differences found between beliefs reported at the onset of a teacher education program when compared to beliefs reported at graduation and after one year of employment. Prospective teachers had higher mean scores on learner-centered…

  11. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws...

  12. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining claims under the general mining laws and leasing under...

  13. 77 FR 20823 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Family Healthware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Family... Analysis for Personalized Disease Prevention Plan,'' filed 5/20/2008, claiming priority to Provisional... Application Pending. Priority Date: 2/3/2005. Issue Date: N/A. The prospective exclusive license will...

  14. Motivating Inhibition--Reward Prospect Speeds up Response Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N.; Hopf, Jens-Max; Stoppel, Christian M.; Krebs, Ruth M.

    2012-01-01

    Reward prospect has been demonstrated to facilitate various cognitive and behavioral operations, particularly by enhancing the speed and vigor of processes linked to approaching reward. Studies in this domain typically employed task regimes in which participants' overt responses are facilitated by prospective rewards. In contrast, we demonstrate…

  15. Investigating Prospective Teachers' Ability to Write Context-Based Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Donmez Usta, Necla

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prospective teachers' ability to write context-based problems about the concepts in radioactivity unit. Methodology: The study is carried out in a university in Turkey with 21 prospective teachers in physics, chemistry and biology in 2014-2015 fall terms. In the study, data are collected…

  16. An analysis of Timmermans’ critique of Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR) Timmermans (2010) discussed the suitability of Prospect Theory for travel behaviour research. In that article appeared an assertion, about the explanatory performance of Prospect Theory with respect to choices in the TV game ‘D

  17. Study of Prospective Teachers' Conceptualization of Value Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruklu, Nermin; Aktamis, Hilal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any changes in the conceptualization of prospective teachers' values preferences during their university studies. The research group was composed of 208 prospective teachers who were studying at Science Education, Social Science Education and Fine Arts Education at Adnan Menderes…

  18. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Prospective application of part. The provisions of this part shall apply only to the extension of credit by...

  19. Neural Correlates of Prospective Memory across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollig, Jacqueline; West, Robert; Martin, Mike; Altgassen, Mareike; Lemke, Ulrike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Overview: Behavioural data reveal an inverted U-shaped function in the efficiency of prospective memory from childhood to young adulthood to later adulthood. However, prior research has not directly compared processes contributing to age-related variation in prospective memory across the lifespan, hence it is unclear whether the same factors…

  20. Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Conceptions of Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozbilir, Mustafa; Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Canpolat, Nurtac

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying specifically prospective chemistry teachers' difficulties in determining the differences between the concepts of chemical thermodynamics and kinetics. Data were collected from 67 prospective chemistry teachers at Kazim Karabekir Education Faculty of Ataturk University in Turkey during 2005-2006 academic year. Data…

  1. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  2. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  3. PEMFC modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Ordonez, J.C.; Martins, L.S. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: ordonez@caps.fsu.edu, martins@caps.fsu.edu

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a simplified and comprehensive PEMFC mathematical model introduced in previous studies is experimentally validated. Numerical results are obtained for an existing set of commercial unit PEM fuel cells. The model accounts for pressure drops in the gas channels, and for temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction, that are investigated by direct infrared imaging, showing that even at low current operation such gradients are present in fuel cell operation, and therefore should be considered by a PEMFC model, since large coolant flow rates are limited due to induced high pressure drops in the cooling channels. The computed polarization and power curves are directly compared to the experimentally measured ones with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. The combination of accuracy and low computational time allow for the future utilization of the model as a reliable tool for PEMFC simulation, control, design and optimization purposes. (author)

  4. Multicopter Design Optimization and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Magnussen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for optimizing the design of a multicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, also called multirotor or drone. In practice a set of datasheets is available to the designer for the various components such as battery pack, motor and propellers. The designer can not normally design the parameters of the actuator system freely, but is constrained to pick components based on available datasheets. The mixed-integer programming approach is well suited to design optimization in such cases when only a discrete set of components is available. The paper also includes an experimental section where the simulated dynamic responses of optimized designs are compared against the experimental results. The paper demonstrates that mixed-integer programming is well suited to design optimization of multicopter UAVs and that the modeling assumptions match well with the experimental validation.

  5. Turbine-99 unsteady simulations - Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, M. J.; Andersson, U.; Lövgren, H. M.

    2010-08-01

    The Turbine-99 test case, a Kaplan draft tube model, aimed to determine the state of the art within draft tube simulation. Three workshops were organized on the matter in 1999, 2001 and 2005 where the geometry and experimental data were provided as boundary conditions to the participants. Since the last workshop, computational power and flow modelling have been developed and the available data completed with unsteady pressure measurements and phase resolved velocity measurements in the cone. Such new set of data together with the corresponding phase resolved velocity boundary conditions offer new possibilities to validate unsteady numerical simulations in Kaplan draft tube. The present work presents simulation of the Turbine-99 test case with time dependent angular resolved inlet velocity boundary conditions. Different grids and time steps are investigated. The results are compared to experimental time dependent pressure and velocity measurements.

  6. The world nuclear market and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This market study of the nuclear industry presents: 1 - the dynamics of nuclear markets: organisation of the nuclear industry (fuel cycle, reactors), market analysis and key figures (uranium production, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor manufacturing, spent fuel reprocessing), strengths in presence and competition structure (companies ranking, market shares, positioning); 2 - nuclear renaissance and its basis: a suitable answer to the present day energy and environmental challenges (carbon-free energy and low volatility of fuel price), conjunction of favourable conditions (security of fuel supplies, political support, necessity of plants renewal), three main uncertainties (waste management, safety aspect, public opinion weight); 3 - perspectives of development at the 2030 prospects: data (scope of renaissance, market size), sector reconfiguration scenarios (evolution of competition, reconfiguration paths, concentration trend); 4 - analysis of the strategy of 13 companies, suppliers of the nuclear industry, with their key figures, positioning and strategy (production capacity, partnerships, external growth investments, new technical developments etc.). (J.S.)

  7. Banking Sector of Ukraine: Realities, Tendencies, Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko Hanna O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the modern state of the banking sector of Ukraine, its sources and prospects. It identifies that the main obstacle for stable development is dissociation of banking segments, absence of functional unity and orientation at formation of optimal conditions for satisfaction of financial requirements of the domestic economy. In order to create the efficient banking system it is necessary to introduce new banking supervision standards oriented at specialisation of the banking activity. The banking market should be segmented and both major banks that form the nucleus of the segment and minor ones operating in their niches should co-operate within each segment. Universal banks that have a developed branch network should unite specialised segments. Moreover, it is necessary to introduce changes into the mechanism of application of some instruments of money and loan regulation with respect to specialised banks and introduce some restrictions upon spheres of activity of the foreign capital.

  8. PROSPECT - A precision oscillation and spectrum experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Segmented antineutrino detectors placed near a compact research reactor provide an excellent opportunity to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. Close proximity to a reactor combined with minimal overburden yield a high background environment that must be managed through shielding and detector technology. PROSPECT is a new experimental effort to detect reactor antineutrinos from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The detector will use novel lithium-loaded liquid scintillator capable of neutron/gamma pulse shape discrimination and neutron capture tagging. These enhancements improve the ability to identify neutrino inverse-beta decays and reject background events in analysis. Results from these efforts will be covered along with their implications for an oscillation search and a precision spectrum measurement.

  9. Business Tourism in Sochi: Issues and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Romanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the current problems and pe rspectives of business tourism in Sochi. The development of this segment of tourism may attract extra thousands of tourists. Development prospects of Sochi is associated with the forthcoming tourist boom and reincarnation of this local - popular resort into the international tourist destination. Business tourism is supposed to become an integral part of the local market development. The future of business tourism in Sochi will depend of different limits and factors such as t transport and communication infrast ructures, natural and u rban environments, openness to tourism, availability and cost of services etc. Sochi has a good potential to become a leader in business travel sector and after the Olympic Games it will substantially increase. The development of bus iness tourism on the local level will reduce seasonality

  10. The prospects for dry fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry storage of spent nuclear fuels is one method of dealing with radioactive waste. This article reports from a one day seminar on future prospects for dry fuel storage held in November 1993. Dry storage in an inert gas or air environment in vaults or casks, is an alternative to wet storage in water-filled ponds. Both wet and dry storage form part of the Interim Storage option for radioactive waste materials, and form alternatives to reprocessing or direct disposal in a deep repository. It has become clear that a large market for dry fuel storage will exist in the future. It will therefore be necessary to ensure that the various technical, safety, commercial, legislative and political constraints associated with it can be met effectively. (UK)

  11. Reproducibility principles, problems, practices, and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Maasen, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Featuring peer-reviewed contributions from noted experts in their fields of research, Reproducibility: Principles, Problems, Practices, and Prospects presents state-of-the-art approaches to reproducibility, the gold standard sound science, from multi- and interdisciplinary perspectives. Including comprehensive coverage for implementing and reflecting the norm of reproducibility in various pertinent fields of research, the book focuses on how the reproducibility of results is applied, how it may be limited, and how such limitations can be understood or even controlled in the natural sciences, computational sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and studies of science and technology. The book presents many chapters devoted to a variety of methods and techniques, as well as their epistemic and ontological underpinnings, which have been developed to safeguard reproducible research and curtail deficits and failures. The book also investigates the political, historical, and social practices that underlie repro...

  12. Predicting residents' performance: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozuah Philip O

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective criteria for predicting residents' performance do not exist. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that global assessment by an intern selection committee (ISC would correlate with the future performance of residents. Methods A prospective study of 277 residents between 1992 and 1999. Global assessment at the time of interview was compared to subsequent clinical (assessed by chief residents and cognitive performance (assessed by the American Board of Pediatrics in-service training examination. Results ISC ratings correlated significantly with clinical performance at 24 and 36 months of training (r = 0.58, P st, 2nd, and 3rd years of training (r = 0.35, P = .0016; r = 0.39, P = 0.0003; r = 0.50, P = 0.005 respectively. Conclusions Global assessment by an ISC predicted residents' clinical and cognitive performances.

  13. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fengying; Wang, Huijun; Du, Shufa; He, Yuna; Wang, Zhihong; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China. PMID:19453679

  14. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF POSTCHOLECYSTECTOMY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Cholecystectomy is the standard treatment for symptomatic gall stone disease. This study is aimed to assess the effect of the surgery on patients' symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty patients undergoing Cholecystectomy between September 2013 to February 2015 were evaluated using standard questionnaires in Study conducted on patients admitted in Surgical units in Maharaja Yashwantrao Hospital and MGM Medical College, a tertiary level care centre in Central India. RESULTS In this prospective study of 80 symptomatic gallstone disease patients with two or more symptoms pre-operatively the incidence of Postcholecystectomy Syndrome was found out to be 30%. All pain and non-pain symptoms were significantly reduced post-operatively except diarrhea.

  15. Dual-frequency IP over Tanghuping Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iraj Vosoughi-Niri; TANG Jing-tian

    2004-01-01

    Gold mineralization in the Tanghuping Prospect was the target of the geophysical exploration. The mineralization shows close relation with geological structures and is accompanied by alteration. Sulfide concentrations in the altered zones were used to trace the mineralization by Induced Polarization(IP) method. Through laboratory and field measurements of some selected samples of the study area, their geophysical properties were studied carefully.After that by numerical calculation, a geophysical model was built. Six lines were designed to use dual-frequency IP sounding in the west of the surveyed area. Gradient, pole-dipole and reverse pole-dipole arrays were used to acquire the data. Interpretation of the processed data shows eight veins that demonstrate diverging and converging phenomena. Therefore east of the surveyed area is considered as most prosperous zone in the study area.

  16. Prospective physics teachers mental models about shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Students mistaken views about explaining the behavior of light is often supported by the studies in the related literature. This arises from the students incomplete, mistaken or basically unscientific mental models about shadow events based on the ray model of the light. Regarding all these, 4 open-ended and drawing required questions were asked to university 2nd grade 20 prospective physics teachers in order to identify their existing mental models and prior knowledge about the subject. Afterwards, the experimental work sheets prepared according to the science process skills about the occurrence of shadow using the ray model of the light were given to the students during a 3 week period. After students completing, the worksheets were collected. The worksheets are being evaluated separately by each researcher to observe and assess the development and change in mental models. The previously given questions were given students at the end of the teaching period for triangulating and controlling the data collected

  17. The statistical parton distributions: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New experimental results on polarized structure functions, cross sections for e±p neutral and charge current reactions and ν(anti ν) charge current on isoscalar targets are compared with predictions using the statistical parton distributions, which were previously determined. New data on cross sections for Drell-Yan processes, single-jet data in p anti p collisions and inclusive π0 production data in pp collisions are also compared with predictions from this theoretical approach. The good agreement which we find with all these tests against experiment strengthens our opinion on the relevance of the role of quantum statistics for parton distributions. We will also discuss the prospects of this physical framework. (orig.)

  18. The statistical parton distributions: status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J.; Buccella, F.

    2005-06-01

    New experimental results on polarized structure functions, cross sections for e^{±}p neutral and charge current reactions and ν (bar{ν}) charge current on isoscalar targets are compared with predictions using the statistical parton distributions, which were previously determined. New data on cross sections for Drell-Yan processes, single-jet data in pbar{p} collisions and inclusive π^0 production data in pp collisions are also compared with predictions from this theoretical approach. The good agreement which we find with all these tests against experiment strengthens our opinion on the relevance of the role of quantum statistics for parton distributions. We will also discuss the prospects of this physical framework.

  19. The statistical parton distributions: status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J. [UMR, Centre de Physique Theorique, Marseille (France); Buccella, F. [Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    New experimental results on polarized structure functions, cross sections for e{sup {+-}}p neutral and charge current reactions and {nu}(anti {nu}) charge current on isoscalar targets are compared with predictions using the statistical parton distributions, which were previously determined. New data on cross sections for Drell-Yan processes, single-jet data in p anti p collisions and inclusive {pi}{sup 0} production data in pp collisions are also compared with predictions from this theoretical approach. The good agreement which we find with all these tests against experiment strengthens our opinion on the relevance of the role of quantum statistics for parton distributions. We will also discuss the prospects of this physical framework. (orig.)

  20. Juggling with network prospects and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Leick, Birgit

    Innovation-based collaboration offers not only benefits in terms of value co-creation, but is also associated with major conflicts arising for various reasons. Firm-specific knowledge that constitutes the core competencies of notably small enterprises to build competitive advantage in the global...... market place collides with the need to develop knowledge bases and upgrade capabilities to innovate in collaborative networks. As a consequence, network asymmetries and emerging risks of networking reduce the chances to jointly create value. The present paper studies this context and highlights both the...... need and power of moderation and brokerage as appropriate tools for network managers to handle such conflicts. Using a case study of an innovation- and knowledge-based Danish windmill network, the paper investigates the prospects and conflicts in the process of value co-creation in a network context...

  1. The prospects for nuclear power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To outline the prospects for nuclear power in Europe may seem like a brave exercise to embark upon. Is it necessary, one might ask, to play the role of fortune-teller or spin-doctor? The author hopes he will appear as neither. What he aims to do is to examine the factors that will determine the future of nuclear power over the next two to three decades. This is the timescale that is the main focus of the European Commission's Green Paper on security of energy supply, published last year. From reading this Green Paper, the impression given is that nuclear power in Europe is at the start of a period of steady and inevitable decline. However, there appears to be a strong body of opinion within the Commission in support of the argument that nuclear must remain an essential component of the EU energy mix for at least the next 20 years, because of climate change concerns. (orig.)

  2. Prospects for Breakthrough Propulsion From Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2004-01-01

    "Space drives", "Warp drives", and "Wormholes:" these concepts may sound like science fiction, but they are being written about in reputable journals. To assess the implications of these emerging prospects for future spaceflight, NASA supported the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project from 1996 through 2002. This Project has three grand challenges: (1) Discover propulsion that eliminates the need for propellant; (2) Discover methods to achieve hyper-fast travel; and (3) Discover breakthrough methods to power spacecraft. Because these challenges are presumably far from fruition, and perhaps even impossible, a special emphasis is placed on selecting incremental and affordable research that addresses the critical issues behind these challenges. Of 16 incremental research tasks completed by the project and from other sponsors, about a third were found not to be viable, a quarter have clear opportunities for sequels, and the rest remain unresolved.

  3. Prospects in MPGDs development for neutron detection

    CERN Document Server

    Guerard, Bruno; Murtas, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Compared to Multi Wires Proportional Chambers (MWPC), Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) used in HEP to detect MIPs offer better spatial resolution, counting rate capability, and radiation hardness; their fabrication is also more reproducible. Provided similar advantages are applicable to detect neutrons, MPGDs might contribute significantly to the development of neutron scientific instrumentation. In order to evaluate the prospects of neutron MPGDs, it is worth knowing the applications which would benefit from a gain in performance, and if they offer a competitive alternative to conventional 3He detectors. These questions have been at the focus of the workshop "Neutron Detection with Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors" organized by RD51 in collaboration with HEPTech, which took place at CERN on October 14-15, 2013. The goal of this workshop was to help disseminating MPGD technologies beyond High Energy Physics, and to give the possibility to academic institutions, potential users and industry to meet together. ...

  4. Magnetic mirror fusion: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two improved mirror systems, the tandem mirror (TM) and the field-reversed mirror (FRM) are being intensively studied. The twin practical aims of these studies: to improve the economic prospects for mirror fusion power plants and to reduce the size and/or complexity of such plants relative to earlier approaches to magnetic fusion. While at the present time the program emphasis is still strongly oriented toward answering scientific questions, the emphasis is shifting as the data accumulates and as larger facilities - ones with a heavy technological and engineering orientation - are being prepared. The experimental and theoretical progress that led to the new look in mirror fusion research is briefly reviewed, the new TM and the FRM ideas are outlined, and the projected future course of mirror fusion research is discussed

  5. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  6. Renewable energy development and prospects in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of renewable energies in Australia is still in its infancy and will require active support by government, utilities and financing institutions to ensure a steady growth. Much has been done to increase the utilisation of renewable energies in the energy supply, but much still remains to be done, especially in the areas of promotion, demonstration, training and technology transfer. This process will lead to meeting the energy needs of the population in rural areas and to contributing to a suitable development of the region during the next century. Australia is endowed with a wealth of renewable energy resources that hold great promise for addressing a host of important environmental, employment and socioeconomic issues. Australia has a set of climate, geographic and other factors that provide favourable conditions for many specific renewable energy applications. The objectives of this paper is to look at the current situation of renewable energies in Australia, opportunities, constraints, current projects, available potential and future prospects. (Author)

  7. E-payments: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raja

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of electronic commerce depends upon effective electronic payment systems. The Internet and on-line businesse s are growing exponentially.. Due to this explosive growth, electronic commerce on the Internet uses various electronic payment mechanisms that can cater for much diversity of applications. This paper discusses the evolution and the growth of electronic te chnologies, which can provide more advanced technical supports for electronic payment systems. The focus of this paper is to identify and explain the different methods of e-payment the authors analyses the challenges of electronic payments from different perspec tive and provide preliminary security countermeasures for each of the issues. Finally a number of solutions have been proposed based on the problem and discussed on the prospect of electronic payment system

  8. Prospects sportization system of physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil’ Sutula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the status and prospects of development of sports-oriented direction in the system of physical education students. Material and Methods: the analysis of literature, which are developed the theoretical and practical aspects of the development of physical education students. Results: it is determined that the system of physical education students in groups of physical and sports education is the most common sports-oriented form of organization studies. It is noted that the traditional system of physical education is not effective enough to improve the physical health of students. Conclusions: the solution to provide the necessary level of physical health of students is formation of their personality a certain level of physical culture.

  9. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  10. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  11. Prospective and Pavlovian mechanisms in aversive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Studying aversive behaviour is critical for understanding negative emotions and associated psychopathologies. However a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms underlying aversion is lacking, with associative learning theories focusing on Pavlovian reactions and decision-making theoretic approaches on prospective functions. We propose a computational model of aversion that combines goal-directed and Pavlovian forms of control into a unifying framework in which their relative importance is regulated by factors such as threat distance and controllability. Using simulations, we test whether the model can reproduce available empirical findings and discuss its relevance to understanding factors underlying negative emotions such as fear and anxiety. Furthermore, the specific method used to construct the model permits a natural mapping from its components to brain structure and function. Our model provides a basis for a unifying account of aversion that can guide empirical and interventional study contexts. PMID:26539969

  12. A prospect. Plasma physics, quo vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospect of plasma physics at the turn of new century is discussed. The theme of this conference identifies the future direction of the research related with plasmas. Main issue is the potential and structure formation in plasmas; More specifically, structures which are realized through the interaction of electromagnetic fields, in particular that with electric fields, in non-equilibrium state. An emphasis is made to clarify the fundamental physics aspects of the plasma physics in fusion research as well as that in the basic research of plasmas. The plasma physics will give important contribution to the solution of the historical enigma, i.e., all thing flow. Having an impact on human recognition of nature and showing a beauty in a law, the plasma physics/science will demonstrate to be a high-quality science in the 21st century. (author)

  13. Future prospects of nuclear power utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company) was severely damaged by the March 11 Tohoku- Pacific Ocean Earthquake and tsunami. Residents living the vicinity of the affected area were forced to evacuate after the accident. The social trust in nuclear energy has been lost and the issue of utilization of nuclear energy is being discussed. This paper introduces the safety design of nuclear power plants up to this day and how the weak point was hit in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore the future prospects of the nuclear power utilization in our country and the world are mentioned although the future Japanese energy policy still remains uncertain. (author)

  14. Nuclear material management: challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The articles in this dossier were derived from the papers of the yearly S.F.E.N. convention, which took place in Paris, 12-13 March 2008. They deal with the new challenges and prospects in the field of nuclear material management, throughout the nuclear whole fuel cycle, namely: the institutional frame of nuclear materials management, the recycling, the uranium market, the enrichment market, the different scenarios for the management of civil nuclear materials, the technical possibilities of spent fuels utilization, the option of thorium, the convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials and installations, the characterisation of nuclear materials by nondestructive nuclear measurements, the proliferation from civil installations, the use of plutonium ( from military origin) and the international agreements. (N.C.)

  15. ECR ion sources: present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although now widely used for many applications, the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS), an outgrowth of the fusion plasma research, still suffer from some mystification, or at least from a lack of understanding. This article is an attempt to give a broad overview of the today ECRIS activity devoted to the production of highly charged ions: is therefore describes both physics and theory efforts, technology, performances, plans and prospects as well. An important chapter gives the status of understanding the ECRIS behavior, both the current thinking on how they operate and the experimental evidences whenever it is possible. The various existing sources, their design and main features, are then surveyed. At last the present trends of development, the potential directions for future improvement are examined. (author). 48 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Prospective applications of optical quantum memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, Félix; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    An optical quantum memory can be broadly defined as a system capable of storing a quantum state through interaction with light at optical frequencies. During the last decade, intense research was devoted to their development, mostly with the aim of fulfilling the requirements of their first two applications, namely quantum repeaters and linear-optical quantum computation. A better understanding of those requirements then motivated several different experimental approaches. Along the way, other exciting applications emerged, such as as quantum metrology, single-photon detection, tests of the foundations of quantum physics, device-independent quantum information processing and nonlinear processing of quantum information. Here we review several prospective applications of optical quantum memories, as well as recent experimental achievements pertaining to these applications. This review highlights that optical quantum memories have become essential for the development of optical quantum information processing.

  17. PROSPECTIVE ROMANIAN LEADERS' VIEW ON LEADERSHIP DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA DOINA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with Romanian prospective leaders' view on outstanding leadership dimensions (styles. It is a part of a European research project, GLOBE Students, dealing with the interrelations between societal culture and leadership. The basic theoretical constructs and methodological framework of investigation are those developed by GLOBE international research project. The sample consists in 429 students in business/economics and engineering, belonging to three Romanian universities. The findings show that the most preferred leadership styles are team oriented and charismatic (value based. Only a few leadership styles seem to have weak, but statistically significant correlations against a sig. = 0.50 probability threshold with important socialization agents for the students.

  18. Universal doomsday: analyzing our prospects for survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerig, Austin [CABDyN Complexity Centre, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: austin.gerig@sbs.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: kdo@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford MA 02155 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Given a sufficiently large universe, numerous civilizations almost surely exist. Some of these civilizations will be short-lived and die out relatively early in their development, i.e., before having the chance to spread to other planets. Others will be long-lived, potentially colonizing their galaxy and becoming enormous in size. What fraction of civilizations in the universe are long-lived? The ''universal doomsday'' argument states that long-lived civilizations must be rare because if they were not, we should find ourselves living in one. Furthermore, because long-lived civilizations are rare, our civilization's prospects for long-term survival are poor. Here, we develop the formalism required for universal doomsday calculations and show that while the argument has some force, our future is not as gloomy as the traditional doomsday argument would suggest, at least when the number of early existential threats is small.

  19. Universal doomsday: analyzing our prospects for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given a sufficiently large universe, numerous civilizations almost surely exist. Some of these civilizations will be short-lived and die out relatively early in their development, i.e., before having the chance to spread to other planets. Others will be long-lived, potentially colonizing their galaxy and becoming enormous in size. What fraction of civilizations in the universe are long-lived? The ''universal doomsday'' argument states that long-lived civilizations must be rare because if they were not, we should find ourselves living in one. Furthermore, because long-lived civilizations are rare, our civilization's prospects for long-term survival are poor. Here, we develop the formalism required for universal doomsday calculations and show that while the argument has some force, our future is not as gloomy as the traditional doomsday argument would suggest, at least when the number of early existential threats is small

  20. Magnetic mirror fusion: status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.

    1980-02-11

    Two improved mirror systems, the tandem mirror (TM) and the field-reversed mirror (FRM) are being intensively studied. The twin practical aims of these studies: to improve the economic prospects for mirror fusion power plants and to reduce the size and/or complexity of such plants relative to earlier approaches to magnetic fusion. While at the present time the program emphasis is still strongly oriented toward answering scientific questions, the emphasis is shifting as the data accumulates and as larger facilities - ones with a heavy technological and engineering orientation - are being prepared. The experimental and theoretical progress that led to the new look in mirror fusion research is briefly reviewed, the new TM and the FRM ideas are outlined, and the projected future course of mirror fusion research is discussed.