WorldWideScience

Sample records for basis forobligate methylotrophy

  1. The genome of Methylobacillus flagellatus, the molecular basis forobligate methylotrophy, and the polyphyletic origin ofmethylotrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Lapidus, Alla; Han, Cliff; Goodwin,Lynne; Saunders, Liz; Brettin, Tom; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Lucas,Susan; Richardson, Paul M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2007-01-08

    Along with methane, methanol and methylated amines representimportant biogenic atmospheric constituents, thus not only methanotrophs,but also non-methanotrophic methylotrophs play a significant role inglobal carbon cycling. The complete genome of a model obligate methanoland methylamine utilizer, Methylobacillus flagellatus (strain KT) wassequenced. The genome is represented by a single circular chromosome ofapproximately 3 Mb pairs, potentially encoding a total of 2,766 proteins.Based on genome analysis as well as the results from previous genetic andmutational analyses, methylotrophy is enabled by methanol- andmethylamine dehydrogenases, the tetrahydromethanopterin-linkedformaldehyde oxidation pathway, the assimilatory and dissimilatorybranches of the ribulose monophosphate cycle, and by formatedehydrogenases. Some of the methylotrophy genes are present in more thanone (identical or non-identical) copy. The obligate dependence on singlecarbon compounds appears to be due to the incomplete tricarboxylic acidcycle, as no genes potentially encoding alpha ketoglutarate, malate orsuccinate dehydrogenases are identifiable. The genome of M. flagellatuswas compared, in terms of methylotrophy functions, to the previouslysequenced genomes of three methylotrophs: Methylobacterium extorquens(Alphaproteobacterium, 7 Mbp), Methylibium petroleophilum(Betaproteobacterium, 4 Mbp), and Methylococcus capsulatus(Gammaproteobacterium, 3.3 Mbp). Strikingly, metabolically and/orphylogenetically, methylotrophy functions in M. flagellatus were moresimilar to the ones in M. capsulatus and M. extorquens than to the onesin the more closely related M. petroleophilum, providing the firstgenomic evidence for the polyphyletic origin of methylotrophy inBetaproteobacteria.

  2. Genome of Methylobacillus flagellatus, Molecular Basis for Obligate Methylotrophy, and Polyphyletic Origin of Methylotrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistoserdova, L; Lapidus, A; Han, C; Godwin, L; Saunders, L; Brettin, T; Tapia, R; Gilna, P; Lucas, S; Richardson, P M; Lidstrom, M E

    2007-07-24

    Along with methane, methanol and methylated amines represent important biogenic atmospheric constituents; thus, not only methanotrophs but also nonmethanotrophic methylotrophs play a significant role in global carbon cycling. The complete genome of a model obligate methanol and methylamine utilizer, Methylobacillus flagellatus (strain KT) was sequenced. The genome is represented by a single circular chromosome of approximately 3 Mbp, potentially encoding a total of 2,766 proteins. Based on genome analysis as well as the results from previous genetic and mutational analyses, methylotrophy is enabled by methanol and methylamine dehydrogenases and their specific electron transport chain components, the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked formaldehyde oxidation pathway and the assimilatory and dissimilatory ribulose monophosphate cycles, and by a formate dehydrogenase. Some of the methylotrophy genes are present in more than one (identical or nonidentical) copy. The obligate dependence on single-carbon compounds appears to be due to the incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle, as no genes potentially encoding alpha-ketoglutarate, malate, or succinate dehydrogenases are identifiable. The genome of M. flagellatus was compared in terms of methylotrophy functions to the previously sequenced genomes of three methylotrophs, Methylobacterium extorquens (an alphaproteobacterium, 7 Mbp), Methylibium petroleiphilum (a betaproteobacterium, 4 Mbp), and Methylococcus capsulatus (a gammaproteobacterium, 3.3 Mbp). Strikingly, metabolically and/or phylogenetically, the methylotrophy functions in M. flagellatus were more similar to those in M. capsulatus and M. extorquens than to the ones in the more closely related M. petroleiphilum species, providing the first genomic evidence for the polyphyletic origin of methylotrophy in Betaproteobacteria.

  3. Development of a formaldehyde biosensor with application to synthetic methylotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolston, Benjamin M; Roth, Timothy; Kohale, Ishwar; Liu, David R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a prevalent environmental toxin and a key intermediate in single carbon metabolism. The ability to monitor formaldehyde concentration is, therefore, of interest for both environmental monitoring and for metabolic engineering of native and synthetic methylotrophs, but current methods suffer from low sensitivity, complex workflows, or require expensive analytical equipment. Here we develop a formaldehyde biosensor based on the FrmR repressor protein and cognate promoter of Escherichia coli. Optimization of the native repressor binding site and regulatory architecture enabled detection at levels as low as 1 µM. We then used the sensor to benchmark the in vivo activity of several NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Mdh) variants, the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the first step of methanol assimilation. In order to use this biosensor to distinguish individuals in a mixed population of Mdh variants, we developed a strategy to prevent cross-talk by using glutathione as a formaldehyde sink to minimize intercellular formaldehyde diffusion. Finally, we applied this biosensor to balance expression of mdh and the formaldehyde assimilation enzymes hps and phi in an engineered E. coli strain to minimize formaldehyde build-up while also reducing the burden of heterologous expression. This biosensor offers a quick and simple method for sensitively detecting formaldehyde, and has the potential to be used as the basis for directed evolution of Mdh and dynamic formaldehyde control strategies for establishing synthetic methylotrophy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Proteogenomic analyses indicate bacterial methylotrophy and archaeal heterotrophy are prevalent below the grass root zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina N. Butterfield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Annually, half of all plant-derived carbon is added to soil where it is microbially respired to CO2. However, understanding of the microbiology of this process is limited because most culture-independent methods cannot link metabolic processes to the organisms present, and this link to causative agents is necessary to predict the results of perturbations on the system. We collected soil samples at two sub-root depths (10–20 cm and 30–40 cm before and after a rainfall-driven nutrient perturbation event in a Northern California grassland that experiences a Mediterranean climate. From ten samples, we reconstructed 198 metagenome-assembled genomes that represent all major phylotypes. We also quantified 6,835 proteins and 175 metabolites and showed that after the rain event the concentrations of many sugars and amino acids approach zero at the base of the soil profile. Unexpectedly, the genomes of novel members of the Gemmatimonadetes and Candidate Phylum Rokubacteria phyla encode pathways for methylotrophy. We infer that these abundant organisms contribute substantially to carbon turnover in the soil, given that methylotrophy proteins were among the most abundant proteins in the proteome. Previously undescribed Bathyarchaeota and Thermoplasmatales archaea are abundant in deeper soil horizons and are inferred to contribute appreciably to aromatic amino acid degradation. Many of the other bacteria appear to breakdown other components of plant biomass, as evidenced by the prevalence of various sugar and amino acid transporters and corresponding hydrolyzing machinery in the proteome. Overall, our work provides organism-resolved insight into the spatial distribution of bacteria and archaea whose activities combine to degrade plant-derived organics, limiting the transport of methanol, amino acids and sugars into underlying weathered rock. The new insights into the soil carbon cycle during an intense period of carbon turnover, including

  5. Methylotrophy in the thermophilic Bacillus methanolicus, basic insights and application for commodity production from methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Heggeset, Tonje M B; Wendisch, Volker F; Vorholt, Julia A; Brautaset, Trygve

    2015-01-01

    Using methanol as an alternative non-food feedstock for biotechnological production offers several advantages in line with a methanol-based bioeconomy. The Gram-positive, facultative methylotrophic and thermophilic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus is one of the few described microbial candidates with a potential for the conversion of methanol to value-added products. Its capabilities of producing and secreting the commercially important amino acids L-glutamate and L-lysine to high concentrations at 50 °C have been demonstrated and make B. methanolicus a promising target to develop cell factories for industrial-scale production processes. B. methanolicus uses the ribulose monophosphate cycle for methanol assimilation and represents the first example of plasmid-dependent methylotrophy. Recent genome sequencing of two physiologically different wild-type B. methanolicus strains, MGA3 and PB1, accompanied with transcriptome and proteome analyses has generated fundamental new insight into the metabolism of the species. In addition, multiple key enzymes representing methylotrophic and biosynthetic pathways have been biochemically characterized. All this, together with establishment of improved tools for gene expression, has opened opportunities for systems-level metabolic engineering of B. methanolicus. Here, we summarize the current status of its metabolism and biochemistry, available genetic tools, and its potential use in respect to overproduction of amino acids.

  6. Synthetic methylotrophy: engineering the production of biofuels and chemicals based on the biology of aerobic methanol utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, William B; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Bennett, Robert K; Fast, Alan G; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic methylotrophy is the development of non-native methylotrophs that can utilize methane and methanol as sole carbon and energy sources or as co-substrates with carbohydrates to produce metabolites as biofuels and chemicals. The availability of methane (from natural gas) and its oxidation product, methanol, has been increasing, while prices have been decreasing, thus rendering them as attractive fermentation substrates. As they are more reduced than most carbohydrates, methane and methanol, as co-substrates, can enhance the yields of biologically produced metabolites. Here we discuss synthetic biology and metabolic engineering strategies based on the native biology of aerobic methylotrophs for developing synthetic strains grown on methanol, with Escherichia coli as the prototype. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Safety Basis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-01

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities

  8. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  9. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  10. From BASIS to MIRACLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; E. Lechner, Ruep

    2015-01-01

    Results based on virtual instrument models for the first high-flux, high-resolution, spallation based, backscattering spectrometer, BASIS are presented in this paper. These were verified using the Monte Carlo instrument simulation packages McStas and VITESS. Excellent agreement of the neutron count...... are pivotal to the conceptual design of the next generation backscattering spectrometer, MIRACLES at the European Spallation Source....

  11. Dynamical basis set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Heller, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A new Cartesian basis set is defined that is suitable for the representation of molecular vibration-rotation bound states. The Cartesian basis functions are superpositions of semiclassical states generated through the use of classical trajectories that conform to the intrinsic dynamics of the molecule. Although semiclassical input is employed, the method becomes ab initio through the standard matrix diagonalization variational method. Special attention is given to classical-quantum correspondences for angular momentum. In particular, it is shown that the use of semiclassical information preferentially leads to angular momentum eigenstates with magnetic quantum number Vertical BarMVertical Bar equal to the total angular momentum J. The present method offers a reliable technique for representing highly excited vibrational-rotational states where perturbation techniques are no longer applicable

  12. Design basis 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    Design Basis Program 2 (DBP2) is comprehensive fully coupled code which has the capability to operate in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The code was developed during the period 1991-93 and succeed Design Basis 1, which is a one-blade model presuming stiff tower, transmission system and hub. The package is designed for use on a personal computer and offers a user-friendly environment based on menu-driven editing and control facilities, and with graphics used extensively for the data presentation. Moreover in-data as well as results are dumped on files in Ascii-format. The input data is organized in a in-data base with a structure that easily allows for arbitrary combinations of defined structural components and load cases. (au)

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  14. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  15. ITER technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties

  16. Genetic basis of chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, JBMJ; Morsche, RT; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, JPH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Pancreatitis has a proven genetic basis in a minority of patients. Methods: Review of the literature on genetics of pancreatitis. Results: Ever since the discovery that in most patients with hereditary pancreatitis a mutation in the gene encoding for cationic trypsinogen (R122H) was

  17. Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)

  18. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar...

  19. Molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruikman, Caroline S.; Hovingh, Gerard K.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview about the molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia. Recent findings Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common hereditary cause of premature coronary heart disease. It has been estimated that 1 in every 250 individuals has heterozygous familial

  20. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  1. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  2. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo

    2006-01-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...

  3. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  4. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  5. Probing community nurses' professional basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun

    2017-01-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating...... diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot...... ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers....

  6. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  7. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  8. Genetic basis of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Campuzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and remains as one of main challenges in current clinical practice. The disease may be induced secondary to other diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure, conferring an increased risk of stroke and sudden death. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that genetic factors play an important role and up to 30% of clinically diagnosed patients may have a family history of atrial fibrillation. To date, several rare variants have been identified in a wide range of genes associated with ionic channels, calcium handling protein, fibrosis, conduction and inflammation. Important advances in clinical, genetic and molecular basis have been performed over the last decade, improving diagnosis and treatment. However, the genetics of atrial fibrillation is complex and pathophysiological data remains still unraveling. A better understanding of the genetic basis will induce accurate risk stratification and personalized clinical treatment. In this review, we have focused on current genetics basis of atrial fibrillation.

  9. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  10. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  11. Quadratic Hedging of Basis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Hulley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a simple basis risk model based on correlated geometric Brownian motions. We apply quadratic criteria to minimize basis risk and hedge in an optimal manner. Initially, we derive the Föllmer–Schweizer decomposition for a European claim. This allows pricing and hedging under the minimal martingale measure, corresponding to the local risk-minimizing strategy. Furthermore, since the mean-variance tradeoff process is deterministic in our setup, the minimal martingale- and variance-optimal martingale measures coincide. Consequently, the mean-variance optimal strategy is easily constructed. Simple pricing and hedging formulae for put and call options are derived in terms of the Black–Scholes formula. Due to market incompleteness, these formulae depend on the drift parameters of the processes. By making a further equilibrium assumption, we derive an approximate hedging formula, which does not require knowledge of these parameters. The hedging strategies are tested using Monte Carlo experiments, and are compared with results achieved using a utility maximization approach.

  12. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety basis...

  13. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  14. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  15. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for double shell tank (DST) and single shell tank (SST) representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant SSCs and/or TSRS were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support of the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  16. FLAMMABLE GAS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-03-03

    This document describes the qualitative evaluation of frequency and consequences for DST and SST representative flammable gas accidents and associated hazardous conditions without controls. The evaluation indicated that safety-significant structures, systems and components (SSCs) and/or technical safety requirements (TSRs) were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Discussion on the resulting control decisions is included. This technical basis document was developed to support WP-13033, Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process for the flammable gas representative accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition based on an evaluation of the event frequency and consequence.

  17. Molecular basis for mitochondrial signaling

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in the study of structure, function, and regulation of metabolite, protein and ion translocating channels, and transporters in mitochondria. A wide array of cutting-edge methods are covered, ranging from electrophysiology and cell biology to bioinformatics, as well as structural, systems, and computational biology. At last, the molecular identity of two important channels in the mitochondrial inner membrane, the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore have been established. After years of work on the physiology and structure of VDAC channels in the mitochondrial outer membrane, there have been multiple discoveries on VDAC permeation and regulation by cytosolic proteins. Recent breakthroughs in structural studies of the mitochondrial cholesterol translocator reveal a set of novel unexpected features and provide essential clues for defining therapeutic strategies. Molecular Basis for Mitochondrial Signaling covers these and many more re...

  18. [Neurobiological basis of depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, C; Bielau, H; Bogerts, B; Northoff, G

    2006-12-01

    Depressive disorders belong to the most frequent diseases worldwide showing a lifetime prevalence of up to 20%. Moreover they are one of the leading causes for the amount of years lived with disability. Increasing knowledge about the pathological mechanisms underlying depressive syndromes is obtained by using modern neurobiological research-techniques. Thereby some older theories that have been the basis of emotion-research for decades--like the monoamine hypothesis--have been strengthened. In addition new aspects of the pathological processes underlying depressive disturbances have been unraveled. In this review established models and recent findings will be discussed, to bridge various research-fields, ranging from genetics, epigenetics and morphological changes to the functional consequences of depression. Finally therapeutic implications that could be derived from these results will be presented, showing up putative possibilities for diagnosis and treatment of depressive syndromes.

  19. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran B. Pechter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that many bacteria can survive in a growth-arrested state for long periods of time, on the order of months or even years, without forming dormant structures like spores or cysts. How is such longevity possible? What is the molecular basis of such longevity? Here we used the Gram-negative phototrophic alphaproteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to identify molecular determinants of bacterial longevity. R. palustris maintained viability for over a month after growth arrest due to nutrient depletion when it was provided with light as a source of energy. In transposon sequencing (Tn-seq experiments, we identified 117 genes that were required for long-term viability of nongrowing R. palustris cells. Genes in this longevity gene set are annotated to play roles in a number of cellular processes, including DNA repair, tRNA modification, and the fidelity of protein synthesis. These genes are critically important only when cells are not growing. Three genes annotated to affect translation or posttranslational modifications were validated as bona fide longevity genes by mutagenesis and complementation experiments. These genes and others in the longevity gene set are broadly conserved in bacteria. This raises the possibility that it will be possible to define a core set of longevity genes common to many bacterial species.

  20. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Conceptual basis of outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, R A

    1995-01-01

    Because of its treatment configuration and the assumption of long-term benefit, rehabilitation has had a continuing interest in the measurement of outcomes. The utility of outcome indicators rests on their conceptual foundations, the technical development of measures and validation research. Some measures, particularly of functional status, have become increasingly sophisticated with the application of psychometric and statistical analysis techniques. Less effort has been devoted to an elaboration of their theoretical basis. A first step is an examination of the assumptions underlying outcome measures, the purpose of this article. Central to an understanding is clarification of definitions of key terms such as outcomes, independence, impairment, disability and handicap. All outcome measures must be seen as part of a social context of norms and expectations. However, most norms in rehabilitation are implied rather than explicit. The assumptions behind several common outcomes are examined with suggestions for ways to increase their utility. The ability of rehabilitation to compete in the current climate, stressing cost-effectiveness, will depend heavily on the robustness of outcome measures.

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  4. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Risenmay, H R

    2001-01-01

    DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the ac...

  5. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  6. System requirements and design description for the document basis database interface (DocBasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Document Basis Database Interface (DocBasis). The DocBasis application is used to manage procedures used within the tank farms. The application maintains information in a small database to track the document basis for a procedure, as well as the current version/modification level and the basis for the procedure. The basis for each procedure is substantiated by Administrative, Technical, Procedural, and Regulatory requirements. The DocBasis user interface was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)

  7. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L α two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1 . The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1

  8. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  9. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Muneaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  10. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  11. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis, Scope, and Definitions § 460.2 Basis. This part implements sections 1894, 1905(a), and 1934 of the Act, which authorize the following: (a) Medicare payments to, and coverage of benefits under, PACE. (b) The...

  12. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203.100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”). The...

  13. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis...

  14. Morse basis expansion applied to diatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Emanuel F. de, E-mail: eflima@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Estatística, Matemática Aplicada e Computação, Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Rio Claro, São Paulo 13506-900 (Brazil)

    2012-02-20

    This work explores the use of the eigenfunctions of the Morse potential with a infinite barrier at long range to solve the radial Schrödinger equation for diatomic molecules. Analytical formulas are obtained for the kinetic energy operator matrix elements in the Morse basis. The Morse basis expansion is applied to find the vibrational–rotational levels of the sodium molecule in the electronic ground state. -- Highlights: ► The Morse potential basis is invoked to find the rovibrational levels of diatomic molecules. ► Analytical formulas for the kinetic energy operator in the Morse basis are obtained. ► The results of the Morse basis expansion show good agreement with the Fourier Grid technique.

  15. Understanding and capturing NSSS design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palo, W.J.; Miller, B.

    1993-01-01

    Changes to, and technical evaluations of nuclear generating station designs are often warranted. Comprehensive documentation and understanding of the NSSS Design Basis are essential to support these activities. Effective configuration management tools are also needed to maintain the plant within design basis limits. Efficient design basis reconstitution can be realized via: In-depth understanding of the design process; Utilization of effective data collection methodology; State of the art data basing tools. A database can be created to generate a Design Basis Manual (DBM). This database can communicate electronically with other plant databases. A living document vice a static snapshot of the plant design is the goal. A design basis database can serve as the cornerstone for a global electronic information control system

  16. Identification of the Current Licensing Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, E.F.; Kaskie, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Current Licensing Basis (CLB) is the combination of regulatory requirements and the related licensee commitments to implement those requirements. Knowledge of these requirements could significantly influence the utility in resources expenditure and regulatory posture. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issues regulatory requirements after reviewing licensing commitments to address specific regulations. All other commitments not addressed in regulatory requirement documents are within a utility's span of control for commercial application (i.e., cost, personnel safety, power production, etc.). The purpose of the paper will be to inform non-licensing personnel as to the benefits of understanding Current Licensing Basis, as well as providing a basic background. This paper discusses the concept of Current Licensing Basis, how the development of Current Licensing Basis is useful to the utility from a resource allocation and safety improvement perspective, how the Current Licensing Basis is compiled, and what benefits can be derived from it

  17. Yeast Methylotrophy and Autophagy in a Methanol-Oscillating Environment on Growing Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Candida boidinii capable of growth on methanol proliferates and survives on the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The local methanol concentration at the phyllosphere of growing A. thaliana exhibited daily periodicity, and yeast cells responded by altering both the expression of methanol-inducible genes and peroxisome proliferation. Even under these dynamically changing environmental conditions, yeast cells proliferated 3 to 4 times in 11 days. Among the C1-metabolic enzymes, enzymes in the methanol assimilation pathway, but not formaldehyde dissimilation or anti-oxidizing enzymes, were necessary for yeast proliferation at the phyllosphere. Furthermore, both peroxisome assembly and pexophagy, a selective autophagy pathway that degrades peroxisomes, were necessary for phyllospheric proliferation. Thus, the present study sheds light on the life cycle and physiology of yeast in the natural environment at both the molecular and cellular levels. PMID:21966472

  18. 26 CFR 1.1014-4 - Uniformity of basis; adjustment to basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1014-4 Uniformity of basis... to property acquired by bequest, devise, or inheritance relate back to the death of the decedent... prescribing a general uniform basis rule for property acquired from a decedent is, on the one hand, to tax the...

  19. 75 FR 64071 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... taxpayers to compute the basis of certain stock by averaging. The regulations affect brokers and custodians...

  20. Irreducible representation basis for unitary groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babutsidze, T.D.; Machabeli, I.Z.

    1982-01-01

    A general method is presented for construction of a complete basis for finite-dimensional irreducible representations of those subgroups of the general linear group GLsub(n) for which irreps of GLsub(n) remain irreducible after the contraction from GLsub(n) to the subgroup in view. Using the constructed basis, the reduction coefficients for contraction of irreps of the group to those of its subgroups are calculated, as well as matrix elements for some physical operators [ru

  1. Measurement of basis weight by radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.

    1981-01-01

    For accurate measurement of the basis weight (mass per unit area) of a material such as paper between a radioactive source and an ionization chamber the apparatus is calibrated by using a plurality of standards of known basis weight to provide a relationship between basis weight and the output current of the chamber which includes at least terms of the second order and preferably terms of higher orders. The major portion of the radiation path is enclosed in airtight chambers which are sufficiently rigid that the density therein is independent of ambient temperature and pressure variations. The accuracy is increased by measuring ambient temperature and pressure fluctuations, and linearly compensating for resultant density variations in the air gap through which the paper web passes. A wheel holding the standards is induced by a motor and a perforated encoding disc. (author)

  2. Reduced basis catalogs for gravitational wave templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Herrmann, Frank; Hesthaven, Jan S; Ochsner, Evan; Tiglio, Manuel

    2011-06-03

    We introduce a reduced basis approach as a new paradigm for modeling, representing and searching for gravitational waves. We construct waveform catalogs for nonspinning compact binary coalescences, and we find that for accuracies of 99% and 99.999% the method generates a factor of about 10-10(5) fewer templates than standard placement methods. The continuum of gravitational waves can be represented by a finite and comparatively compact basis. The method is robust under variations in the noise of detectors, implying that only a single catalog needs to be generated.

  3. Coulomb interaction in the supermultiplet basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzha, Ya.Kh.; Guseva, T.V.; Tamberg, Yu.Ya.; Vanagas, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    An approximate expression for the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction operator in the supermultiplet basis has been derived with the account for the orbitally-nonsymmetric terms. From the general expression a simplified formula for the Coulomb interaction energy has been proposed. On the basis of the expression obtained the contribution of the Coulomb interaction to the framework of a strongly restricted dynamic model in the light (4≤A≤40) and heavy (158≤A≤196) nuclei region has been studied. 19 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Heavy quarkonium in a holographic basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the heavy quarkonium within the basis light-front quantization approach. We implement the one-gluon exchange interaction and a confining potential inspired by light-front holography. We adopt the holographic light-front wavefunction (LFWF as our basis function and solve the non-perturbative dynamics by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix. We obtain the mass spectrum for charmonium and bottomonium. With the obtained LFWFs, we also compute the decay constants and the charge form factors for selected eigenstates. The results are compared with the experimental measurements and with other established methods.

  5. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  6. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M andO 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS)

  7. Humanities--The Basis of University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanskaya, T. M.; Chernyaeva, I. V.; Naumova, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of humanities in forming the worldview of modern person in the system of higher education. It emphasizes the idea that a graduate of the higher education institute, and especially the university, should not only be an expert (a professional), but above all, a person of culture. Humanities as the basis of university…

  8. Canonical three-body angular basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Three-body problems are basic for the quantum mechanics of molecular, atomic, or nuclear systems. We demonstrate that their variational solution for rotational states can be greatly simplified. A special choice of coordinates (hyperspherical) and of the kinematics (body-fixed coordinate frame) allows one to choose basis functions in a form that makes the angular coupling trivial. (author)

  9. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  10. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people

  11. Basis Properties of Third Order Magic Squares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Basis Properties of Third Order Magic Squares. Shailesh A Shirali. Classroom Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 79-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/09/0079-0089 ...

  12. TWRS authorization basis configuration control summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, D.P.

    1997-12-26

    This document was developed to define the Authorization Basis management functional requirements for configuration control, to evaluate the management control systems currently in place, and identify any additional controls that may be required until the TWRS [Tank Waste Remediation System] Configuration Management system is fully in place.

  13. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General Information § 10.1 Basis. The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in the Warning, Alert, and... of June 26, 2006, Public Alert and Warning System, 71 FR 36975, June 26, 2006. ...

  14. An evolutionary basis for pollination ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In the introduction and chapter 2 the incentives and way of reasoning are given for the description of an evolutionary basis of pollination ecology. Starting from the until recently rather anecdotical character of the study of pollination ecology as a whole, and in the absence of large-scale

  15. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  16. Project basis for environmental radiologic monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Nadia Soido Falcao

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses the project basis for the environmental radiologic monitoring program which constitutes of a network for measurements of radiation fields, radionuclides activity concentration in environmental samples and other local environmental characteristic factors relevant for the evaluation of the exposure in public individuals and the performance of radionuclides on the environment

  17. TWRS authorization basis configuration control summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    This document was developed to define the Authorization Basis management functional requirements for configuration control, to evaluate the management control systems currently in place, and identify any additional controls that may be required until the TWRS [Tank Waste Remediation System] Configuration Management system is fully in place

  18. Sensemaking in Expatriation—A Theoretical Basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glanz, Lyn; Williams, Roger; Hoeksema, Ludwig

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary thinking and research into expatriation has fallen into two clusters: a macrostrategic level and a micropractice level. Some theoretical tension exists between the clusters, and calls for the reframing of understanding gained from the theoretical basis of past acculturation studies to

  19. Conductance calculations with a wavelet basis set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    . The linear-response conductance is calculated from the Green's function which is represented in terms of a system-independent basis set containing wavelets with compact support. This allows us to rigorously separate the central region from the contacts and to test for convergence in a systematic way...

  20. Fundamentals of futures, options, basis and derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristic features of futures and options contracts, basis differentials and derivatives were defined and explained. A futures contract refers to an exchange-traded supply contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer is obligated to take delivery and the seller is obligated to provide delivery of a fixed amount of a commodity at a predetermined price at a specified location. In contrast, an option contract gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying commodity at a certain price on or before an agreed date. Basis differential refers to the discount between two distinct delivery points to reflect the relative value of a commodity, such as natural gas, at those points. Advantages and disadvantages of futures and options contacts, the factors affecting options pricing, and basis differentials, and the methods of calculating basis differentials were described. The nature and intricacies of derivatives, their benefits, in particular their use as a tool for the effective management of the volatilities associated with the oil and gas industry were explained. Their shortcomings such as the high liquidity risk, were also described. Examples of derivative transactions were provided to illustrate the interrelationships of futures/options/derivatives, and their role in financial risk management

  1. A biosystematic basis for pelagic biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    Biodiversity can be considered to be a human appreciation of the biological entity diversity. Diversity can be expressed numerically on the basis of taxa found, but it can also be expressed as the contribution of a specimen to the diversity, for which a formula is proposed. Diversity is the sum of

  2. System Design and the Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities

  3. System Design and the Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  4. International standard for design basis threat (DBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenship, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A design basis threat (DBT) has been used by the United States since the 1970's as a basis for the design of a facility physical protection system, a basis for the evaluation of the facility physical protection system, and as a standard against which to compare the continuously changing threat. In the last two years substantial effort has been made to develop an international standard for the development of a design basis threat. This approach is the result of a year's worth of discussions between the United States, Germany, United Kingdom, France, and most recently the Russian Federation. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supported these discussions and the resulting process, which culminated in a three day workshop on the development of a state DBT. The IAEA was directly involved in this process due to the latest revision of INFCIRC 225, which recommends the use of a DBT in the state physical protection regime. This international standard for the development of a DBT is a significant milestone in the international community. This was necessary because Sandia National Laboratory had developed material for a 'DBT Workshop', and a standard, international approach had to be established before the workshop could be finalized and the instructional material provided to the IAEA for general use. This paper presents a summary of the new international approach to the creation and use of a design basis threat. The paper describes how a DBT is created within a state. This paper also explains the advantages and disadvantages of using this internationalized approach to the DBT. Each state may, of course, choose to modify their use of the DBT to better fit their culture, technical experience of the facilities and authorities, and strengths and weaknesses of their regulatory systems. The internationalized version of the creation and use of the DBT is a major milestone in the international effort of the United States and the IAEA, and this paper is a

  5. 75 FR 3666 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-101896-09] RIN 1545-BI66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This...

  6. 75 FR 6166 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts, 1, 31, and 301 [REG-101896-09] RIN 1545-Bl66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In proposed rule document E9-29855 beginning on page 67010 in the issue of Thursday, December 17, 2009, make...

  7. 75 FR 75896 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR 1 [TD 9504] RIN 1545-BI66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In rule document 2010-25504 beginning on page 64072 in the issue of Monday, October 18, 2010, make the following corrections: Sec. 1...

  8. Basis of valve operator selection for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. S.; Lee, D. J.; See, J. K.; Park, C. K.; Choi, B. S.

    2000-05-01

    SMART, an integral reactor with enhanced safety and operability, is under development for use of the nuclear energy. The valve operator of SMART system were selected through the data survey and technical review of potential valve fabrication vendors, and it will provide the establishment and optimization of the basic system design of SMART. In order to establish and optimize the basic system design of SMART, the basis of selection for the valve operator type were provided based on the basic design requirements. The basis of valve operator selection for SMART will be used as a basic technical data for the SMART basic and detail design and a fundamental material for the new reactor development in the future

  9. Basis of valve operator selection for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. S.; Lee, D. J.; See, J. K.; Park, C. K.; Choi, B. S

    2000-05-01

    SMART, an integral reactor with enhanced safety and operability, is under development for use of the nuclear energy. The valve operator of SMART system were selected through the data survey and technical review of potential valve fabrication vendors, and it will provide the establishment and optimization of the basic system design of SMART. In order to establish and optimize the basic system design of SMART, the basis of selection for the valve operator type were provided based on the basic design requirements. The basis of valve operator selection for SMART will be used as a basic technical data for the SMART basic and detail design and a fundamental material for the new reactor development in the future.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  11. [Basis of art phonetics in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gelin; Ouyang, Kai; Liu, Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    Art phonetics' medicine, a new branch of traditional medicine, has not been developed perfectly, especially in the aspects of objective and scientific study. In this paper, the acoustical and anatiomical basis of art phonetics in viewpoint of biomedical engineering is explored, and then our work of quantitative measurement and analysis of art phonetic is introduced. The experiment data show further that quantitative measurement and analysis plays an important role in art phonetic medicine.

  12. Learning Methods for Radial Basis Functions Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Kudová, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2005), s. 1131-1142 ISSN 0167-739X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/03/P163; GA ČR GA201/02/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : radial basis function networks * hybrid supervised learning * genetic algorithms * benchmarking Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.555, year: 2005

  13. Proprioception as a basis for individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    Liutsko, Liudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter the author summarises the descriptions of proprioceptive sense from different perspectives. The importance of proprioceptive sense has been shown in developmental psychology, in both the earlier and later stages of individuum formation. The author emphasises in this chapter the role of proprioception as a basis of personality and the individual differences construct. The importance of assessing behaviour at multiple levels has been pointed out by experiments of classic and mod...

  14. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Yurteri; A. Evren Tufan; Gizem Melissa Akgun; Ayten Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attent...

  15. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  16. A risk-informed framework for establishing a beyond design basis safety basis for external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, P. [Hughes Associates, Inc, Baltimore, MD (United States); Anoba, R. [Hughes Associates, Inc, Raleigh, NC (United States); Najafi, B. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Los Gatos, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi taught us that meeting a deterministic design basis requirement for external hazards does not assure that the risk is low. As observed at the plant, the two primary reasons for this are failure cliffs above the design basis event and that combined hazard effects are not considered in design. Because the possible combinations of design basis exceedences and external hazard combinations are very large and complex, an approach focusing only on the most important ones is needed. For this reason, a risk informed approach is the most effective approach, which is discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. BASIS: an internet resource for network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie Colin S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing realisation that complex biological processes cannot be understood through the application of ever more reductionist experimental programs alone. Recognising this, we have a constructed a flexible web-service based modelling system called BASIS (Biology of Ageing e-Science Integration and Simulation, which facilitates model construction and development. In particular it allows users to store, share and simulate their models. The system is accessed through web-services using any language (e.g. Python or Java or under any operating system (e.g. Linux or Windows.

  18. Geomechanical basis for reuse of development headings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, I.

    1978-11-01

    Presents a new classification of roof rocks. On the basis of the new classification recommendations are made concerning support systems in coal mines. Three types of roof rock are analyzed in detail: clump, orenaceous shale and sandstone. Support systems which should be used in various geological and mining conditions when the roof consists of either clump, sandstone or orenaceous shale are suggested. The new classification of roof rocks is based on research work and rests carried out in the coal mines of the Donets Coal Basin. The author disputes some opinions of Andraszew and Bazin on the protection and maintenance of development headings without support pillars.

  19. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs

  20. Scientific basis of investing agrarian sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak I. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific basis of investing agrarian economy of Ukraine. The emphasis is on the nature of the investment, the investment climate and the attractiveness of the agricultural sector. It is specified on the relevance of developing effective investment strategies for agricultural sector. It is proved that the creation of favorable conditions for investors improves the work of the financial system in the country. The factors that form and affect the investment climate are studied. Measures, aimed at disclosing and strengthening of investment potential of country are proposed.

  1. The basis of the particle beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The particle beam therapy has the excellent physical and biological characteristics that are very different from the X-ray used mainly in conventional radiotherapy. Therefore, the particle therapy can treat loco-regional lesions more strongly with less toxicity than conventional radiotherapy. In recent years in Japan, we can use proton and carbon ion as a particle beam therapy. In this article, we describe the overview of the basis, the advantage and weak points about the particle beam therapy, and the differences between proton and carbon ion therapy. (author)

  2. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  3. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  4. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  5. The Molecular Basis of β-Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Swee Lay

    2013-01-01

    The β-thalassemias are characterized by a quantitative deficiency of β-globin chains underlaid by a striking heterogeneity of molecular defects. Although most of the molecular lesions involve the structural β gene directly, some down-regulate the gene through distal cis effects, and rare trans-acting mutations have also been identified. Most β-thalassemias are inherited in a Mendelian recessive fashion but there is a subgroup of β-thalassemia alleles that behave as dominant negatives. Unraveling the molecular basis of β-thalassemia has provided a paradigm for understanding of much of human genetics. PMID:23637309

  6. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  7. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...

  8. Basis for calculations in the topological expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, M.A.

    1982-12-01

    Investigations aimed at putting the topological theory of particles on a more quantitative basis are described. First, the incorporation of spin into the topological structure is discussed and shown to successfully reproduce the observed lowest mass hadron spectrum. The absence of parity-doubled states represents a significant improvement over previous efforts in similar directions. This theory is applied to the lowest order calculation of elementary hadron coupling constant ratios. SU(6)/sub W/ symmetry is maintained and extended via the notions of topological supersymmetry and universality. Finally, efforts to discover a perturbative basis for the topological expansion are described. This has led to the formulation of off-shell Feynman-like rules which provide a calculational scheme for the strong interaction components of the topological expansion once the zero-entropy connected parts are known. These rules are shown to imply a topological asymptotic freedom. Even though the nonlinear zero-entropy problem cannot itself be treated perturbatively, plausible general assumptions about zero-entropy amplitudes allow immediate qualitative inferences concerning physical hadrons. In particular, scenarios for mass splittings beyond the supersymmetric level are described

  9. The genetic basis of white tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Dong, Gui-Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Li; Zhang, De-Lu; Yang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Tian-You; Zou, Zheng-Ting; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Yan; Bhak, Jong; Cho, Yun Sung; Dai, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Tai-Jiao; Xie, Can; Li, Ruiqiang; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2013-06-03

    The white tiger, an elusive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) variant with white fur and dark stripes, has fascinated humans for centuries ever since its discovery in the jungles of India. Many white tigers in captivity are inbred in order to maintain this autosomal recessive trait and consequently suffer some health problems, leading to the controversial speculation that the white tiger mutation is perhaps a genetic defect. However, the genetic basis of this phenotype remains unknown. Here, we conducted genome-wide association mapping with restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in a pedigree of 16 captive tigers segregating at the putative white locus, followed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the three parents. Validation in 130 unrelated tigers identified the causative mutation to be an amino acid change (A477V) in the transporter protein SLC45A2. Three-dimensional homology modeling suggests that the substitution may partially block the transporter channel cavity and thus affect melanogenesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of combining RAD-seq and WGS to rapidly map exotic variants in nonmodel organisms. Our results identify the basis of the longstanding white tiger mystery as the same gene underlying color variation in human, horse, and chicken and highlight its significance as part of the species' natural polymorphism that is viable in the wild. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  11. Fast radial basis functions for engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biancolini, Marco Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the first “How To” guide to the use of radial basis functions (RBF). It provides a clear vision of their potential, an overview of ready-for-use computational tools and precise guidelines to implement new engineering applications of RBF. Radial basis functions (RBF) are a mathematical tool mature enough for useful engineering applications. Their mathematical foundation is well established and the tool has proven to be effective in many fields, as the mathematical framework can be adapted in several ways. A candidate application can be faced considering the features of RBF:  multidimensional space (including 2D and 3D), numerous radial functions available, global and compact support, interpolation/regression. This great flexibility makes RBF attractive – and their great potential has only been partially discovered. This is because of the difficulty in taking a first step toward RBF as they are not commonly part of engineers’ cultural background, but also due to the numerical complex...

  12. Molecular basis for photoreceptor outer segment architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Andrew F X; Moritz, Orson L; Williams, David S

    2016-11-01

    To serve vision, vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors must detect photons, convert the light stimuli into cellular signals, and then convey the encoded information to downstream neurons. Rods and cones are sensory neurons that each rely on specialized ciliary organelles to detect light. These organelles, called outer segments, possess elaborate architectures that include many hundreds of light-sensitive membranous disks arrayed one atop another in precise register. These stacked disks capture light and initiate the chain of molecular and cellular events that underlie normal vision. Outer segment organization is challenged by an inherently dynamic nature; these organelles are subject to a renewal process that replaces a significant fraction of their disks (up to ∼10%) on a daily basis. In addition, a broad range of environmental and genetic insults can disrupt outer segment morphology to impair photoreceptor function and viability. In this chapter, we survey the major progress that has been made for understanding the molecular basis of outer segment architecture. We also discuss key aspects of organelle lipid and protein composition, and highlight distributions, interactions, and potential structural functions of key OS-resident molecules, including: kinesin-2, actin, RP1, prominin-1, protocadherin 21, peripherin-2/rds, rom-1, glutamic acid-rich proteins, and rhodopsin. Finally, we identify key knowledge gaps and challenges that remain for understanding how normal outer segment architecture is established and maintained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Localifecation of variable-basis topological systems | Solovyov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper provides another approach to the notion of variable-basis topological system generalizing the fixed-basis concept of S. Vickers, considers functorial relationships between the categories of modified variable-basis topological systems and variable-basis fuzzy topological spaces in the sense of S.E. Rodabaugh ...

  14. Physics basis of ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, M.; Campbell, D.J.; Wakatani, M.; Ninomiya, H.; Ivanov, N.V.; Mukhovatov, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews Physics R and D results obtained since the publication of the ITER Physics Basis document. The heating power required for the LH transition has been re-assessed, including recent results from C-Mod and JT-60U and it has been found that the predicted power is a factor of two lower than the previous projection. For predicting ITER-FEAT performance, a conservative scaling IPB98(y,2) has been adopted for the energy confinement, producing confinement times ∼20% lower than those derived from the IPB98(y,1) law. While energy confinement degradation at high density remains a serious issue, recent experiments suggest that good confinement is achievable in ITER at n/n G ∼0.85 with high triangularity. The estimated runaway electron energy has been reduced to ∼20MJ, since recent experiments show that runaway electrons disappear for q 95 leq2. (author)

  15. Coherent and squeezed states on physical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    A definition of coherent states is proposed as the minimum uncertainty states with equal variance in two hermitian non-commuting generators of the Lie algebra of the Hamiltonian. That approach classifies the coherent states into distinct classes. The coherent states of a harmonic oscillator, according to the proposed approach, are shown to fall in two classes. One is the familiar class of Glauber states whereas the other is a new class. The coherent states of spin constitute only one class. The squeezed states are similarly defined on the physical basis as the states that give better precision than the coherent states in a process of measurement of a force coupled to the given system. The condition of squeezing based on that criterion is derived for a system of spins. (author)

  16. Mentoring as the basis for social business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artcer Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the concept of mentoring as a basis for social business is considered. Besides, the ways of increase of efficiency of labor use through the institute of mentoring of young workers are considered by elderly people. Features of employment, work and dismissal of aging employees are also considered. Possibilities of application of mentoring, attraction of experience of pensioners taking into account the high level of their qualification are reflected. Tasks which the institute of mentoring will help to solve are formulated. The article examines the possibility of using mentoring and engaging retired employees with their experience, a high level of their education and professional qualification in the training of young inexperienced workers. Mentoring is presented as an element of social entrepreneurship.

  17. The scientific basis for patient blood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M F; Goodnough, L T

    2015-08-01

    Patient blood management is an increasingly used term to describe an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to optimising the care of patients who might need transfusion. It encompasses measures to avoid transfusion such as anaemia management without transfusion, cell salvage and the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce bleeding as well as restrictive transfusion. It ensures that patients receive the optimal treatment, and that avoidable, inappropriate use of blood and blood components is reduced. This paper provides an overview of the scientific basis for patient blood management with a focus on the increasing evidence for restrictive rather than liberal transfusion practice and the use of electronic blood ordering and decision support to facilitate its implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Acceptable risk as a basis for design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrijling, J.K.; Hengel, W. van; Houben, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, human civilisations have striven to protect themselves against natural and man-made hazards. The degree of protection is a matter of political choice. Today this choice should be expressed in terms of risk and acceptable probability of failure to form the basis of the probabilistic design of the protection. It is additionally argued that the choice for a certain technology and the connected risk is made in a cost-benefit framework. The benefits and the costs including risk are weighed in the decision process. A set of rules for the evaluation of risk is proposed and tested in cases. The set of rules leads to technical advice in a question that has to be decided politically

  19. The Metabolic Basis of Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston; Ricketts, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Kidney cancer is not a single disease; it is made up of a number of different types of cancer that occur in the kidney. Each of these different types of kidney cancer can have a different histology, have a different clinical course, can respond differently to therapy and is caused by a different gene. Kidney cancer is essentially a metabolic disease; each of the known genes for kidney cancer, VHL, MET, FLCN, TSC1, TSC2, TFE3, TFEB, MITF, fumarate hydratase (FH), succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), succinate dehydrogenase D (SDHD), and PTEN genes is involved in the cells ability to sense oxygen, iron, nutrients or energy. Understanding the metabolic basis of kidney cancer will hopefully provide the foundation for the development of effective forms of therapy for this disease. PMID:22705279

  20. Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  1. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  2. Biochemical Basis of Sestrin Physiological Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Allison; Cho, Chun-Seok; Namkoong, Sim; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Lee, Jun Hee (Michigan)

    2016-05-10

    Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chronic activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) are well-characterized promoters of aging and age-associated degenerative pathologies. Sestrins, a family of highly conserved stress-inducible proteins, are important negative regulators of both ROS and mTORC1 signaling pathways; however, the mechanistic basis of how Sestrins suppress these pathways remains elusive. In the past couple of years, breakthrough discoveries about Sestrin signaling and its molecular nature have markedly increased our biochemical understanding of Sestrin function. These discoveries have also uncovered new potential therapeutic strategies that may eventually enable us to attenuate aging and age-associated diseases.

  3. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...

  4. Sensitive cooperation: a basis for assisted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2009-01-01

    the temporality of the helper as a necessary condition. A particular meal draws on the experiences from all previous meals and is a significant forerunner of future meals. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses and other health care professionals working within settings where people with hcSCI are admitted right...... needing assisted feeding, but has the temporality of the helper as a necessary condition. A particular meal draws on the experiences from all previous meals and is a significant forerunner of future meals. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitive cooperation implies genuine acquaintance and sincere concern for the person...... after the injury have a responsibility to be meticulous when cooperating with the patients during assisted feeding. They create the basis for later cooperation with the personal assistants. Professionals working in institutions must assume that people with hcSCI are vulnerable and that assisted feeding...

  5. The molecular basis for lipase stereoselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Xiao; Xu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Wenbo; Li, Shengying

    2018-04-01

    Lipases are among the most applied biocatalysts in organic synthesis to catalyze the kinetic resolution of a wide range of racemic substrates to yield optically pure compounds. Due to the rapidly increased demands for optically pure compounds, deep understanding of the molecular basis for lipase stereoselectivity and how to obtain lipases with excellent asymmetric selectivity have become one of primary research goals in this field. This review is focused on the molecular factors that have impacts on the stereoselectivity of lipases including the steric complementarity between the lipase topological structure and its substrate, the regional structural flexibility, the hydrogen bonds between the residues around the catalytic site and the tetrahedral intermediates, and the electrostatic interactions between surface residues. Moreover, the synergistic effects of these structural factors on the catalytic properties including stereoselectivity, activity, and stability are also discussed.

  6. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  7. Nuclear energy - basis for hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    The development of human civilization in general as well as that of every country in particular is in direct relation to the assurance of a cost effective energy balance encompassing all industrial spheres and everyday activities. Unfortunately, the uncontrolled utilization of Earth's energy resources is already causing irreversible damage to various components of the eco-system of the Earth. Nuclear energy used for electricity and hydrogen production has the biggest technological potential for solving of the main energy outstanding issues of the new century: increasing of energy dependence; global warming. Because of good market position the political basis is assured for fast development of new generation nuclear reactors and fuel cycles which can satisfy vigorously increasing needs of affordable and clean energy. Political conditions are created for adequate participation of nuclear energy in the future global energy mix. They must give chance to the nuclear industry to take adequate part in the new energy generation capacity.(author)

  8. Corporate Finance: its organization and epistemological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Herling

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to show how they are organized studies in financial management and what is the paradigm that support the theories presented until today, contextualizing how financial management is organized within the science of Directors in historical and evolutionary terms . Based on the decisions of the financial manager of investment , financing and operations , the study seeks to show that the philosophical basis that supports the theories developed . Yet for better understanding separates financial management in personal finance , financial markets and corporate finance , the latter being the main focus of the study . In the literature we can divide and stratify studies in corporate finance for a better understanding . By analyzing under an evolutionary approach notes a growing chains in other studies in finance , such as public finance, behavioral finance and here called green finance.

  9. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  11. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  12. The neural basis of human tool use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy A Orban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we propose that the neural basis for the spontaneous, diversified human tool use is an area devoted to the execution and observation of tool actions, located in the left anterior supramarginal gyrus (aSMG. The aSMG activation elicited by observing tool use is typical of human subjects, as macaques show no similar activation, even after an extensive training to use tools. The execution of tool actions, as well as their observation, requires the convergence upon aSMG of inputs from different parts of the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Non semantic features of the target object may be provided by the posterior parietal cortex (PPC for tool-object interaction, paralleling the well-known PPC input to AIP for hand-object interaction. Semantic information regarding tool identity, and knowledge of the typical manner of handling the tool, could be provided by inferior and middle regions of the temporal lobe. Somatosensory feedback and technical reasoning, as well as motor and intentional constraints also play roles during the planning of tool actions and consequently their signals likewise converge upon aSMG.We further propose that aSMG may have arisen though duplication of monkey AIP and invasion of the duplicate area by afferents from PPC providing distinct signals depending on the kinematics of the manipulative action. This duplication may have occurred when Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus emerged, generating the Oldowan or Acheulean Industrial complexes respectively. Hence tool use may have emerged during hominid evolution between bipedalism and language.We conclude that humans have two parietal systems involved in tool behavior: a biological circuit for grasping objects, including tools, and an artifactual system devoted specifically to tool use. Only the latter allows humans to understand the causal relationship between tool use and obtaining the goal, and is likely to be the basis of all technological developments.

  13. PREFACE: Progress in the ITER Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, K.

    2007-06-01

    I would firstly like to congratulate all who have contributed to the preparation of the `Progress in the ITER Physics Basis' (PIPB) on its publication and express my deep appreciation of the hard work and commitment of the many scientists involved. With the signing of the ITER Joint Implementing Agreement in November 2006, the ITER Members have now established the framework for construction of the project, and the ITER Organization has begun work at Cadarache. The review of recent progress in the physics basis for burning plasma experiments encompassed by the PIPB will be a valuable resource for the project and, in particular, for the current Design Review. The ITER design has been derived from a physics basis developed through experimental, modelling and theoretical work on the properties of tokamak plasmas and, in particular, on studies of burning plasma physics. The `ITER Physics Basis' (IPB), published in 1999, has been the reference for the projection methodologies for the design of ITER, but the IPB also highlighted several key issues which needed to be resolved to provide a robust basis for ITER operation. In the intervening period scientists of the ITER Participant Teams have addressed these issues intensively. The International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) has provided an excellent forum for scientists involved in these studies, focusing their work on the high priority physics issues for ITER. Significant progress has been made in many of the issues identified in the IPB and this progress is discussed in depth in the PIPB. In this respect, the publication of the PIPB symbolizes the strong interest and enthusiasm of the plasma physics community for the success of the ITER project, which we all recognize as one of the great scientific challenges of the 21st century. I wish to emphasize my appreciation of the work of the ITPA Coordinating Committee members, who are listed below. Their support and encouragement for the preparation of the PIPB were

  14. Pengaruh Sifat-Sifat Fisik Resin Akrilik Terhadap Basis Protesa

    OpenAIRE

    Amriani Syahfitri

    2008-01-01

    Saat ini resin akrilik banyak digunakan secara umum untuk konstruksi gigi tiruan. Sebagai bahan basis prothesa, penggunaan resin akrilik terutama resin heat cured adalah yang paling sering digunakan selain bernilai estetis, juga lebih ekonomis. Pada prothesa yang ideal memerlukan suatu basis yang kuat, Syarat- syarat basis protesa tidak semuanya dapat dipenuhi oleh basis resin akrilik. Sifat-sifat fisik resin akrilik mempunyai pengaruh terhadap basis protesa. Untuk menghindari k...

  15. Safeguards agreements - their legal and conceptual basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.; Rainer, R.

    1977-01-01

    The application of Agency safeguards requires treaty arrangements (''Safeguards Agreements'') between the State or States concerned and the Agency. The authority for the Agency to conclude such agreements and to implement them is provided for in the Agency's Statute (Articles II, III A.5 and XII). On the basis of the statutory provisions safeguards principles and procedures have been elaborated. These have been laid down in: (a) The Agency's Safeguards System 1965, extended in 1966 and 1968 (INFCIRC/66/Rev.2); and (b) The basis for negotiating safeguards agreements with NNWS pursuant to NPT (INFCIRC/153). The verification of the undertaking by the State concerned not to use items subject to safeguards for purposes contrary to the terms of the agreement is verified through the application of various safeguards measures (design review, records, reports and inspection). Containment and surveillance measures are expected to play an increasingly important role. NPT Safeguards Agreements foresee as one of their specific features the establishment of national systems of accounting and control of nuclear material. The majority of the agreements concluded under document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 - i.e. the non-NPT safeguards agreements - implement obligations undertaken under co-operation agreements between States for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These agreements naturally reflect approaches adopted by the parties, in particular as to the circumstances under which safeguards should be applied. Thus, the concepts used in the non-NPT safeguards agreements and the safeguards system of document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 which is incorporated in these agreements by reference are in continuous evolution. Document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 continues to be supplemented in practical application and through explicit decision by the Board. The non-NPT safeguards agreements contain, besides technical safeguards provisions from document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2, and further provision for notification, inventories

  16. Conceptual basis of the master directed diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.; Billington, D.

    1998-01-01

    This document forms part of a suite of documents describing the Nirex model development programme. The programme is designed to provide a clear audit trail from the identification of significant features, events and processes (FEPs) to the models and modelling processes employed within a detailed safety assessment. A five stage approach has been adopted, which provides a systematic framework for addressing uncertainty and for the documentation of all modelling decisions and assumptions. The five stages are as follows: Stage 1: EP analysis - compilation and structuring of a FEP database; Stage 2: Scenario and conceptual model development; Stage 3: mathematical model development; Stage 4: Software development; Stage 5: confidence building. This report describes the work involved in Stage 1 of the Nirex model development programme, FEP analysis. The aim of FEP analysis is to produce a set of FEPs and FEP interactions that form the basis for the scenario and conceptual model development in Stage 2. There are two requirements for the set of FEPs and FEP interactions; first, all aspects material to the performance of the disposal system should be covered, i.e. the set should be comprehensive, and secondly a clear audit trail of decisions, consensus and analysis should be maintained

  17. Electromagnetic Basis of Metabolism and Heredity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Stolc, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms control their cellular biological clocks to maintain functional oscillation of the redox cycle, also called the "metabolic cycle" or "respiratory cycle". Organization of cellular processes requires parallel processing on a synchronized time-base. These clocks coordinate the timing of all biochemical processes in the cell, including energy production, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. When this universal time keeping function is perturbed by exogenous induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the rate of metabolism changes. This causes oxidative stress, aging and mutations. Therefore, good temporal coordination of the redox cycle not only actively prevents chemical conflict between the reductive and oxidative partial reactions; it also maintains genome integrity and lifespan. Moreover, this universal biochemical rhythm can be disrupted by ROS induction in vivo. This in turn can be achieved by blocking the electron transport chain either endogenously or exogenously by various metabolites, e.g. hydrogen sulfide (H2S), highly diffusible drugs, and carbon monoxide (CO). Alternatively, the electron transport in vivo can be attenuated via a coherent or interfering transfer of energy from exogenous ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) fields, suggesting that-on Earth-such ambient fields are an omnipresent (and probably crucially important) factor for the time-setting basis of universal biochemical reactions in living cells. Our work demonstrated previously un-described evidence for quantum effects in biology by electromagnetic coupling below thermal noise at the universal electron transport chain (ETC) in vivo.

  18. The genetic basis of music ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge.

  19. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  20. Social enterprise: theoretical basis and perespectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Narlev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s the issues of social enterprises have gained particular popularity, practical and applied, as well as scientific significance. For a short period of time - almost half a century - social enterprises have become an integral part of education and academic research; they have turned into factors affecting noticeably the social and economic policy. The formation and development of social enterprises are the consequence of the profound social, demographic, cultural, global and public changes - the result of capitalism and its cornerstone, the enterprise. This contemporary and innovative theory is a natural extension of the strategies for change in societies and the world - both globally, and in response to the non-profit, public and business sectors - in an attempt to solve the topical and important issues of the time. In view of the circumstances given above, the present study aims to study and analyse - in the theoretical plan basis aspects of social enterprises, and on that to draw and systematize their perspectives for development.

  1. Metabolic syndrome: clinical concept and molecular basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia and is a common basis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, a practical definition is needed. A worldwide definition that considers increased waist circumference as an essential component has been settled. Visceral fat locates upstream of the liver. Free fatty acids and glycerol derived from visceral fat reach the liver and stimulate lipoprotein synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively. The adipose tissue produces a variety of bioactive substances conceptualized as 'adipocytokines'. Overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tumor necrosis factor- seems to relate to the thrombotic and inflammatory tendency. On the other hand, adiponectin, which has antiatherogenic and antidiabetic activities, is reduced in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In Japan, the waist circumference criterion based on visceral fat accumulation has been adopted. The concept of this syndrome has been widely publicized, and health promotion programs based on the concept have commenced in various areas of the country. Such 'Adipo-Do-It' movement is an incentive to encourage physical exercise to reduce visceral fat and is a big challenge to prevent life-style-related diseases and CVD.

  2. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  3. Global embedding via coordinate basis vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, G. H.

    2011-03-01

    Following the work reported in an earlier paper (G.H. Goedecke, J. Math. Phys. 15, 789 (1974)), the coordinate basis vector approach to tensor calculus is exploited fully to obtain additional and stronger results, including: i) any curved Riemannian space must be a subspace of a larger flat host space; ii) a free test particle moves uniformly on a geodesic in the host space, but experiences gravity and other pseudoforces as viewed in four-dimensional (4D) spacetime; iii) the 4D Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor is identically equal to a geometrical tensor associated with the complementary subspace of the host space; iv) Einstein's field equations are automatically geometrized, with the stress-energy tensor expressed in terms of the contracted complementary tensor; v) there cannot be a conventional cosmological term in these field equations, except as an approximation; vi) other geometrical field equations involving the complementary subspace metric fields exist and should be physical equations; vii) the long-range two-body time-independent central forces due to all metric fields that have localized sources are inverse square or generalized Yukawa forces. Some of the relationships between this theory and Kaluza-Klein (KK) and string theories are noted; for example, some of the results derived herein must be postulated in KK theories.

  4. Proprioception as a basis for individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutsko, Ludmila N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter the author summarises the descriptions of proprioceptive sense from different perspectives. The importance of proprioceptive sense has been shown in developmental psychology, in both the earlier and later stages of individuum formation. The author emphasises in this chapter the role of proprioception as a basis of personality and the individual differences construct. The importance of assessing behaviour at multiple levels has been pointed out by experiments of classic and modern researchers that should include not only verbal tests that would be more important for conscious mental description, but also techniques that could assess other behavioural characteristics, including automatic unconscious and pre-reflexive behaviour. The author also describes the effects of altered proprioception in humans, such as the Pinocchio effect, and other spatial perception distortions. In this chapter the importance of proprioception in acquiring new skills (embodied knowledge as automatic and conditioned reflexive behaviour has also been highlighted. Finally, the complete picture of the individuum has been presented as a multi-layered level of a body-mind union approach.

  5. Accelerator production of tritium authorization basis strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Edwards, J.; Rose, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project has proposed a strategy to develop the APT authorization basis and safety case based on DOE orders and fundamental requirements for safe operation. The strategy is viable regardless of whether the APT is regulated by DOE or by an external regulatory body. Currently the operation of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is authorized by DOE and regulated by DOE orders and regulations while meeting the environmental protection requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states. In the spring of 1994, Congress proposed legislation and held hearings related to requiring all DOE operations to be subject to external regulation. On January 25, 1995, DOE, with the support of the White House Council on Environmental Quality, created the Advisory Committee on External Regulation of Department of Energy Nuclear Safety. This committee divided its recommendations into three areas: (1) facility safety, (2) worker safety, and (3) environmental protection. In the area of facility safety the committee recommended external regulation of DOE nuclear facilities by either the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or a restructured Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). In the area of worker safety, the committee recommended that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulate DOE nuclear facilities. In the environmental protection area, the committee did not recommend a change in the regulation by the EPA and the states of DOE nuclear facilities. If these recommendations are accepted, all DOE nuclear facilities will be impacted to some extent

  6. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  7. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of company competitiveness is proposed, on its basis, the concept of “competitive enterprise” is defined. The most well-known approaches for assessing the company competitiveness are analyzed. The author’s method of the company competitiveness assessment based on the dynamics of the integral index of competitiveness is provided. For those cases, when it is impossible to determine the proportion of products on the market, it is proposed to evaluate the company competitiveness on the profitability of its production. The article shows the experience in calculating of the company competitiveness on the proposed author’s methods.

  8. Human Papillomaviruses: Genetic Basis of Carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Robert D.; Chen, Zigui; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection by specific oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is established as the necessary cause of cervix cancer. DNA sequence differences between HPV genomes determine whether an HPV has the potential to cause cancer. Of the more than 100 HPV genotypes characterized at the genetic level, at least 15 are associated, to varying degrees, with cervical cancer. Classification based on nucleotide similarity places nearly all HPVs that infect the cervicovaginal area within the α-PV genus. Within this genus, phylogenetic trees inferred from the entire viral genome cluster all cancer-causing types together, suggesting the existence of a common ancestor for the oncogenic HPVs. However, in separate trees built from the early open reading frames (ORFs; i.e. E1, E2, E6, E7) or the late ORFs (i.e. L1, L2), the carcinogenic potential sorts with the early region of the genome, but not the late region. Thus, genetic differences within the early region specify the pathogenic potential of α-HPV infections. Since the HPV genomes are monophyletic and sites are highly correlated across the genome, diagnosis of oncogenic types and non-oncogenic types can be accomplished using any region across the genome. Here we review our current understanding of the evolutionary history of the oncogenic HPVs, in particular, we focus on the importance of viral genome heterogeneity and discuss the genetic basis for the oncogenic phenotype in some but not all α-PVs. PMID:19684441

  9. Quantitative microbiology: a basis for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeekin, T A; Brown, J; Krist, K; Miles, D; Neumeyer, K; Nichols, D S; Olley, J; Presser, K; Ratkowsky, D A; Ross, T; Salter, M; Soontranon, S

    1997-01-01

    Because microorganisms are easily dispersed, display physiologic diversity, and tolerate extreme conditions, they are ubiquitous and may contaminate and grow in many food products. The behavior of microbial populations in foods (growth, survival, or death) is determined by the properties of the food (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and atmosphere). The effect of these properties can be predicted by mathematical models derived from quantitative studies on microbial populations. Temperature abuse is a major factor contributing to foodborne disease; monitoring temperature history during food processing, distribution, and storage is a simple, effective means to reduce the incidence of food poisoning. Interpretation of temperature profiles by computer programs based on predictive models allows informed decisions on the shelf life and safety of foods. In- or on-package temperature indicators require further development to accurately predict microbial behavior. We suggest a basis for a "universal" temperature indicator. This article emphasizes the need to combine kinetic and probability approaches to modeling and suggests a method to define the bacterial growth/no growth interface. Advances in controlling foodborne pathogens depend on understanding the pathogens' physiologic responses to growth constraints, including constraints conferring increased survival capacity.

  10. A brain basis for musical hallucinations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Sedley, William; Barnes, Gareth R.; Teki, Sundeep; Friston, Karl J.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to examine variation in the underlying oscillatory brain activity in different states. Source-space analysis capable of single-subject inference defined left-lateralised power increases, associated with stronger hallucinations, in the gamma band in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, and in the beta band in motor cortex and posteromedial cortex. The data indicate that these areas form a crucial network in the generation of MH, and are consistent with a model in which MH are generated by persistent reciprocal communication in a predictive coding hierarchy. PMID:24445167

  11. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection.

  12. The genetic basis of music ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  13. The genetic basis of music ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ting eTan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realisation of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioural and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge.

  14. PARFUME Theory and Model basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrell L. Knudson; Gregory K Miller; G.K. Miller; D.A. Petti; J.T. Maki; D.L. Knudson

    2009-09-01

    The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The fuel performance modeling code PARFUME simulates the mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation. This report documents the theory and material properties behind vari¬ous capabilities of the code, which include: 1) various options for calculating CO production and fission product gas release, 2) an analytical solution for stresses in the coating layers that accounts for irradiation-induced creep and swelling of the pyrocarbon layers, 3) a thermal model that calculates a time-dependent temperature profile through a pebble bed sphere or a prismatic block core, as well as through the layers of each analyzed particle, 4) simulation of multi-dimensional particle behavior associated with cracking in the IPyC layer, partial debonding of the IPyC from the SiC, particle asphericity, and kernel migration (or amoeba effect), 5) two independent methods for determining particle failure probabilities, 6) a model for calculating release-to-birth (R/B) ratios of gaseous fission products that accounts for particle failures and uranium contamination in the fuel matrix, and 7) the evaluation of an accident condition, where a particle experiences a sudden change in temperature following a period of normal irradiation. The accident condi¬tion entails diffusion of fission products through the particle coating layers and through the fuel matrix to the coolant boundary. This document represents the initial version of the PARFUME Theory and Model Basis Report. More detailed descriptions will be provided in future revisions.

  15. Molecular basis of claudin-17 anion selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Marcel P; Piontek, Jörg; Günzel, Dorothee; Fromm, Michael; Krug, Susanne M

    2016-01-01

    Claudin-17 is a paracellular channel-forming tight junction protein. Unlike the cation channels claudin-2 and -15, claudin-17 forms a distinct anion-selective channel. Aim of this study was to determine the molecular basis of channel formation and charge selectivity of this protein. To achieve this, residues located in the extracellular loops (ECL) 1 and 2 of claudin-17 were substituted, preferably those whose charges differed in claudin-17 and in claudin-2 or -15. The respective mutants were stably expressed in MDCK C7 cells and their ability to form charge-selective channels was analyzed by measuring ion permeabilities and transepithelial electrical resistance. The functional data were combined with homology modeling of the claudin-17 protomer using the structure of claudin-15 as template. In ECL1, K65, R31, E48, and E44 were found to be stronger involved in Cldn17 channel function than the clustered R45, R56, R59, and R61. For K65, not only charge but also stereochemical properties were crucial for formation of the anion-selective channel. In ECL2, both Y149 and H154 were found to contribute to constitution of the anion channel in a distinct manner. In conclusion, we provide insight into the molecular mechanism of the formation of charge- and size-selective paracellular ion channels. In detail, we propose a hydrophilic furrow in the claudin-17 protomer spanning from a gap between the ends of TM2 and TM3 along R31, E48, and Y67 to a gap between K65 and S68 lining the anion channel.

  16. Authorization basis status report (miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1998-04-29

    This report presents the results of a systematic evaluation conducted to identify miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components with potential needed authorization basis upgrades. It provides the Authorization Basis upgrade plan for those miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components identified.

  17. 26 CFR 1.996-5 - Adjustment to basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.996-5 Adjustment to basis. (a) Addition to... that it exceeds the adjusted basis of such stock, shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167... for depreciation. The basis upon which the allowance for depreciation is to be computed with respect... property at that time, is the basis for computing depreciation. ...

  19. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by each...

  20. Technical basis for tumbleweed survey requirements and disposal criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. D. Arana

    2000-01-01

    This technical basis document describes the technique for surveying potentially contaminated tumbleweeds in areas where the Environmental Restoration Contractor has jurisdiction and the disposal criteria based on these survey results. The report also discusses the statistical basis for surveys and the historical basis for the assumptions that are used to interpret the surveys

  1. Technical Basis for Tumbleweed Survey Requirements and Disposal Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    This technical basis document describes the technique for surveying potentially contaminated tumbleweeds in areas where the Environmental Restoration Contractor has jurisdiction and the disposal criteria based on these survey results. The report also discusses the statistical basis for surveys and the historical basis for the assumptions that are used to interpret the surveys

  2. Understanding the Social Basis of Adolescent Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholt, L. J.

    It is apparent from current research and professional experience that body image has a strong social basis, but the form of such comparisons is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine likely forms of the social basis of adolescent body image. This study compares two approaches to the social basis of body image to ask to what extent…

  3. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics of...

  4. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coricelli, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.

    La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de

  5. Entanglement patterns in mutually unbiased basis sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States) and The James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    A few simply stated rules govern the entanglement patterns that can occur in mutually unbiased basis sets (MUBs) and constrain the combinations of such patterns that can coexist in full complements of MUBs. We consider Hilbert spaces of prime power dimensions (D=p{sup N}), as realized by systems of N prime-state particles, where full complements of D+1 MUBs are known to exist, and we assume only that MUBs are eigenbases of generalized Pauli operators, without using any particular construction. The general rules include the following: (1) In any MUB, a given particle appears either in a pure state or totally entangled and (2) in any full MUB complement, each particle is pure in (p+1) bases (not necessarily the same ones) and totally entangled in the remaining (p{sup N}-p). It follows that the maximum number of product bases is p+1 and, when this number is realized, all remaining (p{sup N}-p) bases in the complement are characterized by the total entanglement of every particle. This ''standard distribution'' is inescapable for two-particle systems (of any p), where only product and generalized Bell bases are admissible MUB types. This and the following results generalize previous results for qubits [Phys. Rev. A 65. 032320 (2002); Phys. Rev. A 72, 062310 (2005)] and qutrits [Phys. Rev. A 70, 012302 (2004)], drawing particularly upon [Phys. Rev. A 72, 062310 (2005)]. With three particles there are three MUB types, and these may be combined in (p+2) different ways to form full complements. With N=4, there are 6 MUB types for p=2, but new MUB types become possible with larger p, and these are essential to realizing full complements. With this example, we argue that new MUB types that show new entanglement patterns should enter with every step in N and, also, when N is a prime plus 1, at a critical p value, p=N-1. Such MUBs should play critical roles in filling complements.

  6. Optimized Basis Sets for the Environment in the Domain-Specific Basis Set Approach of the Incremental Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Tony; Hill, J Grant; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-04-21

    Minimal basis sets, denoted DSBSenv, based on the segmented basis sets of Ahlrichs and co-workers have been developed for use as environmental basis sets for the domain-specific basis set (DSBS) incremental scheme with the aim of decreasing the CPU requirements of the incremental scheme. The use of these minimal basis sets within explicitly correlated (F12) methods has been enabled by the optimization of matching auxiliary basis sets for use in density fitting of two-electron integrals and resolution of the identity. The accuracy of these auxiliary sets has been validated by calculations on a test set containing small- to medium-sized molecules. The errors due to density fitting are about 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than the basis set incompleteness error of the DSBSenv orbital basis sets. Additional reductions in computational cost have been tested with the reduced DSBSenv basis sets, in which the highest angular momentum functions of the DSBSenv auxiliary basis sets have been removed. The optimized and reduced basis sets are used in the framework of the domain-specific basis set of the incremental scheme to decrease the computation time without significant loss of accuracy. The computation times and accuracy of the previously used environmental basis and that optimized in this work have been validated with a test set of medium- to large-sized systems. The optimized and reduced DSBSenv basis sets decrease the CPU time by about 15.4% and 19.4% compared with the old environmental basis and retain the accuracy in the absolute energy with standard deviations of 0.99 and 1.06 kJ/mol, respectively.

  7. Design basis reconstitution for an effective design control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Configuration management is a new buzz word in the nuclear power industry. Whatever its definition, everyone agrees that the configuration of a nuclear power plant must be managed effectively. In layman's terms, configuration management means that a plant must be built, operated, and maintained in a manner consistent with its design basis. Thus, control of the design basis is the most important element in any configuration management program. Until recently, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) review of design basis focused on the plants that were about to get operating licenses. However, incidents at a few operating nuclear plants and NRC inspections (Safety System Functional Inspection and Safety System Outage Modification Inspection) have indicated weaknesses in older operating plant design basis documentation and design change control programs. Thus, reconstitution of plant design basis has become an important issue. This paper presents the major element of a design basis reconstitution program, which can be an immense undertaking for some of the older operating plants

  8. Birman—Wenzl—Murakami Algebra and Topological Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Xue, Kang; Wang, Gang-Cheng; Sun, Chun-Fang; Du, Gui-Jiao

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we use entangled states to construct 9 × 9-matrix representations of Temperley—Lieb algebra (TLA), then a family of 9 × 9-matrix representations of Birman—Wenzl—Murakami algebra (BWMA) have been presented. Based on which, three topological basis states have been found. And we apply topological basis states to recast nine-dimensional BWMA into its three-dimensional counterpart. Finally, we find the topological basis states are spin singlet states in special case.

  9. Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility conceptual basis for design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of the Conceptual Basis for Design is to provide a control document that establishes the basis for executing the conceptual design of the Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. This conceptual design shall provide the basis for preparation of a proposal to Congress by the Department of Energy (DOE) for construction of one or more MRS Facilities for storage of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and transuranic (TRU) waste. 4 figs., 25 tabs

  10. Knowledge basis in safety culture for researchers and practitioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Neto, Antonio S.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Goncalves, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of the knowledge basis in safety culture which is being developed at the IPEN-CNEN/SP, one of the Brazilian nuclear institutes of research. The main objective of this basis is to organize the information about safety culture found in the literature and to make it available to researchers and practitioners. The first stage of the development of this basis is already finished being the subject of this work. (author)

  11. 26 CFR 1.1014-3 - Other basis rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inheritance or transmission taxes shall be deemed to be its fair market value and no alternate valuation date... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1014-3 Other basis rules. (a) Fair market value. For...

  12. TreeBASIS Feature Descriptor and Its Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Fowers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature descriptor called TreeBASIS that provides improvements in descriptor size, computation time, matching speed, and accuracy. This new descriptor uses a binary vocabulary tree that is computed using basis dictionary images and a test set of feature region images. To facilitate real-time implementation, a feature region image is binary quantized and the resulting quantized vector is passed into the BASIS vocabulary tree. A Hamming distance is then computed between the feature region image and the effectively descriptive basis dictionary image at a node to determine the branch taken and the path the feature region image takes is saved as a descriptor. The TreeBASIS feature descriptor is an excellent candidate for hardware implementation because of its reduced descriptor size and the fact that descriptors can be created and features matched without the use of floating point operations. The TreeBASIS descriptor is more computationally and space efficient than other descriptors such as BASIS, SIFT, and SURF. Moreover, it can be computed entirely in hardware without the support of a CPU for additional software-based computations. Experimental results and a hardware implementation show that the TreeBASIS descriptor compares well with other descriptors for frame-to-frame homography computation while requiring fewer hardware resources.

  13. Noisy signal filtration using complex wavelet basis sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, A. S.; Pavlova, O. N.; Pavlov, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    Methods of noisy signal filtration using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with real basis sets of the Daubechies family are compared to methods employing a double-density dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DDCWT) with excess (nonorthonormalized) basis sets. Recommendations concerning the choice of filter parameters for minimization of the error of noisy signal filtration are formulated.

  14. Transuranic storage and assay facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    The Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) Interim Safety Basis document provides the authorization basis for the interim operation and restriction on interim operations for the TRUSAF. The TRUSAF ISB demonstrates that the TRUSAF can be operated safely, protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF Hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1987) is superseded by this document.

  15. The resonating group method in an harmonic oscillator basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Gignoux, C.; Ayant, Y.

    1987-05-01

    The scattering states for a general many body system is formulated within the resonating group method. The resulting Lippman-Schwinger equation is solved in an harmonic oscillator basis for which a number of advantages are emphasized. The analytical formula giving the free propagator in that basis is fully derived

  16. 42 CFR 403.200 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 403.200 Section 403.200 Public... PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies § 403.200 Basis and scope. (a... intent of that section is to enable Medicare beneficiaries to identify Medicare supplemental policies...

  17. 45 CFR 148.306 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 148.306 Section 148.306 Public... FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Grants to States for Operation of Qualified High Risk Pools § 148.306 Basis and scope. This subpart implements section 2745 of the Public Health Service Act (PHS...

  18. Transuranic waste storage and assay facility (TRUSAF) interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, K.D.

    1995-09-01

    The TRUSAF ISB is based upon current facility configuration and procedures. The purpose of the document is to provide the basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and the authorization basis for the TRUSAF at the Hanford Site. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1977) is superseded by this document

  19. Higher-Order Hierarchical Legendre Basis Functions in Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    degree of orthogonality. The basis functions are well-suited for solution of complex electromagnetic problems involving multiple homogeneous or inhomogeneous dielectric regions, metallic surfaces, layered media, etc. This paper presents real-life complex antenna radiation problems modeled...... with electromagnetic simulation tools based on the higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions....

  20. 26 CFR 1.737-3 - Basis adjustments; Recovery rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... respective amounts of unrealized appreciation in such properties at the time of the distribution. (4) Section... allocated between Properties A1 and A2 based on the unrealized appreciation in each asset before such basis... partner's adjusted tax basis in distributed property—(1) In general. The distributee partner's adjusted...

  1. Personal Data Processing for Behavioural Targeting: Which Legal Basis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Key Points •The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights only allows personal data processing if a data controller has a legal basis for the processing. •This paper argues that, in most circumstances, the only available legal basis for the processing of personal data for behavioural targeting is

  2. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for classification. 58.132 Section 58.132 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing...

  3. 42 CFR 438.700 - Basis for imposition of sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.700 Basis for imposition of... among enrollees on the basis of their health status or need for health care services. This includes termination of enrollment or refusal to reenroll a recipient, except as permitted under the Medicaid program...

  4. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and purpose...

  5. 7 CFR 868.203 - Basis of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 868.203 Basis of determination. The determination of seeds, objectionable seeds, heat-damaged kernels, red rice and damaged kernels, chalky kernels, other types, color, and the special...) types of rice shall be determined on the basis of the whole and large broken kernels of milled rice that...

  6. Application of radial basis neural network for state estimation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    An original application of radial basis function (RBF) neural network for power system state estimation is proposed in this ... conventional Weighted Least Squares (WLS) State Estimator on basis of time, accuracy and robustness. ... redundant measurement data normally available in form of nodal injection and line flows.

  7. Commentaries on Hilbert's Basis Theorem | Apine | Science World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The famous basis theorem of David Hilbert is an important theorem in commutative algebra. In particular the Hilbert's basis theorem is the most important source of Noetherian rings which are by far the most important class of rings in commutative algebra. In this paper we have used Hilbert's theorem to examine their unique ...

  8. KINETIC BALANCE IN CONTRACTED BASIS-SETS FOR RELATIVISTIC CALCULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VISSCHER, L; AERTS, PJC; VISSER, O; NIEUWPOORT, WC

    1991-01-01

    A demonstration of kinetic balance failure in heavily contracted basis sets is given. Other possible methods of constructing small component basis sets for 4-component relativistic calculations are discussed. The position of the additional negative energy levels in extended balance calculations in

  9. 32 CFR 1698.5 - Basis of advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis of advisory opinions. 1698.5 Section 1698.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.5 Basis of advisory opinions. Advisory opinions will be based on the request therefor...

  10. Construction and performance of fully numerical optimum atomic basis sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Björn; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    We propose a method for constructing small atomic basis sets that optimally mimic the Kohn-Sham wave functions of an underlying plane-wave calculation. The key quantity of the optimization procedure is the spillage: the relative amount of the occupied Hilbert-space norm lost in the projection onto the atomic basis. To ensure full flexibility in the radial shape, we represent the basis functions by radial momentum-space spline functions. With our approach we reach spillages in the order of 10-4 when using minimal basis sets. Band structure calculations on top of a self-consistent linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals (LCAO) run reproduce the occupied part of the band structure within a few tens meV. However, minimal basis sets are not flexible enough for obtaining material properties such as the lattice constant and the bulk modulus but require basis sets with f orbitals. Basis sets generated for Si, GaN, Al, and NaCl reach a spillage of ˜10-5 and reproduce lattice constants and bulk moduli within 0.03% and 5%, respectively.

  11. Using piecewise sinusoidal basis functions to blanket multiple wire segments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available , Mathematics and Electrical Engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway. It is assumed that the MoM procedure results in the linear algebraic equations Z⋅I=V, where Z is the impedance matrix [1], [4], I is the column... Basis Functions The general idea behind expressing the original basis functions via new MDBFs may be illustrated with Fig. 1a. The weights corresponding to the old basis functions to form a piecewise linear approximation may be easily computed...

  12. Dialect classification on the basis of aggregated pronunciation differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J; Siedle, C

    2005-01-01

    In traditional dialect geography, dialect divisions are based on individual linguistic features. However, the concept of the "dialect area" lacks a satisfactory theoretical basis when the geographical distribution of linguistic features is inconsistent or contradictory. We are confronted here with

  13. 47 CFR 64.4000 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., termination, and billing of customer telephone service accounts. ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.4000 Section 64.4000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS...

  14. Mineralen in zeugenmest op basis van monstername en berekening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, J.H.A.N.; Backus, G.B.C.; Willems, G.W.M.; Brok, den G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Het doel van dit onderzoek is het bepalen van de overeenkomst tussen de gemeten en de bemonsterde mineralenexcretie per dier op een zeugenbedrijf. Berekening vond plaats op basis van een gestandaardiseerde berekeningsmethodiek

  15. The basis function approach for modeling autocorrelation in ecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J; Broms, Kristin M; Brost, Brian M; Buderman, Frances E; Kay, Shannon L; Scharf, Henry R; Tipton, John R; Williams, Perry J; Hooten, Mevin B

    2017-03-01

    Analyzing ecological data often requires modeling the autocorrelation created by spatial and temporal processes. Many seemingly disparate statistical methods used to account for autocorrelation can be expressed as regression models that include basis functions. Basis functions also enable ecologists to modify a wide range of existing ecological models in order to account for autocorrelation, which can improve inference and predictive accuracy. Furthermore, understanding the properties of basis functions is essential for evaluating the fit of spatial or time-series models, detecting a hidden form of collinearity, and analyzing large data sets. We present important concepts and properties related to basis functions and illustrate several tools and techniques ecologists can use when modeling autocorrelation in ecological data. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Generalized Aliasing as a Basis for Program Analysis Tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Callahan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... This dissertation describes the design of a system, Ajax, that addresses this problem by using semantics-based program analysis as the basis for a number of different tools to aid Java programmers...

  17. Theoretical basis for graphite stress analysis in BERSAFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.G.

    1980-03-01

    The BERSAFE finite element computer program for structural analysis has been extended to deal with structures made from irradiated graphite. This report describes the material behaviour which has been modelled and gives the theoretical basis for the solution procedure. (author)

  18. 26 CFR 1.1245-5 - Adjustments to basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Adjustments to basis. 1.1245-5 Section 1.1245-5... adjusted basis of $10,000, for property B, which has a fair market value of $9,000, and property C, which has a fair market value of $3,500, in a like kind exchange as to which no gain would be recognized...

  19. 14 CFR 198.3 - Basis of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of insurance. 198.3 Section 198.3... INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.3 Basis of insurance. (a) Premium insurance may be issued by the FAA is the requirements of § 198.1 (a), (b)(1) and (c) are met. (b) Subject to § 198.9(c), standby insurance...

  20. The finite element method its basis and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, Olek C; Zhu, JZ

    2013-01-01

    The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals offers a complete introduction to the basis of the finite element method, covering fundamental theory and worked examples in the detail required for readers to apply the knowledge to their own engineering problems and understand more advanced applications. This edition sees a significant rearrangement of the book's content to enable clearer development of the finite element method, with major new chapters and sections added to cover: Weak forms Variational forms Multi-dimensional field prob

  1. Radial basis function neural networks applied to NASA SSME data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Atam P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the application of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN) to the prediction of sensor values for fault detection and diagnosis of the Space Shuttle's Main Engines (SSME). The location of the Radial Basis Function (RBF) node centers was determined with a K-means clustering algorithm. A neighborhood operation about these center points was used to determine the variances of the individual processing notes.

  2. Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0454 TITLE: Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joe V...AND SUBTITLE Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0454 5c. PROGRAM...cell function and thereby regenerative capability contribute to the acceleration of sarcopenia observed in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT

  3. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual

  4. Distribusi Tenaga Kerja Sektor Pertanian Pada Basis Agroekosistem Lahan Kering

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiarto, Sugiarto

    2011-01-01

    The research of labor forces in village has never been released to national development strategic. So that, the amount of labor forces absurption must be solved wiht oppening job opportunity outside agriculture sector. This reseach gave information of labor force in agriculture sector and village on dry land basis. This research showed that job participation an unemployment level, nationally. Didn't change.In horticulture dry land basis, the role of agriculture sectors were still dominated jo...

  5. Construction of global Lyapunov functions using radial basis functions

    CERN Document Server

    Giesl, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The basin of attraction of an equilibrium of an ordinary differential equation can be determined using a Lyapunov function. A new method to construct such a Lyapunov function using radial basis functions is presented in this volume intended for researchers and advanced students from both dynamical systems and radial basis functions. Besides an introduction to both areas and a detailed description of the method, it contains error estimates and many examples.

  6. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  7. ORBITAL CONNECTIONS FOR PERTURBATION-DEPENDENT BASIS-SETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jeppe; Bak, Keld L.; Ruud, K.

    1995-01-01

    The use of perturbation-dependent basis sets is analysed with emphasis on the connection between the basis sets at different values of the perturbation strength. A particular connection, the natural connection, that minimizes the change of the basis set orbitals is devised and the second quantiza......The use of perturbation-dependent basis sets is analysed with emphasis on the connection between the basis sets at different values of the perturbation strength. A particular connection, the natural connection, that minimizes the change of the basis set orbitals is devised and the second...... quantization realization of this connection is introduced. It is shown that the natural connection is important for the efficient evaluation of molecular properties and for the physical interpretation of the terms entering the calculated properties. For example, in molecular Hessian calculations the natural...... connection reduces the size of the relaxation term, leading to faster convergence of the response equations. The physical separation of the terms also means that first-order non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements can be obtained in a very simple way from a molecular Hessian calculation....

  8. Efficient computation of smoothing splines via adaptive basis sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ping

    2015-06-24

    © 2015 Biometrika Trust. Smoothing splines provide flexible nonparametric regression estimators. However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large datasets has hindered their wide application. In this article, we develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Except for the univariate case where the Reinsch algorithm is applicable, a smoothing spline for a regression problem with sample size n can be expressed as a linear combination of n basis functions and its computational complexity is generally O(n3). We achieve a more scalable computation in the multivariate case by evaluating the smoothing spline using a smaller set of basis functions, obtained by an adaptive sampling scheme that uses values of the response variable. Our asymptotic analysis shows that smoothing splines computed via adaptive basis sampling converge to the true function at the same rate as full basis smoothing splines. Using simulation studies and a large-scale deep earth core-mantle boundary imaging study, we show that the proposed method outperforms a sampling method that does not use the values of response variables.

  9. Laguerre-Gauss basis functions in observer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Arthur E.

    2003-05-01

    Observer models based on linear classifiers with basis functions (channels) are useful for evaluation of detection performance with medical images. They allow spatial domain calculations with a covariance matrix of tractable size. The term "channelized Fisher-Hotelling observer" will be used here. It is also called the "channelized Hotelling observer" model. There are an infinite number of basis function (channel ) sets that could be employed. Examples of channel sets that have been used include: difference of Gaussian (DOG) filters, difference of Mesa (DOM) filters and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) basis functions. Another option, sums of LG functions (LGS), will also be presented here. This set has the advantage of having no DC response. The effect of the number of images used to estimate model observer performance will be described, for both filtered 1/f3 noise and GE digital mammogram backgrounds. Finite sample image sets introduce both bias and variance to the estimate. The results presented here agree with previous work on linear classifiers. The LGS basis set gives a small but statistically significant reduction in bias. However, this may not be of much practical benefit. Finally, the effect of varying the number of basis functions included in the set will be addressed. It was found that four LG bases or three LGS bases are adequate.

  10. Interim safety basis compliance matrix for Trenches 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The tables provided in this document identify the specific requirements and basis for the administrative controls established in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Burial Ground (SWBG) Interim Safety Basis (ISB) for operation of the Project W-025, Mixed Waste Lined Landfill (Trenches 31 and 34). The tables document the necessary controls and implementing procedures to ensure compliance with the requirements of the ISB. These requirements provide a basis for future Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQ) screening of applicable procedure changes, proposed physical modifications, tests, experiments, and occurrences. Table 1 provides the SWBG interim Operational Safety Requirements administrative controls matrix. The specific assumptions and commitments used in the safety analysis documents applicable to disposal of mixed wastes in Trenches 31 and 34 are provided in Table 2. Table 3 is provided to document the potential engineered and administrative mitigating features identified in the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) for disposal of mixed waste

  11. Oceanographic model and radiological basis for control of radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Since it first prepared the provisional Definition of high-level radioactive waste unsuitable for dumping at sea and Recommendations for those radioactive wastes dumped under special permit in 1974, the IAEA has kept the Definition and Recommendations under continuing review. The oceanographic basis for the definition is being re-evaluated, based on a 1983 Report from the IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP), and the radiological basis is being updated, based on a Report from an IAEA Advisory Group Meeting held in 1982. The differences in the current radiological and oceanographic bases and the updating of both the GESAMP Report on modelling and the review of the radiological basis are delineated. In addition, a discussion of the future course of the Agency's activities in this area is given. (author)

  12. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.

  13. Closed fringe demodulation using phase decomposition by Fourier basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    We report a new technique for the demodulation of a closed fringe pattern by representing the phase as a weighted linear combination of a certain number of linearly independent Fourier basis functions in a given row/column at a time. A state space model is developed with the weights of the basis functions as the elements of the state vector. The iterative extended Kalman filter is effectively utilized for the robust estimation of the weights. A coarse estimate of the fringe density based on the fringe frequency map is used to determine the initial row/column to start with and subsequently the optimal number of basis functions. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with several noisy fringe patterns. Experimental results are also reported to support the practical applicability of the proposed method.

  14. Localized atomic basis set in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Vanin, Marco; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    We present an implementation of localized atomic-orbital basis sets in the projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism within the density-functional theory. The implementation in the real-space GPAW code provides a complementary basis set to the accurate but computationally more demanding grid...... representation. The possibility to switch seamlessly between the two representations implies that simulations employing the local basis can be fine tuned at the end of the calculation by switching to the grid, thereby combining the strength of the two representations for optimal performance. The implementation...... is tested by calculating atomization energies and equilibrium bulk properties of a variety of molecules and solids, comparing to the grid results. Finally, it is demonstrated how a grid-quality structure optimization can be performed with significantly reduced computational effort by switching between...

  15. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  16. Speech/Nonspeech Detection Using Minimal Walsh Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pwint Moe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to detect speech/nonspeech components of a given noisy signal. Employing the combination of binary Walsh basis functions and an analysis-synthesis scheme, the original noisy speech signal is modified first. From the modified signals, the speech components are distinguished from the nonspeech components by using a simple decision scheme. Minimal number of Walsh basis functions to be applied is determined using singular value decomposition (SVD. The main advantages of the proposed method are low computational complexity, less parameters to be adjusted, and simple implementation. It is observed that the use of Walsh basis functions makes the proposed algorithm efficiently applicable in real-world situations where processing time is crucial. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves high-speech and nonspeech detection rates while maintaining a low error rate for different noisy conditions.

  17. Speech/Nonspeech Detection Using Minimal Walsh Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Pwint

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to detect speech/nonspeech components of a given noisy signal. Employing the combination of binary Walsh basis functions and an analysis-synthesis scheme, the original noisy speech signal is modified first. From the modified signals, the speech components are distinguished from the nonspeech components by using a simple decision scheme. Minimal number of Walsh basis functions to be applied is determined using singular value decomposition (SVD. The main advantages of the proposed method are low computational complexity, less parameters to be adjusted, and simple implementation. It is observed that the use of Walsh basis functions makes the proposed algorithm efficiently applicable in real-world situations where processing time is crucial. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves high-speech and nonspeech detection rates while maintaining a low error rate for different noisy conditions.

  18. Coulomb Sturmians as a basis for molecular calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2012-01-01

    Almost all modern quantum chemistry programs use Gaussian basis sets even though Gaussians cannot accurately represent the cusp at atomic nuclei, nor can they represent the slow decay of the wave function at large distances. The reason that Gaussians dominate quantum chemistry today is the great...... mathematical difficulty of evaluating interelectron repulsion integrals when exponential-type orbitals (ETOs) are used. In this paper we show that when many-centre Coulomb Sturmian ETOs are used as a basis, the most important integrals can be evaluated rapidly and accurately by means of the theory...

  19. New MoM code incorporating multiple domain basis functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Domain Basis Functions Albert A. Lysko1 1 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): Meraka Institute, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, Tel.: +27 12 841 4609, Fax: +27 12 841 4720, Email: alysko@csir.co.za Abstract A...-domain piecewise linear (PWL) or piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) approximation for the current distribution [1]. WIPL-D [4], being an exception, uses higher order polynomial basis functions [2]. Most of the commercial codes are well optimized but are kept general...

  20. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-04-17

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  1. PFP total process throughput calculation and basis of estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The PFP Process Throughput Calculation and Basis of Estimate document provides the calculated value and basis of estimate for process throughput associated with material stabilization operations conducted in 234-52 Building. The process throughput data provided reflects the best estimates of material processing rates consistent with experience at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The rates shown reflect demonstrated capacity during ''full'' operation. They do not reflect impacts of building down time. Therefore, these throughput rates need to have a Total Operating Efficiency (TOE) factor applied

  2. The hemodynamic basis of exercise intolerance in tricuspid regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Nishimura, Rick a; Borlaug, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) frequently present with exertional fatigue and dyspnea, but the hemodynamic basis for exercise limitation in people with TR remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twelve subjects with normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and gra...

  3. Seismic methodology in determining basis earthquake for nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli Zamani, Sh.

    2008-01-01

    Design basis earthquake ground motions for nuclear installations should be determined to assure the design purpose of reactor safety: that reactors should be built and operated to pose no undue risk to public health and safety from earthquake and other hazards. Regarding the influence of seismic hazard to a site, large numbers of earthquake ground motions can be predicted considering possible variability among the source, path, and site parameters. However, seismic safety design using all predicted ground motions is practically impossible. In the determination of design basis earthquake ground motions it is therefore important to represent the influences of the large numbers of earthquake ground motions derived from the seismic ground motion prediction methods for the surrounding seismic sources. Viewing the relations between current design basis earthquake ground motion determination and modem earthquake ground motion estimation, a development of risk-informed design basis earthquake ground motion methodology is discussed for insight into the on going modernization of the Examination Guide for Seismic Design on NPP

  4. 40 CFR 791.40 - Basis for the proposed order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Basis for the proposed order. 791.40.... (a) The hearing officer shall propose a fair and equitable amount of reimbursement. The formula in paragraph (b) of this section shall be presumed to be fair and equitable as applied to all persons subject...

  5. 47 CFR 17.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... antenna structure owners. The standards are referenced from two Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... STRUCTURES General Information § 17.1 Basis and purpose. (a) The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in Title III of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, which vest...

  6. Anatomy of the periodontium, a biological basis for radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A near-normal radiograph of periradicular tissues was used as the basis for evaluation of some common periradicular radiographic pathologies. Apical periodontitis was 70 (58.33%); alveolar abscess 32 (26.66%); and apical granulomas 15 (12.50%). A background anatomy of the periodontium is advocated as a ...

  7. 40 CFR 35.162 - Basis for allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.162... are presented in Table 1 of this section, with their associated elements, sub-elements, and supporting... made on the basis of the cumulative change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI), published by the U.S...

  8. 42 CFR 441.200 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 441.200 Section 441.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions...

  9. Libcint: An efficient general integral library for Gaussian basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiming

    2015-08-15

    An efficient integral library Libcint was designed to automatically implement general integrals for Gaussian-type scalar and spinor basis functions. The library is able to evaluate arbitrary integral expressions on top of p, r and σ operators with one-electron overlap and nuclear attraction, two-electron Coulomb and Gaunt operators for segmented contracted and/or generated contracted basis in Cartesian, spherical or spinor form. Using a symbolic algebra tool, new integrals are derived and translated to C code programmatically. The generated integrals can be used in various types of molecular properties. To demonstrate the capability of the integral library, we computed the analytical gradients and NMR shielding constants at both nonrelativistic and 4-component relativistic Hartree-Fock level in this work. Due to the use of kinetically balanced basis and gauge including atomic orbitals, the relativistic analytical gradients and shielding constants requires the integral library to handle the fifth-order electron repulsion integral derivatives. The generality of the integral library is achieved without losing efficiency. On the modern multi-CPU platform, Libcint can easily reach the overall throughput being many times of the I/O bandwidth. On a 20-core node, we are able to achieve an average output 8.3 GB/s for C60 molecule with cc-pVTZ basis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  11. 50 CFR 18.70 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... importing of animals from each species of marine mammals under his jurisdiction; and (3) prescribe... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.70 Basis and purpose. (a) Sections 101(a)(2), 101(a)(3)(A), and 101(b) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (16 U.S...

  12. 50 CFR 228.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations with respect to the taking and importing of animals from each species of marine mammals under the... Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS NOTICE AND HEARING ON SECTION 103(d) REGULATIONS § 228.1 Basis and...

  13. Estimates of Quantum Chemical Molecular Characteristics for Complete Basis Sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradník, Rudolf; Šroubková, Libuše

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 43, 3/4 (2003), s. 243-265 ISSN 0021-2148 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : ab initio calculations * basis set extrapolations * quantum chemical Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2003

  14. Learning Mixtures of Truncated Basis Functions from Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Pérez-Bernabé, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate methods for learning hybrid Bayesian networks from data. First we utilize a kernel density estimate of the data in order to translate the data into a mixture of truncated basis functions (MoTBF) representation using a convex optimization technique. When utilizing...

  15. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR

  17. Gezondheidsclaims voor kruidenpreparaten op basis van Ginkgo biloba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom SMGJ; Fransen HP; Rompelberg CJM; de Rooij EK; Pronk MEJ; Baars AJ; de Kaste D; Verhagen H; SIR; CVG; KCF

    2007-01-01

    Er is onvoldoende bewijs voor drie geclaimde gezondheidseffecten bij het gebruik van kruidenpreparaten op basis van de Japanse notenboom Ginkgo biloba. Ook toont een analyse van 29 Ginkgo-preparaten aan dat het merendeel niet bevat wat op het etiket vermeld staat. Daarnaast kan bij de aanbevolen

  18. 42 CFR 411.110 - Basis for determination of nonconformance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on... disability, or eligible on the basis of ESRD. (2) The nondifferentiation clause for individuals with ESRD. (3) The equal benefits clause for the working aged. (4) The obligation to refund conditional Medicare...

  19. Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe. December 13, 2016. Julie Stewart, Rosalie Katsande, and Olga Chisango. Zimbabwean independence ended racial segregation and colonial rule. Yet the hopes and expectations that it would radically improve living conditions for the country's black majority remain ...

  20. 12 CFR 308.500 - Basis, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis, purpose, and scope. 308.500 Section 308.500 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... connection with programs (other than as set forth in the preceding sentence) related to the FDIC's regulatory...

  1. 7 CFR 54.1005 - Basis of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sanitary Design and Fabrication of Equipment Used in the Slaughter, Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1005 Basis of service. (a) Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of Equipment Used in the Slaughter, Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products...

  2. Entrepreneurial Creativity as a Convergent Basis for Teaching Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenci, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Of the "21st Century" business skills of communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking, creativity arguably receives among the least explicit attention in traditional business core curricula. With that in mind, the context of entrepreneurial creativity is put forth as a basis for teaching business communication. By…

  3. The Normative Basis for Decision on the Merits in Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the extent of party autonomy in determining the norms that apply to the substance of a commercial dispute in arbitration. Particularly, it analyses 'principles of law,' the normative basis for arbitration under Ethiopian law. The article further explores whether parties to arbitration are at liberty to mandate ...

  4. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  5. Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And Private Sectors Of Business: An Imperative For Institutionalizing Industrial Peace And Progress. ... This would help induce a self functioning motivational system of labour relations that minimizes the incidence of industrial conflicts; which in turn would give ...

  6. Biochemical basis of heterogeneity in acute presentations of propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindgikar, Seema Pavaman; Rao, Suchetha; Shenoy, Rathika D; Kamath, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA), an uncommon organic acidemia has varied clinical and metabolic presentation causing difficulty and delay in the diagnosis. We report a case of PA in an infant who presented with failure to thrive, acute encephalopathy due to severe hyperammonemia without acidosis and fungal sepsis. The biochemical basis of severe hyperammonemia is discussed.

  7. Biochemical Basis of Heterogeneity in Acute Presentations of Propionic Acidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sindgikar, Seema Pavaman; Rao, Suchetha; Shenoy, Rathika D.; Kamath, Nutan

    2012-01-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA), an uncommon organic acidemia has varied clinical and metabolic presentation causing difficulty and delay in the diagnosis. We report a case of PA in an infant who presented with failure to thrive, acute encephalopathy due to severe hyperammonemia without acidosis and fungal sepsis. The biochemical basis of severe hyperammonemia is discussed.

  8. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  9. Tensor Basis Neural Network v. 1.0 (beta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-28

    This software package can be used to build, train, and test a neural network machine learning model. The neural network architecture is specifically designed to embed tensor invariance properties by enforcing that the model predictions sit on an invariant tensor basis. This neural network architecture can be used in developing constitutive models for applications such as turbulence modeling, materials science, and electromagnetism.

  10. Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of margin approach. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... the economic efficiency of agricultural production.the conceptual approaches generalized and systematized to the management of production costs of agricultural products, the proposed ...

  11. Investigation of the Genetic Basis of Tetracycline Resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: One hundred and thirty (130) clinical isolates of S. aureus were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. Susceptibility to antibiotics (doxycycline, tetracycline and minocycline) was ...

  12. 40 CFR 227.17 - Basis for determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis for determination. 227.17 Section 227.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING... living marine resources. (b) For all proposed dumping, full consideration will be given to such...

  13. Mental health intervention programs in primary care : their scientific basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, W.; Leenstra, A.; Ormel, J.; van de Willige, G.

    This study examines the scientific basis for mental health intervention programs in primary care. The validity of five underlying assumptions is evaluated, using the results of a naturalistic study covering a representative sample of 25 Dutch family practices and data from the literature. Our

  14. Investigation of the Genetic Basis of Tetracycline Resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: One hundred and thirty (130) clinical isolates of S. aureus were collected from Khyber Teaching. Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. Susceptibility to antibiotics (doxycycline, tetracycline and minocycline) was.

  15. 10 CFR 13.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis and purpose. 13.1 Section 13.1 Energy NUCLEAR... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986, Public Law No. 99-509, §§ 6101-6104, 100 Stat. 1874... regulations necessary to implement the provisions of that Act. (b) Purpose. This part (1) establishes...

  16. Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive engines. ... Five faults have been simulated on the MVEM, including three sensor faults, one component fault and one actuator fault. The three sensor faults ... Keywords: Automotive engine, independent RBFNN model, RBF neural network, fault detection

  17. Land capacity classification – a basis for farm conservation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequacies evident in present-day farm planning procedures require that attention be given to land classification - the starting point of land-use planning. It is suggested that soils, correctly classified and accurately mapped, provide the only reliable basis for developing a land capability classification. A study of several ...

  18. 42 CFR 447.500 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 447.500 Section 447.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... covered outpatient drugs. (b) Purpose. This subpart specifies certain requirements in the Deficit...

  19. 42 CFR 431.300 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Safeguarding Information on... specifies State plan requirements, the types of information to be safeguarded, the conditions for release of... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 431.300 Section 431.300 Public...

  20. Design basis programs and improvements in plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE and G) Company operates three commercial nuclear power plants in southern New Jersey. The three plants are of different designs and vintages (two pressurized water reactors licensed in 1976 and 1980 and one boiling water reactor licensed in 1986). As the industry recognized the need to develop design basis programs, PSE and G also realized the need after a voluntary 52-day shutdown of one unit because of electrical design basis problems. In its drive to be a premier electric utility, PSE and G has been aggressively active in developing design basis documents (DBDs) with supporting projects and refined uses to obtain the expected value and see the return on investment. Progress on Salem is nearly 75% complete, while Hope Creek is 20% complete. To data, PSE and G has experienced success in the use of DBDs in areas such as development of plant modifications, development of the reliability-centered maintenance program, procedure upgrades, improved document retrieval, resolution of regulatory issues, and training. The paper examines the design basis development process, supporting projects, and expected improvements in plant operations as a result of these efforts

  1. Technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This ITER EDA Documentation Series issue summarizes the results of the ITER Engineering Design Activities on the technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design. This issue also comprises some physical analysis activities as well as structure and goals of the Physics Expert Group activities

  2. Construction ofWachspress type'rational basis functions over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper, we have constructed rational basis functions of 0 class over rectangular elements with wider choice of denominator function. This construction yields additional number of interior nodes. Hence, extra nodal points and the flexibility of denominator function suggest better approximation.

  3. Optimal Piecewise Linear Basis Functions in Two Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks III, E D; Szoke, A

    2009-01-26

    We use a variational approach to optimize the center point coefficients associated with the piecewise linear basis functions introduced by Stone and Adams [1], for polygonal zones in two Cartesian dimensions. Our strategy provides optimal center point coefficients, as a function of the location of the center point, by minimizing the error induced when the basis function interpolation is used for the solution of the time independent diffusion equation within the polygonal zone. By using optimal center point coefficients, one expects to minimize the errors that occur when these basis functions are used to discretize diffusion equations, or transport equations in optically thick zones (where they approach the solution of the diffusion equation). Our optimal center point coefficients satisfy the requirements placed upon the basis functions for any location of the center point. We also find that the location of the center point can be optimized, but this requires numerical calculations. Curiously, the optimum center point location is independent of the values of the dependent variable on the corners only for quadrilaterals.

  4. Physiological basis for allelopathic potential of different wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological basis for allelopathic potential of different wheat cultivars in heading period on the Loess Plateau of China. ... With the breeding history from No. 1 Bima, No. 3 Fengchan, No. 1 Ningdong to No 22 Xiaoyan and agronomic properties of winter wheat like thousand seed weight and yield, etc increased gradually.

  5. Application of radial basis neural network for state estimation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An original application of radial basis function (RBF) neural network for power system state estimation is proposed in this paper. The property of massive parallelism of neural networks is employed for this. The application of RBF neural network for state estimation is investigated by testing its applicability on a IEEE 14 bus ...

  6. Creamod. Een infrastructuur voor smogmodellen op statistische basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk H; NLB

    2003-01-01

    The report describes software which has been developed in 1991 to construct smogmodels on a statistical basis. These smogmodels are in daily use for the smog outlook by RIVM. The software, Creamod, consists of a number of modules which are able to define, construct and evaluate statistical air

  7. Pathophysiological basis of syncope and neurological conditions that mimic syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Gert; Wieling, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The definition of syncope has clinical and pathophysiological parts. The clinical part is that syncope is a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC), while the pathophysiological element is that syncope differs from other forms of TLOC by virtue of the basis of true syncope - specifically

  8. 42 CFR 493.1800 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... laboratories that perform clinical diagnostic tests on human specimens when those laboratories are found to be... specified in the statute. (2) The Clinical Laboratories Improvement Act of 1967 (section 353 of the Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1800 Basis and scope. (a...

  9. Spatial transformations in the parietal cortex using basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, A; Sejnowski, T J

    1997-03-01

    Sensorimotor transformations are nonlinear mappings of sensory inputs to motor responses. We explore here the possibility that the responses of single neurons in the parietal cortex serve as basis functions for these transformations. Basis function decomposition is a general method for approximating nonlinear functions that is computationally efficient and well suited for adaptive modification. In particular, the responses of single parietal neurons can be approximated by the product of a Gaussian function of retinal location and a sigmoid function of eye position, called a gain field. A large set of such functions forms a basis set that can be used to perform an arbitrary motor response through a direct projection. We compare this hypothesis with other approaches that are commonly used to model population codes, such as computational maps and vectorial representations. Neither of these alternatives can fully account for the responses of parietal neurons, and they are computationally less efficient for nonlinear transformations. Basis functions also have the advantage of not depending on any coordinate system or reference frame. As a consequence, the position of an object can be represented in multiple reference frames simultaneously, a property consistent with the behavior of hemineglect patients with lesions in the parietal cortex.

  10. Metacognition as a Basis for Learning Support Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Considers metacognition as a basis for software used in computer-assisted instruction. Topics discussed include the role of the teacher as a facilitator of higher order thinking skills; cognitive tools for learner support; learning theory and instructional design, including behaviorism, information processing, and constructivism; two software…

  11. Molecular basis and regulation of OTULIN-LUBAC interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Al-Saoudi, Sofie Vincents; Marco-Casanova, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Ub. Now, we show that OTULIN binds via a conserved PUB-interacting motif (PIM) to the PUB domain of the LUBAC component HOIP. Crystal structures and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments reveal the molecular basis for the high-affinity interaction and explain why OTULIN binds the HOIP PUB domain...

  12. 45 CFR 402.30 - Basis of awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis of awards. 402.30 Section 402.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT ASSISTANCE GRANTS...

  13. Conceptual basis for developing of trainig models in complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents conceptual basis for developing of training models of interactive assembling system for automatic building of application software systems, obtained during practical works over "Design and architecture of software systems" and "Object-oriented analysis and design" courses. The system is intended for ...

  14. Rating environmental noise on the basis of noise maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Borst, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A system that rates noise on the basis of noise maps has been developed which is based on empirical exposure-response relationships, so that effects in the community will be lower if the system gives a better rating. It is consistent with noise metrics and effect endpoint chosen in the EU, i.e., it

  15. 47 CFR 32.2 - Basis of the accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... account structure. (b) Within the telecommunications industry companies, certain recurring functions... technological view of the telecommunications industry. This view will provide a stable and consistent foundation... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis of the accounts. 32.2 Section 32.2...

  16. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-03-23

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  17. Basis and rational for standardization in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris Besar

    1985-01-01

    The historical background for the standardization in radiation protection with special reference to the dose limits recommended by the ICRP which include tolerance dose, maximum permissible dose, and the present recommendation based on the ICRP 26 are presented. The basis and rational for the establishement of these limits are discussed

  18. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  19. Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And Private Sectors Of Business: An Imperative For Institutionalizing Industrial Peace And Progress. ... It is believed that for the purpose of institutionalizing industrial peace and progress in today's mixed economies, governments must enact labour laws that ...

  20. Diffusion Forecasting Model with Basis Functions from QR-Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlim, John; Yang, Haizhao

    2017-12-01

    The diffusion forecasting is a nonparametric approach that provably solves the Fokker-Planck PDE corresponding to Itô diffusion without knowing the underlying equation. The key idea of this method is to approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with a discrete representation of the shift (Koopman) operator on a set of basis functions generated via the diffusion maps algorithm. While the choice of these basis functions is provably optimal under appropriate conditions, computing these basis functions is quite expensive since it requires the eigendecomposition of an N× N diffusion matrix, where N denotes the data size and could be very large. For large-scale forecasting problems, only a few leading eigenvectors are computationally achievable. To overcome this computational bottleneck, a new set of basis functions constructed by orthonormalizing selected columns of the diffusion matrix and its leading eigenvectors is proposed. This computation can be carried out efficiently via the unpivoted Householder QR factorization. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm will be shown in both deterministically chaotic and stochastic dynamical systems; in the former case, the superiority of the proposed basis functions over purely eigenvectors is significant, while in the latter case forecasting accuracy is improved relative to using a purely small number of eigenvectors. Supporting arguments will be provided on three- and six-dimensional chaotic ODEs, a three-dimensional SDE that mimics turbulent systems, and also on the two spatial modes associated with the boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation obtained from applying the Nonlinear Laplacian Spectral Analysis on the measured Outgoing Longwave Radiation.

  1. Fusion basis for lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcamp, Clement [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics Astronomy and Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dittrich, Bianca; Riello, Aldo [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-02-10

    We introduce a new basis for the gauge-invariant Hilbert space of lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity in (2+1) dimensions, the fusion basis. In doing so, we shift the focus from the original lattice (or spin-network) structure directly to that of the magnetic (curvature) and electric (torsion) excitations themselves. These excitations are classified by the irreducible representations of the Drinfel’d double of the gauge group, and can be readily “fused” together by studying the tensor product of such representations. We will also describe in detail the ribbon operators that create and measure these excitations and make the quasi-local structure of the observable algebra explicit. Since the fusion basis allows for both magnetic and electric excitations from the onset, it turns out to be a precious tool for studying the large scale structure and coarse-graining flow of lattice gauge theories and loop quantum gravity. This is in neat contrast with the widely used spin-network basis, in which it is much more complicated to account for electric excitations, i.e. for Gauß constraint violations, emerging at larger scales. Moreover, since the fusion basis comes equipped with a hierarchical structure, it readily provides the language to design states with sophisticated multi-scale structures. Another way to employ this hierarchical structure is to encode a notion of subsystems for lattice gauge theories and (2+1) gravity coupled to point particles. In a follow-up work, we have exploited this notion to provide a new definition of entanglement entropy for these theories.

  2. Approaching the Hartree-Fock Limit through the Complementary Auxiliary Basis Set Singles Correction and Auxiliary Basis Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert A; Hill, J Grant

    2017-04-11

    Auxiliary basis sets for use in the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation in explicitly correlated methods are presented for the elements H-Ar. These extend the cc-pVnZ-F12/OptRI (n = D-Q) auxiliary basis sets of Peterson and co-workers by the addition of a small number of s- and p-functions, optimized so as to yield the greatest complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) singles correction to the Hartree-Fock energy. The new sets, denoted OptRI+, also lead to a reduction in errors due to the RI approximation and hence an improvement in correlation energies. The atomization energies and heats of formation for a test set of small molecules, and spectroscopic constants for 27 diatomics, calculated at the CCSD(T)-F12b level, are shown to have improved error distributions for the new auxiliary basis sets with negligible additional effort. The OptRI+ sets retain all of the desirable properties of the original OptRI, including the production of smooth potential energy surfaces, while maintaining a compact nature.

  3. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  4. Epidemiologic measures of risk as a basis for legal compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeighami, E.A.; Walsh, P.J.; Morris, M.D.; Jones, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific basis for compensation of persons developing cancer who have a documented history of exposure to radiation or other carcinogens is an important legal issue. The measure Relative Attributable Risk (RAR) has been proposed as a basis for determining eligibility for compensation. The purpose of this report is to present results of an analysis of the magnitude and sources of uncertainty in the RAR measure. The range of 1/10 6 /rad-year to 6/10 6 /rad-year was chosen as a reasonable range of excess-risk estimates for thyroid cancer based on published estimates. The use of such a range in risk estimates produces very wide variability in RAR estimates. Uncertainty in underlying incidence levels and in dosimetry are other major factors contributing to large variability in estimated RAR levels

  5. Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

  6. Working group 1A - basis for the standard-safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the progress made by working group 1A (Basis for the Safety Standard) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group discussed the semantics of terms within the standard 40 CFR Part 191, the implementation of this standard, the advanced notice of rulemaking, the issue of emitting carbon-14 through a gaseous pathway, the strategy of dealing with standards for contamination of drinking water and groundwater, the 100,000 year time frame, and the analysis of specific comments. The specific comments dealt with the cost effectiveness of the standard, the dose histogram for populations and individuals, groundwater definition and the underlying technology driver for this standard

  7. [Molecular basis of Waldenström macroglobulinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevčíková, S; Novák, L; Kubiczková, L; Dementyeva, E; Ríhová, L; Hájek, R

    2012-01-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a rare lymphoproliferative disease that is currently classified into lymphomas with incidence of 3 cases per million. This disease comprises about 1-2% of hematological malignancies and is characterized by infiltration of malignant B cells into the bone marrow and presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin IgM in serum. WM is still an incurable disease with median survival of 5 years. Molecular basis of this disease remains unclear even though deletion of 6q, trisomy of chromosomes 4 and 8, deletion of 13q and increased expression of IL-6 seem to be typical for this disease. The most important changes of microRNA are increased expression of miR-155 and decreased expression of miR-9*. This work aims to describe current knowledge about the molecular basis of this disease.

  8. Summation on the basis of combinatorial representation of equal powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Nikonov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the conclusion of combinatorial expressions for the sums of members of several sequences is considered. Conclusion is made on the basis of combinatorial representation of the sum of the weighted equal powers. The weighted members of a geometrical progression, the simple arithmetic-geometrical and combined progressions are subject to summation. One of principal places in the given conclusion occupies representation of members of each of the specified progressions in the form of matrix elements. The row of this matrix is formed with use of a gang of equal powers with the set weight factor. Besides, in work formulas of combinatorial identities with participation of free components of the sums of equal powers, and also separate power-member of sequence of equal powers or a geometrical progression are presented. All presented formulas have the general basis-components of the sums of equal powers.

  9. Conjugate schema and basis representation of crossover and mutation operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, S T

    1998-01-01

    In genetic search algorithms and optimization routines, the representation of the mutation and crossover operators are typically defaulted to the canonical basis. We show that this can be influential in the usefulness of the search algorithm. We then pose the question of how to find a basis for which the search algorithm is most useful. The conjugate schema is introduced as a general mathematical construct and is shown to separate a function into smaller dimensional functions whose sum is the original function. It is shown that conjugate schema, when used on a test suite of functions, improves the performance of the search algorithm on 10 out of 12 of these functions. Finally, a rigorous but abbreviated mathematical derivation is given in the appendices.

  10. Autism and talent: the cognitive and neural basis of systemizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V

    2017-12-01

    In 2003, we proposed the hypersystemizing theory of autism. The theory proposes that the human mind possesses a systemizing mechanism (SM) that helps identify lawful regularities (often causal) that govern the input-operation-output workings of a system. The SM can be tuned to different levels, from low to high, with a normal distribution of individual differences in how strongly people search for such input-operation-out-put regularities in any data that is systemizable. Evidence suggests that people with autism are on average hypersystemizers, scoring higher than average on the systemizing quotient and on performance tests of systemizing. In this article, we consider the neural basis behind the SM, since there has been little consideration of the brain basis of systemizing. Finally, we discuss directions for future work in this field.

  11. The Associative Basis of Scientific Creativity: A Model Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kanli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is accepted as an important part of scientific skills. Scientific creativity proceeds from a need or urge to solve a problem, and in-volves the production of original and useful ideas or products. Existing scientific creativity theories and tests do not feature the very im-portant thinking processes, such as analogical and associative thinking, which can be consid-ered crucial in creative scientific problem solv-ing. Current study’s aim is to provide an alter-native model and explicate the associative basis of scientific creativity. Emerging from the re-viewed theoretical framework, Scientific Asso-ciations Model is proposed. This model claims that, similarity and mediation constitutes the basis of creativity and focuses on three compo-nents namely; associative thinking, analogical thinking (analogical reasoning & analogical problem solving and insight which are consid-ered to be main elements of scientific associa-tive thinking.

  12. On the physical basis of a theory of human thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, A. S.; Schindler, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical study of the physical factors which are responsible for thermoregulation in nude resting humans in a physical steady state. The behavior of oxidative metabolism, evaporative and convective thermal fluxes, fluid heat transfer, internal and surface temperatures, and evaporative phase transitions is studied by physiological/physical modeling techniques. The modeling is based on the theories that the body has a vital core with autothermoregulation, that the vital core contracts longitudinally, that the temperature of peripheral regions and extremities decreases towards the ambient, and that a significant portion of the evaporative heat may be lost underneath the skin. A theoretical basis is derived for a consistent modeling of steady-state thermoregulation on the basis of these theories.

  13. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demick, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  14. Alternative Modal Basis Selection Procedures for Nonlinear Random Response Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Guo, Xinyun; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Three procedures to guide selection of an efficient modal basis in a nonlinear random response analysis are examined. One method is based only on proper orthogonal decomposition, while the other two additionally involve smooth orthogonal decomposition. Acoustic random response problems are employed to assess the performance of the three modal basis selection approaches. A thermally post-buckled beam exhibiting snap-through behavior, a shallowly curved arch in the auto-parametric response regime and a plate structure are used as numerical test articles. The results of the three reduced-order analyses are compared with the results of the computationally taxing simulation in the physical degrees of freedom. For the cases considered, all three methods are shown to produce modal bases resulting in accurate and computationally efficient reduced-order nonlinear simulations.

  15. Technical Details on Beyond Design Basis Event Pilot Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of the BDBE pilot project was the review of BDBE analysis and mitigation features at four DOE nuclear facilities representing a range of DOE sites, nuclear facility types/activities, and responsible program offices. The pilots looked at (1) how beyond design basis accidents were evaluated and documented in the facility Documented Safety Analysis, (2) potential BDBE vulnerabilities and margins to failure of facility safety features as obtained from general area and specific system walkdowns and design documents reviews, and (3) preparations made in facility and site emergency management programs to respond to severe accidents. It also evaluated whether draft BDBE guidance on safety analysis and emergency management could be used to improve the analysis of and preparations for mitigating severe and beyond design basis accidents. The details of these activities are organized in this report as described below.

  16. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  17. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  18. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  19. Compactly Supported Basis Functions as Support Vector Kernels for Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Peter; Tan, Chew Lim

    2011-10-01

    Wavelet kernels have been introduced for both support vector regression and classification. Most of these wavelet kernels do not use the inner product of the embedding space, but use wavelets in a similar fashion to radial basis function kernels. Wavelet analysis is typically carried out on data with a temporal or spatial relation between consecutive data points. We argue that it is possible to order the features of a general data set so that consecutive features are statistically related to each other, thus enabling us to interpret the vector representation of an object as a series of equally or randomly spaced observations of a hypothetical continuous signal. By approximating the signal with compactly supported basis functions and employing the inner product of the embedding L2 space, we gain a new family of wavelet kernels. Empirical results show a clear advantage in favor of these kernels.

  20. Molecular basis for dominantly inherited inclusion body β-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein, S.L.; Hesketh, C.; Wood, W.G.; Clegg, J.B.; Old, J.M.; Weatherall, D.J.; Taylor, P.; Temperley, I.J.; Hutchinson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the molecular basis of dominantly inherited β-thalassemia in four families has revealed different mutations involving exon 3 of the β-globin gene. It is suggested that the phenotypic difference between this condition and the more common recessive forms of β-thalassemia lies mainly in the length and stability of the abnormal translation products that are synthesized and, in particular, whether they are capable of binding heme and producing aggregations that are relatively resistant to proteolytic degradation

  1. Tank waste remediation system retrieval authorization basis amendment task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and the Process Development group within the Waste Feed Delivery organization. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Waste Delivery Program, Project W-211, and Project W-TBD

  2. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  3. Neurobiological Basis of Insight in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is defined as awareness into illness, symptoms, and need for treatment and has long been associated with cognition, other psychopathological symptoms, and several adverse clinical and functional outcomes. However, the biological basis of insight is not clearly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate and summarize advances in the study of the biological basis of insight in schizophrenia and to identify gaps in this knowledge. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases was conducted using search terms to identify articles relevant to the biology of insight in schizophrenia published in the last 6 years. Articles that focused on etiology of insight in schizophrenia and those that examined the neurobiology of insight in schizophrenia or psychoses were chosen for analysis. Articles on insight in conditions other than schizophrenia or psychoses and which did not investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of insight were excluded from the review. Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Of the 26 articles, 3 focused on cellular abnormalities and 23 were neuroimaging studies. Preliminary data identify the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and regions of the temporal and parietal lobe (precuneus, inferior parietal lobule) and hippocampus as the neural correlates of insight. A growing body of literature attests to the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia. Current evidence supports the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia and identifies specific neural correlates for insight types and its dimensions. Further studies that examine the precise biological mechanisms of insight are needed to apply this knowledge to effective clinical intervention development.

  4. MANAGER PRINCIPLES AS BASIS OF MANAGEMENT STYLE TRANSFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Kopytov

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers an approach which is based on non-conventional mechanisms of management style formation. The preset level of sustainable management is maintained by self-organized environment created in the process of management style transformation in efficient management principles. Their efficiency is checked within an adaptive algorithm. The algorithm is developed on the basis of combination of evaluative tools  and base of operational  proves. The operating algorithm capability is te...

  5. Organisms modeling: The question of radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists usually a gap between bio-inspired computational techniques and what biologists can do with these techniques in their current researches. Although biology is the root of system-theory and artifical neural networks, computer scientists are tempted to build their own systems independently of biological issues. This publication is a first-step re-evalution of an usual machine learning technique (radial basis funtion(RBF networks in the context of systems and biological reactive organisms.

  6. Basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Odile; Mussard, Bastien; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien

    2015-02-21

    Range-separated density-functional theory (DFT) is an alternative approach to Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The strategy of range-separated density-functional theory consists in separating the Coulomb electron-electron interaction into long-range and short-range components and treating the long-range part by an explicit many-body wave-function method and the short-range part by a density-functional approximation. Among the advantages of using many-body methods for the long-range part of the electron-electron interaction is that they are much less sensitive to the one-electron atomic basis compared to the case of the standard Coulomb interaction. Here, we provide a detailed study of the basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory. We study the convergence of the partial-wave expansion of the long-range wave function near the electron-electron coalescence. We show that the rate of convergence is exponential with respect to the maximal angular momentum L for the long-range wave function, whereas it is polynomial for the case of the Coulomb interaction. We also study the convergence of the long-range second-order Møller-Plesset correlation energy of four systems (He, Ne, N2, and H2O) with cardinal number X of the Dunning basis sets cc - p(C)V XZ and find that the error in the correlation energy is best fitted by an exponential in X. This leads us to propose a three-point complete-basis-set extrapolation scheme for range-separated density-functional theory based on an exponential formula.

  7. Electrochemistry as a basis for radiochemical generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, G.E.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Wanek, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ion exchange and solvent extraction techniques have been used extensively as the basis for radiochemical generators exploiting the differences in absorption behavior between the parent nuclide and its useful daughter nuclide. Many parent/daughter pairs of nuclides have sufficiently different polarographic half wave potentials so that their electrochemical behavior may be exploited for rapid separation of the daughter from the parent with minimal contamination of the product with the parent isotope

  8. Operators not positive with respect to any basis | Spalsbury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use an equivalent form of Titchmarsh's Convolution theorem to show that the Volterra operator is an example of a quasi-nilpotent operator on a Hilbert space that is not positive with respect to any basis of L2(0, 1). In proving this, it then becomes clear how to generalize this to any operator T with the property ...

  9. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines

  10. Description of intruded states in a weak-coupling basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas Peris, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The systematics of intruder states is described in terms of a particle-hole weak-coupling basis, the first-order correction being then reduced to the monopole component of the interaction. The necessary matrix elements can be obtained from experimental data by using a model-consistent method. Calculations are performed for intruder states in the lead region as well as for the Zr isotopes. The agreement with the experimental data is striking in both cases. (Author) [es

  11. Complexity of Gaussian-Radial-Basis Networks Approximating Smooth Functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kainen, P.C.; Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2009), s. 63-74 ISSN 0885-064X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/1744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Gaussian-radial-basis-function networks * rates of approximation * model complexity * variation norms * Bessel and Sobolev norms * tractability of approximation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2009

  12. Structural Basis of Protein Oxidation Resistance: A Lysozyme Study

    OpenAIRE

    Girod, Marion; Enjalbert, Quentin; Brunet, Claire; Antoine, Rodolphe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Lukac, Iva; Radman, Miroslav; Krisko, Anita; Dugourd, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidative damage in proteins correlates with aging since it can cause irreversible and progressive degeneration of almost all cellular functions. Apparently, native protein structures have evolved intrinsic resistance to oxidation since perfectly folded proteins are, by large most robust. Here we explore the structural basis of protein resistance to radiation-induced oxidation using chicken egg white lysozyme in the native and misfolded form. We study the differential resistan...

  13. The Genetic Basis of Mendelian Phenotypes: Discoveries, Challenges, and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Jessica X.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Boehm, Corinne; Sobreira, Nara; Smith, Joshua D.; Harrell, Tanya M.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Gambin, Tomasz; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep H.; Doheny, Kimberly; Scott, Alan F.; Avramopoulos, Dimitri; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2015-01-01

    Discovering the genetic basis of a Mendelian phenotype establishes a causal link between genotype and phenotype, making possible carrier and population screening and direct diagnosis. Such discoveries also contribute to our knowledge of gene function, gene regulation, development, and biological mechanisms that can be used for developing new therapeutics. As of February 2015, 2,937 genes underlying 4,163 Mendelian phenotypes have been discovered, but the genes underlying ∼50% (i.e., 3,152) of...

  14. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  15. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Neural basis of acquired amusia and its recovery after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvonen, A.J.; Ripollés, P.; Leo, V.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, S.; Särkämö, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using t...

  17. Age prediction on the basis of brain anatomical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, S A; Hänggi, J; Mérillat, S; Jäncke, L

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether age can be predicted on the basis of different anatomical features obtained from a large sample of healthy subjects (n = 3,144). From this sample we obtained different anatomical feature sets: (1) 11 larger brain regions (including cortical volume, thickness, area, subcortical volume, cerebellar volume, etc.), (2) 148 cortical compartmental thickness measures, (3) 148 cortical compartmental area measures, (4) 148 cortical compartmental volume measures, and (5) a combination of the above-mentioned measures. With these anatomical feature sets, we predicted age using 6 statistical techniques (multiple linear regression, ridge regression, neural network, k-nearest neighbourhood, support vector machine, and random forest). We obtained very good age prediction accuracies, with the highest accuracy being R 2  = 0.84 (prediction on the basis of a neural network and support vector machine approaches for the entire data set) and the lowest being R 2  = 0.40 (prediction on the basis of a k-nearest neighborhood for cortical surface measures). Interestingly, the easy-to-calculate multiple linear regression approach with the 11 large brain compartments resulted in a very good prediction accuracy (R 2  = 0.73), whereas the application of the neural network approach for this data set revealed very good age prediction accuracy (R 2  = 0.83). Taken together, these results demonstrate that age can be predicted well on the basis of anatomical measures. The neural network approach turned out to be the approach with the best results. In addition, it was evident that good prediction accuracies can be achieved using a small but nevertheless age-representative dataset of brain features. Hum Brain Mapp 38:997-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. DEVELOPING SAFETY INDICATORS ON THE BASIS OF THE ICAO RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sharov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers direct use of the recommendations of SMM ICAO Doc.9859, 3rd ed. 2013, for calculation the target and alert levels of safety indicators. Examples of calculation based on data of 2011 and monitoring of the current indicators during 2012 are presented. Safety indicators for airlines in terms of “numbers of incidents per 1000 flight hours” could be calculated on the basis of the state values through the «coefficient of conformity».

  19. Eliminative Induction: A Basis for Arguing System Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Eliminative Induction: A Basis for Arguing System Confidence John B. Goodenough , Charles B. Weinstock, Ari Z. Klein Software Engineering Institute...unlimited distribution. DM-0000209. REFERENCES [1] J. Goodenough , C. Weinstock and A. Klein, “Toward a Theory of Assurance Case Confidence,” Pittsburgh...4] C. B. Weinstock and J. B. Goodenough , “Towards an Assurance Case Practice for Medical Devices,” Pittsburgh, PA: Software Engineering

  20. Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties John B. Goodenough Charles B. Weinstock Ari Z. Klein February... Goodenough 2012]. The current report supersedes our earlier report by providing a revised nota- tion, explicit rules for using the notation correctly, a...Theory of Argument Structure. Foris Publications, 1991. [ Goodenough 2012] Goodenough , J. B., Weinstock, C. B., & Klein, A. Z. Toward a Theory of

  1. Evolution of Safety Basis Documentation for the Fernald Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.; Kohler, S.; Fisk, P.; Krach, F.; Klein, B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project (FCP), in suburban Cincinnati, Ohio, is to safely complete the environmental restoration of the Fernald site by 2006. Over 200 out of 220 total structures, at this DOE plant site which processed uranium ore concentrates into high-purity uranium metal products, have been safely demolished, including eight of the nine major production plants. Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) for these facilities have gone through a process of simplification, from individual operating Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) to a single site-wide Authorization Basis containing nuclear facility Bases for Interim Operations (BIOs) to individual project Auditable Safety Records (ASRs). The final stage in DSA simplification consists of project-specific Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs) and Nuclear Health and Safety Plans (N-HASPs) that address all aspects of safety, from the worker in the field to the safety basis requirements preserving the facility/activity hazard categorization. This paper addresses the evolution of Safety Basis Documentation (SBD), as DSAs, from production through site closure

  2. Design basis tropical cyclone for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The general characteristics of tropical cyclones are discussed in this Safety Guide, with particular emphasis on their pressure and wind structures in the light of available data. General methods are given for the evaluation of the relevant parameters of a Probable Maximum Tropical Cyclone (PMTC), which can be used as the Design Basis Tropical Cyclone (DBTC); these parameters then serve as inputs for the derivation of a design basis surge and a design basis wind. A possible method is also given for the evaluation of the PMTC pressure and wind field based on an approach valid primarily for a particular region. This method depends on the results of a theoretical study on the tropical cyclone structure and makes use of a large amount of data, including aircraft reconnaissance observations for 170 most intense tropical cyclones near the coast of Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines for the period 1960-1974, as well as detailed analyses of all the extreme storms along the Gulf of Mexico and the east coast of the USA during 1900-1978, for the determination of the necessary parameters

  3. Unsupervised learning of a steerable basis for invariant image representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, Matthias; Gerwinn, Sebastian; Macke, Jakob H.

    2007-02-01

    There are two aspects to unsupervised learning of invariant representations of images: First, we can reduce the dimensionality of the representation by finding an optimal trade-off between temporal stability and informativeness. We show that the answer to this optimization problem is generally not unique so that there is still considerable freedom in choosing a suitable basis. Which of the many optimal representations should be selected? Here, we focus on this second aspect, and seek to find representations that are invariant under geometrical transformations occuring in sequences of natural images. We utilize ideas of 'steerability' and Lie groups, which have been developed in the context of filter design. In particular, we show how an anti-symmetric version of canonical correlation analysis can be used to learn a full-rank image basis which is steerable with respect to rotations. We provide a geometric interpretation of this algorithm by showing that it finds the two-dimensional eigensubspaces of the average bivector. For data which exhibits a variety of transformations, we develop a bivector clustering algorithm, which we use to learn a basis of generalized quadrature pairs (i.e. 'complex cells') from sequences of natural images.

  4. ALWR utility requirements - A technical basis for updated emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaver, David E.W.; DeVine, John C. Jr.; Santucci, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    U.S. utilities, with substantial support from international utilities, are developing a comprehensive set of design requirements in the form of a Utility Requirements Document (URD) as part of an industry wide effort to establish a technical foundation for the next generation of light water reactors. A key aspect of the URD is a set of severe accident-related design requirements which have been developed to provide a technical basis for updated emergency planning for the ALWR. The technical basis includes design criteria for containment performance and offsite dose during severe accident conditions. An ALWR emergency planning concept is being developed which reflects this severe accident capability. The main conclusion from this work is that the likelihood and consequences of a severe accident for an ALWR are fundamentally different from that assumed in the technical basis for existing emergency planning requirements, at least in the U.S. The current technical understanding of severe accident risk is greatly improved compared to that available when the existing U.S. emergency planning requirements were established nearly 15 years ago, and the emerging ALWR designs have superior core damage prevention and severe accident mitigation capability. Thus, it is reasonable and prudent to reflect this design capability in the emergency planning requirements for the ALWR. (author)

  5. Design basis document open-item resolution and reportability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, S.K.; Livingston, B.R.; Purcell, J.J.; Erickson, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the process of reconstituting the design bases for older nuclear power plants, information or references may not be available to fully define the design requirements or to document and verify the adequacy of the design. Also, information that is in conflict with other data is identified. The missing and conflicting information must be reconstituted in order to adequately document the design bases of the plant. For these operating facilities, the identification, tracking, and resolution of missing or conflicting information is very important when the reporting requirements stipulated by 10CFR21, 10CFR50.72, and 10CFR50.73 are considered. Additionally, controlled documentation (calculations, drawings, etc.) used to develop the design basis documents may contain conflicting data. In some cases, conflicts between the as-built design and licensing or design basis requirements established in specific commitments to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission may be identified. Furthermore, concerns regarding the adequacy of safety-related systems or components to perform their required function may be identified that would warrant prompt action by the licensee. The approach discussed in this paper was used by Omaha Public Power District for the ongoing design basis reconstitution effort at the Fort Calhoun nuclear plant

  6. Qudit-Basis Universal Quantum Computation Using χ(2 ) Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Murphy Yuezhen; Chuang, Isaac L.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2018-04-01

    We prove that universal quantum computation can be realized—using only linear optics and χ(2 ) (three-wave mixing) interactions—in any (n +1 )-dimensional qudit basis of the n -pump-photon subspace. First, we exhibit a strictly universal gate set for the qubit basis in the one-pump-photon subspace. Next, we demonstrate qutrit-basis universality by proving that χ(2 ) Hamiltonians and photon-number operators generate the full u (3 ) Lie algebra in the two-pump-photon subspace, and showing how the qutrit controlled-Z gate can be implemented with only linear optics and χ(2 ) interactions. We then use proof by induction to obtain our general qudit result. Our induction proof relies on coherent photon injection or subtraction, a technique enabled by χ(2 ) interaction between the encoding modes and ancillary modes. Finally, we show that coherent photon injection is more than a conceptual tool, in that it offers a route to preparing high-photon-number Fock states from single-photon Fock states.

  7. Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey with Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A marine electromagnetic survey is an engineering endeavour to discover the location and dimension of a hydrocarbon layer under an ocean floor. In this kind of survey, an array of electric and magnetic receivers are located on the sea floor and record the scattered, refracted and reflected electromagnetic wave, which has been transmitted by an electric dipole antenna towed by a vessel. The data recorded in receivers must be processed and further analysed to estimate the hydrocarbon location and dimension. To conduct those analyses successfuly, a radial basis function (RBF network could be employed to become a forward model of the input-output relationship of the data from a marine electromagnetic survey. This type of neural networks is working based on distances between its inputs and predetermined centres of some basis functions. A previous research had been conducted to model the same marine electromagnetic survey using another type of neural networks, which is a multi layer perceptron (MLP network. By comparing their validation and training performances (mean-squared errors and correlation coefficients, it is concluded that, in this case, the MLP network is comparatively better than the RBF network[1].[1] This manuscript is an extended version of our previous paper, entitled Radial Basis Function Networks for Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey, which had been presented on 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 17-19 July 2011, Bandung, Indonesia.

  8. Basis Risk and Net Interest Income of Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mielus Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the banking sector are shaped primarily by commissions and net interest income. Net interest income is determined by the difference between the profitability of bank assets and liabilities. In the case when a different method is used to determine interest for each side of the balance sheet, there occurs a basis risk that may lead to the deterioration in the net interest income of the sector. This is the situation in the Polish banking sector, which is characterized by the presence of variable interest rates for long-term assets and fixed interest rates for short-term liabilities. The study aims to verify the following thesis: in an environment of falling interest rates we can observe the deterioration in net interest income of the banking sector, as a result of the materialization of the basis risk. The authors of the article state that the source of the basis risk is the mismatch between the reference rate used to define the interest flow of loans and the actual cost of financing the balance through term deposits collected from non-financial entities.

  9. Complete CRM documentation as a basis for successfull Churn Management; Wie aus Rueckholung Vorbeugung wird. Vollstaendige Kundenkontakthistorie als Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannssen, T. [ConTakt GmbH, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2002-09-09

    The contribution explains modern customer relationship management strategies for electric utilities. The role of a complete and detailed documentation of the CRM history is explained as a basis for establishing reliable customer loyalty, winning back lost customers, or preventing customers from changing their power service. (orig./CB) [German] Erkenntnisse aus der Kundenrueckgewinnung sind eine wertvolle Grundlage fuer Kuendigungspraevention. Bei durchdachtem Vorgehen koennen sie mit den gesammelten Erfahrungen sogar schon im Vorfeld Kuendigungen verhindern. (orig./CB)

  10. Just in Time DSA the Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACKSON, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for 30 hazard category 2 and 3 nuclear facilities that are operated by its prime contractors, Fluor Hanford, Incorporated (FHI), Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The publication of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830, Subpart B, Safely Basis Requirements (the Rule) in January 2001 requires that the Documented Safety Analyses (DSA) for these facilities be reviewed against the requirements of the Rule. Those DSAs that do not meet the requirements must either be upgraded to satisfy the Rule, or an exemption must be obtained. RL and its prime contractors have developed a Nuclear Safety Strategy that provides a comprehensive approach for supporting RL's efforts to meet its long-term objectives for hazard category 2 and 3 facilities while also meeting the requirements of the Rule. This approach will result in a reduction of the total number of safety basis documents that must be developed and maintained to support the remaining mission and closure of the Hanford Site and ensure that the documentation that must be developed will support: Compliance with the Rule; A ''Just-In-Time'' approach to development of Rule-compliant safety bases supported by temporary exemptions; and Consolidation of safety basis documents that support multiple facilities with a common mission (e.g. decontamination, decommissioning and demolition [DD and D], waste management, surveillance and maintenance). This strategy provides a clear path to transition the safety bases for the various Hanford facilities from support of operation and stabilization missions through DD and D to accelerate closure. This ''Just-In-Time'' Strategy can also be tailored for other DOE Sites, creating the potential for large cost savings and schedule reductions throughout the DOE complex

  11. Just in Time DSA the Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JACKSON, M.W.

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for 30 hazard category 2 and 3 nuclear facilities that are operated by its prime contractors, Fluor Hanford, Incorporated (FHI), Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The publication of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830, Subpart B, Safely Basis Requirements (the Rule) in January 2001 requires that the Documented Safety Analyses (DSA) for these facilities be reviewed against the requirements of the Rule. Those DSAs that do not meet the requirements must either be upgraded to satisfy the Rule, or an exemption must be obtained. RL and its prime contractors have developed a Nuclear Safety Strategy that provides a comprehensive approach for supporting RL's efforts to meet its long-term objectives for hazard category 2 and 3 facilities while also meeting the requirements of the Rule. This approach will result in a reduction of the total number of safety basis documents that must be developed and maintained to support the remaining mission and closure of the Hanford Site and ensure that the documentation that must be developed will support: Compliance with the Rule; A ''Just-In-Time'' approach to development of Rule-compliant safety bases supported by temporary exemptions; and Consolidation of safety basis documents that support multiple facilities with a common mission (e.g. decontamination, decommissioning and demolition [DD&D], waste management, surveillance and maintenance). This strategy provides a clear path to transition the safety bases for the various Hanford facilities from support of operation and stabilization missions through DD&D to accelerate closure. This ''Just-In-Time'' Strategy can also be tailored for other DOE Sites, creating the potential for large cost savings and schedule reductions throughout the DOE complex.

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-08-17

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage.

  14. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  15. Structural basis of cell-cell adhesion by NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, C; Rasmussen, H; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen

    2000-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, mediates cell-cell recognition and adhesion via a homophilic interaction. NCAM plays a key role during development and regeneration of the nervous system and is involved in synaptic plasticity associated with memory...... and learning. The 1.85 A crystal structure of the two N-terminal extracellular domains of NCAM reported here provides a structural basis for the homophilic interaction. The molecular packing of the two-domain structure reveals a cross shaped antiparallel dimer, and provides fundamental insight into trans-cellular...

  16. Motivational basis of dissonance: the singular role of behavioral consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, S J; Cooper, J

    1989-06-01

    This article provides the first empirical test of the idea that discrepancy is not needed in order to arouse cognitive dissonance. Dissonance was aroused when Ss felt responsible for some aversive consequence, regardless of whether their behavior was consistent (writing a proattitudinal essay) or inconsistent (a counterattitudinal essay) with beliefs. The data demonstrate that in both situations, dissonance is aroused. This result, based on the dissonance motivation model of Cooper and Fazio (1984), strongly suggests that the motivational basis for dissonance is the felt responsibility for aversive consequences. The theoretical implications of this outlook are explored, including a discussion of the many ways that it expands the applicability of dissonance theory.

  17. Moral (or ethical) education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    OpenAIRE

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-01-01

    With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics) in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements ...

  18. MANAGER PRINCIPLES AS BASIS OF MANAGEMENT STYLE TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kopytov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach which is based on non-conventional mechanisms of management style formation. The preset level of sustainable management is maintained by self-organized environment created in the process of management style transformation in efficient management principles. Their efficiency is checked within an adaptive algorithm. The algorithm is developed on the basis of combination of evaluative tools  and base of operational  proves. The operating algorithm capability is tested within the framework of an operating enterprise. The obtained results testify about  formation of sustainable business.

  19. Design Basis for Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Søren; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    opening relationship can beused to descibe the properties of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) intension and how the stress-crack opening relationship can beapplied in a simple design scheme for pavements. The projectincludes development of design tools, experiments to determine thestress-crack opening......The paper summarises a Ph.D. project on development of a new design basis for fibre reinforced concrete ground slabs. The stress-crack openingrelationship is a well know basic material property of theso-called fictitious crack model for concrete. In the presentstudy it is shown how the stress-crack...

  20. Quantum Games with Strategies Induced by Basis Change Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr; Pykacz, Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to draw attention to a special class of two parameter unitary strategies in the Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein scheme for quantum games. We identify the players' strategies with basis change matrices. Then we prove that the resulting quantum game is invariant with respect to isomorphic transformations of the input game. Moreover, it is shown that the game so obtained may not be trivial with respect to pure Nash equilibria, compared with the model with strategies being the special unitary group SU(2).

  1. The physical basis of electronics an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, D J; Hammond, P

    1975-01-01

    The Physical Basis of Electronics: An Introductory Course, Second Edition is an 11-chapter text that discusses the physical concepts of electronic devices. This edition deals with the considerable advances in electronic techniques, from the introduction of field effect transistors to the development of integrated circuits. The opening chapters discuss the fundamentals of vacuum electronics and solid-state electronics. The subsequent chapters deal with the other components of electronic devices and their functions, including semiconductor diode and transistor as an amplifier and a switch. The d

  2. Molecular basis of antifungal drug resistance in yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morio, Florent; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Besides inherent differences in in vitro susceptibilities, clinically-relevant yeast species may acquire resistance upon exposure to most antifungal drugs used in the clinic. In recent years, major fundamental research studies have been conducted to improve our understanding of the molecular basis......., in the context of antifungal drug resistance. Also included are the methods currently available for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing and for molecular detection of mutations associated with resistance. Finally, the genetic drivers of antifungal resistance are discussed in light of the spectra...

  3. On the dynamical basis of the classification of normal galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass, J; Bertin, G; Lin, C C

    1982-06-01

    Some realistic galaxy models have been found to support discrete unstable spiral modes. Here, through the study of the relevant physical mechanisms and an extensive numerical investigation of the properties of the dominant modes in a wide class of galactic equilibria, we show how spiral structures are excited with different morphological features, depending on the properties of the equilibrium model. We identify the basic dynamical parameters and mechanisms and compare the resulting morphology of spiral modes with the actual classification of galaxies. The present study suggests a dynamical basis for the transition among various types and subclasses of normal and barred spiral galaxies.

  4. New insights into the genetic basis of intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, C; Lennox, N; Glass, I

    2000-01-01

    Within general practice patients with intellectual disabilities are common. This article sheds some new light on the underlying genetic mechanisms of intellectual disabilities. It outlines the genetic basis of known inherited and sporadic causes that have recently been understood through new molecular advances. General practice has an important role to play in pursuing a precise biomedical diagnosis by improving information provided to the patient and family regarding recurrence risks and prognoses as well as management issues specific to the underlying condition. New molecular techniques are providing us with specific diagnostic tools as well as improving our understanding of the complex mechanisms that contribute to what is known as human intelligence.

  5. Interim safety basis for fuel supply shutdown facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, J.R.; Deobald, T.L.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This ISB in conjunction with the new TSRs, will provide the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the Facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements. It is concluded that the risk associated with the current operational mode of the Facility, uranium closure, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within Risk Acceptance Guidelines. The Facility is classified as a Moderate Hazard Facility because of the potential for an unmitigated fire associated with the uranium storage buildings

  6. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  7. Technical Basis for Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulatory Guidance Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this report is to serve as the technical basis document for the next, planned revision of this RG that highlights and provides the rationale for the recommended changes. The structure of this document follows and summarizes the several assessment activities undertaken during the course of this project to evaluate new and updated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards, testing methods and limits, and relevant technology developments being incorporated into plant activities that may have EMI/RFI implications, as well as other specific issues, including impacts of electrostatic discharge (ESD) on safety equipment and impacts on increased usage of wireless devices in nuclear power plants.

  8. Basis, evidences and consequences of the inherent stellar encocooning

    CERN Document Server

    Celis, L

    2002-01-01

    Based on 7093 observations with photoelectrical photometrical measurements of 191 Mira stars, the following equations (from the papers [1] to [18]) give the basis to establish the Inherent Stellar Encocooning with the spectro-photometric characteristics of the red giant variable stars, especially the Miras, which have large amplitudes (approx 50% of giant variables). The specific basis that justifies a progressive covering with ionized molecules, cold gases, dust and grains are: The relation of the visual amplitudes A sub v =A sub r +E sub A whose real luminosity separate the intrinsic pulsation and amplitude excess effects due to the presence of molecules [145] and an opaque envelope of cool gases; The relation of the visual absolute magnitudes M sub v =M sub v sub r (P)+M sub a (delta sub T sub i sub O V) which is affected by an inherent absorption and/or occultation, and; The relation that defines the probable absolute luminosity and depends on the period and the (Sa) spectral type at maximum M sub v =-2.2...

  9. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  10. The genetic basis of severe combined immunodeficiency and its variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasher, Diana; Dalal, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes are characterized by a block in T lymphocyte differentiation that is variably associated with abnormal development of other lymphocyte lineages (B and/or natural killer [NK] cells), leading to death early in life unless treated urgently by hematopoietic stem cell transplant. SCID comprises genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions, of which the genetic basis for approximately 85% of the underlying immunologic defects have been recently elucidated. A major obstacle in deciphering the pathogenesis of SCID syndromes is that different mutations in a single gene may give rise to distinct clinical conditions and that a similar clinical phenotype can result from mutations in different genes. Mutation analysis is now an important component of the complete evaluation of a patient with SCID since it has a dramatic impact on many aspects of this potentially life-threatening disease such as genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, modalities of treatment, and, eventually, prognosis. Dr Robert Good, one of the founders of modern immunology, described the SCID syndrome as “experiments of nature.” By understanding the cellular and genetic basis of these immunodeficiency diseases and, eventually, normal immunity, we optimize the “bedside to research laboratory and back again” approach to medicine. PMID:23776382

  11. Sex-related neuroanatomical basis of emotion regulation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Kong

    Full Text Available Behavioral research has demonstrated that males have a higher capability of regulating their own and others' emotions than females; however, little is known about the sex-specific brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation ability. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural basis underlying emotion regulation ability in a large sample of young adults. Assessment of emotion regulation ability was performed using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale. As expected, males significantly scored higher in emotion regulation ability than females did. More importantly, we found the sex differences in the neuroanatomical basis of emotion regulation ability. Males showed a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, females demonstrated a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and rGMV in an anatomical cluster that extends from the left brainstem to the left hippocampus, the left amygdala and the insular cortex. The present study provides the first empirical evidence regarding the sex-linked neuroanatomical correlates of emotion regulation ability. These findings may help understand why there is a higher prevalence of affective disorders in females and maladaptive behaviors in males.

  12. Genetic Basis of Positive and Negative Symptom Domains in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, the genetic etiology of which has been well established. Yet despite significant advances in genetics research, the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder largely remain unknown. This gap has been attributed to the complexity of the polygenic disorder, which has a heterogeneous clinical profile. Examining the genetic basis of schizophrenia subphenotypes, such as those based on particular symptoms, is thus a useful strategy for decoding the underlying mechanisms. This review of literature examines the recent advances (from 2011) in genetic exploration of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We searched electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature using key words schizophrenia, symptoms, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognition, genetics, genes, genetic predisposition, and genotype in various combinations. We identified 115 articles, which are included in the review. Evidence from these studies, most of which are genetic association studies, identifies shared and unique gene associations for the symptom domains. Genes associated with neurotransmitter systems and neuronal development/maintenance primarily constitute the shared associations. Needed are studies that examine the genetic basis of specific symptoms within the broader domains in addition to functional mechanisms. Such investigations are critical to developing precision treatment and care for individuals afflicted with schizophrenia.

  13. Groebner Basis Solutions to Satellite Trajectory Control by Pole Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukelova, Z.; Krsek, P.; Smutny, V.; Pajdla, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellites play an important role, e.g., in telecommunication, navigation and weather monitoring. Controlling their trajectories is an important problem. In [1], an approach to the pole placement for the synthesis of a linear controller has been presented. It leads to solving five polynomial equations in nine unknown elements of the state space matrices of a compensator. This is an underconstrained system and therefore four of the unknown elements need to be considered as free parameters and set to some prior values to obtain a system of five equations in five unknowns. In [1], this system was solved for one chosen set of free parameters with the help of Dixon resultants. In this work, we study and present Groebner basis solutions to this problem of computation of a dynamic compensator for the satellite for different combinations of input free parameters. We show that the Groebner basis method for solving systems of polynomial equations leads to very simple solutions for all combinations of free parameters. These solutions require to perform only the Gauss-Jordan elimination of a small matrix and computation of roots of a single variable polynomial. The maximum degree of this polynomial is not greater than six in general but for most combinations of the input free parameters its degree is even lower. [1] B. Palancz. Application of Dixon resultant to satellite trajectory control by pole placement. Journal of Symbolic Computation, Volume 50, March 2013, Pages 79-99, Elsevier.

  14. Emergency procedures beyond design basis ''Feed and Bleed''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Bautista, M.T.; Campuzano Pena, F.

    1994-01-01

    The incorporation of Beyond-Design-Basis Emergency Procedures, also called the Emergency Manual or Severe Accident Manual, has been an important step forward in nuclear power plant safety. These procedures cover situations in which the deterministic criteria used in plant design have been contravened. In such situations new accident scenarios, unforeseen system actions or a combination of both, need to be considered. Establishing these procedures is actually the last in a sequence of activities the sequence includes definition of scenarios, study of their phenomena, analysis of optional system actions, verification of their effectiveness and finally, implementation of the procedure. The systematization of these new strategies is supported by the results of the probabilistic analyses which serve in this case to pinpoint the objectives of these strategies. This paper describes the application of this methodology in the definition of a procedure for heat sink recovery on the secondary side (feed and bleed) if this has been totally or partially lost in a beyond-design-basis event. (Author)

  15. Positivity and monotonicity shape preserving using radial basis function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Afida; Ong, Wen Eng; Piah, Abd. Rahni Mt

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate whether radial basis functions (RBF) can be used as an alternative to Bezier and Ball splines in preserving positivity and monotonicity of the data. For positivity shape preserving, multiquadric and Gaussian form of RBF are used in the analysis while for monotonicity, multiquadric quasi-interpolation is used. The analysis involved a free shape parameter, ɛ in preserving positivity and monotonicity for real data set. To preserve positivity, the selection of ɛ is based on the positivity constraint, s(x) > 0 and also a proposed upper bound value. The output from several real data sets are presented and the choice of ɛ varies depending on the data set. The interpolants are comparable with existing interpolation schemes using rational cubic Bezier and rational cubic Ball. For monotonicity shape preserving, the behaviour of the interpolants using different ɛ are investigated. From the examples, the resulted curves using multiquadric quasi-interpolation as the basis can only approximate the data.

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  17. Structural Basis for Aza-Glycine Stabilization of Collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasznel, Alexander J; Zhang, Yitao; Hai, Yang; Chenoweth, David M

    2017-07-19

    Previously, we have demonstrated that replacement of the strictly conserved glycine in collagen with aza-glycine provides a general solution for stabilizing triple helical collagen peptides (Chenoweth, D. M.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 9751 ; 2015, 137, 12422 ). The additional hydrogen bond and conformational constraints provided by aza-glycine increases the thermal stability and rate of folding in collagen peptides composed of Pro-Hyp-Gly triplet repeats, allowing for truncation to the smallest self-assembling peptide systems observed to date. Here we show that aza-glycine substitution enhances the stability of an arginine-containing collagen peptide and provide a structural basis for this stabilization with an atomic resolution crystal structure. These results demonstrate that a single nitrogen atom substitution for a glycine alpha-carbon increases the peptide's triple helix melting temperature by 8.6 °C. Furthermore, we provide the first structural basis for stabilization of triple helical collagen peptides containing aza-glycine and we demonstrate that minimal alteration to the peptide backbone conformation occurs with aza-glycine incorporation.

  18. Linguistic effects on the neural basis of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, C Kobayashi

    2010-07-08

    "Theory of mind" (ToM) has been described as the ability to attribute and understand other people's desires and intentions as distinct from one's own. There has been a debate about the extent to which language influences ToM development. Although very few studies directly examined linguistic influence on the neural basis of ToM, results from these studies indicate at least moderate influence of language on ToM. In this review both behavioral and neurological studies that examined the relationship between language and ToM are selectively discussed. This review focuses on cross-linguistic / cultural studies (especially Japanese vs. American / English) since my colleagues and I found evidence of significant linguistic influence on the neural basis of ToM through a series of functional brain imaging experiments. Evidence from both behavioral and neurological studies of ToM (including ours) suggests that the pragmatic (not the constitutive) aspects of language influence ToM understanding more significantly.

  19. Towards the Genomic Basis of Local Adaptation in Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giandomenico Corrado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Landraces are key elements of agricultural biodiversity that have long been considered a source of useful traits. Their importance goes beyond subsistence agriculture and the essential need to preserve genetic diversity, because landraces are farmer-developed populations that are often adapted to environmental conditions of significance to tackle environmental concerns. It is therefore increasingly important to identify adaptive traits in crop landraces and understand their molecular basis. This knowledge is potentially useful for promoting more sustainable agricultural techniques, reducing the environmental impact of high-input cropping systems, and diminishing the vulnerability of agriculture to global climate change. In this review, we present an overview of the opportunities and limitations offered by landraces’ genomics. We discuss how rapid advances in DNA sequencing techniques, plant phenotyping, and recombinant DNA-based biotechnology encourage both the identification and the validation of the genomic signature of local adaptation in crop landraces. The integration of ‘omics’ sciences, molecular population genetics, and field studies can provide information inaccessible with earlier technological tools. Although empirical knowledge on the genetic and genomic basis of local adaptation is still fragmented, it is predicted that genomic scans for adaptation will unlock an intraspecific molecular diversity that may be different from that of modern varieties.

  20. Mitisiteit as basis vir vergelykende literatuurstudie, met verwysing na waterslangsimboliek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lombard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Mythicity as basis for comparative literature, with reference to water snake symbolism Mythicity can be defined as the deliberate intention of probing the numinous dimensions of human existence by means of literature, i.e. mainly narrative forms. In this article the water snake is chosen as prominent archetypal symbol in order to investigate the functioning of mythicity. The water snake is an important symbol in the Southern African context, with its origins in Khoesan ritual and mythology. Recently several stories about water snakes and related mythological creatures have been published in Afrikaans novels and short stories. The water snake has also assimilated influences, inter alia from European, Asian and other African cultures. In this article the potential of mythicity is specifically investigated insofar as it can be utilised as basis for comparative literature. For this purpose the numinous dimensions of a mythic story are treated as equally important as the narrative dimensions. This dialectical balance is therefore used as the main criterion for the comparison of mythic texts. Other related aspects are discussed, namely the importance of the historical context, Jung’s theory of archetypes and the unconscious, and the role of interpretational devices such as metaphor, metonymy, symbolism and allegory. If the balance between numinosity and narrativity is not maintained, the mythic potential of a text is usually reduced. When writers succeed in utilising mythicity as an “open”, dynamic interpretational process, mythic relevance can still be guaranteed within a present-day, postmodern context.

  1. Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey with Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A marine electromagnetic survey is an engineering endeavour to discover the location and dimension of a hydrocarbon layer under an ocean floor. In this kind of survey, an array of electric and magnetic receivers are located on the sea floor and record the scattered, refracted and reflected electromagnetic wave, which has been transmitted by an electric dipole antenna towed by a vessel. The data recorded in receivers must be processed and further analysed to estimate the hydrocarbon location and dimension. To conduct those analyses successfuly, a radial basis function (RBF network could be employed to become a forward model of the input-output relationship of the data from a marine electromagnetic survey. This type of neural networks is working based on distances between its inputs and predetermined centres of some basis functions. A previous research had been conducted to model the same marine electromagnetic survey using another type of neural networks, which is a multi layer perceptron (MLP network. By comparing their validation and training performances (mean-squared errors and correlation coefficients, it is concluded that, in this case, the MLP network is comparatively better than the RBF network

  2. Project Parameter Estimation on the Basis of an Erp Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relich Marcin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more enterprises are using Enterprise Resource Planning (EPR systems that can also be used to plan and control the development of new products. In order to obtain a project schedule, certain parameters (e.g. duration have to be specified in an ERP system. These parameters can be defined by the employees according to their knowledge, or can be estimated on the basis of data from previously completed projects. This paper investigates using an ERP database to identify those variables that have a significant influence on the duration of a project phase. In the paper, a model of knowledge discovery from an ERP database is proposed. The presented method contains four stages of the knowledge discovery process such as data selection, data transformation, data mining and interpretation of patterns in the context of new product development. Among data mining techniques, a fuzzy neural system is chosen to seek relationships on the basis of data from completed projects stored in an ERP system.

  3. Stability Estimation of ABWR on the Basis of Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Masahiro; Fukahori, Takanori; Mizokami, Shinya; Yokoya, Jun

    In order to investigate the stability of a nuclear reactor core with an oxide mixture of uranium and plutonium (MOX) fuel installed, channel stability and regional stability tests were conducted with the SIRIUS-F facility. The SIRIUS-F facility was designed and constructed to provide a highly accurate simulation of thermal-hydraulic (channel) instabilities and coupled thermalhydraulics-neutronics instabilities of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactors (ABWRs). A real-time simulation was performed by modal point kinetics of reactor neutronics and fuel-rod thermal conduction on the basis of a measured void fraction in a reactor core section of the facility. A time series analysis was performed to calculate decay ratio and resonance frequency from a dominant pole of a transfer function by applying auto regressive (AR) methods to the time-series of the core inlet flow rate. Experiments were conducted with the SIRIUS-F facility, which simulates ABWR with MOX fuel installed. The variations in the decay ratio and resonance frequency among the five common AR methods are within 0.03 and 0.01 Hz, respectively. In this system, the appropriate decay ratio and resonance frequency can be estimated on the basis of the Yule-Walker method with the model order of 30.

  4. Physically self-consistent basis for modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopov, M.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Cosmoparticle physics appeared as a natural result of internal development of cosmology seeking physical grounds for inflation, baryosynthesis, and nonbaryonic dark matter and of particle physics going outside the Standard Model of particle interactions. Its aim is to study the foundations of particle physics and cosmology and their fundamental relationship in the combination of respective indirect cosmological, astrophysical, and physical effects. The ideas on new particles and fields predicted by particle theory and on their cosmological impact are discussed, as well as the methods of cosmoparticle physics to probe these ideas, are considered with special analysis of physical mechanisms for inflation, baryosynthesis, and nonbaryonic dark matter. These mechanisms are shown to reflect the main principle of modern cosmology, putting, instead of formal parameters of cosmological models, physical processes governing the evolution of the big-bang universe. Their realization on the basis of particle theory induces additional model-dependent predictions, accessible to various methods of nonaccelerator particle physics. Probes for such predictions, with the use of astrophysical data, are the aim of cosmoarcheology studying astrophysical effects of new physics. The possibility of finding quantitatively definite relationships between cosmological and laboratory effects on the basis of cosmoparticle approach, as well as of obtaining a unique solution to the problem of physical candidates for inflation, mechanisms of baryogenesis, and multicomponent dark matter, is exemplified in terms of gauge model with broken family symmetry, underlying horizontal unification and possessing quantitatively definite physical grounds for inflation, baryosynthesis, and effectively multicomponent dark-matter scenarios

  5. Anatomicopathological basis and clinical diagnostic significance of Kerley's A line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenguang; Ma Daqing; Chen Budong; He Wen; Wang Xinlian; Guan Yansheng; Zhang Yansong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study anatomic and pathological basis of Kerley's A line, and to evaluate the role of Kerley's A line in differential diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases (DLD). Methods: HRCT scans, gross specimen section(50-100 μm thickness) and histologic section(5-8 μm thickness) were performed and analyzed comparatively on 28 dry lung specimens from the patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis and occupational exposure history to coal dusts. At the same time, HRCT images of 176 patients with DLD were retrospectively reviewed for the detection of Kerley's A line. Results: Kerley's A lines were seen in 17 of 28 lung specimens on coronal HRCT images. The anatomic basis of Kerley's A line represented the continuity of two or more thickened interlobular septa (14 eases) and incomplete fibrotic septa between segments or subsegments (3 cases). Histologically, the linear opacities represented the deposits of coal dust, fibrosis, edema, inflammation, thickened vessel wall within interlobular septa. Kerley's A lines were present in 11 of 176 patients (6.3%) including interstitial pulmonary edema (5 cases), viral pneumonia (2 cases), lymphangitic carcinomatosis (2 cases), sarcoidosis (1 cases) and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (1 cases). Conclusion: Kerley's A line has a limited usefulness in the differential diagnosis of DLD because it is seen infrequently and not discermable. (authors)

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITION OF INFUSION MEDICATION ON BASIS OF MOXIFLOXACIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almakaeva L.G.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of fluoroquinolones covers by experience of treatment more than 800 million patients, and presently they are one of basic classes in the antimicrobial arsenal of practical medicine. Such achievements became possible after the clear understanding of intercommunication of structure and activity of molecules of this class of antibiotics. This knowledge became the basis for the synthesis of new derivatives with a wide range, powerful activity and improved pharmacokinetic profile for the best clinical outcome. Moxifloxacin is 8-methoxyfluoroquinolon of wide spectrum which interacts mainly with DNA gyrase of gram-negative and with topoisomerase of IV type of gram-positive bacteria. He has the extended activity against gram-positive cocci, however keeps activity against gram-negative bacteria. Moxifloxacin also has good activity against atypical respiratory pathogens (Legionella of pneumophila, Chlamydia of pneumoniae and Mycoplasma of pneumoniae. Another his feature is high anti-anaerobic activity. Therefore development of domestic medication with Moxifloxacin - a fluoroquinolone 4 generations - is actual. Materials and methods Research material was a substance of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride, produced by firm «Sansh Biotech Pvt. Ltd.», India, a dosage form on the basis of Moxifloxacin - solution for infusion. Qqualitative and quantitative control of samples of the drug were conducted on parameters which characterize stability: рН, content of active substance, transparency, colour, related impurities, mechanical inclusions on methods, which are described in SPhU. Results and Discussion Proposed the drug is antibiotic of wide spectrum of action of fluoroquinolone. Moxifloxacin hydrochloride is powder pale yellow with slightly hygroscopic nature. He moderately dissolve in water and methanol, poorly will dissolve in hydrochloric acid and ethanol, and practically will not dissolve in an acetone and toluene. рН 0,2 % solution is in a range

  7. Minimization of Basis Risk in Parametric Earthquake Cat Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G.

    2009-12-01

    A catastrophe -cat- bond is an instrument used by insurance and reinsurance companies, by governments or by groups of nations to cede catastrophic risk to the financial markets, which are capable of supplying cover for highly destructive events, surpassing the typical capacity of traditional reinsurance contracts. Parametric cat bonds, a specific type of cat bonds, use trigger mechanisms or indices that depend on physical event parameters published by respected third parties in order to determine whether a part or the entire bond principal is to be paid for a certain event. First generation cat bonds, or cat-in-a-box bonds, display a trigger mechanism that consists of a set of geographic zones in which certain conditions need to be met by an earthquake’s magnitude and depth in order to trigger payment of the bond principal. Second generation cat bonds use an index formulation that typically consists of a sum of products of a set of weights by a polynomial function of the ground motion variables reported by a geographically distributed seismic network. These instruments are especially appealing to developing countries with incipient insurance industries wishing to cede catastrophic losses to the financial markets because the payment trigger mechanism is transparent and does not involve the parties ceding or accepting the risk, significantly reducing moral hazard. In order to be successful in the market, however, parametric cat bonds have typically been required to specify relatively simple trigger conditions. The consequence of such simplifications is the increase of basis risk. This risk represents the possibility that the trigger mechanism fails to accurately capture the actual losses of a catastrophic event, namely that it does not trigger for a highly destructive event or vice versa, that a payment of the bond principal is caused by an event that produced insignificant losses. The first case disfavors the sponsor who was seeking cover for its losses while the

  8. On sets of vectors of a finite vector space in which every subset of basis size is a basis II

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Simeon; De Beule, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a proof of the MDS conjecture for k a parts per thousand currency sign 2p - 2. That is, that if S is a set of vectors of in which every subset of S of size k is a basis, where q = p (h) , p is prime and q is not and k a parts per thousand currency sign 2p - 2, then |S| a parts per thousand currency sign q + 1. It also contains a short proof of the same fact for k a parts per thousand currency sign p, for all q.

  9. Psychopathy: clinical features, developmental basis and therapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D F; Ramos, C L; Willett, J K

    2014-10-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by deficits in personality and behaviour. Personality deficits are marked by interpersonal and affective facets, including pathological lying, grandiose sense of self-worth, lack of remorse and callousness. Behavioural deficits are defined by lifestyle and antisocial deficits, including impulsivity, parasitic lifestyle and poor behavioural controls. The objective of this review is to provide clinicians with (i) an appreciation of the clinical features of psychopathy, (ii) an understanding of the structural and functional derangements and the genetic and environmental factors which serve as the basis for the development of psychopathy and (iii) a summary of published reports of pharmacological approaches to the management of this disorder. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-present) was conducted using the MeSH search terms psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder alone and in combination with the subheading drug therapy. Additional databases included Web of Science (1945-present) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-present) using the text words psychopath and antisocial personality were searched. A search of Amazon books using the search terms psychopathy and sociopathy was also performed. Bibliographies of relevant articles were searched for additional citations. All data sources in English were considered for inclusion. For background information, broad subject headings were searched for review articles first. Human and animal drug therapy articles were evaluated giving preference to those papers using a controlled trial methodology. Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of conscience, pathologic lying, manipulative behaviour and often superficial charm. The incidence of psychopathy in the general population is generally considered to be 0·6-4% with a higher proportion of males to females. Brain imaging studies of psychopaths suggest a smaller and less active

  10. Classification of HIV protease inhibitors on the basis of their antiviral potency using radial basis function neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, S. J.; Jurs, P. C.

    2003-02-01

    HIV protease inhibitors are being used as frontline therapy in the treatment of HIV patients. Multi-drug-resistant HIV mutant strains are emerging with the initial aggressive multi-drug treatment of HIV patients. This necessitates continued search for novel inhibitors of viral replication. These protease inhibitors may further be useful as pharmacological agents for inhibition of other viral replication. Classification models of HIV Protease inhibitors are developed using a data set of 123 compounds containing several heterocycles. Their inhibitory concentrations expressed as log (IC50) ranged from -1.52 to 2.12 log units. The dataset was divided into active and inactive classes on the basis of their antiviral potency. Initially a two-class problem (active, inactive) is explored using k-nearest neighbor approach. In order to introduce non-linearity in the classifier different approaches were investigated. This led to the goal of a fast, simple, minimum user input, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) classifier development. Then the same two-class problem was resolved using the (RBFNN) classifier. A genetic algorithm with RBFNN fitness evaluator was used to search for the optimum descriptor subsets. The application of majority rules was also tested for the RBFNN classification. The best six descriptor model found by the new cost function showed predictive ability in the high 80% range for an external prediction set.

  11. Meta-Data Objects as the Basis for System Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Estrella, Florida; Tóth, N; Kovács, Z; Le Goff, J M; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Toth, Norbert; Kovacs, Zsolt; Goff, Jean-Marie Le

    2001-01-01

    One of the main factors driving object-oriented software development in the Web- age is the need for systems to evolve as user requirements change. A crucial factor in the creation of adaptable systems dealing with changing requirements is the suitability of the underlying technology in allowing the evolution of the system. A reflective system utilizes an open architecture where implicit system aspects are reified to become explicit first-class (meta-data) objects. These implicit system aspects are often fundamental structures which are inaccessible and immutable, and their reification as meta-data objects can serve as the basis for changes and extensions to the system, making it self- describing. To address the evolvability issue, this paper proposes a reflective architecture based on two orthogonal abstractions - model abstraction and information abstraction. In this architecture the modeling abstractions allow for the separation of the description meta-data from the system aspects they represent so that th...

  12. Progress in physics basis and its impact on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, M.; Campbell, D.; Stambaugh, R.; Ide, S.; Kamada, Y.; Leonard, A.; Polevoi, A.; Mukhovatov, V.; Costley, A.E.; Gribov, Y.; Oikawa, T.; Sugihara, M.; Asakura, N.; Donne, A.J.H.; Doyle, E.J.; Federici, G.; Kukushkin, A.S.; Gormezano, C.; Gruber, O.; Houlberg, W.; Lipschultz, B.; Medvedev, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises recent progress in the physics basis and its impact on the expected performance of ITER. Significant progress has been made in many outstanding issues and in the development of hybrid and steady state operation scenarios, leading to increased confidence of achieving ITER's goals. Experiments show that tailoring the current profile can improve confinement over the standard H-mode and allow an increase in beta up to the no-wall limit at safety factors ∼ 4. Extrapolation to ITER suggests that at the reduced plasma current of ∼ 12MA, high Q > 10 and long pulse (>1000 s) operation is possible with benign ELMs. Analysis of disruption scenarios has been performed based on guidelines on current quench rates and halo currents, derived from the experimental database. With conservative assumptions, estimated electromagnetic forces on the in-vessel components are below the design target values, confirming the robustness of the ITER design against disruption forces. (author)

  13. On the physical basis of pattern formation in nonlinear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Lozneanu, E.; Popescu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial, respectively spatiotemporal patterns appear in a gaseous conductor (plasma) when an external constraint produces a local gradient of electron kinetic energy. Under such conditions, collective quantum effects related to the spatial separation of the excitation and ionization cross-sections determine the appearance of adjacent opposite space charges. The state of the resulting space charge configuration depends on the self-enhancement process of positive ions production, which destabilizes the system. Thus, a spatial pattern in the form of a stable double layer appears after self-organization when the above gradient is smaller than that for which the double layer transits into a moving phase (spatiotemporal pattern). The proposed explanation, based on investigations performed on self-organization phenomena observed in gaseous conductors, suggests a new possibility to clarify the challenging problems concerning the actual physical basis of pattern formation in semiconductors

  14. Reference Data as a Basis for National Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mildorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data are increasingly being used for a range of applications beyond their, traditional uses. Collection of such data and their update constitute a substantial part of the total costs for their maintenance. In order to ensure sustainable development in the area of geographic information systems, efficient data custody and coordination mechanisms for data sharing must be put in place. This paper shows the importance of reference data as a basis for national spatial data infrastructure that serves as a platform for decision making processes in society. There are several European initiatives supporting the wider use of spatial data. An example is the INSPIRE Directive. Its principles and the main world trends in data integration pave the way to successful SDI driven by stakeholders and coordinated by national mapping agencies.

  15. Exemplifying Quantum Systems in a Finite Element Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Toby D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the abstractions required for the expression and solution of the linear single-particle Schroedinger equation in a finite element basis. This paper consists of two disparate themes: First, to layout and establish the foundations of finite element analysis as an approximate numerical solution to extendable quantum mechanical systems; and second, to promote a high-performance open-source computational model for the approximate numerical solution to quantum mechanical systems. The structural foundation of the one-and two-dimensional time-independent Schroedinger equation describing an infinite potential well is explored and a brief overview of the hierarchal design of the computational library written in C++ is given.

  16. The genetic basis of leukaemia and clues to radiogenic causation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Work by the author and others on the genetic basis of leukemia is briefly reviewed. The somatic changes that cause leukemia typically take the form of reciprocal translocations between non-homologous autosomes, though non-random duplications and deletions also occur. There is currently no evidence that leukemic translocations are transmitted in the germ line causing leukemia in offspring, but there is evidence that constitutional chromosomal abnormality in general is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. Hereditary effects probably increase the risk of sporadic leukemia by affecting the response to environmental hazards, through 'leukemia-predisposing genes' and 'leukemia-susceptibility genes'. Rapid progress with the techniques of population molecular screening will soon make it possible to determine the extent of hereditary contribution to sporadic leukemia in relation to histories of radiation exposure. 10 refs

  17. A. Palmgren Revisited: A Basis for Bearing Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1997-01-01

    Bearing technology, as well as the bearing industry, began to develop with the invention of the bicycle in the 1850's. At the same time, high-quality steel was made possible by the Bessemer process. In 1881, H. Hertz published his contact stress analysis. By 1902, R. Stribeck had published his work based on Hertz theory to calculate the maximum load of a radially loaded ball bearing. By 1920, all of the rolling bearing types used today were being manufactured. AISI 52100 bearing steel became the material of choice for these bearings. Beginning in 1918, engineers directed their attention to predicting the lives of these bearings. In 1924, A. Palmgren published a paper outlining his approach to bearing life prediction. This paper was the basis for the Lundberg-Palmgren life theory published in 1947. A critical review of the 1924 Palmgren paper is presented here together with a discussion of its effect on bearing life prediction.

  18. Coherent Architecture Development as a Basis for Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Poul Martin

    coherent architectures in a technology context as a basis for identification of critical development areas, this research has been focused around the following three areas: 1. Product architecture instances for prototypes testing novel technology. 2. Product architecture definition for a sub-system based......The subject of this PhD thesis is architecture-centered design. It elaborates especially on two specific areas: the coherence in architectures in a technology development context and the identification of critical development areas via property-based reasoning, based on an understanding of cette...... coherence. Despite the acceptance and results presented in multiple studies from the application of architectures, the research on architecture work in a technology development context is limited. Technologies are often developed and represented in the form of product sub-systems that are made available...

  19. [Evaluation of morbidity on the basis of mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Masse, H; Aubenque, M

    1982-01-01

    Prevalence and incidence rates of leading diseases are estimated by sex and age groups for the population of France aged 15 and over. "These estimations have been made on the basis of the regional statistics of causes of death in France, during the 1968-1970 period. A simple regression model has been used. The number of patients suffering from a given disease is defined as being the part of the population statistically linked to mortality by this disease. The results obtained can generally be compared to those available from other sources. As for cancers, it appears that the estimated annual number of new cases is four times higher than the number of registered new cases." (summary in ENG, GER) excerpt

  20. Basis for criteria for exemption of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Wiborgh, M.; Bengtsson, A.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) with technical background material to be used as a basis for future decisions concerning exemption levels for decommissioning waste. Simple models have been developed for evaluating the individual doses that may arise from steel waste, concrete waste and non-burnable waste exempted from regulatory control. Two alternatives were studied for the exempted wastes: recycling and disposal in different types of near-surface repositories. The example calculations for the recycling scenarios show that the individual dose obtained is strongly dependent on the exposure time. Thus, the storage of the waste at a scrap yard will give rise to a higher dose than the melting, due to the longer storage time. (28 refs.)

  1. Structural Basis for Target Protein Regcognition by Thiredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an ubiquitous protein disulfide reductase that possesses two redox active cysteines in the conserved active site sequence motif, Trp-CysN-Gly/Pro-Pro-CysC situated in the so called Trx-fold. The lack of insight into the protein substrate recognition mechanism of Trx has to date...... on HvTrxh2 surface, associated through several van der Waals contacts and three backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds resembling beta-sheet formation. Moreover, a pattern of interactions essentially identical to that in HvTrxh2-S-S-BASI was observed in the structure of HvTrxh1 crystallized in the oxidized...... form. In the crystal lattice, HvTrxh1 formed a dimer, in which a loop segment from one molecule was situated along the hydrophobic groove at the active site of another molecule. The observed manner of protein recognition by Trx was similar in the central part to the glutathione recognition mechanisms...

  2. Molecular Basis of Encapsidation of Hepatitis C Virus Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoli; Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major etiologic agent of human liver diseases, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus and is classified in the Flaviviridae family. Although research findings for the assembly of HCV particles are accumulating due to development of HCV cell culture system, the mechanism(s) by which the HCV genome becomes encapsidated remains largely unclear. In general, viral RNA represents only a small fraction of the RNA molecules in the cells infected with RNA viruses, but the viral genomic RNA is considered to selectively packaged into virions. It was recently demonstrated that HCV RNAs containing 3' end of the genome are selectively incorporated into virus particles during the assembly process and the 3' untranslated region functions as a cis -acting element for RNA packaging. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of RNA encapsidation of HCV and classical flaviviruses, contrast with the packaging mechanism of HIV-1.

  3. The Neural Basis of Changing Social Norms through Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Madoka; Aoki, Ryuta; Sugiura, Ayaka; Phillips, Adam N; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-11-24

    Social norms regulate behavior, and changes in norms have a great impact on society. In most modern societies, norms change through interpersonal communication and persuasive messages found in media. Here, we examined the neural basis of persuasion-induced changes in attitude toward and away from norms using fMRI. We measured brain activity while human participants were exposed to persuasive messages directed toward specific norms. Persuasion directed toward social norms specifically activated a set of brain regions including temporal poles, temporo-parietal junction, and medial prefrontal cortex. Beyond these regions, when successful, persuasion away from an accepted norm specifically recruited the left middle temporal and supramarginal gyri. Furthermore, in combination with data from a separate attitude-rating task, we found that left supramarginal gyrus activity represented participant attitude toward norms and tracked the persuasion-induced attitude changes that were away from agreement.

  4. The Gaussian radial basis function method for plasma kinetic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvijoki, E., E-mail: eero.hirvijoki@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Candy, J.; Belli, E. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Embréus, O. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-10-30

    Description of a magnetized plasma involves the Vlasov equation supplemented with the non-linear Fokker–Planck collision operator. For non-Maxwellian distributions, the collision operator, however, is difficult to compute. In this Letter, we introduce Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) to discretize the velocity space of the entire kinetic system, and give the corresponding analytical expressions for the Vlasov and collision operator. Outlining the general theory, we also highlight the connection to plasma fluid theories, and give 2D and 3D numerical solutions of the non-linear Fokker–Planck equation. Applications are anticipated in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. - Highlights: • A radically new method to address the velocity space discretization of the non-linear kinetic equation of plasmas. • Elegant and physically intuitive, flexible and mesh-free. • Demonstration of numerical solution of both 2-D and 3-D non-linear Fokker–Planck relaxation problem.

  5. Scalable Normal Basis Arithmetic Unit for Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a scalable arithmetic unit for operations over elements of GF(2m represented in normal basis is presented. The unit is applicable in public-key cryptography. It comprises a pipelined Massey-Omura multiplier and a shifter. We equipped the multiplier with additional data paths to enable easy implementation of both multiplication and inversion in a single arithmetic unit. We discuss optimum design of the shifter with respect to the inversion algorithm and multiplier performance. The functionality of the multiplier/inverter has been tested by simulation and implemented in Xilinx Virtex FPGA.We present implementation data for various digit widths which exhibit a time minimum for digit width D = 15.

  6. Climate Change: The Physical Basis and Latest Results

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes: "Warming in the climate system is unequivocal." Without the contribution of Physics to climate science over many decades, such a statement would not have been possible. Experimental physics enables us to read climate archives such as polar ice cores and so provides the context for the current changes. For example, today the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, the second most important greenhouse gas, is 28% higher than any time during the last 800,000 years. Classical fluid mechanics and numerical mathematics are the basis of climate models from which estimates of future climate change are obtained. But major instabilities and surprises in the Earth System are still unknown. These are also to be considered when the climatic consequences of proposals for geo-engineering are estimated. Only Physics will permit us to further improve our understanding in order to provide the foundation for policy decisions facing the...

  7. Study on risk factors of PWR accidents beyond design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seung Hoon; Nah, W. J.; Bang, Y. S.; Oh, D. Y.; Oh, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Development of the regulatory guidelines for Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBA) with high risk requires a detailed investigation of major factors contributing to the event risk. In this study, each event was classified by the level of risk, based on the probabilistic safety assessment results, so that BDBA with high risk could be selected, with consideration of foreign and domestic regulations, and operating experiences. The regulatory requirements and technical backgrounds for the selected accidents were investigated, and effective regulatory approaches for risk reduction of the accidents. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: - Selected high risk BDBA is station blackout, anticipated without scram, total loss of feedwater. - Major contributors to the risk of selected events were investigated, and appropriate assessment of them was recommended for development of the regulatory guidelines

  8. Structural basis for recognition of S-adenosylhomocysteine by riboswitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, A.L.; Heroux, A.; Reyes, F. E.; Batey, R. T.

    2010-11-01

    S-adenosyl-(L)-homocysteine (SAH) riboswitches are regulatory elements found in bacterial mRNAs that up-regulate genes involved in the S-adenosyl-(L)-methionine (SAM) regeneration cycle. To understand the structural basis of SAH-dependent regulation by RNA, we have solved the structure of its metabolite-binding domain in complex with SAH. This structure reveals an unusual pseudoknot topology that creates a shallow groove on the surface of the RNA that binds SAH primarily through interactions with the adenine ring and methionine main chain atoms and discriminates against SAM through a steric mechanism. Chemical probing and calorimetric analysis indicate that the unliganded RNA can access bound-like conformations that are significantly stabilized by SAH to direct folding of the downstream regulatory switch. Strikingly, we find that metabolites bearing an adenine ring, including ATP, bind this aptamer with sufficiently high affinity such that normal intracellular concentrations of these compounds may influence regulation of the riboswitch.

  9. Structural Basis for Recognition of S-adenosylhomocysteine by Riboswitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Edwards; F Reyes; A Heroux; R Batey

    2011-12-31

    S-adenosyl-(L)-homocysteine (SAH) riboswitches are regulatory elements found in bacterial mRNAs that up-regulate genes involved in the S-adenosyl-(L)-methionine (SAM) regeneration cycle. To understand the structural basis of SAH-dependent regulation by RNA, we have solved the structure of its metabolite-binding domain in complex with SAH. This structure reveals an unusual pseudoknot topology that creates a shallow groove on the surface of the RNA that binds SAH primarily through interactions with the adenine ring and methionine main chain atoms and discriminates against SAM through a steric mechanism. Chemical probing and calorimetric analysis indicate that the unliganded RNA can access bound-like conformations that are significantly stabilized by SAH to direct folding of the downstream regulatory switch. Strikingly, we find that metabolites bearing an adenine ring, including ATP, bind this aptamer with sufficiently high affinity such that normal intracellular concentrations of these compounds may influence regulation of the riboswitch.

  10. Risk informed decision-making and its ethical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersdal, Gerhard; Aven, Terje

    2008-01-01

    In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle

  11. Models of Customer Behavior as a Basis of Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Ivanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of six main models of customer behavior in contemporary society and the specific tasks of marketing departments of companies at today's stage of development. The given models take into consideration: motives for choosing a product, the degree of product awareness and independence of choice, the degree of customer satisfaction with the product, lines and possibilities of making an impact on customer choice through marketing and promotion stimulation. The author believes that these models may serve as a basis in the formation of effective marketing strategies, as they describe the customers in all the stages of their actions in the process of buying products, accumulating and analyzing the experience of using them.

  12. Propagators and matrix basis on noncommutative Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Andre; Szabo, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an analytic continuation of the Euclidean Grosse-Wulkenhaar and Langmann-Szabo-Zarembo models which defines a one-parameter family of duality covariant noncommutative field theories interpolating between Euclidean and Minkowski space versions of these models, and provides an alternative regularization to the usual Feynman prescription. This regularization allows for a matrix model representation of the field theories in terms of a complex generalization of the usual basis of Landau wave functions. The corresponding propagators are calculated and identified with the Feynman propagators of the field theories. The regulated quantum field theories are shown to be UV/IR-duality covariant. We study the asymptotics of the regularized propagators in position and matrix space representations, and confirm that they generically possess a comparably good decay behavior as in the Euclidean case.

  13. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  14. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  15. The physiological basis and application of renal radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge of the basic physiology of the kidney is essential for an understanding of the application of radionuclide studies in clinical practice. A knowledge of the physiology of the kidney allows one to develop physiological models that are isomorphic and then apply the appropriate type of data analysis in relationship to these models. In this way mistakes in the type of analysis can be avoided and a strong basis for the interpretation of renal radionuclide studies in health and disease is thereby provided. Methods for measuring total renal function, the contribution of each kidney to total renal function, the presence or absence of obstructive nephropathy and the determination of the relative flows to the cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons are given as examples of this approach. (author)

  16. The genetic basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: recent breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eykens C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Eykens,1,2 Wim Robberecht1–31Research Group Experimental Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Neurobiology, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven, Belgium; 3Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Deciphering the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of the motor neuron system, is important to understand the etiology of this fatal disease as well as to develop customized ALS therapies based on the patient's genetic fingerprint. In this review, we discuss the genetic basis of ALS, and attempt to link the causal genes to three highly interrelated pathogenic mechanisms: dysproteostasis, RNA dysregulation, and axon dysfunction. In addition, we address the clinical and biological implications of these genetic findings. Furthermore, we explore to what extent genetic knowledge can be converted into targeted and personalized treatments.Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, genetics, disease modifiers, personalized medicine

  17. Basis set approach in the constrained interpolation profile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, T.; Koga, J.; Yabe, T.; Ogata, Y.; Matsunaga, E.; Aoki, T.; Sekine, M.

    2003-07-01

    We propose a simple polynomial basis-set that is easily extendable to any desired higher-order accuracy. This method is based on the Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) method and the profile is chosen so that the subgrid scale solution approaches the real solution by the constraints from the spatial derivative of the original equation. Thus the solution even on the subgrid scale becomes consistent with the master equation. By increasing the order of the polynomial, this solution quickly converges. 3rd and 5th order polynomials are tested on the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation and are proved to give solutions a few orders of magnitude higher in accuracy than conventional methods for lower-lying eigenstates. (author)

  18. Empirical basis and forensic application of affective and predatory violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the empirical basis and forensic application of a bimodal theory of violence. The definitions of affective and predatory violence, the relevant animal and clinical research, and the current empirical evidence in neurochemistry, neuropsychology and psychophysiology are reviewed. Forensic evidence for the relevance of this bimodal theory is investigated. An appropriate methodology for data gathering, and two observational measures along with one self-report measure are explicated. Integration of this bimodal theory into forensic practice is suggested. Affective and predatory modes of violence represent an empirically valid bimodal theory of violence, find application in forensic psychiatry, and scientifically deepen the understanding of discrete violent acts for both retrospective and prospective psychiatric and psychological investigations. This bimodal theory of violence should have a place in forensic psychiatric practice.

  19. Control point selection for dimensionality reduction by radial basis function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotryna Paulauskienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with dimensionality reduction technique which is based on radial basis function (RBF theory. The technique uses RBF for mapping multidimensional data points into a low-dimensional space by interpolating the previously calculated position of so-called control points. This paper analyses various ways of selection of control points (regularized orthogonal least squares method, random and stratified selections. The experiments have been carried out with 8 real and artificial data sets. Positions of the control points in a low-dimensional space are found by principal component analysis. We demonstrate that random and stratified selections of control points are efficient and acceptable in terms of balance between projection error (stress and time-consumption.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v4i1.1095

  20. FBIH financial market segmentation on the basis of image factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnela Bevanda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to recognize, single out and define market segments useful for future marketing strategies, using certain statistical techniques on the basis of influence of various image factors of financial institutions. The survey included a total of 500 interviewees: 250 bank clients and 250 clients of insurance companies. Starting from the problem area and research goal, the following hypothesis has been formulated: Basic preferences of clients in regard of image factors while selecting financial institutions are different enough to be used as such for differentiating significant market segments of clients. Two segments have been singled out by cluster analysis and named, respectively, traditionalists and visualists. Results of the research confirmed the established hypothesis and pointed to the fact that managers in the financial institutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH must undertake certain corrective actions, especially when planning and implementing communication strategies, if they wish to maintain their competitiveness in serving both selected segments.

  1. Three Design Basis Accidents’ Analysis on the HTR-10GT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Lang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study simulated the design basis accidents (DBAs sequences of the HTR-10GT core with THERMIX. When a DBA happens, the protection system will receive a scram signal which shall lead to active measures to shut down the reactor following it. In the paper, three typical DBA cases were studied. They include an accident induced by station blackout, a case caused by the withdrawal of one control rod out of the core by a mistake, and a case resulting from an earthquake, respectively. The simulation results illustrate that the fuel peak temperatures in the core during these accidents are 1066°C, 1201°C and 1067°C, respectively. It is shown that the HTR-10GT has a good safety characteristic.

  2. Molecular basis and ecological relevance of aphid body colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Tsutomu

    2016-10-01

    Aphids are small phloem sap-feeding insects, and show color polymorphism even within the same species. Crossing experiments have revealed the inheritance pattern of the body color. Coloration of aphids is determined by mainly three pigments, melanin, carotenoid, and aphin, and is influenced by both abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Aphid body colors also seem to correspond with specific biological functions under various environments. Partly due to the presence of natural enemies in the environment, a variety of physiological and behavioral responses have evolved in each color form. Thus, predation is one of the most significant external factors for maintaining body color polymorphisms. In addition, endosymbiont infections also influence aphid body color and prey-predator interactions. However, many unsolved questions remain regarding the molecular basis for and biological functions of aphid body colors. Further work, including the development of molecular techniques for comprehensive functional analysis, is needed in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. After-sales service to manufactured goods on technological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Borchardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical and exploratory paper aims to build a critical analysis on after-sales services, mainly regarded to manufactured goods on technological basis. The purpose of the research is to achieve some better understanding about the essential elements that are to be taken into account in conceiving such a service, after different approaches. After-sales service is a member of the service package and it can influence customer satisfaction. The studied issues can integrate policies to guiding firms in designing after-sales services. They are: definition of the service itself; strategic issues; the facilities and premises; and the operation management. We aim this theoretical research to be a pre-requisite to launch further empirical researches, mainly in the field of inter-organizational relationships. Key-words: service management; after-sales service; service operations; goods associated to services; inter-organizational relationships.

  4. [Genetic basis of head and neck cancers and gene therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Halil Erdem; Özkırış, Mahmut; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Saydam, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Surgery and combinations of traditional treatments are not successful enough particularly for advanced stage head and neck cancer. The major disadvantages of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the lack of specificity for the target tissue and toxicity to the patient. As a result, gene therapy may offer a more specific approach. The aim of gene therapy is to present therapeutic genes into cancer cells which selectively eliminate malignant cells with no systemic toxicity to the patient. This article reviews the genetic basis of head and neck cancers and important concepts in cancer gene therapy: (i) inhibition of oncogenes; (ii) tumor suppressor gene replacement; (iii) regulation of immune response against malignant cells; (iv) genetic prodrug activation; and (v) antiangiogenic gene therapy. Currently, gene therapy is not sufficient to replace the traditional treatments of head and neck cancers, however there is no doubt that it will have an important role in the near future.

  5. Molecular basis of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COXs) selective inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Vittorio; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Marinelli, Luciana; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Cavalli, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Parrinello, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block the cyclooxygenase enzymes (COXs) and are clinically used for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and cancers. A selective inhibition of the different isoforms, particularly COX-2, is desirable, and consequently a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of selective inhibition is of great demand. Using an advanced computational technique we have simulated the full dissociation process of a highly potent and selective inhibitor, SC-558, in both COX-1 and COX-2. We have found a previously unreported alternative binding mode in COX-2 explaining the time-dependent inhibition exhibited by this class of inhibitors and consequently their long residence time inside this isoform. Our metadynamics-based approach allows us to illuminate the highly dynamical character of the ligand/protein recognition process, thus explaining a wealth of experimental data and paving the way to an innovative strategy for designing new COX inhibitors with tuned selectivity. PMID:20215464

  6. Behavior and neural basis of near-optimal visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei Ji; Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Beck, Jeffrey M; van den Berg, Ronald; Pouget, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The ability to search efficiently for a target in a cluttered environment is one of the most remarkable functions of the nervous system. This task is difficult under natural circumstances, as the reliability of sensory information can vary greatly across space and time and is typically a priori unknown to the observer. In contrast, visual-search experiments commonly use stimuli of equal and known reliability. In a target detection task, we randomly assigned high or low reliability to each item on a trial-by-trial basis. An optimal observer would weight the observations by their trial-to-trial reliability and combine them using a specific nonlinear integration rule. We found that humans were near-optimal, regardless of whether distractors were homogeneous or heterogeneous and whether reliability was manipulated through contrast or shape. We present a neural-network implementation of near-optimal visual search based on probabilistic population coding. The network matched human performance. PMID:21552276

  7. Todd, Faraday and the electrical basis of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward

    2007-10-01

    The origins of our understanding of brain electricity and electrical discharges in epilepsy can be traced to Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60). Todd was influenced by his contemporary in London, Michael Faraday (1791-1867), who in the 1830 s and 1840 s was laying the foundations of our modern understanding of electromagnetism. Todd's concept of nervous polarity, generated in nerve vesicles and transmitted in nerve fibres (neurons in later terminology), was confirmed a century later by the Nobel Prize-winning work of Hodgkin and Huxley, who demonstrated the ionic basis of neuro-transmission, involving the same ions which had had been discovered by Faraday's mentor, Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829).

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  9. Genetic basis of triatomine behavior: lessons from available insect genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Latorre-Estivalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatomines have been important model organisms for behavioural research. Diverse reports about triatomine host search, pheromone communication in the sexual, shelter and alarm contexts, daily cycles of activity, refuge choice and behavioural plasticity have been published in the last two decades. In recent times, a variety of molecular genetics techniques has allowed researchers to investigate elaborate and complex questions about the genetic bases of the physiology of insects. This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era. In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology. This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.

  10. Molecular basis of pathogenesis of emerging viruses infecting aquatic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Gui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vertebrates are very abundant in the world, and they are of tremendous importance in providing global food security and nutrition. However, emergent and resurgent viruses, such as ranavirus (e.g., Rana grylio virus, RGV and Andriasd avidianus ranavirus, ADRV, herpesvirus (e.g., Carassius carassius herpesvirus, CaHV, reovirus (e.g., grass carp reovirus 109, GCRV-109, Scophthal musmaximus reovirus, SMReV and Micropterus salmoides reovirus, MsReV, and rhabdovirus (e.g., Siniper cachuatsi rhabdovirus, SCRV and Scophthal musmaximus rhabdovirus, SMRV can cause severe diseases in aquaculture animals and wild lower vertebrates, such as frogs, giant salamanders, fish, and so on. Here, we will briefly describe the symptoms produced by the aforementioned viruses and the molecular basis of the virus–host interactions. This manuscript aims to provide an overview of viral diseases in lower vertebrates with an emphasis on visible symptomatic manifestations and pathogenesis.

  11. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  12. Reactor safety under design basis flood condition for inland sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajela, S.; Bajaj, S.S.; Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Warudkar, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In June 1994, there was an incident of flooding at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) due to combination of heavy rains and mechanical failure in the operation of gates at the adjoining weir. An indepth review of the incident was carried out and a number of flood protection measures were recommended and were implemented at site. As part of this review, a safety analysis was also done to demonstrate reactor safety with a series of failures considered in the flood protection features. For each inland NPP site, as part of design, different flood scenarios are analysed to arrive at design basis flood (DBF) level. This level is estimated based on worst combination of heavy local precipitation, flooding in river, failure of upstream/downstream water control structures

  13. Reduced basis methods for partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio; Negri, Federico

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a basic introduction to reduced basis (RB) methods for problems involving the repeated solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from engineering and applied sciences, such as PDEs depending on several parameters and PDE-constrained optimization.  The book presents a general mathematical formulation of RB methods, analyzes their fundamental theoretical properties, discusses the related algorithmic and implementation aspects, and highlights their built-in algebraic and geometric structures.  More specifically, the authors discuss alternative strategies for constructing accurate RB spaces using greedy algorithms and proper orthogonal decomposition techniques, investigate their approximation properties and analyze offline-online decomposition strategies aimed at the reduction of computational complexity. Furthermore, they carry out both a priori and a posteriori error analysis.  The whole mathematical presentation is made more stimulating by the use of representative examp...

  14. Making Sense of Context as a Basis for Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars; Jagd, Søren

    The concept of interpersonal trust has been important in organizational trust research for at least a decade, but recently a growing literature is stressing the need to focus more on the institutional dimensions of trust-creation. The opposition between traditions stressing either interpersonal...... of the link between context and organizational trust processes. The notion of context is highly important for understanding trust processes in modern organizations, but remains largely absent in trust research. The present study proposes applying the sensemaking approach as a ‘bridging construct’ (Floyd et al......., 2011) between institutions and interactions to explore how context may be relevant for trust processes. We argue that people must actively and consciously “make sense of context” as a basis for trust. The importance of understanding how actors make sense of context in order to understand organizational...

  15. Physics Basis for a Spherical Torus Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Menard, J.; Jardin, S.C.; Mau, T.K.

    1999-01-01

    The spherical torus, or low-aspect-ratio tokamak, is considered as the basis for a fusion power plant. A special class of wall-stabilized high-beta high-bootstrap fraction low-aspect-ratio tokamak equilibrium are analyzed with respect to MHD stability, bootstrap current and external current drive, poloidal field system requirements, power and particle exhaust and plasma operating regime. Overall systems optimization leads to a choice of aspect ratio A = 1:6, plasma elongation kappa = 3:4, and triangularity delta = 0:64. The design value for the plasma toroidal beta is 50%, corresponding to beta N = 7:4, which is 10% below the ideal stability limit. The bootstrap fraction of 99% greatly alleviates the current drive requirements, which are met by tangential neutral beam injection. The design is such that 45% of the thermal power is radiated in the plasma by Bremsstrahlung and trace Krypton, with Neon in the scrapeoff layer radiating the remainder

  16. Risk informed decision-making and its ethical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersdal, Gerhard [University of Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: gerhard.ersdal@ptil.no; Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle.

  17. Dynamics Model Abstraction Scheme Using Radial Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control model for object manipulation. Properties of objects and environmental conditions influence the motor control and learning. System dynamics depend on an unobserved external context, for example, work load of a robot manipulator. The dynamics of a robot arm change as it manipulates objects with different physical properties, for example, the mass, shape, or mass distribution. We address active sensing strategies to acquire object dynamical models with a radial basis function neural network (RBF. Experiments are done using a real robot’s arm, and trajectory data are gathered during various trials manipulating different objects. Biped robots do not have high force joint servos and the control system hardly compensates all the inertia variation of the adjacent joints and disturbance torque on dynamic gait control. In order to achieve smoother control and lead to more reliable sensorimotor complexes, we evaluate and compare a sparse velocity-driven versus a dense position-driven control scheme.

  18. Efficient VLSI Architecture for Training Radial Basis Function Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhe-Cheng; Hwang, Wen-Jyi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel VLSI architecture for the training of radial basis function (RBF) networks. The architecture contains the circuits for fuzzy C-means (FCM) and the recursive Least Mean Square (LMS) operations. The FCM circuit is designed for the training of centers in the hidden layer of the RBF network. The recursive LMS circuit is adopted for the training of connecting weights in the output layer. The architecture is implemented by the field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is used as a hardware accelerator in a system on programmable chip (SOPC) for real-time training and classification. Experimental results reveal that the proposed RBF architecture is an effective alternative for applications where fast and efficient RBF training is desired. PMID:23519346

  19. CT diagnosis and pathological basis of localized malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiangwu; Wu Enfu; Yin Weiwei; Zhou Weizhong; Zhu Qijian; Zheng Xiaofeng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of CT diagnosis in localized malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Methods: CT features of 4 cases with localized malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and the pathological basis were analyzed. Results: All 4 cases showed a large localized mass with an average size of 13 cm. 3 of 4 cases were cystic-solid predominantly multi-cystic; another case was solid accompanied by necrosis. Contrast CT demonstrated marked enhancement in the solid portion of tumor in all 4 cases, the highest CT density was 106 HU(average 76 HU). There was no distant metastasis and ascites. Conclusion: Multi-cysts, remarkable enhancement of the solid area and no distant metastasis may be the main characteristic CT features of localized malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

  20. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  1. PRELIMINARY DESIGN BASIS EVENT ANALYSIS OF DOE SNF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Tsai

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to perform a preliminary design basis event (DBE) analysis of the DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) waste form. The objective of the analysis is to determine any preclosure safety impacts of the waste form on the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The scope of this analysis is to determine the offsite dose consequences and associated frequencies of selected DBEs for systems handling disposable canisters that bound all surface and subsurface off-normal events, and to compare these results against regulatory limits. The results of this work are preliminary and are intended to be used to establish a set of preliminary MGR and waste form requirements, to identify mitigation or prevention features that may be required to meet regulatory limits, and to provide input to the Site Recommendation (SR) report. This document is prepared in accordance with the associated development plan (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor [CRWMS M andO] 1999g)

  2. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  3. Network basis of suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Sarah J; Goyer, Meghan S; Ho, Tiffany C; Singh, Manpreet K; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-01-15

    Suicidal ideation rates rise precipitously in adolescence, contributing to risk for attempts. Although researchers are beginning to explore the brain basis of attempts in depressed adolescents, none have focused on the basis of ideation, which has implications for prevention. This study examined the association between intrinsic neural network coherence and the severity of suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents. Forty adolescents diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were administered the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale and underwent resting-state fMRI. We quantified within-network coherence in the executive control (ECN), default mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks, and in a non-relevant network consisting of noise signal. We associated coherence in each of these networks with the greatest lifetime severity of suicidal ideation experienced, covarying for motion, age of depression onset, and severity of current depressive and anxious symptoms. Lower coherence in the left ECN, anterior DMN, and SN were independently associated with greater lifetime severity of suicidal ideation. When including all three significant networks and covariates in a single model, only the left ECN significantly predicted suicidal ideation. Studies with a larger sample size are needed to verify our findings. Our finding of hypoconnectivity in multiple networks extends emerging evidence for hypoconnectivity in adolescent suicidality and is consistent with theoretical conceptualizations of suicidal ideation as a complex set of cognitions associated with cognitive control, self-referential thinking, and processing salient information. While multiple networks could be targets for effective early interventions, those targeting ECN functionality (cognitive control) may be particularly beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Using imagination to understand the neural basis of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2008-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies investigating the neural basis of episodic memory recall, and the related task of thinking about plausible personal future events, have revealed a consistent network of associated brain regions. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the contributions individual brain areas make to the overall recollective experience. In order to examine this, we employed a novel fMRI paradigm where subjects had to imagine fictitious experiences. In contrast to future thinking, this results in experiences that are not explicitly temporal in nature or as reliant on self-processing. By using previously imagined fictitious experiences as a comparison for episodic memories, we identified the neural basis of a key process engaged in common, namely scene construction, involving the generation, maintenance and visualisation of complex spatial contexts. This was associated with activations in a distributed network, including hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex. Importantly, we disambiguated these common effects from episodic memory-specific responses in anterior medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. These latter regions may support self-schema and familiarity processes, and contribute to the brain's ability to distinguish real from imaginary memories. We conclude that scene construction constitutes a common process underlying episodic memory and imagination of fictitious experiences, and suggest it may partially account for the similar brain networks implicated in navigation, episodic future thinking, and the default mode. We suggest that further brain regions are co-opted into this core network in a task-specific manner to support functions such as episodic memory that may have additional requirements. PMID:18160644

  5. SCHEMA CONGRUITY – A BASIS FOR EVALUATING AMBIENT ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurca Maria Alina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical basis for evaluating ambient advertising in relation to the schema. Ambient advertising, a creative form of out-of-home advertising that conveys direct and contextual messages by using and often altering existing elements of the environment in a way that surprises the target audience, appears to be a solution to the increasing clutter from the media. This study draws on the schema congruity theory to offer a better understanding of how consumers are processing information received from advertisements. Schemas are organized structures of knowledge and expectations that consumers develop in order to categorize the incoming information, and that they access every time they are experiencing a new situation. The schema-based approach is important in understanding consumer behavior because consumers are facing an environment filled with similar brands and products promoted by ads that sound and look alike. According to schema congruity theory information perceived as schema congruent offers a confortable feeling of familiarity and generates limited cognitive processing, whereas schema incongruent information generates surprise and triggers extensive cognitive processing in order to help individual make sense of the unusual situation. Taking into consideration the combination of the different levels of expectancy and relevancy there have been identified three congruency situations: extreme congruity, moderate incongruity and extreme incongruity. Existing research shows that moderate incongruent information offers the best results in recall and recognition and also the highest affect levels compared to extreme congruity and extreme incongruity. Based on evidence from literature this study attempts to position ambient advertising in the moderate incongruity category, thus theoretically proving the assumed effectiveness of this promotional tool. Therefore, this paper is a starting point in bringing the

  6. Genetic and molecular basis of diabetic foot ulcers: Clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhamb, Shaurya; Vangaveti, Venkat N; Malabu, Usman H

    2016-11-01

    Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFUs) are major complications associated with diabetes and often correlate with peripheral neuropathy, trauma and peripheral vascular disease. It is necessary to understand the molecular and genetic basis of diabetic foot ulcers in order to tailor patient centred care towards particular patient groups. This review aimed to evaluate whether current literature was indicative of an underlying molecular and genetic basis for DFUs and to discuss clinical applications. From a molecular perspective, wound healing is a process that transpires following breach of the skin barrier and is usually mediated by growth factors and cytokines released by specialised cells activated by the immune response, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, phagocytes, platelets and keratinocytes. Growth factors and cytokines are fundamental in the organisation of the molecular processes involved in making cutaneous wound healing possible. There is a significant role for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the fluctuation of these growth factors and cytokines in DFUs. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests a key role for epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation from long standing hyperglycemia and non-coding RNAs in the complex interplay between genes and the environment. Genetic factors and ethnicity can also play a significant role in the development of diabetic neuropathy leading to DFUs. Clinically, interventions which have improved outcomes for people with DFUs or those at risk of DFUs include some systemic therapeutic drug interventions which improve microvascular blood flow, surgical interventions, human growth factors, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, negative pressure wound therapy, skin replacement or shockwave therapy and the use of topical treatments. Future treatment modalities including stem cell and gene therapies are promising in the therapeutic approach to prevent the progression of chronic diabetic complications. Copyright © 2016 Tissue

  7. Development of the Conceptual Basis for Enterprise Integrated Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budko Oksana V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the conceptual basis for integrated reporting in terms of its drafting principles, taking into account the need to satisfy the information requests of interested parties regarding the company’s value in the long run and the level of implementation of its sustainable development strategy. As a result of the study, the goals of integrated reporting are defined, with consideration for the sustainable development strategy chosen by the company, which can be achieved by accomplishing tasks, among which a special role is played by the support of integrated thinking at making decisions about creating value in the short, medium and long term. It is indicated that the basis for preparing integrated reports is the use of clearly defined principles, both in respect to their list and content. The composition of the principles specified in the International Integrated Reporting Framework (IIRF is analyzed, and it is found that some of them require clarifying (strategic focus and future orientation, or defining as part of quality characteristics or requirements (reliability, comparability, interaction with stakeholders. The list of leading (basic principles is supplemented with additional principles (synergism, neutrality, efficiency, validity, logicality, the observance of which will ensure an increase in the value and content of integrated reporting. A prospect for further research is analysis of the defined by ISIR integrated reporting structure that requires improvement in part of the list of sections and their content, and will take into account the need to provide information in the interdependence of factors of economic, environmental and social influence and financial indicators in making decisions by stakeholders.

  8. Light cupula: the pathophysiological basis of persistent geotropic positional nystagmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takao; Matsuda, Kazunori; Takeda, Noriaki; Uno, Atsuhiko; Kitahara, Tadashi; Horii, Arata; Nishiike, Suetaka; Inohara, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify the pathophysiological basis of persistent geotropic positional nystagmus (PGN) in patients with the horizontal canal type of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (H-BPPV), the time constant (TC) of nystagmus and the relationship between its slow phase eye velocity (SPV) and the angle of head rotation in supine were defined. Methods Geotropic or apogeotropic positional nystagmus was recorded by video-oculography and analysed three-dimensionally. Results Geotropic positional nystagmuses in patients with H-BPPV were classified as transient geotropic positional nystagmus with a TC of ≤35 s or PGN with a TC of >35 s. Alternatively, the TC of persistent apogeotropic positional nystagmus (AN) in patients with H-BPPV was >35 s. The direction of the SPV of patients with PGN was opposite to that of patients with AN at each head position across the range of neutral head positions. The relationship between the SPV of patients with PGN and the angle of head rotation was linearly symmetrical against that of patients with AN with respect to a line drawn on the neutral head position. Conclusions Since its TC was >35 s, it is suggested that PGN is induced by cupula deviation in response to gravity at each head position. It is also suggested that the direction of cupula deviation in patients with PGN is opposite to that of patients with AN across the neutral head positional range with no nystagmus where the long axis of cupula is in alignment with the axis of gravity. Since the pathophysiological basis of AN is considered a heavy cupula, it is suggested that PGN is conversely induced by a light cupula. PMID:25586370

  9. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  10. Cerebral basis of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Nataliya A

    2013-04-01

    Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological

  11. Development of new auxiliary basis functions of the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including diffuse basis functions (def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QVPPD) for RI-MP2 and RI-CC calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Arnim; Rappoport, Dmitrij

    2015-01-14

    We report optimized auxiliary basis sets for use with the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including moderately diffuse basis functions (Rappoport and Furche, J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 134105) in resolution-of-the-identity (RI) post-self-consistent field (post-SCF) computations for the elements H-Rn (except lanthanides). The errors of the RI approximation using optimized auxiliary basis sets are analyzed on a comprehensive test set of molecules containing the most common oxidation states of each element and do not exceed those of the corresponding unaugmented basis sets. During these studies an unsatisfying performance of the def2-SVP and def2-QZVPP auxiliary basis sets for Barium was found and improved sets are provided. We establish the versatility of the def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QZVPPD basis sets for RI-MP2 and RI-CC (coupled-cluster) energy and property calculations. The influence of diffuse basis functions on correlation energy, basis set superposition error, atomic electron affinity, dipole moments, and computational timings is evaluated at different levels of theory using benchmark sets and showcase examples.

  12. Toward a physical basis of attention and self-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2009-06-01

    The concept of self-regulation is central to the understanding of human development. Self-regulation allows effective socialization and predicts both psychological pathologies and levels of achievement in schools. What has been missing are neural mechanisms to provide understanding of the cellular and molecular basis for self-regulation. We show that self-regulation can be measured during childhood by parental reports and by self-reports of adolescents and adults. These reports are summarized by a higher order factor called effortful control, which reflects perceptions about the ability of a given person to regulate their behavior in accord with cultural norms. Throughout childhood effortful control is related to children's performance in computerized conflict related tasks. Conflict tasks have been shown in neuroimaging studies to activate specific brain networks of executive attention. Several brain areas work together at rest and during cognitive tasks to regulate competing brain activity and thus control resulting behavior. The cellular structure of the anterior cingulate and insula contain cells, unique to humans and higher primates that provide strong links to remote brain areas. During conflict tasks, anterior cingulate activity is correlated with activity in remote sensory and emotional systems, depending upon the information selected for the task. During adolescence the structure and activity of the anterior cingulate has been found to be correlated with self-reports of effortful control. Studies have provided a perspective on how genes and environment act to shape the executive attention network, providing a physical basis for self-regulation. The anterior cingulate is regulated by dopamine. Genes that influence dopamine levels in the CNS have been shown to influence the efficiency of self-regulation. For example, alleles of the COMT gene that influence the efficiency of dopamine transmission are related to the ability to resolve conflict. Humans with

  13. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor

  14. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  15. The concept of risk in the design basis threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Mathematically defined, risk is a product of one or more probability factors and one or more consequences. Actuarial analysis of risk requires the creation of a numeric algorithm that reflects the interaction of different probability factors, where probability data usually draws on direct measurements of incidence. For physical protection purposes, the algorithms take the general form: Risk = Probability of successful attack x Consequence where the overall probability of a successful attack will be determined by the product of, amongst other things, the probability of there being sufficient intent, the probability of there being available hostile resources, the probability of deterrence, and the probability that a hostile act will be detected and prevented. Deliberate, malevolent acts against nuclear facilities are rare. In so far as it is possible to make an actuarial type of judgement, the probability of malevolent activity against a nuclear facility is almost zero. This creates a problem for a numerical assessment of risk for nuclear facilities where the value (consequence) term could be almost infinite. As can be seen from the general equation above, a numerical algorithm of risk of malevolent activity affecting nuclear facilities could only yield a zero or infinite result. In such circumstances, intelligence-based threat assessments are sometimes thought of as a substitute for historic data in the determination of probability. However, if the paucity of historic data reflects the actual threat - which by and large it should - no amount of intelligence is likely to yield a substantially different conclusion. This mathematical approach to analysing risk appears to lead us either to no risk and no protection or to an infinite risk demanding every conceivable protective measure. The Design Basis Threat (DBT) approach offers a way out of the dilemma. Firstly, it allows us to eliminate from further consideration all zero or near zero probabilities

  16. [Soil taxonomy on the basis of reflectance spectral characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-Jun; Zhang, Bai; Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Song, Kai-Shan; Wang, Zong-Ming; Li, Fang; Hu, Mao-Gui

    2008-03-01

    Soil spectral reflectance is the comprehensive representation of soil physical and chemical parameters, and its study is the physical basis for soil remote sensing and provides a new way and standard for soil properties themselves' research. Soil room spectra significantly correlate with that derived from hyperspectral images. So the room spectra are very important for soil taxonomy and investigation. To seek for the feasibility of soil taxonomy on the basis of topsoil reflectance spectral characteristics, and provide the theory foundation for quick soil taxonomy based on remote sensing methods, the spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2 500 nm) of 248 soil samples (black soil, chernozem, meadow soil, blown soil, alluvial soil) collected from Nongan county, Jilin province was measured with a hyperspectral device in room, and the soil spectral characteristics were determined with continuum removal method, and soil spectral indices (spectral absorption area, depth and asymmetry) were computed, which were introduced into BP network models as external input variables. The models consist of three layers (input, output and hidden layer), the training function is "TRAINLM", learning function "LEARNGDM", and transferring function "TAN SIG". The results showed that: (1) There are some differences among different soils in their spectral characteristics, but with similar parental matrix and climate, the spectral differences of soils in Nongan county are not significant. So it's difficult to analyze soil spectral characteristics based on soil reflectance. (2) The curves after continuum removal strengthened soil spectral absorption characteristics, and simplified soil spectral analysis. The soil spectral curves in Nongan county mainly have five spectral absorption vales at 494, 658, 1 415, 1 913 and 2 206 nm, and the former two vales are caused by soil organic matter, Fe and mechanical composition, the latter three are due to soil moisture; the

  17. Catábasis y resurreción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar González Serrano

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La idea de la «catábasis»; es decir, el descenso al infierno y la posterior salida del mismo (anábasis o resurrección aparece inmersa desde la más remota antigüedad, en el marco de las creencias funerarias de casi todas las civilizaciones del mundo. Así pues, el culto a los muertos ha sido un hecho desde el Neolítico (o desde las fases finales del Paleolítico tanto por necesidades higiénicas, como de piedad hacia los difuntos. Otra creencia funeraria de la antigüedad fue la necesidad de descender al infierno cuando alguien quería hablar o tener algún tipo de relación con los hombres sabios que moraban en el «ínframundo». Así, los dioses más importantes de la Naturaleza (Marduk, Heracles, Orfeo, los Dióscuros, Odiseo, Eneas, etc. descendieron a los infiernos donde todos tuvieron inolvidables experiencias. Lo importante era poder imaginar una escapada dei mundo de ias tinieblas, donde los muertos, en el mejor de los casos, son sombras descarnadas, como sucedía en el Hades de los griegos.The idea of «catabasis», which means the descent to Hell and later departing it («anabasis» or resurrection, appears in the funeral beliefs of almost all civilisations since the remotest antiquity. Thus, worship of the dead has been a feature since Neolithic (or last period of the Palaeolithic for both reasons of hygiene and piety to the deceased. Another funeral belief in antiquity was the need to descend to Hell when somebody wanted to speak or to have some contact with the wise men that were at the «netherworld». So, the most important Gods of Nature (Marduk, Osiris, Adonis, Attis, Persephone and the most famous héroes (Theseus, Heracles, Orpheus, the Dióscuros, Odysseus, Eneas, etc. descended to Hell, were they all had unforgettable experiences.

  18. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chan, Woan-Eng [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ko, Tzu-Ping [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jiann-Shiun [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Wang, Andrew H.-J., E-mail: ahjwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  19. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-04-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  20. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2011-04-04

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  1. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Tidal Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Helen A.; Ridgway, Jeff R.; Minster, Jean-Bernard; Yi, Donghui; Bentley, Charles R.`

    2012-01-01

    This Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document deals with the tidal corrections that need to be applied to range measurements made by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). These corrections result from the action of ocean tides and Earth tides which lead to deviations from an equilibrium surface. Since the effect of tides is dependent of the time of measurement, it is necessary to remove the instantaneous tide components when processing altimeter data, so that all measurements are made to the equilibrium surface. The three main tide components to consider are the ocean tide, the solid-earth tide and the ocean loading tide. There are also long period ocean tides and the pole tide. The approximate magnitudes of these components are illustrated in Table 1, together with estimates of their uncertainties (i.e. the residual error after correction). All of these components are important for GLAS measurements over the ice sheets since centimeter-level accuracy for surface elevation change detection is required. The effect of each tidal component is to be removed by approximating their magnitude using tidal prediction models. Conversely, assimilation of GLAS measurements into tidal models will help to improve them, especially at high latitudes.

  2. The molecular basis of human retinal and vitreoretinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Wolfgang; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara; Neidhardt, John

    2010-09-01

    During the last two to three decades, a large body of work has revealed the molecular basis of many human disorders, including retinal and vitreoretinal degenerations and dysfunctions. Although belonging to the group of orphan diseases, they affect probably more than two million people worldwide. Most excitingly, treatment of a particular form of congenital retinal degeneration is now possible. A major advantage for treatment is the unique structure and accessibility of the eye and its different components, including the vitreous and retina. Knowledge of the many different eye diseases affecting retinal structure and function (night and colour blindness, retinitis pigmentosa, cone and cone rod dystrophies, photoreceptor dysfunctions, as well as vitreoretinal traits) is critical for future therapeutic development. We have attempted to present a comprehensive picture of these disorders, including biological, clinical, genetic and molecular information. The structural organization of the review leads the reader through non-syndromic and syndromic forms of (i) rod dominated diseases, (ii) cone dominated diseases, (iii) generalized retinal degenerations and (iv) vitreoretinal disorders, caused by mutations in more than 165 genes. Clinical variability and genetic heterogeneity have an important impact on genetic testing and counselling of affected families. As phenotypes do not always correlate with the respective genotypes, it is of utmost importance that clinicians, geneticists, counsellors, diagnostic laboratories and basic researchers understand the relationships between phenotypic manifestations and specific genes, as well as mutations and pathophysiologic mechanisms. We discuss future perspectives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nasal septum configuration as a basis for novel septal splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Nina; Kühnel, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    The objective is to use anatomical determinations of nasal septum shape and surface area in adults as a design basis for silastic septal splints of universal size and fit and offering maximum possible surface coverage. The objective is also to devise a method of securing the septal splints, so that surface pressure on septal mucosa is distributed as evenly as possible while not interfering with capillary perfusion. Nasal septum area was determined in 21 Caucasian body donors, and nasal septum thickness was measured in 20 CT scans. Septal splints of universal size and shape were prepared from silastic sheeting. The holding force of various neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets, and the surface pressure exerted by magnet-containing septal splints was calculated. These septal splints of novel design offer a satisfactory fit in routine clinical practice. The splints can be securely attached with built-in NdFeB magnets, and surface pressure can be distributed evenly across the nasal septum while not interfering with mucosal tissue perfusion. With their simple intranasal insertion, these magnet-containing septal splints of universal size and optimised shape offer maximum possible septum coverage following septoplasty/septorhinoplasty. The absence of interference with septal tissue perfusion means that they are likely to be associated with fewer postoperative complications and better outcomes.

  4. Human reliability assessment on the basis of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straeter, O.

    1997-01-01

    For development of methodology, available models for qualitative assessment of human errors (e.g. by Swain, Hacker, Rasmussen) and a variety of known systematic approaches for quantitiative assessment of inadequate human action (e.g. THERP, ASEP, HCR, SLIM) were taken as a basis to establish a job specification, which in turn was used for developing a method for acquisition, characterisation and evaluation of errors. This method encompasses the two processes of event analysis and event evaluation: The first step comprises analysis of events by analysis of information describing the conditions and scenarios of relevance to the inadequate human action examined. In addition to the description of process sequences, information is taken into account on possible conditions that may bring about failure. As an assessment of human reliability requires manifold approaches for evaluation, a connectionistic procedure was developed for evaluation of the compilation of events based on a debate about various approaches from the domain of artificial intelligence (AI). This procedure yields both qualitative and quantitative information through a homogenous approach. (orig./GL) [de

  5. Structural basis for iron piracy by pathogenic Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Easley, Nicole C; Oke, Muse; Mizuno, Naoko; Gumbart, James; Boura, Evzen; Steere, Ashley N; Zak, Olga; Aisen, Philip; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Evans, Robert W; Gorringe, Andrew R; Mason, Anne B; Steven, Alasdair C; Buchanan, Susan K

    2012-02-12

    Neisseria are obligate human pathogens causing bacterial meningitis, septicaemia and gonorrhoea. Neisseria require iron for survival and can extract it directly from human transferrin for transport across the outer membrane. The transport system consists of TbpA, an integral outer membrane protein, and TbpB, a co-receptor attached to the cell surface; both proteins are potentially important vaccine and therapeutic targets. Two key questions driving Neisseria research are how human transferrin is specifically targeted, and how the bacteria liberate iron from transferrin at neutral pH. To address these questions, we solved crystal structures of the TbpA-transferrin complex and of the corresponding co-receptor TbpB. We characterized the TbpB-transferrin complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and the TbpA-TbpB-transferrin complex by electron microscopy. Our studies provide a rational basis for the specificity of TbpA for human transferrin, show how TbpA promotes iron release from transferrin, and elucidate how TbpB facilitates this process.

  6. Structural basis of substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M.H.G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna J.S.; van Zeijl, Leonie; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.; Kasiem, Mobien; Harlos, Karl; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Smyth, Susan S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bollen, Mathieu; Morris, Andrew J.; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Perrakis, Anastassis (Pfizer); (Leuven); (Oxford); (NCI-Netherlands); (Kentucky)

    2013-09-25

    Autotaxin (ATX, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2, ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemoattractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling is involved in various pathologies including tumor progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis by ATX and the mechanism by which it interacts with target cells are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of ATX, alone and in complex with a small-molecule inhibitor. We have identified a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and mapped key residues for catalysis and selection between nucleotide and phospholipid substrates. We have shown that ATX interacts with cell-surface integrins through its N-terminal somatomedin B-like domains, using an atypical mechanism. Our results define determinants of substrate discrimination by the ENPP family, suggest how ATX promotes localized LPA signaling and suggest new approaches for targeting ATX with small-molecule therapeutic agents.

  7. Nuclear forensics-metrological basis for legal defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggitt, J.; Inn, K.; Goldberg, S.; Essex, R.; LaMont, S.; Chase, S.

    2009-01-01

    The admissibility of nuclear forensics measurements and opinions derived from them in US Federal and State courts are based on criteria established by the US Supreme Court in the case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow and the 2000 Amendment of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. These criteria are being addressed by new efforts that include the development of certified reference materials (CRMs) to provide the basis for analytical method development, optimization, calibration, validation, quality control, testing, readiness, and declaration of measurement uncertainties. Quality data is crucial for all stages of the program, from R and D, and database development, to actual casework. Weakness at any point in the program can propagate to reduce the confidence of final conclusions. The new certified reference materials will provide the necessary means to demonstrate a high level of metrological rigor for nuclear forensics evidence and will form a foundation for legally defensible nuclear chemical analysis. The CRMs will allow scientists to devise validated analytical methods, which can be corroborated by independent analytical laboratories. CRMs are required for ISO accreditation of many different analytical techniques which may be employed in the analysis of interdicted nuclear materials. (author)

  8. Structural basis for functional tetramerization of lentiviral integrase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that a tetramer of integrase (IN is the protagonist of the concerted strand transfer reaction, whereby both ends of retroviral DNA are inserted into a host cell chromosome. Herein we present two crystal structures containing the N-terminal and the catalytic core domains of maedi-visna virus IN in complex with the IN binding domain of the common lentiviral integration co-factor LEDGF. The structures reveal that the dimer-of-dimers architecture of the IN tetramer is stabilized by swapping N-terminal domains between the inner pair of monomers poised to execute catalytic function. Comparison of four independent IN tetramers in our crystal structures elucidate the basis for the closure of the highly flexible dimer-dimer interface, allowing us to model how a pair of active sites become situated for concerted integration. Using a range of complementary approaches, we demonstrate that the dimer-dimer interface is essential for HIV-1 IN tetramerization, concerted integration in vitro, and virus infectivity. Our structures moreover highlight adaptable changes at the interfaces of individual IN dimers that allow divergent lentiviruses to utilize a highly-conserved, common integration co-factor.

  9. Molecular basis for the substrate specificity of quorum signal synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Hui; Frane, Nicole D; Christensen, Quin H; Greenberg, E Peter; Nagarajan, Rajesh; Nair, Satish K

    2017-08-22

    In several Proteobacteria , LuxI-type enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) signals using S -adenosyl-l-methionine and either cellular acyl carrier protein (ACP)-coupled fatty acids or CoA-aryl/acyl moieties as progenitors. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of signal biosynthesis, the basis for substrate specificity, or the rationale for donor specificity for any LuxI member. Here, we present several cocrystal structures of BjaI, a CoA-dependent LuxI homolog that represent views of enzyme complexes that exist along the reaction coordinate of signal synthesis. Complementary biophysical, structure-function, and kinetic analysis define the features that facilitate the unusual acyl conjugation with S -adenosylmethionine (SAM). We also identify the determinant that establishes specificity for the acyl donor and identify residues that are critical for acyl/aryl specificity. These results highlight how a prevalent scaffold has evolved to catalyze quorum signal synthesis and provide a framework for the design of small-molecule antagonists of quorum signaling.

  10. The Neural Basis of Deception in Strategic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, the (precuneus (CUN, and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender’s veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  11. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Bryan A.; Crawford, M.B.; Galson, D.A.; Marietta, Melvin G.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal

  12. A natural basis for efficient brain-actuated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeig, S.; Enghoff, S.; Jung, T. P.; Sejnowski, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The prospect of noninvasive brain-actuated control of computerized screen displays or locomotive devices is of interest to many and of crucial importance to a few 'locked-in' subjects who experience near total motor paralysis while retaining sensory and mental faculties. Currently several groups are attempting to achieve brain-actuated control of screen displays using operant conditioning of particular features of the spontaneous scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) including central mu-rhythms (9-12 Hz). A new EEG decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), appears to be a foundation for new research in the design of systems for detection and operant control of endogenous EEG rhythms to achieve flexible EEG-based communication. ICA separates multichannel EEG data into spatially static and temporally independent components including separate components accounting for posterior alpha rhythms and central mu activities. We demonstrate using data from a visual selective attention task that ICA-derived mu-components can show much stronger spectral reactivity to motor events than activity measures for single scalp channels. ICA decompositions of spontaneous EEG would thus appear to form a natural basis for operant conditioning to achieve efficient and multidimensional brain-actuated control in motor-limited and locked-in subjects.

  13. Structural basis of RNA polymerase II backtracking, arrest and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-03-10

    During gene transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) II moves forwards along DNA and synthesizes messenger RNA. However, at certain DNA sequences, Pol II moves backwards, and such backtracking can arrest transcription. Arrested Pol II is reactivated by transcription factor IIS (TFIIS), which induces RNA cleavage that is required for cell viability. Pol II arrest and reactivation are involved in transcription through nucleosomes and in promoter-proximal gene regulation. Here we present X-ray structures at 3.3 Å resolution of an arrested Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II complex with DNA and RNA, and of a reactivation intermediate that additionally contains TFIIS. In the arrested complex, eight nucleotides of backtracked RNA bind a conserved 'backtrack site' in the Pol II pore and funnel, trapping the active centre trigger loop and inhibiting mRNA elongation. In the reactivation intermediate, TFIIS locks the trigger loop away from backtracked RNA, displaces RNA from the backtrack site, and complements the polymerase active site with a basic and two acidic residues that may catalyse proton transfers during RNA cleavage. The active site is demarcated from the backtrack site by a 'gating tyrosine' residue that probably delimits backtracking. These results establish the structural basis of Pol II backtracking, arrest and reactivation, and provide a framework for analysing gene regulation during transcription elongation.

  14. [Exercise-induced shear stress: Physiological basis and clinical impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Romero, Fernando; Saavedra, María Javiera

    2016-01-01

    The physiological regulation of vascular function is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, where an imbalance between synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is one of its main mechanisms. In this context, the shear stress is one of the most important mechanical stimuli to improve vascular function, due to endothelial mechanotransduction, triggered by stimulation of various endothelial mechanosensors, induce signaling pathways culminating in increased bioavailability of vasodilators molecules such as nitric oxide, that finally trigger the angiogenic mechanisms. These mechanisms allow providing the physiological basis for the effects of exercise on vascular health. In this review it is discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular response induced by shear stress and its impact in reversing vascular injury associated with the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in our population. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s. This test assessed the ability of four-year-olds to delay gratification and showed how this ability correlated with success later in life. The role of the serotonergic system in sleep and how this role changes with age are also discussed. The serotonergic system is involved in reward processing and interactions with the dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and the prefrontal cortex are thought to comprise the neural basis for behavioral patterns that are affected by the quantity, quality, and timing of sleep early in life.

  16. Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-29

    There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s. This test assessed the ability of four-year-olds to delay gratification and showed how this ability correlated with success later in life. The role of the serotonergic system in sleep and how this role changes with age are also discussed. The serotonergic system is involved in reward processing and interactions with the dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and the prefrontal cortex are thought to comprise the neural basis for behavioral patterns that are affected by the quantity, quality, and timing of sleep early in life.

  17. ECOLOGY AND INNOVATION THE BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Rozenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We discuss some aspects of innovation activity in ecology (ecological rationing, new methods of bioindication and biomonitoring, waste disposal, environmental audits of territories etc.. Methods. The study was performed using the SF-36 Survey in accordance with the requirements of the International Quality of Life Assessment Project. Results. The problems of innovation in environmental management were discussed. We assessed the quality of life of the population in Dakhadayevsky district of Dagestan. New methods of bioindication and biomonitoring have been analyzed. We suggest methodological basis of environmental management, spatial and temporal variability and sustainability of ecosystems, optimal territorial units of environmental management, information support of environmental protection activities, modeling and forecasting of the natural environment, basin-landscape concept nature management. Conclusions. Anthropogenic changes in the environment to a large extent depend on the basin-landscape organization of natural processes. Local air pollution, erosion materials from agriculture, soil erosion, pollution of surface and groundwater related to the structural features of the watershed, landscape differentiation, climate, vegetation and soil cover. These population-based studies of quality of life make possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of various medical and social and economic programs aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being. They can serve as indicators of the environmental pillar of sustainable development, significantly adding to the overall picture of environmental research.

  18. Independent Molecular Basis of Convergent Highland Adaptation in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuno, Shohei; Ralph, Peter; Swarts, Kelly; Elshire, Rob J.; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; Buckler, Edward S.; Hufford, Matthew B.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits in different species or lineages of the same species; this often is a result of adaptation to similar environments, a process referred to as convergent adaptation. We investigate here the molecular basis of convergent adaptation in maize to highland climates in Mesoamerica and South America, using genome-wide SNP data. Taking advantage of archaeological data on the arrival of maize to the highlands, we infer demographic models for both populations, identifying evidence of a strong bottleneck and rapid expansion in South America. We use these models to then identify loci showing an excess of differentiation as a means of identifying putative targets of natural selection and compare our results to expectations from recently developed theory on convergent adaptation. Consistent with predictions across a wide parameter space, we see limited evidence for convergent evolution at the nucleotide level in spite of strong similarities in overall phenotypes. Instead, we show that selection appears to have predominantly acted on standing genetic variation and that introgression from wild teosinte populations appears to have played a role in highland adaptation in Mexican maize. PMID:26078279

  19. New insights into the genetic basis of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thejaswini Venkatesh,1 Padmanaban S Suresh,2 Rie Tsutsumi3 1Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, 2Centre for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, India; 3University of Tokushima, Institute of Health Bioscience, Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Tokushima, Japan Abstract: Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system characterized by inability to achieve pregnancy after 12 or more months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. A variety of factors, including ovulation defects, spermatogenic failure, parental age, obesity, and infections have been linked with infertility, in addition to specific karyotypes and genotypes. The study of genes associated with infertility in rodent models has expanded the field of translational genetics in identifying the underlying cause of human infertility problems. Many intriguing aspects of the molecular basis of infertility in humans remain poorly understood; however, application of genetic knowledge in this field looks promising. The growing literature on the genetics of human infertility disorders deserves attention and a critical concise summary is required. This paper provides information obtained from a systematic analysis of the literature related to current research into the genetics of infertility affecting both sexes. Keywords: infertility, genetics, polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure, spermatogenic failure, cystic fibrosis

  20. Structural basis for the recruitment of glycogen synthase by glycogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeqiraj, Elton; Tang, Xiaojing; Hunter, Roger W; García-Rocha, Mar; Judd, Andrew; Deak, Maria; von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Alexander; Kurinov, Igor; Guinovart, Joan J; Tyers, Mike; Sakamoto, Kei; Sicheri, Frank

    2014-07-15

    Glycogen is a primary form of energy storage in eukaryotes that is essential for glucose homeostasis. The glycogen polymer is synthesized from glucose through the cooperative action of glycogen synthase (GS), glycogenin (GN), and glycogen branching enzyme and forms particles that range in size from 10 to 290 nm. GS is regulated by allosteric activation upon glucose-6-phosphate binding and inactivation by phosphorylation on its N- and C-terminal regulatory tails. GS alone is incapable of starting synthesis of a glycogen particle de novo, but instead it extends preexisting chains initiated by glycogenin. The molecular determinants by which GS recognizes self-glucosylated GN, the first step in glycogenesis, are unknown. We describe the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans GS in complex with a minimal GS targeting sequence in GN and show that a 34-residue region of GN binds to a conserved surface on GS that is distinct from previously characterized allosteric and binding surfaces on the enzyme. The interaction identified in the GS-GN costructure is required for GS-GN interaction and for glycogen synthesis in a cell-free system and in intact cells. The interaction of full-length GS-GN proteins is enhanced by an avidity effect imparted by a dimeric state of GN and a tetrameric state of GS. Finally, the structure of the N- and C-terminal regulatory tails of GS provide a basis for understanding phosphoregulation of glycogen synthesis. These results uncover a central molecular mechanism that governs glycogen metabolism.

  1. Allometric basis of enrofloxacin scaling in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, L K; Jacobson, E R

    2008-02-01

    When body size varies greatly, drug disposition can best be described as an allometric function of body weight. Therefore, the allometry of standard metabolic rate (SMR; 3/4 power) and body surface area (BSA; 2/3 power) have been advocated as surrogate markers for the prediction of key pharmacokinetic parameters. The goal of the present study was to examine the allometric basis of pharmacokinetic scaling within a species, green iguanas. Enrofloxacin was administered intravenously to 20 green iguanas (322-3824 g), and noncompartmental analysis was used to calculate standard pharmacokinetic parameters, which were log(10) transformed and regressed against log(10) body weight. The slopes of significant regressions were compared with the values of unity, 3/4, and 2/3. The slope of enrofloxacin total body clearance (Cl) was also compared with the slopes relating SMR and renal Cl of (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)DTPA) to body weight in iguanas. Enrofloxacin Cl depended allometrically on body weight with the power of 0.32. The slope of enrofloxacin Cl was significantly less than those of SMR, Cl of (99m)DTPA, and the 2/3 value. Therefore, the relationship between enrofloxacin Cl and body weight does not directly depend on the allometry of BSA, SMR, or renal Cl of (99m)DTPA in iguanas.

  2. DARHT: INTEGRATION OF AUTHORIZATION BASIS REQUIREMENTS AND WORKER SAFETY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MC CLURE, D. A.; NELSON, C. A.; BOUDRIE, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the results of consensus agreements reached by the DARHT Safety Planning Team during the development of the update of the DARHT Safety Analysis Document (SAD). The SAD is one of the Authorization Basis (AB) Documents required by the Department prior to granting approval to operate the DARHT Facility. The DARHT Safety Planning Team is lead by Mr. Joel A. Baca of the Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). Team membership is drawn from the Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office, the Department of Energy Los Alamos Area Office (DOE/LAAO), and several divisions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Revision 1 of the DARHT SAD had been written as part of the process for gaining approval to operate the Phase 1 (First Axis) Accelerator. Early in the planning stage for the required update of the SAD for the approval to operate both Phase 1 and Phase 2 (First Axis and Second Axis) DARHT Accelerator, it was discovered that a conflict existed between the Laboratory approach to describing the management of facility and worker safety

  3. Academic procrastination and academic performance: An initial basis for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshit, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Academic procrastination is a prevalent phenomenon with a range of negative outcomes. Many studies focused on causes and correlates of academic procrastination; however, the study of interventions for academic procrastination is scarce. The present study is an initial effort to study the relationship between academic procrastination, online course participation, and achievement, as a basis for developing an intervention for academic procrastination. Findings indicated that studying procrastination was negatively associated with final exam grade as well as with the three online course participation measures. Final exam grade was positively associated with two of the online course participation measures, and they positively correlated with each other. In addition, results indicated that studying procrastination, in combination with online course participation measures, explained about 50% of variance in final exam's grade. Frequency of activities in course Web site had the strongest positive effect on final exam's grade. These findings strengthen the notion that studying procrastination is an impediment to students' academic performance and outcomes and clarifies the need to develop and study academic interventions for academic procrastination as a means to decrease its prevalence in academic settings.

  4. Moral (or ethical education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds.

  5. Genetic basis for rapidly evolved tolerance in the wild ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) residing in some urban and industrialized estuaries of the US eastern seaboard demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, characterized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis of the genetic basis for DLC tolerance in killifish inhabiting an urban estuary contaminated with PCB congeners, the most toxic of which are DLCs. Consistent with mechanistic knowledge of DLC toxicity in fish and other vertebrates, the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (ahr2) region accounts for 17% of trait variation; however, QTLs on independent linkage groups and their interactions have even greater explanatory power (44%). QTLs interpreted within the context of recently available Fundulus genomic resources and shared synteny among fish species suggest adaptation via inter-acting components of a complex stress response network. Some QTLs were also enriched in other killifish populations characterized as DLC tolerant and residing in distant urban estuaries contaminated with unique mixtures of pollutants. Together, our results suggest that DLC tolerance in killifish represents an emerging example of parallel contemporary evolution that has been driven by intense human-mediated selection on natural populations. This manuscript describes experimental studies that contribute to our understanding of the ecological

  6. The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Golub, Victoria M

    2016-04-01

    Recently, cannabis has been suggested as a potential alternative therapy for refractory epilepsy, which affects 30% of epilepsy, both adults and children, who do not respond to current medications. There is a large unmet medical need for new antiepileptics that would not interfere with normal function in patients with refractory epilepsy and conditions associated with refractory seizures. The two chief cannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahyrdrocannabinol, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana. Claims of clinical efficacy in epilepsy of CBD-predominant cannabis or medical marijuana come mostly from limited studies, surveys, or case reports. However, the mechanisms underlying the antiepileptic efficacy of cannabis remain unclear. This article highlights the pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy, with an emphasis on the endocannabinoid mechanisms underlying the emerging neurotherapeutics of CBD in epilepsy. CBD is anticonvulsant, but it has a low affinity for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2; therefore the exact mechanism by which it affects seizures remains poorly understood. A rigorous clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical CBD products is needed to establish the safety and efficacy of their use in the treatment of epilepsy. Identification of mechanisms underlying the anticonvulsant efficacy of CBD is also critical for identifying other potential treatment options. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Memory formation during anaesthesia: plausibility of a neurophysiological basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    As opposed to conscious, personally relevant (explicit) memories that we can recall at will, implicit (unconscious) memories are prototypical of ‘hidden’ memory; memories that exist, but that we do not know we possess. Nevertheless, our behaviour can be affected by these memories; in fact, these memories allow us to function in an ever-changing world. It is still unclear from behavioural studies whether similar memories can be formed during anaesthesia. Thus, a relevant question is whether implicit memory formation is a realistic possibility during anaesthesia, considering the underlying neurophysiology. A different conceptualization of memory taxonomy is presented, the serial parallel independent model of Tulving, which focuses on dynamic information processing with interactions among different memory systems rather than static classification of different types of memories. The neurophysiological basis for subliminal information processing is considered in the context of brain function as embodied in network interactions. Function of sensory cortices and thalamic activity during anaesthesia are reviewed. The role of sensory and perisensory cortices, in particular the auditory cortex, in support of memory function is discussed. Although improbable, with the current knowledge of neurophysiology one cannot rule out the possibility of memory formation during anaesthesia. PMID:25735711

  8. African communal basis for autonomy and life choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2017-09-05

    I argue that the metaphysical capacity of autonomy is not intrinsically valuable; it is valuable only when used in relation to a community's values and instrumentally for making the proper choices that will promote one's own and the community's well-being. I use the example of the choice to take one's life by suicide to illuminate this view. I articulate a plausible African conception of personhood as a basis for the idea of relational autonomy. I argue that this conception is better understood as a social-moral thesis, and not a metaphysical thesis. A metaphysical thesis gives an account of the abstract nature of an atomic individual, his agency, and rational choice. The social-moral thesis indicates that personhood and autonomy are positive and relational to the life plans, well-being, material conditions, and the best means for achieving them that are made available and possible by harmonious living in a community. This idea of autonomy is not just having the capacity of freewill; it also involves how such freewill is used, in terms of how an individual's choices are guided by internalized communal values. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A biochemical basis for induction of retina regeneration by antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri-Ruiz, Nancy; Haynes, Tracy; Landers, Joseph; Woods, Justin; Gemma, Michael J; Hughes, Michael; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2018-01-15

    The use of antioxidants in tissue regeneration has been studied, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Here, we analyze the role of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in retina regeneration. Embryonic chicks are able to regenerate their retina after its complete removal from retinal stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin (CM) of the eye only if a source of exogenous factors, such as FGF2, is present. This study shows that NAC modifies the redox status of the CM, initiates self-renewal of the stem/progenitor cells, and induces regeneration in the absence of FGF2. NAC works as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals either independently or through the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), and/or by reducing oxidized proteins through a thiol disulfide exchange activity. We dissected the mechanism used by NAC to induce regeneration through the use of inhibitors of GSH synthesis and the use of other antioxidants with different biochemical structures and modes of action, and found that NAC induces regeneration through its thiol disulfide exchange activity. Thus, our results provide, for the first time, a biochemical basis for induction of retina regeneration. Furthermore, NAC induction was independent of FGF receptor signaling, but dependent on the MAPK (pErk1/2) pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The basis for prolonged contractions in molluscan muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, W H; TWAROG, B M

    1960-05-01

    Two basically different hypotheses have been advanced to explain the behavior of molluscan muscles in cases in which relaxation of the muscle is extraordinarily prolonged. In one hypothesis, tetanic activation due to prolonged activity in an intrinsic ganglion network is postulated; in the other, changes in the mechanical properties of the muscle capable of maintaining tension generated by the contractile system are proposed. Experiments reported here were designed to test these hypotheses. Recordings were made of electrical activity in a number of circumstances in which the muscle relaxes slowly, and this activity was absent in some cases and in others was not found to correlate well with rate of relaxation. Quick release of the muscle during and after a stimulus which induced slow relaxation showed disappearance of the active state long before decay of tension. Contractile tension decreases with length below rest length whereas passive tension due to stretch following D. C. stimuli remains approximately independent of length. The latter has the same mechanical basis as prolonged relaxation following D. C. stimuli. Thus initial contractile tension and the tension remainder during prolonged relaxation appear to originate through different mechanisms. These results lead us to favor the second hypothesis above. A means by which this could be achieved in vivo is discussed.

  11. Genetic basis of allochronic differentiation in the fall armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänniger, Sabine; Dumas, Pascaline; Schöfl, Gerhard; Gebauer-Jung, Steffi; Vogel, Heiko; Unbehend, Melanie; Heckel, David G; Groot, Astrid T

    2017-03-06

    Very little is known on how changes in circadian rhythms evolve. The noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) consists of two strains that exhibit allochronic differentiation in their mating time, which acts as a premating isolation barrier between the strains. We investigated the genetic basis of the strain-specific timing differences to identify the molecular mechanisms of differentiation in circadian rhythms. Through QTL analyses we identified one major Quantitative trait chromosome (QTC) underlying differentiation in circadian timing of mating activity. Using RADtags, we identified this QTC to be homologous to Bombyx mori C27, on which the clock gene vrille is located, which thus became the major candidate gene. In S. frugiperda, vrille showed strain-specific polymorphisms. Also, vrille expression differed significantly between the strains, with the rice-strain showing higher expression levels than the corn-strain. In addition, RT-qPCR experiments with the other main clock genes showed that pdp1, antagonist of vrille in the modulatory feedback loop of the circadian clock, showed higher expression levels in the rice-strain than in the corn-strain. Together, our results indicate that the allochronic differentiation in the two strains of S. frugiperda is associated with differential transcription of vrille or a cis-acting gene close to vrille, which contributes to the evolution of prezygotic isolation in S. frugiperda.

  12. Structural and Physical Basis for Anti-IgE Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jon D.; Chu, Hsing-Mao; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ma, Che; Wen Chang, Tse; Lim, Carmay

    2015-06-01

    Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, used to treat severe allergic asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria, binds to IgE in blood or membrane-bound on B lymphocytes but not to IgE bound to its high (FcɛRI) or low (CD23) affinity receptor. Mutagenesis studies indicate overlapping FcɛRI and omalizumab-binding sites in the Cɛ3 domain, but crystallographic studies show FcɛRI and CD23-binding sites that are far apart, so how can omalizumab block IgE from binding both receptors? We report a 2.42-Å omalizumab-Fab structure, a docked IgE-Fc/omalizumab-Fab structure consistent with available experimental data, and the free energy contributions of IgE residues to binding omalizumab, CD23, and FcɛRI. These results provide a structural and physical basis as to why omalizumab cannot bind receptor-bound IgE and why omalizumab-bound IgE cannot bind to CD23/FcɛRI. They reveal the key IgE residues and their roles in binding omalizumab, CD23, and FcɛRI.

  13. Triangulating the genetic basis of adaptation to multifarious selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrender, M E

    2012-05-01

    Understanding how natural populations adapt to their local environments is a major research theme for ecological genomics. This endeavour begins by sleuthing for shared genetic similarities among unrelated natural populations sharing adaptive traits to documented selective pressures. When the selective pressures have low dimensionality, and the genetic response is localized to a few genes of major effect, this detective work is relatively straightforward. However, in the real world, populations face a complex mixture of selective pressures and many adaptive responses are the result of changes in quantitative traits that have a polygenic genetic basis. This complex relationship between environment and adaptation presents a significant challenge. How can we begin to identify drivers of adaptation in natural settings? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Orsini et al. (2012) take advantage of the biological attributes of the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia (Fig. 1) to disentangle multidimensional selection's signature on the genome of populations that have repeatedly evolved adaptive responses to isolated selective pressures including predation, parasitism and anthropogenic changes in land use. Orsini et al. (2012) leverage a powerful combination of spatially structured populations in a geographic mosaic of environmental stressors, the historical archive of past genotypes preserved in lake-bottom sediments and selection experiments to identify sets of candidate genomic regions associated with adaptation in response to these three environmental stressors. This study provides a template for future investigation in ecological genomics, combining multiple experimental approaches with the genomic investigation of a well-studied ecological model species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Physical culture as the basis of students' healthy lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharissova, N; Kharissova, L; Smirnov, I; Kosibaeva, A; Mindubaeva, F

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed at investigation of the relationship between physiological features of cardiorespiratory system of a group of athletes with individually-typological charac-teristics of the organism (age, type of constitution, sports experience, the degree of adaptation) to physical activities on the basis of a comprehensive study of the cardiorespiratory system. The study was conducted on 450 students from 18 to 24 years of age from Kazakhstan, Russia, India, and Pakistan to evaluate the influence of physical culture and sports on the formation of a healthy lifestyle of young people in higher education institutions. The students were divided into groups - the first group - student 18-20 years of age; the second group - students 21-24 years of age; the control group included students of the same age not actively involved in sports (2 lessons of physical training per week). The relationship between physiological features of cardiorespiratory system of athletes and individually-typological characteristics of the organism (age, type of constitution, sports experience, the degree of adaptation) was determined.

  15. Meshfree Local Radial Basis Function Collocation Method with Image Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Minjae [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We numerically solve two-dimensional heat diffusion problems by using a simple variant of the meshfree local radial-basis function (RBF) collocation method. The main idea is to include an additional set of sample nodes outside the problem domain, similarly to the method of images in electrostatics, to perform collocation on the domain boundaries. We can thereby take into account the temperature profile as well as its gradients specified by boundary conditions at the same time, which holds true even for a node where two or more boundaries meet with different boundary conditions. We argue that the image method is computationally efficient when combined with the local RBF collocation method, whereas the addition of image nodes becomes very costly in case of the global collocation. We apply our modified method to a benchmark test of a boundary value problem, and find that this simple modification reduces the maximum error from the analytic solution significantly. The reduction is small for an initial value problem with simpler boundary conditions. We observe increased numerical instability, which has to be compensated for by a sufficient number of sample nodes and/or more careful parameter choices for time integration.

  16. The physical basis of biochemistry the foundations of molecular biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bergethon, Peter R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a unifying approach to the study of biophysical chemistry for the advanced undergraduate who has had a year of physics, organic chem­ istry, calculus, and biology. This book began as a revised edition of Biophysical Chemistry: Molecules to Membranes, which Elizabeth Simons and I coauthored. That short volume was written in an attempt to provide a concise text for a one-semester course in biophysical chemistry at the graduate level. The experience of teaching biophysical chemistry to bi­ ologically oriented students over the last decade has made it clear that the subject requires a more fundamental text that unifies the many threads of modem science: physics, chem­ istry, biology, mathematics, and statistics. This book represents that effort. This volume is not a treatment of modem biophysical chemistry with its rich history and many contro­ versies, although a book on that topic is also needed. The Physical Basis of Biochemistry is an introduction to the philosophy...

  17. Data Requirements and the Basis for Designing Health Information Kiosks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mina; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mahmoudvand, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Health kiosks are an innovative and cost-effective solution that organizations can easily implement to help educate people. To determine the data requirements and basis for designing health information kiosks as a new technology to maintain the health of society. By reviewing the literature, a list of information requirements was provided in 4 sections (demographic information, general information, diagnostic information and medical history), and questions related to the objectives, data elements, stakeholders, requirements, infrastructures and the applications of health information kiosks were provided. In order to determine the content validity of the designed set, the opinions of 2 physicians and 2 specialists in medical informatics were obtained. The test-retest method was used to measure its reliability. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. In the proposed model for Iran, 170 data elements in 6 sections were presented for experts' opinion, which ultimately, on 106 elements, a collective agreement was reached. To provide a model of health information kiosk, creating a standard data set is a critical point. According to a survey conducted on the various literature review studies related to the health information kiosk, the most important components of a health information kiosk include six categories; information needs, data elements, applications, stakeholders, requirements and infrastructure of health information kiosks that need to be considered when designing a health information kiosk.

  18. Immune evasion in cancer: Mechanistic basis and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Dass S; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Pawelec, Graham; Talib, Wamidh H; Stagg, John; Elkord, Eyad; Lichtor, Terry; Decker, William K; Whelan, Richard L; Kumara, H M C Shantha; Signori, Emanuela; Honoki, Kanya; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amin, Amr; Helferich, William G; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Keith, W Nicol; Bilsland, Alan; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Fujii, Hiromasa; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan; Choi, Beom K; Kwon, Byoung S

    2015-12-01

    Cancer immune evasion is a major stumbling block in designing effective anticancer therapeutic strategies. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding how cancers evade destructive immunity, measures to counteract tumor escape have not kept pace. There are a number of factors that contribute to tumor persistence despite having a normal host immune system. Immune editing is one of the key aspects why tumors evade surveillance causing the tumors to lie dormant in patients for years through "equilibrium" and "senescence" before re-emerging. In addition, tumors exploit several immunological processes such as targeting the regulatory T cell function or their secretions, antigen presentation, modifying the production of immune suppressive mediators, tolerance and immune deviation. Besides these, tumor heterogeneity and metastasis also play a critical role in tumor growth. A number of potential targets like promoting Th1, NK cell, γδ T cell responses, inhibiting Treg functionality, induction of IL-12, use of drugs including phytochemicals have been designed to counter tumor progression with much success. Some natural agents and phytochemicals merit further study. For example, use of certain key polysaccharide components from mushrooms and plants have shown to possess therapeutic impact on tumor-imposed genetic instability, anti-growth signaling, replicative immortality, dysregulated metabolism etc. In this review, we will discuss the advances made toward understanding the basis of cancer immune evasion and summarize the efficacy of various therapeutic measures and targets that have been developed or are being investigated to enhance tumor rejection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A single basis for developmental buffering of Drosophila wing shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper J Breuker

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of developmental buffering processes has been debated extensively, based on both theoretical reasoning and empirical studies. In particular, controversy has focused on the question of whether distinct processes are responsible for canalization, the buffering against environmental or genetic variation, and for developmental stability, the buffering against random variation intrinsic in developmental processes. Here, we address this question for the size and shape of Drosophila melanogaster wings in an experimental design with extensively replicated and fully controlled genotypes. The amounts of variation among individuals and of fluctuating asymmetry differ markedly among genotypes, demonstrating a clear genetic basis for size and shape variability. For wing shape, there is a high correlation between the amounts of variation among individuals and fluctuating asymmetry, which indicates a correspondence between the two types of buffering. Likewise, the multivariate patterns of shape variation among individuals and of fluctuating asymmetry show a close association. For wing size, however, the amounts of individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry are not correlated. There was a significant link between the amounts of variation between wing size and shape, more so for fluctuating asymmetry than for variation among individuals. Overall, these experiments indicate a considerable degree of shared control of individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry, although it appears to differ between traits.

  20. Attachment styles and self-concept: basis for positive adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria S. Martínez Festorazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and characteristics of the primary bonds and attachment styles wwhich are established with parental figures and / or their surrogates in the first years of life, without doubt are one of the basis and models for later relationships. Intense changes will be produce particularly during adolescence in the parental bonds and the scenario, which defines and reinforces personal autonomy to be extended. In this way, self-concept is probably one of the most researched constructs in psychological tradition if we compare it with other psychological and contextual variables. Nevertheless, a few studies explore especially the relationship between attachment and self-concept in adolescents. The aim of this empirical study was to analyze the relationship between attachment styles and self-concept dimensions in adolescents, from a salutogenic approach in order to identify if certain attachment characteristics are associated with more positive aspects of self-concept. A sample of 583 adolescents aged 15- 18 years from public and private schools in Mar del Plata completed the AF5 and IPPA scales. Significant positive relationships were confirmed between secure attachment style and self- concept dimensions. These results provide empirical support to advance in the research about which characteristics are specifically related to positive and healthy development in adolescents. 

  1. Spectral Methods Using Rational Basis Functions on an Infinite Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, John P.

    1987-03-01

    By using the map y = L cot( t) where L is a constant, differential equations on the interval yɛ [- ∞, ∞] can be transformed into tɛ [0, π] and solved by an ordinary Fourier series. In this article, earlier work by Grosch and Orszag ( J. Comput. Phys.25, 273 (1977)), Cain, Ferziger, and Reynolds ( J. Comput. Phys.56, 272 (1984)), and Boyd ( J. Comput. Phys.25, 43 (1982); 57, 454 (1985); SIAM J. Numer. Anal. (1987)) is extended in several ways. First, the series of orthogonal rational functions converge on the exterior of bipolar coordinate surfaces in the complex y-plane. Second, Galerkin's method will convert differential equations with polynomial or rational coefficients into banded matrix problems. Third, with orthogonal rational functions it is possible to obtain exponential convergence even for u( y) that asymptote to a constant although this behavior would wreck alternatives such as Hermite or sinc expansions. Fourth, boundary conditions are usually "natural" rather than "essential" in the sense that the singularities of the differential equation will force the numerical solution to have the correct behavior at infinity even if no constraints are imposed on the basis functions. Fifth, mapping a finite interval to an infinite one and then applying the rational Chebyshev functions gives an exponentially convergent method for functions with bounded endpoint singularities. These concepts are illustrated by five numerical examples.

  2. The neural basis of predicting the outcomes of planned actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eJahn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of human intelligence is the ability to predict the outcomes of one’s own actions prior to executing them. Action values are thought to be represented in part in the dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, yet current studies have focused on the value of executed actions rather than the anticipated value of a planned action. Thus, little is known about the neural basis of how individuals think (or fail to think about their actions and the potential consequences before they act. We scanned individuals with fMRI while they thought about performing actions that they knew would likely be correct or incorrect. Here we show that merely imagining an error, as opposed to imagining a correct outcome, increases activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, independently of subsequent actions. This activity overlaps with regions that respond to actual error commission. The findings show a distinct network that signals the prospective outcomes of one’s planned actions. A number of clinical disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse involve a failure to take the potential consequences of an action into account prior to acting. Our results thus suggest how dysfunctions of the medial prefrontal cortex may contribute to such failures.

  3. Basis on Human Consciousness and its Complex Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches had demonstrated already that Humans and other beings from the Earth are not so different from biological and genetic point of view. Somewhere with millions years back in time qualitative changes were taken place when men were started to look to the sky not only with fear like any other wild animal but also with hope that in the very far future they will become at least as great as the sky. In this very hard road of mankind to perfection, some kind of immaterial inner superior being had suggested the right steps. Now we are calling this “Consciousness, Awareness” and this inner force without any doubt leads us to God. The main problem in Human Consciousness is to define the percentage of real pure man awareness separated from physical and biological nature. It is well known fact that many factors like education, weather, environment and other components influence, model and forms the human state of consciousness. The main method in the determination of real, pure awareness state is to separate it by examination of some human factors of life. It is considered that the basis of the pure state of human consciousness is the Word as it has the power to induce a pure way of perception. The human consciousness is considered pure for the most part, because the Word is able to move people with the strength of its full purity.

  4. Studies on the Pathophysiology and Genetic Basis of Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Claudia F; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system causing painful attacks of headache. A genetic vulnerability and exposure to environmental triggers can influence the migraine phenotype. Migraine interferes in many facets of people’s daily life including employment commitments and their ability to look after their families resulting in a reduced quality of life. Identification of the biological processes that underlie this relatively common affliction has been difficult because migraine does not have any clearly identifiable pathology or structural lesion detectable by current medical technology. Theories to explain the symptoms of migraine have focused on the physiological mechanisms involved in the various phases of headache and include the vascular and neurogenic theories. In relation to migraine pathophysiology the trigeminovascular system and cortical spreading depression have also been implicated with supporting evidence from imaging studies and animal models. The objective of current research is to better understand the pathways and mechanisms involved in causing pain and headache to be able to target interventions. The genetic component of migraine has been teased apart using linkage studies and both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, in family and case-control cohorts. Genomic regions that increase individual risk to migraine have been identified in neurological, vascular and hormonal pathways. This review discusses knowledge of the pathophysiology and genetic basis of migraine with the latest scientific evidence from genetic studies. PMID:24403849

  5. Studies in the method of correlated basis functions. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotscheck, E.; Clark, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A variational theory of pairing phenomena is presented for systems like neutron matter and liquid 3 He. The strong short-range correlations among the particles in these systems are incorporated into the trial states describing normal and pair-condensed phases, via a correlation operator F. The resulting theory has the same basic structure as that ordinarily applied for weak two-body interactions; in place of the pairing matrix elements of the bare interaction one finds certain effective pairing matrix elements Psub(kl), and modified single particle energies epsilon (k) appear. Detailed prescriptions are given for the construction of the Psub(kl) and epsilon (k) in terms of off-diagonal and diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian and unit operators in a correlated basis of normal states. An exact criterion for instability of the assumed normal phase with respect to pair condensation is derived for general F. This criterion is investigated numerically for the special case if Jastrow correlations, the required normal-state quantities being evaluated by integral equation techniques which extend the Fermi hypernetted-chain scheme. In neutron matter, an instability with respect to 1 S 0 pairing is found in the low-density region, in concert with the predictions of Yang and Clark. In liquid 3 He, there is some indication of a 3 P 0 pairing instability in the vicinity of the experimental equilibrium density. (orig.)

  6. "Are you my mommy?" On the genetic basis of parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolers, A; Bayne, T

    2001-01-01

    What exactly is it that makes someone a parent? Many people hold that parenthood is grounded, in the first instance, in the natural derivation of one person's genetic constitution from the genetic constitution of others. We refer to this view as "Geneticism". In Part I we distinguish three forms of geneticism on the basis of whether they hold that direct genetic derivation is sufficient, necessary, or both sufficient and necessary, for parenthood. (Call these 'Sufficiency', 'Necessity', and 'Strong' Geneticism, respectively.) Part I also explores the relationship between geneticism and the debate over surrogacy. Parts two through four examine three arguments for geneticism: the Property argument, the Causal argument, and the Parity argument. We conclude that none of these arguments succeeds. The failure of positive arguments for a view cannot demonstrate that the view is false; however, in light of our arguments we provisionally conclude that 'Strong' and 'Necessity' Geneticism are unacceptable. Our arguments do not undermine 'Sufficiency' Geneticism, so this thesis is considerably more promising than the others. But sufficiency geneticism is also compatible with a much more pluralistic account of the nature of parenthood.

  7. Structural Basis of Human CYP51 Inhibition by Antifungal Azoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strushkevich, Natallia; Usanov, Sergey A.; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto); (IBC-Belarus)

    2010-09-22

    The obligatory step in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes is demethylation of sterol precursors at the C14-position, which is catalyzed by CYP51 (sterol 14-alpha demethylase) in three sequential reactions. In mammals, the final product of the pathway is cholesterol, while important intermediates, meiosis-activating sterols, are produced by CYP51. Three crystal structures of human CYP51, ligand-free and complexed with antifungal drugs ketoconazole and econazole, were determined, allowing analysis of the molecular basis for functional conservation within the CYP51 family. Azole binding occurs mostly through hydrophobic interactions with conservative residues of the active site. The substantial conformational changes in the B{prime} helix and F-G loop regions are induced upon ligand binding, consistent with the membrane nature of the protein and its substrate. The access channel is typical for mammalian sterol-metabolizing P450 enzymes, but is different from that observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP51. Comparison of the azole-bound structures provides insight into the relative binding affinities of human and bacterial P450 enzymes to ketoconazole and fluconazole, which can be useful for the rational design of antifungal compounds and specific modulators of human CYP51.

  8. The neural basis of task switching changes with skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimura, Koji; Cazalis, Fabienne; Stover, Elena R S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Learning novel skills involves reorganization and optimization of cognitive processing involving a broad network of brain regions. Previous work has shown asymmetric costs of switching to a well-trained task vs. a poorly-trained task, but the neural basis of these differential switch costs is unclear. The current study examined the neural signature of task switching in the context of acquisition of new skill. Human participants alternated randomly between a novel visual task (mirror-reversed word reading) and a highly practiced one (plain word reading), allowing the isolation of task switching and skill set maintenance. Two scan sessions were separated by 2 weeks, with behavioral training on the mirror reading task in between the two sessions. Broad cortical regions, including bilateral prefrontal, parietal, and extrastriate cortices, showed decreased activity associated with learning of the mirror reading skill. In contrast, learning to switch to the novel skill was associated with decreased activity in a focal subcortical region in the dorsal striatum. Switching to the highly practiced task was associated with a non-overlapping set of regions, suggesting substantial differences in the neural substrates of switching as a function of task skill. Searchlight multivariate pattern analysis also revealed that learning was associated with decreased pattern information for mirror vs. plain reading tasks in fronto-parietal regions. Inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal cortex showed a joint effect of univariate activation and pattern information. These results suggest distinct learning mechanisms task performance and executive control as a function of learning.

  9. The neural basis of event simulation: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihito Yomogida

    Full Text Available Event simulation (ES is the situational inference process in which perceived event features such as objects, agents, and actions are associated in the brain to represent the whole situation. ES provides a common basis for various cognitive processes, such as perceptual prediction, situational understanding/prediction, and social cognition (such as mentalizing/trait inference. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to elucidate the neural substrates underlying important subdivisions within ES. First, the study investigated whether ES depends on different neural substrates when it is conducted explicitly and implicitly. Second, the existence of neural substrates specific to the future-prediction component of ES was assessed. Subjects were shown contextually related object pictures implying a situation and performed several picture-word-matching tasks. By varying task goals, subjects were made to infer the implied situation implicitly/explicitly or predict the future consequence of that situation. The results indicate that, whereas implicit ES activated the lateral prefrontal cortex and medial/lateral parietal cortex, explicit ES activated the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial/lateral temporal cortex. Additionally, the left temporoparietal junction plays an important role in the future-prediction component of ES. These findings enrich our understanding of the neural substrates of the implicit/explicit/predictive aspects of ES-related cognitive processes.

  10. The genetic basis of new treatment modalities in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, intracellular signal transduction via RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK has been successfully targeted in new treatment approaches for melanoma using small molecule inhibitors against activated BRAF (V600E mutation) and activated MEK1/2. Also mutated c-KIT has been identified as a promising target. Meanwhile, evidence has been provided that combinations between BRAF inhibitors and MEK1/2 inhibitors are more promising than single-agent treatments. Moreover, new treatment algorithms favor sequential treatment using BRAF inhibitors and newly developed immunotherapies targeting common T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) or programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). In depth molecular analyses have uncovered new mechanisms of treatment resistance and recurrence, which may impact on future treatment decisions. Moreover, next-generation sequencing data have shown that recurrent lesions harbor specific genetic aberrations. At the same time, high throughput sequencing studies of melanoma unraveled a series of new treatment candidates for future treatment approaches such as ERBB4, GRIN2A, GRM3, and RAC1. More recent bioinformatic technologies provided genetic evidence for extensive tumor heterogeneity and tumor clonality of solid tumors, which might also be of relevance for melanoma. However, these technologies have not yet been applied to this tumor. In this review, an overview on the genetic basis of current treatment of melanoma, treatment resistance and recurrences including new treatment perspectives based on recent high-throughput sequencing data is provided. Moreover, future aspects of individualized treatment based on each patient's individual mutational landscape are discussed.

  11. The brain basis of musicophilia: evidence from frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip David Fletcher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Musicophilia, or abnormal craving for music, is a poorly understood phenomenon that has been associated in particular with focal degeneration of the temporal lobes. Here we addressed the brain basis of musicophilia using voxel-based morphometry (VBM on MR volumetric brain images in a retrospectively ascertained cohort of patients meeting clinical consensus criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration: of 37 cases ascertained, 12 had musicophilia and 25 did not exhibit the phenomenon. The syndrome of semantic dementia was relatively over-represented among the musicophilic subgroup. A VBM analysis revealed significantly increased regional grey matter volume in left posterior hippocampus in the musicophilic subgroup relative to the non-musicophilic group (p<0.05 corrected for regional comparisons; at a relaxed significance threshold (P<0.001 uncorrected across the brain volume musicophilia was associated with additional relative sparing of regional grey matter in other temporal lobe and prefrontal areas and atrophy of grey matter in posterior parietal and orbitofrontal areas. The present findings suggest a candidate brain substrate for musicophilia as a signature of distributed network damage that may reflect a shift of hedonic processing toward more abstract (non-social stimuli, with some specificity for particular neurodegenerative pathologies.

  12. The neural basis of task switching changes with skill acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji eJimura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning novel skills involves reorganization and optimization of cognitive processing involving a broad network of brain regions. Previous work has shown asymmetric costs of switching to a well-trained task versus a poorly-trained task, but the neural basis of these differential switch costs is unclear. The current study examined the neural signature of task switching in the context of acquisition of new skill. Human participants alternated randomly between a novel visual task (mirror-reversed word reading and a highly practiced one (plain word reading, allowing the isolation of task switching and skill set maintenance. Two scan sessions were separated by two weeks, with behavioral training on the mirror reading task in between the two sessions. Broad cortical regions, including bilateral prefrontal, parietal, and extrastriate cortices, showed decreased activity associated with learning of the mirror reading skill. In contrast, learning to switch to the novel skill was associated with decreased activity in a focal subcortical region in the dorsal striatum. Switching to the highly practiced task was associated with a non-overlapping set of regions, suggesting substantial differences in the neural substrates of switching as a function of task skill. Searchlight multivariate pattern analysis also revealed that learning was associated with decreased pattern information for mirror versus plain reading tasks in fronto-parietal regions. Inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal cortex showed a joint effect of univariate activation and pattern information. These results suggest distinct learning mechanisms task performance and executive control as a function of learning.

  13. [Mental time travel - the neurocognitive basis of future thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Julia A; Daum, Irene

    2008-09-01

    The ability to travel in time mentally, i. e. the re-experiencing of personal past events as well as the ability to mentally simulate potential future events, forms part of the "episodic memory" concept. Evidence for the notion that episodic memory and episodic future thinking share a common neural basis stems from different lines of research, namely functional neuroimaging, assessment of clinical groups, behavioral investigations of the phenomenological characteristics of mental time travel, and developmental research. The present article summarises the evidence from these lines of research which indicate a common neural network underlying episodic memory and episodic future thinking, consisting of medial prefrontal, medial temporal, medial parietal, lateral parieto-occipital, as well as lateral temporal regions. Both abilities, episodic memory and future thinking, seem to develop around the age of four years, feature similar phenomenological characteristics, and are impaired to a similar extent by brain lesions and brain dysfunction. These findings yielded different hypotheses concerning the function and evolutional significance of the mental time travel network, which will also be addressed.

  14. The brain basis of emotion: A meta-analytic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Wager, Tor D.; Kober, Hedy; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science. With a surge of studies in affective neuroscience in recent decades, scientists are poised to answer this question. In this article, we present a meta-analytic summary of the human neuroimaging literature on emotion. We compare the locationist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories consistently and specifically correspond to distinct brain regions) with the psychological constructionist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories are constructed of more general brain networks not specific to those categories) to better understand the brain basis of emotion. We review both locationist and psychological constructionist hypotheses of brain–emotion correspondence and report meta-analytic findings bearing on these hypotheses. Overall, we found little evidence that discrete emotion categories can be consistently and specifically localized to distinct brain regions. Instead, we found evidence that is consistent with a psychological constructionist approach to the mind: a set of interacting brain regions commonly involved in basic psychological operations of both an emotional and non-emotional nature are active during emotion experience and perception across a range of discrete emotion categories. PMID:22617651

  15. Nanocarbon coating on the basis of partially reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, G. S.; Budaev, V. P.; Eletskii, A. V.; Fedorovich, S. D.

    2017-11-01

    There has been developed an approach to the production of graphene as a result of the thermal reduction of graphene oxide (GO). GO has been synthesized by the use of the modified Hummers method with utilization of sodium nitrate and concentrated sulfuric acid. A paper-like material of 40 – 60 μm in thickness and 1.2 g/cm3 in density was formed on a filter after deposition from dispersion. The material was cut onto samples of about 15×25 mm2 in size which were experienced to the thermal treatment at various temperatures between 100 and 800 °C. This resulted in a set of GO samples reduced to various degrees. The degree of reduction was determined on the basis of measurements of the conductivity. Along with that the evolution of samples density was studied as the annealing temperature was enhanced. The analysis of the X-ray photoelectron spectra of partially reduced GO permitted the determination of the dynamics of changing the chemical composition of the material in the process of the thermal treatment. The analysis of Raman spectra of the GO samples indicates rather high degree of the disordering of the material. A possibility of the usage of the material produced as a nanocarbon coating in experiments on the interaction of high intense liquid flows with a wall surface is discussed.

  16. Neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cellular and molecular pathology of HTS: basis for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Alexis; Scott, Paul G; Tredget, Edward E

    2007-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar and keloids are fibroproliferative disorders of the skin which occur often unpredictably, following trauma and inflammation that compromise cosmesis and function and commonly recur following surgical attempts for improvement. Despite decades of research in these fibrotic conditions, current non-surgical methods of treatment are slow, inconvenient and often only partially effective. Fibroblasts from these conditions are activated to produce extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen I and III, proteoglycans such as versican and biglycan and growth factors, including transforming growth factor-beta and insulin like growth factor I. However, more consistently these cells produce less remodeling enzymes including collagenase and other matrix metalloproteinases, as well as the small proteoglycan decorin which is important for normal collagen fibrillogenesis. Recently, the systemic response to injury appears to influence the local healing process whereby increases in Th2 and possibly Th3 cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 and TGF-beta are present in the circulating lymphocytes in these fibrotic conditions. Finally, unique bone marrow derived cells including mesenchymal and endothelial stem cells as well as fibrocytes appear to traffic into healing wounds and influence the healing tissue. On this background, clinicians are faced with patients who require treatment and the pathophysiologic basis as currently understood is reviewed for a number of emerging modalities.

  18. Structural basis of protein oxidation resistance: a lysozyme study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Marion; Enjalbert, Quentin; Brunet, Claire; Antoine, Rodolphe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Lukac, Iva; Radman, Miroslav; Krisko, Anita; Dugourd, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidative damage in proteins correlates with aging since it can cause irreversible and progressive degeneration of almost all cellular functions. Apparently, native protein structures have evolved intrinsic resistance to oxidation since perfectly folded proteins are, by large most robust. Here we explore the structural basis of protein resistance to radiation-induced oxidation using chicken egg white lysozyme in the native and misfolded form. We study the differential resistance to oxidative damage of six different parts of native and misfolded lysozyme by a targeted tandem/mass spectrometry approach of its tryptic fragments. The decay of the amount of each lysozyme fragment with increasing radiation dose is found to be a two steps process, characterized by a double exponential evolution of their amounts: the first one can be largely attributed to oxidation of specific amino acids, while the second one corresponds to further degradation of the protein. By correlating these results to the structural parameters computed from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find the protein parts with increased root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) to be more susceptible to modifications. In addition, involvement of amino acid side-chains in hydrogen bonds has a protective effect against oxidation Increased exposure to solvent of individual amino acid side chains correlates with high susceptibility to oxidative and other modifications like side chain fragmentation. Generally, while none of the structural parameters alone can account for the fate of peptides during radiation, together they provide an insight into the relationship between protein structure and susceptibility to oxidation.

  19. Biological basis of tumor imaging with radiolabeled glucose analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasey, J.S.; Krohn, K.A.; Nelson, N.; Grunbaum, Z.; Link, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerated tumor glycolysis may form the basis for nuclear imaging of tumors with gamma or positron labeled glucose analogs: /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) or /sup 11/C-deoxyglucose (DG). FDG may be preferable because it crosses some cell membranes more readily than DG, while the latter is a better substrate for glucose hexokinase, the enzyme which phosphorylates the analog to an intermediate trapped in the cell. /sup 14/C-DG and /sup 3/H-FDG were compared in biodistribution studies in C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors. The two compounds are cleared very similarly from the blood. At times up to 60 min after injection, tumor, brain, and heart concentrated more /sup 3/H-FDG than /sup 14/C-DG, while liver concentrated more /sup 14/C-DG. Tumor:blood and tumor:liver ratios were higher for /sup 3/H-FDG than for /sup 14/C-DG while tumor:lung ratios were similar. These factors are critical to imaging primary tumors or metastases in these common target organs. Because /sup 18/F-FDG and /sup 3/H-FDG are labeled in different positions, the former is being investigated to see if it retains the superiority of the tritiated compound. Because glycolysis is radioresistant, irradiated and control RIF-1 tumors are being compared to determine if doomed as well as surviving cells will readily concentrate glucose analogs

  20. Molecular basis for the herbicide resistance of Roundup Ready crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Todd; Han, Huijong; Healy-Fried, Martha L; Fischer, Markus; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2006-08-29

    The engineering of transgenic crops resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate has greatly improved agricultural efficiency worldwide. Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Roundup, target the shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, the functionality of which is absolutely required for the survival of plants. Roundup Ready plants carry the gene coding for a glyphosate-insensitive form of this enzyme, obtained from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4. Once incorporated into the plant genome, the gene product, CP4 EPSP synthase, confers crop resistance to glyphosate. Although widely used, the molecular basis for this glyphosate-resistance has remained obscure. We generated a synthetic gene coding for CP4 EPSP synthase and characterized the enzyme using kinetics and crystallography. The CP4 enzyme has unexpected kinetic and structural properties that render it unique among the known EPSP synthases. Glyphosate binds to the CP4 EPSP synthase in a condensed, noninhibitory conformation. Glyphosate sensitivity can be restored through a single-site mutation in the active site (Ala-100-Gly), allowing glyphosate to bind in its extended, inhibitory conformation.