WorldWideScience

Sample records for basis forobligate methylotrophy

  1. The genome of Methylobacillus flagellatus, the molecular basis forobligate methylotrophy, and the polyphyletic origin ofmethylotrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Lapidus, Alla; Han, Cliff; Goodwin,Lynne; Saunders, Liz; Brettin, Tom; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Lucas,Susan; Richardson, Paul M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2007-01-08

    Along with methane, methanol and methylated amines representimportant biogenic atmospheric constituents, thus not only methanotrophs,but also non-methanotrophic methylotrophs play a significant role inglobal carbon cycling. The complete genome of a model obligate methanoland methylamine utilizer, Methylobacillus flagellatus (strain KT) wassequenced. The genome is represented by a single circular chromosome ofapproximately 3 Mb pairs, potentially encoding a total of 2,766 proteins.Based on genome analysis as well as the results from previous genetic andmutational analyses, methylotrophy is enabled by methanol- andmethylamine dehydrogenases, the tetrahydromethanopterin-linkedformaldehyde oxidation pathway, the assimilatory and dissimilatorybranches of the ribulose monophosphate cycle, and by formatedehydrogenases. Some of the methylotrophy genes are present in more thanone (identical or non-identical) copy. The obligate dependence on singlecarbon compounds appears to be due to the incomplete tricarboxylic acidcycle, as no genes potentially encoding alpha ketoglutarate, malate orsuccinate dehydrogenases are identifiable. The genome of M. flagellatuswas compared, in terms of methylotrophy functions, to the previouslysequenced genomes of three methylotrophs: Methylobacterium extorquens(Alphaproteobacterium, 7 Mbp), Methylibium petroleophilum(Betaproteobacterium, 4 Mbp), and Methylococcus capsulatus(Gammaproteobacterium, 3.3 Mbp). Strikingly, metabolically and/orphylogenetically, methylotrophy functions in M. flagellatus were moresimilar to the ones in M. capsulatus and M. extorquens than to the onesin the more closely related M. petroleophilum, providing the firstgenomic evidence for the polyphyletic origin of methylotrophy inBetaproteobacteria.

  2. Genome of Methylobacillus flagellatus, Molecular Basis for Obligate Methylotrophy, and Polyphyletic Origin of Methylotrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistoserdova, L; Lapidus, A; Han, C; Godwin, L; Saunders, L; Brettin, T; Tapia, R; Gilna, P; Lucas, S; Richardson, P M; Lidstrom, M E

    2007-07-24

    Along with methane, methanol and methylated amines represent important biogenic atmospheric constituents; thus, not only methanotrophs but also nonmethanotrophic methylotrophs play a significant role in global carbon cycling. The complete genome of a model obligate methanol and methylamine utilizer, Methylobacillus flagellatus (strain KT) was sequenced. The genome is represented by a single circular chromosome of approximately 3 Mbp, potentially encoding a total of 2,766 proteins. Based on genome analysis as well as the results from previous genetic and mutational analyses, methylotrophy is enabled by methanol and methylamine dehydrogenases and their specific electron transport chain components, the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked formaldehyde oxidation pathway and the assimilatory and dissimilatory ribulose monophosphate cycles, and by a formate dehydrogenase. Some of the methylotrophy genes are present in more than one (identical or nonidentical) copy. The obligate dependence on single-carbon compounds appears to be due to the incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle, as no genes potentially encoding alpha-ketoglutarate, malate, or succinate dehydrogenases are identifiable. The genome of M. flagellatus was compared in terms of methylotrophy functions to the previously sequenced genomes of three methylotrophs, Methylobacterium extorquens (an alphaproteobacterium, 7 Mbp), Methylibium petroleiphilum (a betaproteobacterium, 4 Mbp), and Methylococcus capsulatus (a gammaproteobacterium, 3.3 Mbp). Strikingly, metabolically and/or phylogenetically, the methylotrophy functions in M. flagellatus were more similar to those in M. capsulatus and M. extorquens than to the ones in the more closely related M. petroleiphilum species, providing the first genomic evidence for the polyphyletic origin of methylotrophy in Betaproteobacteria.

  3. Proteogenomic analyses indicate bacterial methylotrophy and archaeal heterotrophy are prevalent below the grass root zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina N. Butterfield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Annually, half of all plant-derived carbon is added to soil where it is microbially respired to CO2. However, understanding of the microbiology of this process is limited because most culture-independent methods cannot link metabolic processes to the organisms present, and this link to causative agents is necessary to predict the results of perturbations on the system. We collected soil samples at two sub-root depths (10–20 cm and 30–40 cm before and after a rainfall-driven nutrient perturbation event in a Northern California grassland that experiences a Mediterranean climate. From ten samples, we reconstructed 198 metagenome-assembled genomes that represent all major phylotypes. We also quantified 6,835 proteins and 175 metabolites and showed that after the rain event the concentrations of many sugars and amino acids approach zero at the base of the soil profile. Unexpectedly, the genomes of novel members of the Gemmatimonadetes and Candidate Phylum Rokubacteria phyla encode pathways for methylotrophy. We infer that these abundant organisms contribute substantially to carbon turnover in the soil, given that methylotrophy proteins were among the most abundant proteins in the proteome. Previously undescribed Bathyarchaeota and Thermoplasmatales archaea are abundant in deeper soil horizons and are inferred to contribute appreciably to aromatic amino acid degradation. Many of the other bacteria appear to breakdown other components of plant biomass, as evidenced by the prevalence of various sugar and amino acid transporters and corresponding hydrolyzing machinery in the proteome. Overall, our work provides organism-resolved insight into the spatial distribution of bacteria and archaea whose activities combine to degrade plant-derived organics, limiting the transport of methanol, amino acids and sugars into underlying weathered rock. The new insights into the soil carbon cycle during an intense period of carbon turnover, including

  4. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  5. Basis Tensor Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2016-01-01

    We reformulate gauge theories in analogy with the vierbein formalism of general relativity. More specifically, we reformulate gauge theories such that their gauge dynamical degrees of freedom are local fields that transform linearly under the dual representation of the charged matter field. These local fields, which naively have the interpretation of non-local operators similar to Wilson lines, satisfy constraint equations. A set of basis tensor fields are used to solve these constraint equations, and their field theory is constructed. A new local symmetry in terms of the basis tensor fields is used to make this field theory local and maintain a Hamiltonian that is bounded from below. The field theory of the basis tensor fields is what we call the basis tensor gauge theory.

  6. Design basis 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    Design Basis Program 2 (DBP2) is comprehensive fully coupled code which has the capability to operate in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The code was developed during the period 1991-93 and succeed Design Basis 1, which is a one-blade model presuming stiff tower, transmission system and hub. The package is designed for use on a personal computer and offers a user-friendly environment based on menu-driven editing and control facilities, and with graphics used extensively for the data presentation. Moreover in-data as well as results are dumped on files in Ascii-format. The input data is organized in a in-data base with a structure that easily allows for arbitrary combinations of defined structural components and load cases. (au)

  7. Crystalizing the Spinon Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayashiki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    1995-01-01

    The quasi-particle structure of the higher spin XXZ model is studied. We obtained a new description of crystals associated with the level $k$ integrable highest weight $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$ modules in terms of the creation operators at $q=0$ (the crystaline spinon basis). The fermionic character formulas and the Yangian structure of those integrable modules naturally follow from this description. We have also derived the conjectural formulas for the multi quasi-particle states at $q=0$.

  8. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonian of a many-particle system is usually so difficult that it requires approximate methods, the most common of which is expansion of the eigenfunctions in terms of basis functions that obey the boundary conditions of the problem. The computational effort needed...

  9. From BASIS to MIRACLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; E. Lechner, Ruep;

    2015-01-01

    Results based on virtual instrument models for the first high-flux, high-resolution, spallation based, backscattering spectrometer, BASIS are presented in this paper. These were verified using the Monte Carlo instrument simulation packages McStas and VITESS. Excellent agreement of the neutron count...... rate at the sample position between the virtual instrument simulation and experiments was found, in both time and energy distributions. This achievement was only possible after a new component for a bent single crystal analyser in McStas, using a Gaussian approximation, was developed. These findings...

  10. CMAC with General Basis Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Shin, Lin; Ching-Tsan, Chiang

    1996-10-01

    The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is often used in learning control. It can be viewed as a basis function network (BFN). The conventional CMAC uses local constant basis functions. A disadvantage is that its output is constant within each quantized state and the derivative information is not preserved. If the constant basis functions are replaced by non-constant differentiable basis functions, the derivative information will be able to be stored into the structure as well. In this paper, the generalized scheme that uses general basis functions is investigated. The conventional CMAC is a special case of the generalized technique. The mathematical foundation for the modified scheme is derived and the convergence of learning is proved. Simulations for the CMAC with Gaussian basis functions (GBFs) are performed to demonstrate the improvement of accuracy in modeling, and the capability in providing derivative information. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  11. Genetic basis of chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, JBMJ; Morsche, RT; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, JPH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Pancreatitis has a proven genetic basis in a minority of patients. Methods: Review of the literature on genetics of pancreatitis. Results: Ever since the discovery that in most patients with hereditary pancreatitis a mutation in the gene encoding for cationic trypsinogen (R122H) was foun

  12. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar...

  13. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo;

    2006-01-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...

  14. GASB's Basis of Accounting Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovlak, Daniel L.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1984, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board began its "Measurement Focus/Basis of Accounting" project, which addresses measurement issues and revenue and expenditure recognition problems involving governmental funds. This article explains the project's background, alternatives discussed by the board, and tentative conclusions and…

  15. Perceptual basis for reactive teleoperation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. S.; Ewing, T. F.; Boyle, J. M.; Yule, T. J.

    2001-08-28

    To enhance task performance in partially structured environment, enhancement of teleoperation was proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couples sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, presented in this paper is a perceptual basis for the motor agents. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extracts environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms--sensor fission, fusion, and fashion--becomes basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.

  16. Probing community nurses' professional basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun

    2017-01-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating...... diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot...... ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers....

  17. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  18. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  19. Genetic basis of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Campuzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and remains as one of main challenges in current clinical practice. The disease may be induced secondary to other diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure, conferring an increased risk of stroke and sudden death. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that genetic factors play an important role and up to 30% of clinically diagnosed patients may have a family history of atrial fibrillation. To date, several rare variants have been identified in a wide range of genes associated with ionic channels, calcium handling protein, fibrosis, conduction and inflammation. Important advances in clinical, genetic and molecular basis have been performed over the last decade, improving diagnosis and treatment. However, the genetics of atrial fibrillation is complex and pathophysiological data remains still unraveling. A better understanding of the genetic basis will induce accurate risk stratification and personalized clinical treatment. In this review, we have focused on current genetics basis of atrial fibrillation.

  20. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  1. Yeast methylotrophy and autophagy in a methanol-oscillating environment on growing Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida boidinii capable of growth on methanol proliferates and survives on the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The local methanol concentration at the phyllosphere of growing A. thaliana exhibited daily periodicity, and yeast cells responded by altering both the expression of methanol-inducible genes and peroxisome proliferation. Even under these dynamically changing environmental conditions, yeast cells proliferated 3 to 4 times in 11 days. Among the C1-metabolic enzymes, enzymes in the methanol assimilation pathway, but not formaldehyde dissimilation or anti-oxidizing enzymes, were necessary for yeast proliferation at the phyllosphere. Furthermore, both peroxisome assembly and pexophagy, a selective autophagy pathway that degrades peroxisomes, were necessary for phyllospheric proliferation. Thus, the present study sheds light on the life cycle and physiology of yeast in the natural environment at both the molecular and cellular levels.

  2. Yeast Methylotrophy and Autophagy in a Methanol-Oscillating Environment on Growing Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuke Kawaguchi; Hiroya Yurimoto; Masahide Oku; Yasuyoshi Sakai

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Candida boidinii capable of growth on methanol proliferates and survives on the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The local methanol concentration at the phyllosphere of growing A. thaliana exhibited daily periodicity, and yeast cells responded by altering both the expression of methanol-inducible genes and peroxisome proliferation. Even under these dynamically changing environmental conditions, yeast cells proliferated 3 to 4 times in 11 days. Among the C1-metabolic enzymes, enzymes ...

  3. Quadratic Hedging of Basis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Hulley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a simple basis risk model based on correlated geometric Brownian motions. We apply quadratic criteria to minimize basis risk and hedge in an optimal manner. Initially, we derive the Föllmer–Schweizer decomposition for a European claim. This allows pricing and hedging under the minimal martingale measure, corresponding to the local risk-minimizing strategy. Furthermore, since the mean-variance tradeoff process is deterministic in our setup, the minimal martingale- and variance-optimal martingale measures coincide. Consequently, the mean-variance optimal strategy is easily constructed. Simple pricing and hedging formulae for put and call options are derived in terms of the Black–Scholes formula. Due to market incompleteness, these formulae depend on the drift parameters of the processes. By making a further equilibrium assumption, we derive an approximate hedging formula, which does not require knowledge of these parameters. The hedging strategies are tested using Monte Carlo experiments, and are compared with results achieved using a utility maximization approach.

  4. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis.

  5. Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  6. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  7. [Natural science basis of individuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, P V

    1981-01-01

    Results of experiments on animals with ablation of different parts of the brain and analysis of published data suggest that the neurophysiological basis of temperaments, according to Hippocrates, of nervous system types, according to Pavlov, and of extra-introversion consists in individual peculiarities of interaction of four structures: the frontal neocortex, the hippocampus, the amygdala and the hypothalamus. Pathological disturbance of this interaction produces the basic varieties of neuroses: hysteria, neurasthenia, psychasthenia and obsessive states. The significance is discussed of individual features of sets and hierarchy of basal human needs: material-biological, social, ideal (with their variants: retention and development, "for oneself" and "for others") needs of overcoming (will) and of "fitness" - for the formation of individuality.

  8. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Risenmay, H R

    2001-01-01

    DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the ac...

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  10. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  12. Community treatment orders: Bioethical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Bertolín Guillén

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Numerous opinions and medico-legal controversies have arisen up to the date from community treatment orders in Western countries, but underlying bioethical questions have not been specifically studied. The aim of this work is to contribute to further clarify the bioethical conflicts arising from community treatment orders. Methods: The bioethical deliberation of the author is principally based on what can be considered the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm. These principles, as first described by Beauchamp and Childress in 1979, will be applied in this work to the actual situation of involuntary outpatient treatment. Results: The author's deliberation considers that community treatment orders are consistent first with the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm of practical reason, respecting its four general categories of basic principles. It also respects the principles of the medical ethics of virtue, subsumed in the personalism of ontological matrix, in the same way as its ethos affects the intrinsic purpose which is the dignity of the person; and with the consequentialist utilitarianism because it seeks the proportionality of the common good. A community treatment order prescription must ultimately be based on a bioethical exercise of responsibility by the clinician, judiciously weighing up the classic principal prima facie duties which must necessarily be translated into a real duty referring to a specific patient and context. Conclusions: Community treatment orders are seen as a method of therapeutic intervention with a bioethical basis resistant to criticism.

  13. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  14. Transferable basis sets of numerical atomic orbitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Louwerse; G. Rothenberg

    2012-01-01

    We show that numerical atomic orbital basis sets that are variationally optimized for specific compounds are biased and not fully transferable to other compounds. The situation improves when the basis sets are optimized for several compounds and a compromise is made. We demonstrate this for basis se

  15. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  16. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  17. 20 CFR 900.1 - Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis. 900.1 Section 900.1 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.1 Basis. This statement is issued by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries (the Joint Board) pursuant to...

  18. Basis Optimization Renormalization Group for Quantum Hamiltonian

    OpenAIRE

    Sugihara, Takanori

    2001-01-01

    We find an algorithm of numerical renormalization group for spin chain models. The essence of this algorithm is orthogonal transformation of basis states, which is useful for reducing the number of relevant basis states to create effective Hamiltonian. We define two types of rotations and combine them to create appropriate orthogonal transformation.

  19. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  20. Maximal coherence in a generic basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.

  1. Generalized multiscale radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Stephen A; Wei, Hua-Liang; Balikhin, Michael A

    2007-12-01

    A novel modelling framework is proposed for constructing parsimonious and flexible multiscale radial basis function networks (RBF). Unlike a conventional standard single scale RBF network, where all the basis functions have a common kernel width, the new network structure adopts multiscale Gaussian functions as the bases, where each selected centre has multiple kernel widths, to provide more flexible representations with better generalization properties for general nonlinear dynamical systems. As a direct extension of the traditional single scale Gaussian networks, the new multiscale network is easy to implement and is quick to learn using standard learning algorithms. A k-means clustering algorithm and an improved orthogonal least squares (OLS) algorithm are used to determine the unknown parameters in the network model including the centres and widths of the basis functions, and the weights between the basis functions. It is demonstrated that the new network can lead to a parsimonious model with much better generalization property compared with the traditional single width RBF networks.

  2. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system....

  3. Reduced basis techniques for stochastic problems

    OpenAIRE

    Boyaval, Sébastien; Bris, Claude Le; Lelièvre, Tony; Maday, Yvon; Nguyen, Ngoc Cuong; Patera, Anthony T.

    2010-01-01

    We report here on the recent application of a now classical general reduction technique, the Reduced-Basis approach initiated in [C. Prud'homme, D. Rovas, K. Veroy, Y. Maday, A. T. Patera, and G. Turinici. Reliable real-time solution of parametrized partial differential equations: Reduced-basis output bounds methods. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 124(1):7080, 2002.], to the specific context of differential equations with random coefficients. After an elementary presentation of the approach, ...

  4. Drinfel'd basis of twisted Yangians

    CERN Document Server

    Belliard, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantization of a Lie bi-ideal structure for twisted half-loop algebras of finite dimensional simple complex Lie algebras. We obtain Drinfel'd basis formalism and algebra closure relations of twisted Yangians for all symmetric pairs of simple Lie algebras and for simple twisted even half-loop Lie algebras. We also give an explicit form of twisted Yangians in Drinfel'd basis for the sl3 Lie algebra.

  5. The Extended Fock Basis of Clifford Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Budinich, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the Extended Fock Basis (EFB) of Clifford algebras introduced in [1]. We show that a Clifford algebra can be seen as a direct sum of multiple spinor subspaces that are characterized as being left eigenvectors of $\\Gamma$. We also show that a simple spinor, expressed in Fock basis, can have a maximum number of non zero coordinates that equals the size of the maximal totally null plane (with the notable exception of vectorial spaces with 6 dimensions).

  6. The Extended Fock Basis of Clifford Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the Extended Fock Basis (EFB) of Clifford algebras introduced in [1]. We show that a Clifford algebra can be seen as a direct sum of multiple spinor subspaces that are characterized as being left eigenvectors of \\Gamma. We also show that a simple spinor, expressed in Fock basis, can have a maximum number of non zero coordinates that equals the size of the maximal totally null plane (with the notable exception of vectorial spaces with 6 dimensions).

  7. The importance of basis states: an example using the Hydrogen basis

    CERN Document Server

    Forestell, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    We use a simple system, the electron configuration in a Hydrogen-like atom, to demonstrate the importance of using a complete basis set to provide a proper quantum mechanical description. We first start with what might be considered a successful strategy --- to diagonalize a truncated Hamiltonian matrix, written in a basis consisting of Hydrogen ($Z=1$) basis states. This fails to provide the correct answer, and we then demonstrate that the continuum basis states provided the rest of the true wave function, for the bound ground states. This work then shows, in a relatively simple system, the need to utilize a complete basis set, consisting of both bound and continuum states.

  8. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Tuomas P., E-mail: tuomas.rossi@alumni.aalto.fi; Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J. [COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Lehtola, Susi, E-mail: susi.lehtola@alumni.helsinki.fi [COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Nieminen, Risto M. [COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Dean’s Office, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11000, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  9. Heavy quarkonium in a holographic basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the heavy quarkonium within the basis light-front quantization approach. We implement the one-gluon exchange interaction and a confining potential inspired by light-front holography. We adopt the holographic light-front wavefunction (LFWF as our basis function and solve the non-perturbative dynamics by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix. We obtain the mass spectrum for charmonium and bottomonium. With the obtained LFWFs, we also compute the decay constants and the charge form factors for selected eigenstates. The results are compared with the experimental measurements and with other established methods.

  10. Weak basis for “systemic” silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is presented of the ecological basis of the so-called “selvicoltura sistemica” (systemic silviculture. Systemic silviculture implies an “a-structured forest”: the meaning of this particular condition is discussed in the paper, exploring the different possible interpretations and thus demonstrating that an “a-structured” forest can not be observed in nature. The silvicultural method proposed therefore seems to have a fragile ecological basis moving it away from a close-to-nature forest management approach, which is currently believed to be the most promising one for achieving forests that provide multiple goods and services.

  11. THE UNIVERSAL GROEBNER BASIS UNDER COMPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinwang; HOU Jinjun; PENG Zhenyun; CAO Wensheng

    2005-01-01

    Composition is the operation of replacing variables in a polynomial with other polynomials. The main question in this paper is: when does composition commute with universal Groebner basis computation? We prove that this happens iff the composition is single variable. This has a natural application in the computation of universal Groebner bases of composed polynomials.

  12. A biosystematic basis for pelagic biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    Biodiversity can be considered to be a human appreciation of the biological entity diversity. Diversity can be expressed numerically on the basis of taxa found, but it can also be expressed as the contribution of a specimen to the diversity, for which a formula is proposed. Diversity is the sum of t

  13. The neurocognitive basis of feature integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, André Willem

    2010-01-01

    One of the most striking features of the brain is that it is modular; it consists of often highly specialized areas. This modular organization requires efficient communication in order to integrate the information that is represented in distinct brain areas. In my thesis, I studied the neural basis

  14. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  15. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1996-10-04

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  16. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  17. 41 CFR 105-70.001 - Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis. 105-70.001 Section 105-70.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  18. Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou You-Long; Hu Fa-Long; Zhou Can-Can; Li Chao-Liu; Dunn Keh-Jim

    2013-01-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

  19. 42 CFR 489.1 - Statutory basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL General Provisions § 489.1 Statutory basis... services covered under Medicare and the providers that may be reimbursed for furnishing those services....

  20. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  1. An evolutionary basis for pollination ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In the introduction and chapter 2 the incentives and way of reasoning are given for the description of an evolutionary basis of pollination ecology. Starting from the until recently rather anecdotical character of the study of pollination ecology as a whole, and in the absence of large-scale correla

  2. Conductance calculations with a wavelet basis set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    . The linear-response conductance is calculated from the Green's function which is represented in terms of a system-independent basis set containing wavelets with compact support. This allows us to rigorously separate the central region from the contacts and to test for convergence in a systematic way...

  3. The Contextualist Basis of Scientific Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guichun

    2014-03-01

    From perspectives of contextual structure, elements and features, this paper analyses the contextualist basis of scientific explanation. It is articulated that contextual analysis specifies the boundary conditions of syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics, clarifies the essence and value-orientation, constructs a conversational platform, and unveils the progress condition and historical continuity of scientific explanation.

  4. On Sociolinguistic Theoretical Basis of Brand Name

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海洋; 司宇婷

    2015-01-01

    Brand names are the offspring of highly development of market economics, and play a crucial role in modern society. This paper discusses the soci-olinguistic theoretical basis of brand name. Attention should be paid to the cultural factors of brand naming, including customs and manners, religious beliefs, ethics, regional culture and so on.

  5. Eurocode I: Basis of design. Background information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the background philosophy of Eurocode 1, Basis of Design. The main ideas behind the various parts of the document are discussed. The emphasize is put on the reliability aspects and the partial factor method. Recommendations for future developments are given.

  6. Screening criteria for design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    A risk based screening criteria was developed to assist in determining whether issues raised during K-reactor restart safety analyses needed to be part of the design basis, and if so, to guide the degree of conservatism in the analysis. This paper describes the development of this criterias existing precedents, and its implementation guidelines and restrictions.

  7. Screening criteria for design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-12-31

    A risk based screening criteria was developed to assist in determining whether issues raised during K-reactor restart safety analyses needed to be part of the design basis, and if so, to guide the degree of conservatism in the analysis. This paper describes the development of this criterias existing precedents, and its implementation guidelines and restrictions.

  8. RBF networks with mixed radial basis functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2000-01-01

    After the introduction to neural network technology as multivariable function approximation, radial basis function (RBF) networks have been studied in many different aspects in recent years. From the theoretical viewpoint, approximation and uniqueness of the interpolation is studied and it has been

  9. 75 FR 75896 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR 1 RIN 1545-BI66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In rule document 2010-25504 beginning on page 64072 in the issue of...

  10. 75 FR 6166 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts, 1, 31, and 301 RIN 1545-Bl66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In proposed rule document E9-29855 beginning on...

  11. RATIONAL BASIS FOR SUSPENDED SEDIMENT MODELING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun ZHOU; Binliang LIN; Bingnan LIN

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a rational basis to model the transport of suspended sediment. The looseboundary condition for 3D models and the adjustment coefficients for both the depth-integrated 2D and laterally integrated 1D models are treated comprehensively. A combination of Dirichlet and Neumann conditions is proposed as the loose-boundary condition. The adjustment coefficient for 2D models is obtained on the basis of the proposed boundary condition and analytical solutions developed for some simple cases of non-equilibrium transport of sediment in uniform flows. The adjustment coefficient for 1D models for natural rivers is further obtained from lateral integration. Comparisons with analytical solutions and a considerable amount of laboratory and prototype data show that mathematical models developed along the proposed line of attack would well simulate the transport of suspended sediment in practical problems.

  12. Basis-neutral Hilbert-space analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Lane; Kondakci, H Esat; Larson, Walker D; Shabahang, Soroush; Jahromi, Ali K; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A Nick; Atia, George K; Abouraddy, Ayman F

    2016-01-01

    Interferometry is one of the central organizing principles of optics. Key to interferometry is the concept of optical delay, which facilitates spectral analysis in terms of time-harmonics. In contrast, when analyzing a beam in a Hilbert space spanned by spatial modes -- a critical task for spatial-mode multiplexing and quantum communication -- basis-specific principles are invoked that are altogether distinct from that of `delay.' Here, we extend the traditional concept of temporal delay to the spatial domain, thereby enabling the analysis of a beam in an arbitrary spatial-mode basis -- exemplified using Hermite-Gaussian and radial Laguerre-Gaussian modes. Such generalized delays correspond to optical implementations of fractional transforms; for example, the fractional Hankel transform is the generalized delay associated with the space of Laguerre-Gaussian modes, and an interferometer incorporating such a `delay' obtains modal weights in the associated Hilbert space. By implementing an inherently stable, rec...

  13. Reduced basis method for source mask optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pomplun, J; Burger, S; Schmidt, F; Tyminski, J; Flagello, D; Toshiharu, N; 10.1117/12.866101

    2010-01-01

    Image modeling and simulation are critical to extending the limits of leading edge lithography technologies used for IC making. Simultaneous source mask optimization (SMO) has become an important objective in the field of computational lithography. SMO is considered essential to extending immersion lithography beyond the 45nm node. However, SMO is computationally extremely challenging and time-consuming. The key challenges are due to run time vs. accuracy tradeoffs of the imaging models used for the computational lithography. We present a new technique to be incorporated in the SMO flow. This new approach is based on the reduced basis method (RBM) applied to the simulation of light transmission through the lithography masks. It provides a rigorous approximation to the exact lithographical problem, based on fully vectorial Maxwell's equations. Using the reduced basis method, the optimization process is divided into an offline and an online steps. In the offline step, a RBM model with variable geometrical param...

  14. Basis of valve operator selection for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. S.; Lee, D. J.; See, J. K.; Park, C. K.; Choi, B. S

    2000-05-01

    SMART, an integral reactor with enhanced safety and operability, is under development for use of the nuclear energy. The valve operator of SMART system were selected through the data survey and technical review of potential valve fabrication vendors, and it will provide the establishment and optimization of the basic system design of SMART. In order to establish and optimize the basic system design of SMART, the basis of selection for the valve operator type were provided based on the basic design requirements. The basis of valve operator selection for SMART will be used as a basic technical data for the SMART basic and detail design and a fundamental material for the new reactor development in the future.

  15. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  16. Genetic basis of human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallender, Eric J; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Lahn, Bruce T

    2008-12-01

    Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human brain evolution span a wide range from single-nucleotide substitutions to large-scale structural alterations of the genome. Similarly, the functional consequences of these genetic changes vary greatly, including protein-sequence alterations, cis-regulatory changes and even the emergence of new genes and the extinction of existing ones. Here, we provide a general review of recent findings into the genetic basis of human brain evolution, highlight the most notable trends that have emerged and caution against over-interpretation of current data.

  17. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  18. Nearest lattice point algorithms on semi k-reduced basis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚海斌; 沈鸿

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly generalize the relations among the basis vectors of LLL reduced basis to semi k-reduced basis. Then we analyze the complexities of the nearest plane algorithm and round-off algorithm on semi k-reduced basis, which, compared with L. Babai's results on LLL reduced basis, have better approximate ratios and contain almost the same time complexities.

  19. A Genetic Basis for Motivated Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Deborah J; Li, Mengjiao; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a genetic basis for motivated exercise, with evidence of a role for nescient helix-loop-helix-2 (NHLH2/Nhlh2). Nhlh2 transcriptionally regulates the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene. This article examines the evidence for the hypothesis that polymorphisms in NHLH2 or MAO-A contribute to differences in the human motivation for exercise and physical activity. The genetic pathways that link exercise and motivation are discussed.

  20. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...

  1. A brain basis for musical hallucinations ☆

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to exam...

  2. Neurons with radial basis like rate functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt László

    2005-01-01

    Artificial neural networks constructed with "locally tuned processing units" and more generally referred to as "radial basis function networks" have been proposed by a number of workers. In this communication, I submit a conjecture, based on indirect experimental and direct computational evidence of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, that there may be biological neurons in nervous systems for which the rate function is locally tuned. If proved to be valid, this conjecture may simplify neurodynamic models of some functions of nervous systems.

  3. The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

  4. [Basis of art phonetics in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gelin; Ouyang, Kai; Liu, Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    Art phonetics' medicine, a new branch of traditional medicine, has not been developed perfectly, especially in the aspects of objective and scientific study. In this paper, the acoustical and anatiomical basis of art phonetics in viewpoint of biomedical engineering is explored, and then our work of quantitative measurement and analysis of art phonetic is introduced. The experiment data show further that quantitative measurement and analysis plays an important role in art phonetic medicine.

  5. The genetic basis of premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woad, Kathryn J; Watkins, Wendy J; Prendergast, Deborah; Shelling, Andrew N

    2006-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition, affecting approximately 1:100 women. It is characterised by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. It is often an unexpected and distressing diagnosis, which coincides with infertility and menopausal symptoms. There is a well recognised genetic basis to the development of POF. Our laboratory has identified several candidate genes associated with POF.

  6. Microscopic Basis of the Interacting Boson Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, T.

    The microscopic basis of the IBM is discussed in this paper, presenting a derivation of the IBM system from the multi-nucleon system. Although there could be different approaches to this goal as stated in the preface of this supplement, we focus on two approaches. One is the Otsuka-Arima-Iachello mapping, which works for the spherical and near-spherical nuclei. The other is a mapping for deformed nuclei.

  7. Tests for Wavelets as a Basis Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven

    A wavelet transformation is a special type of filter usually reserved for image processing and other applications. We develop metrics to evaluate wavelets for general problems on test one-dimensional systems. The goal is to eventually use a wavelet basis in electronic structure calculations. We compare a variety of orthogonal wavelets such as coiflets, symlets, and daubechies wavelets. We also evaluate a new type of orthogonal wavelet with dilation factor three which is both symmetric and compact in real space. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award #DE-SC008696.

  8. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  9. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  10. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  11. The Cellular Basis of a Corollary Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2006-01-01

    How do animals discriminate self-generated from external stimuli during behavior and prevent desensitization of their sensory pathways? A fundamental concept in neuroscience states that neural signals, termed corollary discharges or efference copies, are forwarded from motor to sensory areas. Neurons mediating these signals have proved difficult to identify. We show that a single, multisegmental interneuron is responsible for the pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of auditory neurons in singing crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). Therefore, this neuron represents a corollary discharge interneuron that provides a neuronal basis for the central control of sensory responses.

  12. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobs R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1 exact staging as well as (2 safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed.

  13. Basis set independent calculation of molecular polarizabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, James D.

    2012-08-01

    It is shown that e-F, where F is the Hartree-Fock (HF) operator, can be inverted, for molecular systems, in numerical Cartesian coordinates. The method was originally applied to finding corrections to approximate Hartree-Fock orbitals [J. D. Talman, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.052518 82, 052518 (2010)]. The approach is applied to determine basis set independent dipole polarizabilities for the water molecule using the Sternheimer method within the uncoupled HF and coupled perturbed HF approximations.

  14. The Interpolation Theory of Radial Basis Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, it is first shown that, when the radial basis function is a $p$-norm and $1 2$. Specifically, for every $p > 2$, we construct a set of different points in some $\\Rd$ for which the interpolation matrix is singular. The greater part of this work investigates the sensitivity of radial basis function interpolants to changes in the function values at the interpolation points. Our early results show that it is possible to recast the work of Ball, Narcowich and Ward in the language of distributional Fourier transforms in an elegant way. We then use this language to study the interpolation matrices generated by subsets of regular grids. In particular, we are able to extend the classical theory of Toeplitz operators to calculate sharp bounds on the spectra of such matrices. Applying our understanding of these spectra, we construct preconditioners for the conjugate gradient solution of the interpolation equations. Our main result is that the number of steps required to achieve solution of the lin...

  15. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  16. Spherical radial basis functions, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbert, Simon; Morton, Tanya M

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to be devoted to the theory and applications of spherical (radial) basis functions (SBFs), which is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising techniques for solving problems where approximations are needed on the surface of a sphere. The aim of the book is to provide enough theoretical and practical details for the reader to be able to implement the SBF methods to solve real world problems. The authors stress the close connection between the theory of SBFs and that of the more well-known family of radial basis functions (RBFs), which are well-established tools for solving approximation theory problems on more general domains. The unique solvability of the SBF interpolation method for data fitting problems is established and an in-depth investigation of its accuracy is provided. Two chapters are devoted to partial differential equations (PDEs). One deals with the practical implementation of an SBF-based solution to an elliptic PDE and another which describes an SBF approach for solvi...

  17. The Molecular Basis of Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, Wolfgang

    2016-10-24

    Humans are a remarkable species, especially because of the remarkable properties of their brain. Since the split from the chimpanzee lineage, the human brain has increased three-fold in size and has acquired abilities for vocal learning, language and intense cooperation. To better understand the molecular basis of these changes is of great biological and biomedical interest. However, all the about 16 million fixed genetic changes that occurred during human evolution are fully correlated with all molecular, cellular, anatomical and behavioral changes that occurred during this time. Hence, as humans and chimpanzees cannot be crossed or genetically manipulated, no direct evidence for linking particular genetic and molecular changes to human brain evolution can be obtained. Here, I sketch a framework how indirect evidence can be obtained and review findings related to the molecular basis of human cognition, vocal learning and brain size. In particular, I discuss how a comprehensive comparative approach, leveraging cellular systems and genomic technologies, could inform the evolution of our brain in the future.

  18. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  19. Quantum Fourier transform in computational basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. S.; Loke, T.; Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    The quantum Fourier transform, with exponential speed-up compared to the classical fast Fourier transform, has played an important role in quantum computation as a vital part of many quantum algorithms (most prominently, Shor's factoring algorithm). However, situations arise where it is not sufficient to encode the Fourier coefficients within the quantum amplitudes, for example in the implementation of control operations that depend on Fourier coefficients. In this paper, we detail a new quantum scheme to encode Fourier coefficients in the computational basis, with fidelity 1 - δ and digit accuracy ɛ for each Fourier coefficient. Its time complexity depends polynomially on log (N), where N is the problem size, and linearly on 1/δ and 1/ɛ . We also discuss an application of potential practical importance, namely the simulation of circulant Hamiltonians.

  20. Sensitive cooperation: a basis for assisted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe sensitive cooperation as a basis for assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury (hcSCI). BACKGROUND: People who contract a complete hcSCI will require lifelong assistance from others with all activities of daily living. Initially......, they prefer getting help from people they already know and are reluctant to cooperate with personal assistants. Assisted feeding is a situation where the nature of the cooperation between the two parties involved is crucial. DESIGN: Qualitative. METHOD: Sixteen people with hcSCI were interviewed twice within...... needing assisted feeding, but has the temporality of the helper as a necessary condition. A particular meal draws on the experiences from all previous meals and is a significant forerunner of future meals. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitive cooperation implies genuine acquaintance and sincere concern for the person...

  1. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  2. Mentoring as the basis for social business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artcer Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the concept of mentoring as a basis for social business is considered. Besides, the ways of increase of efficiency of labor use through the institute of mentoring of young workers are considered by elderly people. Features of employment, work and dismissal of aging employees are also considered. Possibilities of application of mentoring, attraction of experience of pensioners taking into account the high level of their qualification are reflected. Tasks which the institute of mentoring will help to solve are formulated. The article examines the possibility of using mentoring and engaging retired employees with their experience, a high level of their education and professional qualification in the training of young inexperienced workers. Mentoring is presented as an element of social entrepreneurship.

  3. Basis Function Sampling for Material Property Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Chiu, Chi-Cheng; Joshi, Abhijeet A.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-03-01

    Wang-Landau sampling, and the associated class of flat histogram simulation methods, have been particularly successful for free energy calculations in a wide array of physical systems. Practically, the convergence of these calculations to a target free energy surface is hampered by reliance on parameters which are unknown a priori. We derive and implement a method based on orthogonal (basis) functions which is fast, parameter-free, and geometrically robust. An important feature of this method is its ability to achieve arbitrary levels of description for the free energy. It is thus ideally suited to in silico measurement of elastic moduli and other quantities related to free energy perturbations. We demonstrate the utility of such applications by applying our method to calculation of the Frank elastic constants of the Lebwohl-Lasher model.

  4. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  5. Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Dehydration (body water deficit) is a physiologic state that can have profound implications for human health and performance. Unfortunately, dehydration can be difficult to assess, and there is no single, universal gold standard for decision making. In this article, we review the physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. We highlight how phenomenologic interpretations of dehydration depend critically on the type (dehydration compared with volume depletion) and magnitude (moderate compared with severe) of dehydration, which in turn influence the osmotic (plasma osmolality) and blood volume-dependent compensatory thresholds for antidiuretic and thirst responses. In particular, we review new findings regarding the biological variation in osmotic responses to dehydration and discuss how this variation can help provide a quantitative and clinically relevant link between the physiology and phenomenology of dehydration. Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment.

  6. Structural basis of enzymatic benzene ring reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Tobias; Huwiler, Simona G; Kung, Johannes W; Weidenweber, Sina; Hellwig, Petra; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Biskup, Till; Weber, Stefan; Cotelesage, Julien J H; George, Graham N; Ermler, Ulrich; Boll, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    In chemical synthesis, the widely used Birch reduction of aromatic compounds to cyclic dienes requires alkali metals in ammonia as extremely low-potential electron donors. An analogous reaction is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases (BCRs) that have a key role in the globally important bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds at anoxic sites. Because of the lack of structural information, the catalytic mechanism of enzymatic benzene ring reduction remained obscure. Here, we present the structural characterization of a dearomatizing BCR containing an unprecedented tungsten cofactor that transfers electrons to the benzene ring in an aprotic cavity. Substrate binding induces proton transfer from the bulk solvent to the active site by expelling a Zn(2+) that is crucial for active site encapsulation. Our results shed light on the structural basis of an electron transfer process at the negative redox potential limit in biology. They open the door for biological or biomimetic alternatives to a basic chemical synthetic tool.

  7. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  8. Molecular Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz

    of translation of FLO11. In conclusion, I have conducted the first global study of the genetic program for yeast biofilm formation on polystyrene. This work provide several target genes as good basis for further research of biofilm, that I believe can contribute to fields such as cell biology, genetics, system......In this study, I sought to identify genes regulating the global molecular program for development of sessile multicellular communities, also known as biofilm, of the eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Yeast biofilm has a clinical interest, as biofilms can cause chronic......, but only a small subset is previously described as regulators of FLO11. These results reveal that the regulation of biofilm formation and FLO11 is even more complex than what has previously been described. I find that the molecular program for biofilm formation shares many essential components with two...

  9. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  10. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  11. A brain basis for musical hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Sedley, William; Barnes, Gareth R; Teki, Sundeep; Friston, Karl J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to examine variation in the underlying oscillatory brain activity in different states. Source-space analysis capable of single-subject inference defined left-lateralised power increases, associated with stronger hallucinations, in the gamma band in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, and in the beta band in motor cortex and posteromedial cortex. The data indicate that these areas form a crucial network in the generation of MH, and are consistent with a model in which MH are generated by persistent reciprocal communication in a predictive coding hierarchy.

  12. A logical basis for constructive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Japaridze, Giorgi

    2010-01-01

    The work is devoted to Computability Logic (CoL) -- the philosophical/mathematical platform and long-term project for redeveloping classical logic after replacing truth} by computability in its underlying semantics (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html). This article elaborates some basic complexity theory for the CoL framework. Then it proves soundness and completeness for the deductive system CL12 with respect to the semantics of CoL, including the version of the latter based on polynomial time computability instead of computability-in-principle. CL12 is a sequent calculus system, where the meaning of a sequent intuitively can be characterized as "the succedent is algorithmically reducible to the antecedent", and where formulas are built from predicate letters, function letters, variables, constants, identity, negation, parallel and choice connectives, and blind and choice quantifiers. A case is made that CL12 is an adequate logical basis for constructive applied theories, including complexity-orien...

  13. Generalization performance of radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunwen; Ding, Lixin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies the generalization performance of radial basis function (RBF) networks using local Rademacher complexities. We propose a general result on controlling local Rademacher complexities with the L1 -metric capacity. We then apply this result to estimate the RBF networks' complexities, based on which a novel estimation error bound is obtained. An effective approximation error bound is also derived by carefully investigating the Hölder continuity of the lp loss function's derivative. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the RBF network minimizing an appropriately constructed structural risk admits a significantly better learning rate when compared with the existing results. An empirical study is also performed to justify the application of our structural risk in model selection.

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory Fission Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keksis, A.L.; Chadwick, M.B.; Selby, H.D.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Barr, D.W.; Meade, R.A.; Burns, C.J.; Wallstrom, T.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report is an overview of two main publications that provide a comprehensive review of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Fission Basis. The first is the experimental paper, {sup F}ission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, [Selby, H. D., et al., Nucl. Data Sheets, Vol. 111 2010, pp. 2891-2922] and the second is the theoretical paper, Fission Product Yields from Fission Spectrum n+ {sup 239}Pu for ENDF/B-VII.1, [Chadwick, M. B., et al., Nucl. Data Sheets, Vol. 111, 2010, pp. 2923-2964]. One important note is that none of this work would have been possible without the great documentation of the experimental details and results by G.W. Knobeloch, G. Butler, C.I. Browne, B. Erdal, B. Bayhurst, R. Prestwood, V. Armijo, J. Hasty and many others. (authors)

  15. Molecular basis of chloroplast photorelocation movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    Chloroplast photorelocation movement is an essential physiological response for sessile plant survival and the optimization of photosynthetic ability. Simple but effective experiments on the physiological, cell biological and molecular genetic aspects have been widely used to investigate the signaling components of chloroplast photorelocation movement in Arabidopsis for the past few decades. Although recent knowledge on chloroplast photorelocation movement has led us to a deeper understanding of its physiological and molecular basis, the biochemical roles of the downstream factors remain largely unknown. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances regarding chloroplast photorelocation movement and propose that a new high-resolution approach is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying actin-based chloroplast photorelocation movement.

  16. The scientific basis for patient blood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M F; Goodnough, L T

    2015-08-01

    Patient blood management is an increasingly used term to describe an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to optimising the care of patients who might need transfusion. It encompasses measures to avoid transfusion such as anaemia management without transfusion, cell salvage and the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce bleeding as well as restrictive transfusion. It ensures that patients receive the optimal treatment, and that avoidable, inappropriate use of blood and blood components is reduced. This paper provides an overview of the scientific basis for patient blood management with a focus on the increasing evidence for restrictive rather than liberal transfusion practice and the use of electronic blood ordering and decision support to facilitate its implementation.

  17. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...

  18. The basis of the Fermi liquid theory

    CERN Document Server

    Apostol, M

    2001-01-01

    Interaction may affect drastically the many-particle ensembles; for instance an attraction, even weak, between electrons, binds them up in pairs, leading to superconductivity; interacting fermions in one dimension get bosonized; anisotropic fermions with 'nested' Fermi surfaces become non-homogeneous, when interacting, and develop charge- or spin- density waves. All these are different phases, and appear as symmetry breakings, spontaneous or induced; they are also termed as instabilities of the many-body systems, under interaction. Hints toward their nature are often obtained through studying the interacting two-particle problem, scattering included. In this paper the basis of the Fermi liquid theory is shown, and electronic liquid is briefly discussed. (author)

  19. The neural basis of human tool use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy A Orban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we propose that the neural basis for the spontaneous, diversified human tool use is an area devoted to the execution and observation of tool actions, located in the left anterior supramarginal gyrus (aSMG. The aSMG activation elicited by observing tool use is typical of human subjects, as macaques show no similar activation, even after an extensive training to use tools. The execution of tool actions, as well as their observation, requires the convergence upon aSMG of inputs from different parts of the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Non semantic features of the target object may be provided by the posterior parietal cortex (PPC for tool-object interaction, paralleling the well-known PPC input to AIP for hand-object interaction. Semantic information regarding tool identity, and knowledge of the typical manner of handling the tool, could be provided by inferior and middle regions of the temporal lobe. Somatosensory feedback and technical reasoning, as well as motor and intentional constraints also play roles during the planning of tool actions and consequently their signals likewise converge upon aSMG.We further propose that aSMG may have arisen though duplication of monkey AIP and invasion of the duplicate area by afferents from PPC providing distinct signals depending on the kinematics of the manipulative action. This duplication may have occurred when Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus emerged, generating the Oldowan or Acheulean Industrial complexes respectively. Hence tool use may have emerged during hominid evolution between bipedalism and language.We conclude that humans have two parietal systems involved in tool behavior: a biological circuit for grasping objects, including tools, and an artifactual system devoted specifically to tool use. Only the latter allows humans to understand the causal relationship between tool use and obtaining the goal, and is likely to be the basis of all technological developments.

  20. PREFACE: Progress in the ITER Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, K.

    2007-06-01

    I would firstly like to congratulate all who have contributed to the preparation of the `Progress in the ITER Physics Basis' (PIPB) on its publication and express my deep appreciation of the hard work and commitment of the many scientists involved. With the signing of the ITER Joint Implementing Agreement in November 2006, the ITER Members have now established the framework for construction of the project, and the ITER Organization has begun work at Cadarache. The review of recent progress in the physics basis for burning plasma experiments encompassed by the PIPB will be a valuable resource for the project and, in particular, for the current Design Review. The ITER design has been derived from a physics basis developed through experimental, modelling and theoretical work on the properties of tokamak plasmas and, in particular, on studies of burning plasma physics. The `ITER Physics Basis' (IPB), published in 1999, has been the reference for the projection methodologies for the design of ITER, but the IPB also highlighted several key issues which needed to be resolved to provide a robust basis for ITER operation. In the intervening period scientists of the ITER Participant Teams have addressed these issues intensively. The International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) has provided an excellent forum for scientists involved in these studies, focusing their work on the high priority physics issues for ITER. Significant progress has been made in many of the issues identified in the IPB and this progress is discussed in depth in the PIPB. In this respect, the publication of the PIPB symbolizes the strong interest and enthusiasm of the plasma physics community for the success of the ITER project, which we all recognize as one of the great scientific challenges of the 21st century. I wish to emphasize my appreciation of the work of the ITPA Coordinating Committee members, who are listed below. Their support and encouragement for the preparation of the PIPB were

  1. On the theoretical basis for plea bargaining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Before discussing the introduction of the plea bargaining system to China's criminal justice system,it is necessary to study its theoretical basis.Among which,the following aspects should be focused on: the philosophical viewpoint of pragmatism is its thinking basis;the concept of contract is its cultural basis;the structure form of adversary procedure is its systematic basis;and the system of fight to silence and discovery of evidence are its symbiotic basis.

  2. The Role of the Basis Set: Assessing Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Boese, A D; Handy, N C; Martin, Jan M. L.; Handy, Nicholas C.

    2003-01-01

    When developing and assessing density functional theory methods, a finite basis set is usually employed. In most cases, however, the issue of basis set dependency is neglected. Here, we assess several basis sets and functionals. In addition, the dependency of the semiempirical fits to a given basis set for a generalised gradient approximation and a hybrid functional is investigated. The resulting functionals are then tested for other basis sets, evaluating their errors and transferability.

  3. Reduced Order Model Basis Vector Generation: Generates Basis Vectors fro ROMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-03

    libROM is a library that implements order reduction via singular value decomposition (SVD) of sampled state vectors. It implements 2 parallel, incremental SVD algorithms and one serial, non-incremental algorithm. It also provides a mechanism for adaptive sampling of basis vectors.

  4. Chemical basis of metabolic network organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the metabolic networks of the three domains of life consist of different constituents and metabolic pathways, they exhibit the same scale-free organization. This phenomenon has been hypothetically explained by preferential attachment principle that the new-recruited metabolites attach preferentially to those that are already well connected. However, since metabolites are usually small molecules and metabolic processes are basically chemical reactions, we speculate that the metabolic network organization may have a chemical basis. In this paper, chemoinformatic analyses on metabolic networks of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed. It was found that there exist qualitative and quantitative correlations between network topology and chemical properties of metabolites. The metabolites with larger degrees of connectivity (hubs are of relatively stronger polarity. This suggests that metabolic networks are chemically organized to a certain extent, which was further elucidated in terms of high concentrations required by metabolic hubs to drive a variety of reactions. This finding not only provides a chemical explanation to the preferential attachment principle for metabolic network expansion, but also has important implications for metabolic network design and metabolite concentration prediction.

  5. Structural basis for spectrin recognition by ankyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsaro, Jonathan J.; Mondragón, Alfonso (NWU)

    2010-10-19

    Maintenance of membrane integrity and organization in the metazoan cell is accomplished through intracellular tethering of membrane proteins to an extensive, flexible protein network. Spectrin, the principal component of this network, is anchored to membrane proteins through the adaptor protein ankyrin. To elucidate the atomic basis for this interaction, we determined a crystal structure of human {beta}I-spectrin repeats 13 to 15 in complex with the ZU5-ANK domain of human ankyrin R. The structure reveals the role of repeats 14 to 15 in binding, the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions along the interface, and the necessity for a particular orientation of the spectrin repeats. Using structural and biochemical data as a guide, we characterized the individual proteins and their interactions by binding and thermal stability analyses. In addition to validating the structural model, these data provide insight into the nature of some mutations associated with cell morphology defects, including those found in human diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. Finally, analysis of the ZU5 domain suggests it is a versatile protein-protein interaction module with distinct interaction surfaces. The structure represents not only the first of a spectrin fragment in complex with its binding partner, but also that of an intermolecular complex involving a ZU5 domain.

  6. The neural basis of tactile motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2014-12-15

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex.

  7. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  8. Molecular Basis of Laminin-Integrin Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are composed of three polypeptide chains, designated as α, β, and γ. The C-terminal region of laminin heterotrimers, containing coiled-coil regions, short tails, and laminin globular (LG) domains, is necessary and sufficient for binding to integrins, which are the major laminin receptor class. Laminin recognition by integrins critically requires the α chain LG domains and a glutamic acid residue of the γ chain at the third position from the C-terminus. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of the β chain contains a short amino acid sequence that modulates laminin affinity for integrins. Thus, all three of the laminin chains act cooperatively to facilitate integrin binding. Mammals possess 5 α (α1-5), 3 β (β1-3), and 3 γ (γ1-3) chains, combinations of which give rise to 16 distinct laminin isoforms. Each isoform is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, exerting its functions through binding of integrins. In this review, we detail the current knowledge surrounding the molecular basis and physiological relevance of specific interactions between laminins and integrins, and describe the mechanisms underlying laminin action through integrins.

  9. The Perceptual Basis of Vast Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzky, Roberta L; Thompson, William B; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Gill, Devin; McGee, D Kevin

    2017-03-20

    "Vast" is a word often applied to environmental terrain that is perceived to have large spatial extent. This judgment is made even at viewing distances where traditional metric depth cues are not useful. This paper explores the perceptual basis of vast experience, including reliability and visual precursors. Experiment 1 demonstrated strong agreement in ratings of the spatial extent of two-dimensional (2D) scene images by participants in two countries under very different viewing conditions. Image categories labeled "vast" often exemplified scene attributes of ruggedness and openness (Oliva & Torralba, 2001). Experiment 2 quantitatively assessed whether these properties predict vastness. High vastness ratings were associated with highly open, or moderately open but rugged, scenes. Experiment 3 provided evidence, consistent with theory, that metric distance perception does not directly mediate the observed vastness ratings. The question remains as to how people perceive vast space when information about environmental scale is unavailable from metric depth cues or associated scene properties. We consider possible answers, including contribution from strong cues to relative depth.

  10. Pragmatic and motivation basis of flora nominations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabko Olga Pavlovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By now the theory of language nomination has overcome two periods in its academic research: the first-classical one and the second-post-classical period. The first period is characterized, first of all, by onomaseological works of Russian linguists and may truelly be considered as the forthcoming of cognitivism in our country. The second period has been influenced by stimulative ideas of cognitive linguistics. This period is defined as the development of cognitive theory of nomination. The theory of terminology nomination has consequently acquired cognitive trends. The object of our thorough study is the terminology in flora namings. We have gained econormus factual material and classified it into flora macrofield. The macrofield of flora namings embraces three microfields (parametric, pragmatic and locative-temporal, which determine motivation in flora theory of nomination. In the article we have focused on motivated-nominative pragmatic qualities of flora namings, presented in three classified groups: functional- pragmatic, denotative-objective and alethic ones. Each group has in its turn several subgroups of qualities in flora namings, which are studied through defenition from authorized lexicographical dictionaries. Pragmatic nomination is realized by inductive-logical mechanism. Classificated system of qualities in flora namings has determined an integrated pragmatically-motivated basis of flora nomination.

  11. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection.

  12. The genetic basis of myeloproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoda, Radek

    2007-01-01

    For many decades, myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) were largely neglected orphan diseases. The conceptual work of William Dameshek in 1951 provided the basis for understanding MPD as a continuum of related syndromes, possibly with a common pathogenetic cause. Recognition of the clonal origin of peripheral blood cells in MPD in 1976 and the ability to grow erythroid colonies in vitro in the absence of added growth factors in 1974 initiated the search for genetic alterations that might be responsible for myeloproliferation. Mutations in the genes for the erythropoietin receptor, thrombopoietin and the von Hippel-Lindau protein were found to cause familial syndromes resembling MPD, but despite their phenotypic similarities, none of these mutations were later found in patients with the sporadic form of MPD. The discovery of activating mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in most patients with MPD has fully transformed and energized the MPD field. Sensitive assays for detecting the JAK2-V617F mutation have become an essential part of the diagnostic work-up, and JAK2 now constitutes a prime target for developing specific inhibitors for the treatment of patients with MPD. Despite this progress, many questions remain unsolved, including how a single JAK2 mutation causes three different MPD phenotypes, what other genes might be involved in the pathogenesis, and what are the factors determining the progression to acute leukemia.

  13. Biological Basis For Computer Vision: Some Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madan M.

    1990-03-01

    Using biology as a basis for the development of sensors, devices and computer vision systems is a challenge to systems and vision scientists. It is also a field of promising research for engineering applications. Biological sensory systems, such as vision, touch and hearing, sense different physical phenomena from our environment, yet they possess some common mathematical functions. These mathematical functions are cast into the neural layers which are distributed throughout our sensory regions, sensory information transmission channels and in the cortex, the centre of perception. In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, both retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies in such fields as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the the use of fuzzy - neural layers and generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neural layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with various applications to vision prosthesis for the blind, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  14. Structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, Daniel P; Renault, Ludovic; Serrao, Erik; Lesbats, Paul; Matadeen, Rishi; Hare, Stephen; Lindemann, Dirk; Engelman, Alan N; Costa, Alessandro; Cherepanov, Peter

    2015-07-16

    Retroviral integration is catalysed by a tetramer of integrase (IN) assembled on viral DNA ends in a stable complex, known as the intasome. How the intasome interfaces with chromosomal DNA, which exists in the form of nucleosomal arrays, is currently unknown. Here we show that the prototype foamy virus (PFV) intasome is proficient at stable capture of nucleosomes as targets for integration. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reveals a multivalent intasome-nucleosome interface involving both gyres of nucleosomal DNA and one H2A-H2B heterodimer. While the histone octamer remains intact, the DNA is lifted from the surface of the H2A-H2B heterodimer to allow integration at strongly preferred superhelix location ±3.5 positions. Amino acid substitutions disrupting these contacts impinge on the ability of the intasome to engage nucleosomes in vitro and redistribute viral integration sites on the genomic scale. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis for nucleosome capture by the viral DNA recombination machinery and the underlying nucleosome plasticity that allows integration.

  15. Neuronal basis of amblyopia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigg John

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is an acquired defect in vision due to an abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of visual development. The neuronal basis of amblyopia is the study of the effects of "abnormal" environmental influences on the genetically programmed development of the visual processing system. Visual pathway development commences with ganglion cells forming the optic nerve. The process that guides these neurones initially to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and then onto the visual cortex is genetically programmed. Initially this process is influenced by spontaneously generated impulses and neurotrophic factors. Following birth, visual stimuli modify and refine the genetically programmed process. Exposure to the visual environment includes the risk of abnormal inputs. Abnormal stimuli disrupt the formation of patterned inputs allowing alteration of visual cortical wiring with reduction in ocular dominance columns driven by the abnormal eye. Correction of the abnormal visual input and penalisation of the "normal" input is the mainstay of therapy for amblyopia. Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of a normal visual processing system will allow trialing therapies for amblyopia not responding to occlusion therapy. Levodopa is one agent providing insights into recovery of visual function for short periods in apparently mature visual systems.

  16. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eBenn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent fMRI while playing a game that involved monitoring progress towards either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress towards a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring.

  17. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of company competitiveness is proposed, on its basis, the concept of “competitive enterprise” is defined. The most well-known approaches for assessing the company competitiveness are analyzed. The author’s method of the company competitiveness assessment based on the dynamics of the integral index of competitiveness is provided. For those cases, when it is impossible to determine the proportion of products on the market, it is proposed to evaluate the company competitiveness on the profitability of its production. The article shows the experience in calculating of the company competitiveness on the proposed author’s methods.

  18. The neural basis of following advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning by following explicit advice is fundamental for human cultural evolution, yet the neurobiology of adaptive social learning is largely unknown. Here, we used simulations to analyze the adaptive value of social learning mechanisms, computational modeling of behavioral data to describe cognitive mechanisms involved in social learning, and model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify the neurobiological basis of following advice. One-time advice received before learning had a sustained influence on people's learning processes. This was best explained by social learning mechanisms implementing a more positive evaluation of the outcomes from recommended options. Computer simulations showed that this "outcome-bonus" accumulates more rewards than an alternative mechanism implementing higher initial reward expectation for recommended options. fMRI results revealed a neural outcome-bonus signal in the septal area and the left caudate. This neural signal coded rewards in the absence of advice, and crucially, it signaled greater positive rewards for positive and negative feedback after recommended rather than after non-recommended choices. Hence, our results indicate that following advice is intrinsically rewarding. A positive correlation between the model's outcome-bonus parameter and amygdala activity after positive feedback directly relates the computational model to brain activity. These results advance the understanding of social learning by providing a neurobiological account for adaptive learning from advice.

  19. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

    2007-11-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

  20. The neural basis of altruistic punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Fischbacher, Urs; Treyer, Valerie; Schellhammer, Melanie; Schnyder, Ulrich; Buck, Alfred; Fehr, Ernst

    2004-08-27

    Many people voluntarily incur costs to punish violations of social norms. Evolutionary models and empirical evidence indicate that such altruistic punishment has been a decisive force in the evolution of human cooperation. We used H2 15O positron emission tomography to examine the neural basis for altruistic punishment of defectors in an economic exchange. Subjects could punish defection either symbolically or effectively. Symbolic punishment did not reduce the defector's economic payoff, whereas effective punishment did reduce the payoff. We scanned the subjects' brains while they learned about the defector's abuse of trust and determined the punishment. Effective punishment, as compared with symbolic punishment, activated the dorsal striatum, which has been implicated in the processing of rewards that accrue as a result of goal-directed actions. Moreover, subjects with stronger activations in the dorsal striatum were willing to incur greater costs in order to punish. Our findings support the hypothesis that people derive satisfaction from punishing norm violations and that the activation in the dorsal striatum reflects the anticipated satisfaction from punishing defectors.

  1. PARFUME Theory and Model basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrell L. Knudson; Gregory K Miller; G.K. Miller; D.A. Petti; J.T. Maki; D.L. Knudson

    2009-09-01

    The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The fuel performance modeling code PARFUME simulates the mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation. This report documents the theory and material properties behind vari¬ous capabilities of the code, which include: 1) various options for calculating CO production and fission product gas release, 2) an analytical solution for stresses in the coating layers that accounts for irradiation-induced creep and swelling of the pyrocarbon layers, 3) a thermal model that calculates a time-dependent temperature profile through a pebble bed sphere or a prismatic block core, as well as through the layers of each analyzed particle, 4) simulation of multi-dimensional particle behavior associated with cracking in the IPyC layer, partial debonding of the IPyC from the SiC, particle asphericity, and kernel migration (or amoeba effect), 5) two independent methods for determining particle failure probabilities, 6) a model for calculating release-to-birth (R/B) ratios of gaseous fission products that accounts for particle failures and uranium contamination in the fuel matrix, and 7) the evaluation of an accident condition, where a particle experiences a sudden change in temperature following a period of normal irradiation. The accident condi¬tion entails diffusion of fission products through the particle coating layers and through the fuel matrix to the coolant boundary. This document represents the initial version of the PARFUME Theory and Model Basis Report. More detailed descriptions will be provided in future revisions.

  2. Neural basis of economic bubble behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A

    2014-04-18

    Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust.

  3. The genetic basis of music ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ting eTan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realisation of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioural and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge.

  4. Authorization basis status report (miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1998-04-29

    This report presents the results of a systematic evaluation conducted to identify miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components with potential needed authorization basis upgrades. It provides the Authorization Basis upgrade plan for those miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components identified.

  5. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coricelli, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.

    La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de

  6. The neural circuit basis of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kaifosh William John

    The astounding capacity for learning ranks among the nervous system's most impressive features. This thesis comprises studies employing varied approaches to improve understanding, at the level of neural circuits, of the brain's capacity for learning. The first part of the thesis contains investigations of hippocampal circuitry -- both theoretical work and experimental work in the mouse Mus musculus -- as a model system for declarative memory. To begin, Chapter 2 presents a theory of hippocampal memory storage and retrieval that reflects nonlinear dendritic processing within hippocampal pyramidal neurons. As a prelude to the experimental work that comprises the remainder of this part, Chapter 3 describes an open source software platform that we have developed for analysis of data acquired with in vivo Ca2+ imaging, the main experimental technique used throughout the remainder of this part of the thesis. As a first application of this technique, Chapter 4 characterizes the content of signaling at synapses between GABAergic neurons of the medial septum and interneurons in stratum oriens of hippocampal area CA1. Chapter 5 then combines these techniques with optogenetic, pharmacogenetic, and pharmacological manipulations to uncover inhibitory circuit mechanisms underlying fear learning. The second part of this thesis focuses on the cerebellum-like electrosensory lobe in the weakly electric mormyrid fish Gnathonemus petersii, as a model system for non-declarative memory. In Chapter 6, we study how short-duration EOD motor commands are recoded into a complex temporal basis in the granule cell layer, which can be used to cancel Purkinje-like cell firing to the longer duration and temporally varying EOD-driven sensory responses. In Chapter 7, we consider not only the temporal aspects of the granule cell code, but also the encoding of body position provided from proprioceptive and efference copy sources. Together these studies clarify how the cerebellum-like circuitry of the

  7. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167... for depreciation. The basis upon which the allowance for depreciation is to be computed with respect... property at that time, is the basis for computing depreciation....

  8. 42 CFR 403.800 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 403.800 Section 403.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Program § 403.800 Basis and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart is based on section 1860D-31 of the...

  9. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by...

  10. Kaiser-Bessel Basis for the Particle-Mesh Interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xingyu; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce the Kaiser-Bessel interpolation basis for the particle-mesh interpolation in the fast Ewald method. A reliable a priori error estimate is developed to measure the accuracy of the force computation, and is shown to be effective in optimizing the shape parameter of the Kaiser-Bessel basis in terms of accuracy. By comparing the optimized Kaiser-Bessel basis with the traditional B-spline basis, we demonstrate that the former is more accurate than the latter in part of the working parameter space, saying a relatively small real space cutoff, a relatively small reciprocal space mesh and a relatively large truncation of basis. In some cases, the Kaiser-Bessel basis is found to be more than one order of magnitude more accurate. Therefore, it is worth trying the Kaiser-Bessel basis in the simulations where the computational accuracy of the electrostatic interaction is critical.

  11. Local-basis-function approach to computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, K. M.; Wecksung, G. W.

    1985-12-01

    In the local basis-function approach, a reconstruction is represented as a linear expansion of basis functions, which are arranged on a rectangular grid and possess a local region of support. The basis functions considered here are positive and may overlap. It is found that basis functions based on cubic B-splines offer significant improvements in the calculational accuracy that can be achieved with iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithms. By employing repetitive basis functions, the computational effort involved in these algorithms can be minimized through the use of tabulated values for the line or strip integrals over a single-basis function. The local nature of the basis functions reduces the difficulties associated with applying local constraints on reconstruction values, such as upper and lower limits. Since a reconstruction is specified everywhere by a set of coefficients, display of a coarsely represented image does not require an arbitrary choice of an interpolation function.

  12. Indoor climate control on the basis of the weather report; Binnenklimaatregeling op basis van het weerbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, L.G.; Scholten, J.E.; De Mos, R.

    2003-09-15

    The project on the title subject concerns a feasibility study on energy conservation by means of improved control of building climatization on the basis of data from weather forecasts that can be found through Internet. Use has been made of a building simulation model to estimate the effects of indoor climate control. [Dutch] Een haalbaarheidsstudie is uitgevoerd naar energiebesparing door middel van een verbeterde regeling van gebouwklimatisering op basis van de weerverwachting via het internet. Er zijn op dit moment veel internetsites te vinden die weervoorspellingen geven, waarbij gegevens beschikbaar zijn ten aanzien van de verwachte temperaturen en de mate van bewolking, regen, etc. De gedachte achter dit project is, om deze gegevens te gebruiken voor de verbetering van de regeling van het binnenklimaat in gebouwen. Als een warme periode wordt voorspeld kan bijvoorbeeld de zontoetreding worden geminimaliseerd door de zonwering toe te passen en 's nachts additionele ventilatie toe te passen door bijvoorbeeld ventilatieopeningen open te zetten of door extra mechanische ventilatie toe te passen. Een ander voorbeeld in dit kader is een anticiperende module die het optimale opstartmoment voor het verwarmingssysteem bepaald. Ook kan bij een voorspelde warme dag gedurende de ochtend een lagere setpointtemperatuur worden gehandhaafd, waardoor het gebouw later op de dag minder warm zal worden of er minder energie voor koeling nodig zal zijn bij aanwezigheid van een koelsysteem. Hoofdstuk 2 beschrijft een aantal onderzochte regelingen en een voorstudie, waarbij op basis van een dynamisch gebouwsimulatiemodel een eerste inschatting is gemaakt van de effecten van de beschreven regelingen. Verder beschrijft hoofdstuk 2 het gebruikte gebouwmodel. Hoofdstuk 3 beschrijft de ontwikkelde simulatietool, waarmee complexe regelingen dynamisch kunnen worden gesimuleerd en beschrijft de simulaties en uitkomsten van deze simulaties die met de tool zijn berekend. Hoofdstuk 4

  13. Basis Set Exchange: A Community Database for Computational Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared M.; Li, Jun; Windus, Theresa L.

    2007-05-01

    Basis sets are one of the most important input data for computational models in the chemistry, materials, biology and other science domains that utilize computational quantum mechanics methods. Providing a shared, web accessible environment where researchers can not only download basis sets in their required format, but browse the data, contribute new basis sets, and ultimately curate and manage the data as a community will facilitate growth of this resource and encourage sharing both data and knowledge. We describe the Basis Set Exchange (BSE), a web portal that provides advanced browsing and download capabilities, facilities for contributing basis set data, and an environment that incorporates tools to foster development and interaction of communities. The BSE leverages and enables continued development of the basis set library originally assembled at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  14. ORBITAL CONNECTIONS FOR PERTURBATION-DEPENDENT BASIS-SETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jeppe; Bak, Keld L.; Ruud, K.

    1995-01-01

    The use of perturbation-dependent basis sets is analysed with emphasis on the connection between the basis sets at different values of the perturbation strength. A particular connection, the natural connection, that minimizes the change of the basis set orbitals is devised and the second quantiza......The use of perturbation-dependent basis sets is analysed with emphasis on the connection between the basis sets at different values of the perturbation strength. A particular connection, the natural connection, that minimizes the change of the basis set orbitals is devised and the second...... quantization realization of this connection is introduced. It is shown that the natural connection is important for the efficient evaluation of molecular properties and for the physical interpretation of the terms entering the calculated properties. For example, in molecular Hessian calculations the natural...

  15. Basis set exchange: a community database for computational sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Karen L; Didier, Brett T; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun; Windus, Theresa L

    2007-01-01

    Basis sets are some of the most important input data for computational models in the chemistry, materials, biology, and other science domains that utilize computational quantum mechanics methods. Providing a shared, Web-accessible environment where researchers can not only download basis sets in their required format but browse the data, contribute new basis sets, and ultimately curate and manage the data as a community will facilitate growth of this resource and encourage sharing both data and knowledge. We describe the Basis Set Exchange (BSE), a Web portal that provides advanced browsing and download capabilities, facilities for contributing basis set data, and an environment that incorporates tools to foster development and interaction of communities. The BSE leverages and enables continued development of the basis set library originally assembled at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  16. Neural Basis of Interpersonal Traits in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M.; Wilson, Stephen M.; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Katherine P. Rankin

    2009-01-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (domi...

  17. Birman—Wenzl—Murakami Algebra and Topological Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Xue, Kang; Wang, Gang-Cheng; Sun, Chun-Fang; Du, Gui-Jiao

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we use entangled states to construct 9 × 9-matrix representations of Temperley—Lieb algebra (TLA), then a family of 9 × 9-matrix representations of Birman—Wenzl—Murakami algebra (BWMA) have been presented. Based on which, three topological basis states have been found. And we apply topological basis states to recast nine-dimensional BWMA into its three-dimensional counterpart. Finally, we find the topological basis states are spin singlet states in special case.

  18. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  19. Extension of the basis set of linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method by using supplemented tight binding basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A. V.; Lamoen, D.; Partoens, B.

    2016-07-01

    In order to increase the accuracy of the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method, we present a new approach where the plane wave basis function is augmented by two different atomic radial components constructed at two different linearization energies corresponding to two different electron bands (or energy windows). We demonstrate that this case can be reduced to the standard treatment within the LAPW paradigm where the usual basis set is enriched by the basis functions of the tight binding type, which go to zero with zero derivative at the sphere boundary. We show that the task is closely related with the problem of extended core states which is currently solved by applying the LAPW method with local orbitals (LAPW+LO). In comparison with LAPW+LO, the number of supplemented basis functions in our approach is doubled, which opens up a new channel for the extension of the LAPW and LAPW+LO basis sets. The appearance of new supplemented basis functions absent in the LAPW+LO treatment is closely related with the existence of the u ˙ l -component in the canonical LAPW method. We discuss properties of additional tight binding basis functions and apply the extended basis set for computation of electron energy bands of lanthanum (face and body centered structures) and hexagonal close packed lattice of cadmium. We demonstrate that the new treatment gives lower total energies in comparison with both canonical LAPW and LAPW+LO, with the energy difference more pronounced for intermediate and poor LAPW basis sets.

  20. EEG Source Reconstruction using Sparse Basis Function Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    State of the art performance of 3D EEG imaging is based on reconstruction using spatial basis function representations. In this work we augment the Variational Garrote (VG) approach for sparse approximation to incorporate spatial basis functions. As VG handles the bias variance trade-off with cross...

  1. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for classification. 58.132 Section 58.132... Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing.... All milk received from producers shall not exceed the Food and Drug Administration's...

  2. 42 CFR 403.700 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 403.700 Section 403.700 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.700 Basis and purpose. This subpart implements sections...

  3. TreeBASIS Feature Descriptor and Its Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Fowers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature descriptor called TreeBASIS that provides improvements in descriptor size, computation time, matching speed, and accuracy. This new descriptor uses a binary vocabulary tree that is computed using basis dictionary images and a test set of feature region images. To facilitate real-time implementation, a feature region image is binary quantized and the resulting quantized vector is passed into the BASIS vocabulary tree. A Hamming distance is then computed between the feature region image and the effectively descriptive basis dictionary image at a node to determine the branch taken and the path the feature region image takes is saved as a descriptor. The TreeBASIS feature descriptor is an excellent candidate for hardware implementation because of its reduced descriptor size and the fact that descriptors can be created and features matched without the use of floating point operations. The TreeBASIS descriptor is more computationally and space efficient than other descriptors such as BASIS, SIFT, and SURF. Moreover, it can be computed entirely in hardware without the support of a CPU for additional software-based computations. Experimental results and a hardware implementation show that the TreeBASIS descriptor compares well with other descriptors for frame-to-frame homography computation while requiring fewer hardware resources.

  4. 42 CFR 410.1 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS General Provisions § 410.1 Basis and scope. (a) Statutory basis...—Scope of benefits furnished under the Medicare Part B supplementary medical insurance (SMI) program. (2) Section 1833 through 1835 and 1862—Amounts of payment for SMI services, the conditions for payment,...

  5. 42 CFR 407.1 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT General Provisions § 407.1 Basis and scope. (a) Statutory basis. The supplementary medical insurance (SMI) program is authorized by Part B of title XVIII of... pay the SMI premiums for, eligible individuals who are also eligible for cash assistance or...

  6. 14 CFR 198.3 - Basis of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of insurance. 198.3 Section 198.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.3 Basis of insurance. (a) Premium insurance may be issued by the FAA...

  7. Fuzzy State Comprehensive Evaluation of Living Basis for Small Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ya-rong; TANG Bing-yong; LI Ling X.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of comprehensive evaluation of liying basis for small businesses is discussed, based on fuzziness of index, a corresponding fuzzy state comprehensive evaluation method is presented; the good results that is,the evaluation of living basis for small business are illustrated by a simulated example.

  8. Higher Order Hierarchical Legendre Basis Functions for Electromagnetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Volakis, John L.; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new hierarchical basis of arbitrary order for integral equations solved with the Method of Moments (MoM). The basis is derived from orthogonal Legendre polynomials which are modified to impose continuity of vector quantities between neighboring elements while maintaining mos...

  9. KINETIC BALANCE IN CONTRACTED BASIS-SETS FOR RELATIVISTIC CALCULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VISSCHER, L; AERTS, PJC; VISSER, O; NIEUWPOORT, WC

    1991-01-01

    A demonstration of kinetic balance failure in heavily contracted basis sets is given. Other possible methods of constructing small component basis sets for 4-component relativistic calculations are discussed. The position of the additional negative energy levels in extended balance calculations in s

  10. Personal Data Processing for Behavioural Targeting: Which Legal Basis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2015-01-01

    Key Points •The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights only allows personal data processing if a data controller has a legal basis for the processing. •This paper argues that, in most circumstances, the only available legal basis for the processing of personal data for behavioural targeting is

  11. Higher-Order Hierarchical Legendre Basis Functions in Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    degree of orthogonality. The basis functions are well-suited for solution of complex electromagnetic problems involving multiple homogeneous or inhomogeneous dielectric regions, metallic surfaces, layered media, etc. This paper presents real-life complex antenna radiation problems modeled...... with electromagnetic simulation tools based on the higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions....

  12. 42 CFR 403.200 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 403.200 Section 403.200 Public... PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies § 403.200 Basis and scope. (a... intent of that section is to enable Medicare beneficiaries to identify Medicare supplemental...

  13. 26 CFR 1.362-1 - Basis to corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis to corporations. 1.362-1 Section 1.362-1...) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.362-1 Basis to corporations. (a) In general. Section 362 provides, as a general rule, that if property was acquired on or after June 22, 1954, by a corporation (1)...

  14. 7 CFR 91.15 - Basis of a laboratory service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of a laboratory service. 91.15 Section 91.15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.15 Basis of a laboratory service....

  15. Radial basis function network design for chaotic time series prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Yong; Kim, Taek Soo; Park, Sang Hui [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    In this paper, radial basis function networks with two hidden layers, which employ the K-means clustering method and the hierarchical training, are proposed for improving the short-term predictability of chaotic time series. Furthermore the recursive training method of radial basis function network using the recursive modified Gram-Schmidt algorithm is proposed for the purpose. In addition, the radial basis function networks trained by the proposed training methods are compared with the X.D. He A Lapedes`s model and the radial basis function network by non-recursive training method. Through this comparison, an improved radial basis function network for predicting chaotic time series is presented. (author). 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Basis Functions in Image Reconstruction From Projections: A Tutorial Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Gabor T.

    2015-11-01

    The series expansion approaches to image reconstruction from projections assume that the object to be reconstructed can be represented as a linear combination of fixed basis functions and the task of the reconstruction algorithm is to estimate the coefficients in such a linear combination based on the measured projection data. It is demonstrated that using spherically symmetric basis functions (blobs), instead of ones based on the more traditional pixels, yields superior reconstructions of medically relevant objects. The demonstration uses simulated computerized tomography projection data of head cross-sections and the series expansion method ART for the reconstruction. In addition to showing the results of one anecdotal example, the relative efficacy of using pixel and blob basis functions in image reconstruction from projections is also evaluated using a statistical hypothesis testing based task oriented comparison methodology. The superiority of the efficacy of blob basis functions over that of pixel basis function is found to be statistically significant.

  17. Structural Basis and Sequence Rules for Substrate Recognition by Tankyrase Explain the Basis for Cherubism Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettler, Sebastian; LaRose, Jose; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Gish, Gerald; Scotter, Andy; Pawson, Tony; Rottapel, Robert; Sicheri, Frank (Mount Sinai Hospital); (OCI)

    2012-02-07

    The poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases Tankyrase 1/2 (TNKS/TNKS2) catalyze the covalent linkage of ADP-ribose polymer chains onto target proteins, regulating their ubiquitylation, stability, and function. Dysregulation of substrate recognition by Tankyrases underlies the human disease cherubism. Tankyrases recruit specific motifs (often called RxxPDG hexapeptides) in their substrates via an N-terminal region of ankyrin repeats. These ankyrin repeats form five domains termed ankyrin repeat clusters (ARCs), each predicted to bind substrate. Here we report crystal structures of a representative ARC of TNKS2 bound to targeting peptides from six substrates. Using a solution-based peptide library screen, we derive a rule-based consensus for Tankyrase substrates common to four functionally conserved ARCs. This 8-residue consensus allows us to rationalize all known Tankyrase substrates and explains the basis for cherubism-causing mutations in the Tankyrase substrate 3BP2. Structural and sequence information allows us to also predict and validate other Tankyrase targets, including Disc1, Striatin, Fat4, RAD54, BCR, and MERIT40.

  18. The Dual Functionals for the Generalized Ball Basis of Wang-Said Type and Basis Transformation Formulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Jiang; Hongyi Wu; Jieqing Tan

    2006-01-01

    The generalized Ball curves of Wang-Said type with a position parameter L not only unify the Wang-Ball curves and the Said-Ball curves, but also include several useful intermediate curves. This paper presents the dual functionals for the generalized Ball basis of Wang-Said type. The relevant basis transformation formulae are also worked out.

  19. Integration of macromolecular diffraction data using radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrić, B; Allinson, N M; Helliwell, J R

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for intensity calculation of X-ray diffraction spots based on a two-stage radial basis function (RBF) network. The first stage uses pre-determined reference profiles from a database as basis functions in order to locate the diffraction spots and identify any overlapping regions. The second-stage RBF network employs narrow basis functions capable of local modifications of the reference profiles leading to a more accurate observed diffraction spot approximation and therefore accurate determination of spot positions and integrated intensities.

  20. 42 CFR 441.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases § 441.100 Basis and purpose. This subpart... in an institution for mental diseases, and sections 1902(a)(20)(B) and (C) and 1902(a)(21),...

  1. Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-07-12

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism was held at Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  2. Efficient Diffuse Basis Sets for Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papajak, Ewa; Truhlar, Donald G

    2010-03-09

    Eliminating all but the s and p diffuse functions on the non-hydrogenic atoms and all diffuse functions on the hydrogen atoms from the aug-cc-pV(x+d)Z basis sets of Dunning and co-workers, where x = D, T, Q, ..., yields the previously proposed "minimally augmented" basis sets, called maug-cc-pV(x+d)Z. Here, we present extensive and systematic tests of these basis sets for density functional calculations of chemical reaction barrier heights, hydrogen bond energies, electron affinities, ionization potentials, and atomization energies. The tests show that the maug-cc-pV(x+d)Z basis sets are as accurate as the aug-cc-pV(x+d)Z ones for density functional calculations, but the computational cost savings are a factor of about two to seven.

  3. Philosophical Humanism as the ideological basis of humanistic educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Novichkova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ideas of humanism as the philosophical basis of humanistic educational process. The essence of the spiritual philosophy of humanism, which directly determines the essential features of humanistic pedagogy and humanistic educational process.

  4. On the Representation of Intermediate States in the Velocity Basis

    CERN Document Server

    Tay, B A

    2002-01-01

    We explore the implication of applying the "minimally complex" representation to study intermediate states. We propose an interpretation of the "velocity variables" used in the "minimally complex" representation so as to make the construction consistent with the kinematics of the underlying scattering process under consideration. We also show that this choice of representation advocates the use of velocity basis over momentum basis in studying intermediate states.

  5. The finite element method its basis and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, Olek C; Zhu, JZ

    2013-01-01

    The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals offers a complete introduction to the basis of the finite element method, covering fundamental theory and worked examples in the detail required for readers to apply the knowledge to their own engineering problems and understand more advanced applications. This edition sees a significant rearrangement of the book's content to enable clearer development of the finite element method, with major new chapters and sections added to cover: Weak forms Variational forms Multi-dimensional field prob

  6. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  7. Uniqueness of symmetric basis in quasi-Banach spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiac, F.; Leránoz, C.

    2008-12-01

    We show that if X is a nonlocally convex natural quasi-Banach space with symmetric basis whose Banach envelope is isomorphic to l1, then all symmetric bases of X are equivalent. The scope of this result is quite ample since the Banach envelopes of natural quasi-Banach spaces with basis always exhibit an l1-like behavior, in the sense that they contain copies of 's uniformly complemented.

  8. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  9. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  10. Practical identification of NARMAX models using radial basis functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; S. A. Billings; Cowan, C.F.N.; Grant, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    A wide class of discrete time non-linear systems can be represented by the non-linear autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs or NARMAX model. This paper develops a practical algorithm for identifying NARMAX models based on radial basis functions from noise corrupted data. The algorithm consists of an iterative orthogonal-forward-regression routine coupled with model validity tests. The orthogonal-forward-regression routine selects parsimonious radial-basis-function models w...

  11. Multiscale adaptive basis function modeling of spatiotemporal vectorcardiogram signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang Liu; Hui Yang

    2013-03-01

    Mathematical modeling of cardiac electrical signals facilitates the simulation of realistic cardiac electrical behaviors, the evaluation of algorithms, and the characterization of underlying space-time patterns. However, there are practical issues pertinent to model efficacy, robustness, and generality. This paper presents a multiscale adaptive basis function modeling approach to characterize not only temporal but also spatial behaviors of vectorcardiogram (VCG) signals. Model parameters are adaptively estimated by the "best matching" projections of VCG characteristic waves onto a dictionary of nonlinear basis functions. The model performance is experimentally evaluated with respect to the number of basis functions, different types of basis function (i.e., Gaussian, Mexican hat, customized wavelet, and Hermitian wavelets), and various cardiac conditions, including 80 healthy controls and different myocardial infarctions (i.e., 89 inferior, 77 anterior-septal, 56 inferior-lateral, 47 anterior, and 43 anterior-lateral). Multiway analysis of variance shows that the basis function and the model complexity have significant effects on model performances while cardiac conditions are not significant. The customized wavelet is found to be an optimal basis function for the modeling of spacetime VCG signals. The comparison of QT intervals shows small relative errors (model representations and realworld VCG signals when the model complexity is greater than 10. The proposed model shows great potentials to model space-time cardiac pathological behaviors and can lead to potential benefits in feature extraction, data compression, algorithm evaluation, and disease prognostics.

  12. Orthogonal least squares learning algorithm for radial basis function networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.; Cowan, C.F.N.; Grant, P.M. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, Scotland (GB))

    1991-03-01

    The radial basis function network offers a viable alternative to the two-layer neural network in many applications of signal processing. A common learning algorithm for radial basis function networks is based on first choosing randomly some data points as radial basis function centers and then using singular value decomposition to solve for the weights of the network. Such a procedure has several drawbacks and, in particular, an arbitrary selection of centers is clearly unsatisfactory. The paper proposes an alternative learning procedure based on the orthogonal least squares method. The procedure choose radial basis function centers one by one in a rational way until an adequate network has been constructed. The algorithm has the property that each selected center maximizes the increment to the explained variance or energy of the desired output and does not suffer numerical ill-conditioning problems. The orthogonal least squares learning strategy provides a simple and efficient means for fitting radial basis function networks, and this is illustrated using examples taken from two different signal processing applications.

  13. Orthogonal least squares learning algorithm for radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Cowan, C N; Grant, P M

    1991-01-01

    The radial basis function network offers a viable alternative to the two-layer neural network in many applications of signal processing. A common learning algorithm for radial basis function networks is based on first choosing randomly some data points as radial basis function centers and then using singular-value decomposition to solve for the weights of the network. Such a procedure has several drawbacks, and, in particular, an arbitrary selection of centers is clearly unsatisfactory. The authors propose an alternative learning procedure based on the orthogonal least-squares method. The procedure chooses radial basis function centers one by one in a rational way until an adequate network has been constructed. In the algorithm, each selected center maximizes the increment to the explained variance or energy of the desired output and does not suffer numerical ill-conditioning problems. The orthogonal least-squares learning strategy provides a simple and efficient means for fitting radial basis function networks. This is illustrated using examples taken from two different signal processing applications.

  14. Efficient computation of smoothing splines via adaptive basis sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ping

    2015-06-24

    © 2015 Biometrika Trust. Smoothing splines provide flexible nonparametric regression estimators. However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large datasets has hindered their wide application. In this article, we develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Except for the univariate case where the Reinsch algorithm is applicable, a smoothing spline for a regression problem with sample size n can be expressed as a linear combination of n basis functions and its computational complexity is generally O(n3). We achieve a more scalable computation in the multivariate case by evaluating the smoothing spline using a smaller set of basis functions, obtained by an adaptive sampling scheme that uses values of the response variable. Our asymptotic analysis shows that smoothing splines computed via adaptive basis sampling converge to the true function at the same rate as full basis smoothing splines. Using simulation studies and a large-scale deep earth core-mantle boundary imaging study, we show that the proposed method outperforms a sampling method that does not use the values of response variables.

  15. A basis in an invariant subspace of analytic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivosheev, A S [Institute of Mathematics with Computing Centre, Ufa Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation); Krivosheeva, O A [Bashkir State University, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-31

    The existence problem for a basis in a differentiation-invariant subspace of analytic functions defined in a bounded convex domain in the complex plane is investigated. Conditions are found for the solvability of a certain special interpolation problem in the space of entire functions of exponential type with conjugate diagrams lying in a fixed convex domain. These underlie sufficient conditions for the existence of a basis in the invariant subspace. This basis consists of linear combinations of eigenfunctions and associated functions of the differentiation operator, whose exponents are combined into relatively small clusters. Necessary conditions for the existence of a basis are also found. Under a natural constraint on the number of points in the groups, these coincide with the sufficient conditions. That is, a criterion is found under this constraint that a basis constructed from relatively small clusters exists in an invariant subspace of analytic functions in a bounded convex domain in the complex plane. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  16. Speech/Nonspeech Detection Using Minimal Walsh Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pwint Moe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to detect speech/nonspeech components of a given noisy signal. Employing the combination of binary Walsh basis functions and an analysis-synthesis scheme, the original noisy speech signal is modified first. From the modified signals, the speech components are distinguished from the nonspeech components by using a simple decision scheme. Minimal number of Walsh basis functions to be applied is determined using singular value decomposition (SVD. The main advantages of the proposed method are low computational complexity, less parameters to be adjusted, and simple implementation. It is observed that the use of Walsh basis functions makes the proposed algorithm efficiently applicable in real-world situations where processing time is crucial. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves high-speech and nonspeech detection rates while maintaining a low error rate for different noisy conditions.

  17. Minimal Basis in Four Dimensions and Scalar Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Cachazo, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    We find a construction that expresses any tree-level $n$-particle ${\\rm N^{k-2}MHV}$ color-ordered partial amplitude in gauge theory as a linear combination of a basis of dimension $\\eulerian{n-3}{k-2}$. Here $\\eulerian{p}{q}$ denotes the $(p,q)$ Eulerian number. The coefficients of the expansion are independent of the helicities of the particles. This basis is a four-dimensional refinement of the $(n-3)!$-element BCJ basis which is valid in any number of dimensions. The construction uses a new kind of objects which we call {\\it scalar blocks}. Here we initiate the study of these objects. Scalar blocks provide an "${\\rm N^{k-2}MHV}$ sector" decomposition of a bi-adjoint scalar amplitude in four dimensions. As byproducts of the construction, we also find an intrinsically four-dimensional version of KLT relations for gravity amplitudes.

  18. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Ahmad; Abd. Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study. PMID:27315105

  19. Optical Bell-state analysis in the coincidence basis

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, S P; Pádua, S; Monken, C H

    2003-01-01

    Many quantum information protocols require a Bell-state measurement of entangled systems. Most optical Bell-state measurements utilize two-photon interference at a beam splitter. By creating polarization-entangled photons with spontaneous parametric down-conversion using a first-order Hermite-Gaussian pump beam, we invert the usual interference behavior and perform an incomplete Bell-state measurement in the coincidence basis. We discuss the possibility of a complete Bell-state measurement in the coincidence basis using hyperentangled states [Phys. Rev. A, \\textbf{58}, R2623 (1998)].

  20. Turing's next steps: the mechanochemical basis of morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon; Grill, Stephan W; Bois, Justin S

    2011-06-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Alan Turing showed theoretically how two chemical species, termed morphogens, diffusing and reacting with each other can generate spatial patterns. Diffusion plays a crucial part in transporting chemical signals through space to establish the length scale of the pattern. When coupled to chemical reactions, mechanical processes - forces and flows generated by motor proteins - can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis for morphogenesis. forces and flows generated by motor proteins - can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis for morphogenesis.

  1. The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, James L.

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

  2. EEG Source Reconstruction using Sparse Basis Function Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    State of the art performance of 3D EEG imaging is based on reconstruction using spatial basis function representations. In this work we augment the Variational Garrote (VG) approach for sparse approximation to incorporate spatial basis functions. As VG handles the bias variance trade-off with cross......-validation this approach is more automated than competing approaches such as Multiple Sparse Priors (Friston et al., 2008) or Champagne (Wipf et al., 2010) that require manual selection of noise level and auxiliary signal free data, respectively. Finally, we propose an unbiased estimator of the reproducibility...

  3. Coulomb Sturmians as a basis for molecular calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2012-01-01

    Almost all modern quantum chemistry programs use Gaussian basis sets even though Gaussians cannot accurately represent the cusp at atomic nuclei, nor can they represent the slow decay of the wave function at large distances. The reason that Gaussians dominate quantum chemistry today is the great...... mathematical difficulty of evaluating interelectron repulsion integrals when exponential-type orbitals (ETOs) are used. In this paper we show that when many-centre Coulomb Sturmian ETOs are used as a basis, the most important integrals can be evaluated rapidly and accurately by means of the theory...

  4. A radial basis function neurocomputer implemented with analog VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Steven S.; Chau, Paul M.; Tawel, Raoul

    1992-01-01

    An electronic neurocomputer which implements a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is described. The RBFNN is a network that utilizes a radial basis function as the transfer function. The key advantages of RBFNNs over existing neural network architectures include reduced learning time and the ease of VLSI implementation. This neurocomputer is based on an analog/digital hybrid design and has been constructed with both custom analog VLSI circuits and a commercially available digital signal processor. The hybrid architecture is selected because it offers high computational performance while compensating for analog inaccuracies, and it features the ability to model large problems.

  5. 42 CFR 442.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), nursing facility standards; Section 1902(a)(33)(B), State survey agency functions; Section 1902(i... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 442.1 Section 442.1 Public... on the following sections of the Act: Section 1902(a)(4), administrative methods for proper...

  6. Upwind design basis (WP4: offshore foundations and support structures)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, T.; De Vries, W.E.; Schmidt, B.

    2010-01-01

    The presented design basis gives a summarized overview of relevant design properties for a later offshore wind turbine design procedures within work package 4. The described offshore site is located in the Dutch North Sea and has a water depth of 21m. Therefore it will be chosen as shallow site with

  7. Rating environmental noise on the basis of noise maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Borst, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A system that rates noise on the basis of noise maps has been developed which is based on empirical exposure-response relationships, so that effects in the community will be lower if the system gives a better rating. It is consistent with noise metrics and effect endpoint chosen in the EU, i.e., it

  8. The Neural Basis for Learning of Simple Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisberger, Stephen G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) which is used to investigate the neural basis for motor learning in monkeys. Suggests organizing principles that may apply in forms of motor learning as a result of similarities among VOR and other motor systems. (Author/RT)

  9. 42 CFR 456.610 - Basis for determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Facilities and Institutions for Mental Diseases § 456.610 Basis for determinations. In making the... psychiatric facilities, and mental hospitals; and (2) At least quarterly in ICFs; (c) Tests or observations of... malnutrition or dehydration; and (4) Apparent maintenance of maximum physical, mental, and psychosocial...

  10. Optimal Piecewise Linear Basis Functions in Two Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks III, E D; Szoke, A

    2009-01-26

    We use a variational approach to optimize the center point coefficients associated with the piecewise linear basis functions introduced by Stone and Adams [1], for polygonal zones in two Cartesian dimensions. Our strategy provides optimal center point coefficients, as a function of the location of the center point, by minimizing the error induced when the basis function interpolation is used for the solution of the time independent diffusion equation within the polygonal zone. By using optimal center point coefficients, one expects to minimize the errors that occur when these basis functions are used to discretize diffusion equations, or transport equations in optically thick zones (where they approach the solution of the diffusion equation). Our optimal center point coefficients satisfy the requirements placed upon the basis functions for any location of the center point. We also find that the location of the center point can be optimized, but this requires numerical calculations. Curiously, the optimum center point location is independent of the values of the dependent variable on the corners only for quadrilaterals.

  11. 42 CFR 403.500 - Basis, scope, and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, scope, and definition. 403.500 Section 403.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Beneficiary Counseling and Assistance Grants §...

  12. 42 CFR 403.300 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 403.300 Section 403.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Recognition of State Reimbursement Control Systems § 403.300...

  13. Indicators as a Basis for Robust and Acceptable Fisheries Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, J.R.; Degnbol, P.; Reeves, S.; Hovgaard, H.

    2001-01-01

    Fisheries management is an activity that is implemented to achieve some objectives for fisheries as well as society. These objectives are not always clearly stated, but will generally emphasise the sustainability of the fish stocks, in some cases supplemented with insurance of food security and an economic basis for coastal communities.

  14. Structural basis for cyclophellitol inhibition of a β-glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloster, Tracey M.; Madsen, Robert; Davies, Gideon J.

    2007-01-01

    The structural basis for b-glucosidase inhibition by cyclophellitol is demonstrated using X-ray crystallography, enzyme kinetics and mass spectrometry. The natural product was shown to bind by a covalent bond in the active site of the enzyme. This bond is formed by ring-opening of the epoxide in ...

  15. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  16. The Prosodic Basis of the Tiberian Hebrew System of Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresher, Bezalel Elan

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the Tiberian system of accents that annotate the text of the Hebrew Bible has a prosodic basis. Tiberian representation can best be understood by integrating results of phonological, phonetic, and psycholinguistic research on prosodic structure. (93 references) (Author/LB)

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  18. Molecular Basis for Mycophenolic Acid Biosynthesis in Penicillium brevicompactum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regueira, Torsten Ulrik Bak; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Hansen, Bjarne Gram;

    2011-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active ingredient in the increasingly important immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals CellCept (Roche) and Myfortic (Novartis). Despite the long history of MPA, the molecular basis for its biosynthesis has remained enigmatic. Here we report the discovery of a polyketide...

  19. Molecular basis for the thermostability of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this stud...

  20. Methodological basis of training of musically gifted student

    OpenAIRE

    Полубоярина, Ірина Іванівна

    2015-01-01

    Methodological bases of problem of professional training of musically gifted students are investigated. It is established that at the level of general scientific methodology the problem of training involves an appeal to a synergistic, systemic, humanistic and active approaches. The study of the problem at the level of specifically scientific methodology was carried out on the basis of acmeological, axiological, facilitating and hermeneutical approaches

  1. Gezondheidsclaims voor kruidenpreparaten op basis van Ginkgo biloba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom SMGJ; Fransen HP; Rompelberg CJM; de Rooij EK; Pronk MEJ; Baars AJ; de Kaste D; Verhagen H; SIR; CVG; KCF

    2007-01-01

    Er is onvoldoende bewijs voor drie geclaimde gezondheidseffecten bij het gebruik van kruidenpreparaten op basis van de Japanse notenboom Ginkgo biloba. Ook toont een analyse van 29 Ginkgo-preparaten aan dat het merendeel niet bevat wat op het etiket vermeld staat. Daarnaast kan bij de aanbevolen d

  2. Molecular basis and regulation of OTULIN-LUBAC interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Al-Saoudi, Sofie Vincents; Marco-Casanova, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Ub. Now, we show that OTULIN binds via a conserved PUB-interacting motif (PIM) to the PUB domain of the LUBAC component HOIP. Crystal structures and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments reveal the molecular basis for the high-affinity interaction and explain why OTULIN binds the HOIP PUB domain...

  3. Making Sense of Context as a Basis for Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars; Jagd, Søren

    ., 2011) between institutions and interactions to explore how context may be relevant for trust processes. We argue that people must actively and consciously “make sense of context” as a basis for trust. The importance of understanding how actors make sense of context in order to understand organizational...... trust is illustrated by reference to two earlier reported case studies on trust in organizations....

  4. 42 CFR 422.350 - Basis, scope, and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organization. Health care delivery assets (HCDAs) means any tangible assets that are part of a PSO's operation... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, scope, and definitions. 422.350 Section 422.350 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. Structural basis of cell-cell adhesion by NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, C; Rasmussen, H; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen;

    2000-01-01

    and learning. The 1.85 A crystal structure of the two N-terminal extracellular domains of NCAM reported here provides a structural basis for the homophilic interaction. The molecular packing of the two-domain structure reveals a cross shaped antiparallel dimer, and provides fundamental insight into trans...

  6. Construction of `Wachspress Type' Rational Basis Functions over Rectangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P L Powar; S S Rana

    2000-02-01

    In the present paper, we have constructed rational basis functions of 0 class over rectangular elements with wider choice of denominator function. This construction yields additional number of interior nodes. Hence, extra nodal points and the flexibility of denominator function suggest better approximation.

  7. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  8. 47 CFR 32.2 - Basis of the accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.2 Basis of the accounts. (a) The financial accounts of a... the natural groupings, over long periods of time, lends an element of stability to the financial... variety and continual changing of various cost allocation mechanisms, the financial accounts of a...

  9. Routes of Racism. The Social Basis of Racist Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Roger

    This book is an account of a study of racism among young people in the central and southern parts of the London (England) Borough of Greenwich. It builds upon an earlier study in the Thamemead area in seeking to understand the social basis of racist activity in order to design strategies to combat it. Greenwich is an area that has experienced…

  10. 48 CFR 1426.7103-1 - Statutory basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7103-1 Statutory basis... qualified minority business enterprises in awarding contracts under the Act and report annually to Congress... in programs carried out under the act. The Environmental Protection Agency has...

  11. 42 CFR 485.601 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 485.601 Section 485.601 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of...

  12. 42 CFR 485.50 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 485.50 Section 485.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of...

  13. On the classification enhancement of radial basis function networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Durmisevic, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are powerfultools for analysing information expressed as data sets, which contain complex nonlinear relationships to be identified and classified. In particular radial basis function (RBF) neural networks have outstanding features for this. However, due to far reaching imp

  14. Direction-dependent learning approach for radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Puneet; Subbarao, Kamesh; Junkins, John L

    2007-01-01

    Direction-dependent scaling, shaping, and rotation of Gaussian basis functions are introduced for maximal trend sensing with minimal parameter representations for input output approximation. It is shown that shaping and rotation of the radial basis functions helps in reducing the total number of function units required to approximate any given input-output data, while improving accuracy. Several alternate formulations that enforce minimal parameterization of the most general radial basis functions are presented. A novel "directed graph" based algorithm is introduced to facilitate intelligent direction based learning and adaptation of the parameters appearing in the radial basis function network. Further, a parameter estimation algorithm is incorporated to establish starting estimates for the model parameters using multiple windows of the input-output data. The efficacy of direction-dependent shaping and rotation in function approximation is evaluated by modifying the minimal resource allocating network and considering different test examples. The examples are drawn from recent literature to benchmark the new algorithm versus existing methods.

  15. The Cultural-Historical Basis of the "Golden Key" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Genady G.; Kravtsova, Elena E.

    2011-01-01

    The "Golden Key" programme is a preschool education programme that is constructed on the basis of Vygotskij's cultural-historical theory. One of the most important aspects of this theory is not just the unity of intellect and affect, but the fact that the relationship between these two changes during the course of development. In infants, affect…

  16. 12 CFR 308.500 - Basis, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., supervision, enforcement, insurance, receivership or liquidation responsibilities. The FDIC is restricting the....500 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.500 Basis, purpose, and scope....

  17. A Basis for Powers of the Augmentation Ideal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M. Parmenter

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an inductive method is given for constructing a Z-basis of the abelian group Δn(G) whenever G is a finite elementary abelian p-group,where Δ(G) is the augmentation ideal of the integral group ring ZG. This result is then applied to the problem of finding a presentation for Δn(G).

  18. The structure of Leibniz superalgebras admitting a multiplicative basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Helena; Barreiro, Elisabete; Calderón Martín, Antonio J.; Sánchez Delgado, José M.

    2016-12-01

    In the literature, most of the descriptions of different classes of Leibniz superalgebras (L =L0bar ⊕L1bar , [ ṡ , ṡ ]) have been made by giving the multiplication table on the elements of a graded basis B ={vk } k ∈ K of L, in such a way that for any i , j ∈ K we have [vi ,vj ] =λi,j [vj ,vi ] ∈ Fvk for some k ∈ K, where F denotes the base field and λi,j ∈ F. In order to give a unifying viewpoint of all these classes of algebras we introduce the category of Leibniz superalgebras admitting a multiplicative basis and study its structure. We show that if a Leibniz superalgebra L =L0bar ⊕L1bar admits a multiplicative basis then it is the direct sum L =⨁αIα with any Iα =I α , 0 bar ⊕I α , 1 bar being a well described ideal of L admitting a multiplicative basis inherited from B. Also the B-simplicity of L is characterized in terms of J-connections.

  19. Fusion basis for lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Delcamp, Clement; Riello, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new basis for the gauge--invariant Hilbert space of lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity in $(2+1)$ dimensions, the fusion basis. In doing so, we shift the focus from the original lattice (or spin--network) structure directly to that of the magnetic (curvature) and electric (torsion) excitations themselves. These excitations are classified by the irreducible representations of the Drinfel'd double of the gauge group, and can be readily "fused" together by studying the tensor product of such representations. We will also describe in detail the ribbon operators that create and measure these excitations and make the quasi--local structure of the observable algebra explicit. Since the fusion basis allows for both magnetic and electric excitations from the onset, it turns out to be a precious tool for studying the large scale structure and coarse--graining flow of lattice gauge theories and loop quantum gravity. This is in neat contrast with the widely used spin--network basis, in which it ...

  20. 42 CFR 433.110 - Basis, purpose, and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.110 Basis, purpose, and applicability. (a) This subpart... information retrieval systems and for the operation of certain systems. Additional HHS regulations and CMS... mechanized claims processing and information retrieval system or if the system fails to meet...

  1. Creamod. Een infrastructuur voor smogmodellen op statistische basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk H; NLB

    2003-01-01

    The report describes software which has been developed in 1991 to construct smogmodels on a statistical basis. These smogmodels are in daily use for the smog outlook by RIVM. The software, Creamod, consists of a number of modules which are able to define, construct and evaluate statistical air quali

  2. Libcint: An efficient general integral library for Gaussian basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiming

    2015-08-15

    An efficient integral library Libcint was designed to automatically implement general integrals for Gaussian-type scalar and spinor basis functions. The library is able to evaluate arbitrary integral expressions on top of p, r and σ operators with one-electron overlap and nuclear attraction, two-electron Coulomb and Gaunt operators for segmented contracted and/or generated contracted basis in Cartesian, spherical or spinor form. Using a symbolic algebra tool, new integrals are derived and translated to C code programmatically. The generated integrals can be used in various types of molecular properties. To demonstrate the capability of the integral library, we computed the analytical gradients and NMR shielding constants at both nonrelativistic and 4-component relativistic Hartree-Fock level in this work. Due to the use of kinetically balanced basis and gauge including atomic orbitals, the relativistic analytical gradients and shielding constants requires the integral library to handle the fifth-order electron repulsion integral derivatives. The generality of the integral library is achieved without losing efficiency. On the modern multi-CPU platform, Libcint can easily reach the overall throughput being many times of the I/O bandwidth. On a 20-core node, we are able to achieve an average output 8.3 GB/s for C60 molecule with cc-pVTZ basis.

  3. Minimality of hyperplane arrangements and basis of local system cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is applying minimality of hyperplane arrangements to local system cohomology groups. It is well known that twisted cohomology groups with coefficients in a generic rank one local system vanish except in the top degree, and bounded chambers form a basis of the remaining cohomology group. We determine precisely when this phenomenon happens for two dimensional arrangements.

  4. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1985-09-01

    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  5. A Characterization for Windowed Fourier Orthonormal Basis with Compact Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Ming LIU

    2001-01-01

    Let g(x) ∈ L2(R) and g(ω) be the Fourier transform of g(x). Define gmn(x) = eimxg(x -2πn). In this paper we shall give a sufficient and necessary condition under which {g (x)} constitutesan orthonormal basis of L2(R) for compactly supported g(x) or g(ω).

  6. Visualizing the zero order basis of the spectroscopic Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George L; Kellman, Michael E

    2012-01-14

    Recent works have shown that a generalization of the spectroscopic effective Hamiltonian can describe spectra in surprising regions, such as isomerization barriers. In this work, we seek to explain why the effective Hamiltonian is successful where there was reason to doubt that it would work at all. All spectroscopic Hamiltonians have an underlying abstract zero-order basis (ZOB) which is the "ideal" basis for a given form and parameterization of the Hamiltonian. Without a physical model there is no way to transform this abstract basis into a coordinate representation. To this end, we present a method of obtaining the coordinate space representation of the abstract ZOB of a spectroscopic effective Hamiltonian. This method works equally well for generalized effective Hamiltonians that encompass above-barrier multiwell behavior, and standard effective Hamiltonians for the vicinity of a single potential minimum. Our approach relies on a set of converged eigenfunctions obtained from a variational calculation on a potential surface. By making a one-to-one correspondence between the energy eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian and those of the coordinate space Hamiltonian, a physical representation of the abstract ZOB is calculated. We find that the ZOB basis naturally adjusts its complexity depending on the underlying nature of phase space, which allows spectroscopic Hamiltonians to succeed for systems sampling multiple stationary points.

  7. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-03-23

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  8. 26 CFR 1.737-3 - Basis adjustments; Recovery rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation (or other cost recovery) method (including first-year conventions) available to the partnership... distribution subject to section 737. (3) Method of adjustment. For the purpose of allocating the basis increase... effect under section 754. Any adjustments to the bases of partnership property (including...

  9. 7 CFR 42.105 - Basis for selection of sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractor requests that corresponding single sampling plans be used. (2) Select the appropriate sample size... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for selection of sample. 42.105 Section 42.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  10. 42 CFR 431.700 - Basis and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION State Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.700 Basis and purpose. This subpart implements sections 1903(a)(29) and 1908 of the Act which require that the State plan include a State program for licensing nursing...

  11. Universal approximation by radial basis function networks of Delsarte translates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Cristian; Marrero, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    We prove that, under certain mild conditions on the kernel function (or activation function), the family of radial basis function neural networks obtained by replacing the usual translation with the Delsarte one, and taking the same smoothing factor in all kernel nodes, has the universal approximation property.

  12. Entrepreneurial Creativity as a Convergent Basis for Teaching Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenci, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Of the "21st Century" business skills of communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking, creativity arguably receives among the least explicit attention in traditional business core curricula. With that in mind, the context of entrepreneurial creativity is put forth as a basis for teaching business communication. By…

  13. Fusion basis for lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcamp, Clement; Dittrich, Bianca; Riello, Aldo

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a new basis for the gauge-invariant Hilbert space of lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity in (2 + 1) dimensions, the fusion basis. In doing so, we shift the focus from the original lattice (or spin-network) structure directly to that of the magnetic (curvature) and electric (torsion) excitations themselves. These excitations are classified by the irreducible representations of the Drinfel'd double of the gauge group, and can be readily "fused" together by studying the tensor product of such representations. We will also describe in detail the ribbon operators that create and measure these excitations and make the quasi-local structure of the observable algebra explicit. Since the fusion basis allows for both magnetic and electric excitations from the onset, it turns out to be a precious tool for studying the large scale structure and coarse-graining flow of lattice gauge theories and loop quantum gravity. This is in neat contrast with the widely used spin-network basis, in which it is much more complicated to account for electric excitations, i.e. for Gauß constraint violations, emerging at larger scales. Moreover, since the fusion basis comes equipped with a hierarchical structure, it readily provides the language to design states with sophisticated multi-scale structures. Another way to employ this hierarchical structure is to encode a notion of subsystems for lattice gauge theories and (2 + 1) gravity coupled to point particles. In a follow-up work, we have exploited this notion to provide a new definition of entanglement entropy for these theories.

  14. Sparse approximation based on a random overcomplete basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi-Ohno, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Okada, Masato; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a strategy of sparse approximation that is based on the use of an overcomplete basis, and evaluate its performance when a random matrix is used as this basis. A small combination of basis vectors is chosen from a given overcomplete basis, according to a given compression rate, such that they compactly represent the target data with as small a distortion as possible. As a selection method, we study the {{\\ell}0} - and {{\\ell}1} -based methods, which employ the exhaustive search and {{\\ell}1} -norm regularization techniques, respectively. The performance is assessed in terms of the trade-off relation between the distortion and the compression rate. First, we evaluate the performance analytically in the case that the methods are carried out ideally, using methods of statistical mechanics. The analytical result is then confirmed by performing numerical experiments on finite size systems, and extrapolating the results to the infinite-size limit. Our result clarifies the fact that the {{\\ell}0} -based method greatly outperforms the {{\\ell}1} -based one. An interesting outcome of our analysis is that any small value of distortion is achievable for any fixed compression rate r in the large-size limit of the overcomplete basis, for both the {{\\ell}0} - and {{\\ell}1} -based methods. The difference between these two methods is manifested in the size of the overcomplete basis that is required in order to achieve the desired value for the distortion. As the desired distortion decreases, the required size grows in a polynomial and an exponential manners for the {{\\ell}0} - and {{\\ell}1} -based methods, respectively. Second, we examine the practical performances of two well-known algorithms, orthogonal matching pursuit and approximate message passing, when they are used to execute the {{\\ell}0} - and {{\\ell}1} -based methods, respectively. Our examination shows that orthogonal matching pursuit achieves a much better performance than the exact execution of

  15. Genome sequence of thermotolerant Bacillus methanolicus: features and regulation related to methylotrophy and production of L-lysine and L-glutamate from methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggeset, Tonje M B; Krog, Anne; Balzer, Simone; Wentzel, Alexander; Ellingsen, Trond E; Brautaset, Trygve

    2012-08-01

    Bacillus methanolicus can utilize methanol as its sole carbon and energy source, and the scientific interest in this thermotolerant bacterium has focused largely on exploring its potential as a biocatalyst for the conversion of methanol into L-lysine and L-glutamate. We present here the genome sequences of the important B. methanolicus model strain MGA3 (ATCC 53907) and the alternative wild-type strain PB1 (NCIMB13113). The physiological diversity of these two strains was demonstrated by a comparative fed-batch methanol cultivation displaying highly different methanol consumption and respiration profiles, as well as major differences in their L-glutamate production levels (406 mmol liter(-1) and 11 mmol liter(-1), respectively). Both genomes are small (ca 3.4 Mbp) compared to those of other related bacilli, and MGA3 has two plasmids (pBM19 and pBM69), while PB1 has only one (pBM20). In particular, we focus here on genes representing biochemical pathways for methanol oxidation and concomitant formaldehyde assimilation and dissimilation, the important phosphoenol pyruvate/pyruvate anaplerotic node, the tricarboxylic acid cycle including the glyoxylate pathway, and the biosynthetic pathways for L-lysine and L-glutamate. Several unique findings were made, including the discovery of three different methanol dehydrogenase genes in each of the two B. methanolicus strains, and the genomic analyses were accompanied by gene expression studies. Our results provide new insight into a number of peculiar physiological and metabolic traits of B. methanolicus and open up possibilities for system-level metabolic engineering of this bacterium for the production of amino acids and other useful compounds from methanol.

  16. Two Normal Basis Multiplication Algorithms for GF(2n)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Haining; LIU Duo; DAI Yiqi

    2006-01-01

    For software implementations, word-level normal basis multiplication algorithms utilize the full data-path of the processor, and hence are more efficient than the bit-level multiplication algorithm presented in the IEEE standard P1363-2000. In this paper, two word-level normal basis multiplication algorithms are proposed for GF(2n). The first algorithm is suitable for high complexity normal bases, while the second algorithm is fast for type-Ⅰ optimal normal bases and low complexity normal bases. Theoretical analyses and experimental results both indicate that the presented algorithms are efficient in GF(2233), GF(2283), GF(2409),and GF(2571), which are four of the five binary fields recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) applications.

  17. Orthogonal basis for spherical monogenics by step two branching

    CERN Document Server

    Lavicka, R; Van Lancker, P

    2010-01-01

    Spherical monogenics can be regarded as a basic tool for the study of harmonic analysis of the Dirac operator in Euclidean space R^m. They play a similar role as spherical harmonics do in case of harmonic analysis of the Laplace operator on R^m. Fix the direct sum R^m = R^p x R^q. In this paper we will study the decomposition of the space M_n(R^m;C_m) of spherical monogenics of order n under the action of Spin(p) x Spin(q). As a result we obtain a Spin(p) x Spin(q)-invariant orthonormal basis for M_n(R^m;C_m). In particular, using the construction with p = 2 inductively, this yields a new orthonormal basis for the space M_n(R^m;C_m).

  18. Learning and generalization in radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J A; Saad, D

    1995-09-01

    The two-layer radial basis function network, with fixed centers of the basis functions, is analyzed within a stochastic training paradigm. Various definitions of generalization error are considered, and two such definitions are employed in deriving generic learning curves and generalization properties, both with and without a weight decay term. The generalization error is shown analytically to be related to the evidence and, via the evidence, to the prediction error and free energy. The generalization behavior is explored; the generic learning curve is found to be inversely proportional to the number of training pairs presented. Optimization of training is considered by minimizing the generalization error with respect to the free parameters of the training algorithms. Finally, the effect of the joint activations between hidden-layer units is examined and shown to speed training.

  19. GB-hash : Hash Functions Using Groebner Basis

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Dhananjoy; Sengupta, Indranath

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an improved version of HF-hash, viz., GB-hash : Hash Functions Using Groebner Basis. In case of HF-hash, the compression function consists of 32 polynomials with 64 variables which were taken from the first 32 polynomials of hidden field equations challenge-1 by forcing last 16 variables as 0. In GB-hash we have designed the compression function in such way that these 32 polynomials with 64 variables form a minimal Groebner basis of the ideal generated by them with respect to graded lexicographical (grlex) ordering as well as with respect to graded reverse lexicographical (grevlex) ordering. In this paper we will prove that GB-hash is more secure than HF-hash as well as more secure than SHA-256. We have also compared the efficiency of our GB-hash with SHA-256 and HF-hash.

  20. Libcint: An efficient general integral library for Gaussian basis functions

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiming

    2014-01-01

    An efficient integral library Libcint was designed to automatically implement general integrals for Gaussian-type scalar and spinor basis functions. The library can handle arbitrary integral expressions on top of $\\mathbf{p}$, $\\mathbf{r}$ and $\\sigma$ operators with one-electron overlap and nuclear attraction, two-electron Coulomb and Gaunt operators. Using a symbolic algebra tool, new integrals are derived and translated to C code programmatically. The generated integrals can be used in various types of molecular properties. In the present work, we computed the analytical gradients and NMR shielding constants at both non-relativistic and four-component relativistic Hartree-Fock level to demonstrate the capability of the integral library. Due to the use of kinetically balanced basis and gauge including atomic orbitals, the relativistic analytical gradients and shielding constants requires the integral library to handle the fifth-order electron repulsion integral derivatives. The generality of the integral li...

  1. A T Matrix Method Based upon Scalar Basis Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowski, D.W.; Kahnert, F. M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    A surface integral formulation is developed for the T matrix of a homogenous and isotropic particle of arbitrary shape, which employs scalar basis functions represented by the translation matrix elements of the vector spherical wave functions. The formulation begins with the volume integral equation for scattering by the particle, which is transformed so that the vector and dyadic components in the equation are replaced with associated dipole and multipole level scalar harmonic wave functions. The approach leads to a volume integral formulation for the T matrix, which can be extended, by use of Green's identities, to the surface integral formulation. The result is shown to be equivalent to the traditional surface integral formulas based on the VSWF basis.

  2. AN IMPROVED RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION BASED METHOD FOR IMAGE WARPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Xuan; Zhao Rongchun; Zhang Cheng; Zhang Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    A new image warping method is proposed in this letter, which can warp a given image by some manual defined features. Based on the radial basis interpolation function algorithm, the proposed method can transform the original optimized problem into nonsingular linear problem by adding one-order term and affine differentiable condition. This linear system can get the steady unique solution by choosing suitable kernel function. Furthermore, the proposed method demonstrates how to set up the radial basis function in the target image so as to achieve supports to adopt the backward re-sampling technology accordingly which could gain the very slippery warping image. Theexperimental result shows that the proposed method can implement smooth and gradual image warping with multi-anchor points' accurate interpolation.

  3. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  4. Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

  5. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  6. Basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Odile; Mussard, Bastien; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien

    2015-02-21

    Range-separated density-functional theory (DFT) is an alternative approach to Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The strategy of range-separated density-functional theory consists in separating the Coulomb electron-electron interaction into long-range and short-range components and treating the long-range part by an explicit many-body wave-function method and the short-range part by a density-functional approximation. Among the advantages of using many-body methods for the long-range part of the electron-electron interaction is that they are much less sensitive to the one-electron atomic basis compared to the case of the standard Coulomb interaction. Here, we provide a detailed study of the basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory. We study the convergence of the partial-wave expansion of the long-range wave function near the electron-electron coalescence. We show that the rate of convergence is exponential with respect to the maximal angular momentum L for the long-range wave function, whereas it is polynomial for the case of the Coulomb interaction. We also study the convergence of the long-range second-order Møller-Plesset correlation energy of four systems (He, Ne, N2, and H2O) with cardinal number X of the Dunning basis sets cc - p(C)V XZ and find that the error in the correlation energy is best fitted by an exponential in X. This leads us to propose a three-point complete-basis-set extrapolation scheme for range-separated density-functional theory based on an exponential formula.

  7. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  8. Models for Evaluating the Company on FCFE and FCFF basis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela-Victoria ANGHELACHE; Andreea NEGRU (CIOBANU); Gheorghe LEPADATU

    2012-01-01

    The basic idea when evaluating the companies on the basis of the cash-flows expected to e generated in the future consists of up-dating the available cash-flows at an appropriate rate of the expected yield. However, the matter gets complicated if considering the fact that we can utilize both the cash-flow available at the company level (FCFF), and the cash-flow available with the purpose of being distributed to the shareholders (FCFE).

  9. Certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hesthaven, Jan S; Stamm, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the mathematical and algorithmic aspects of certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations. Central aspects ranging from model construction, error estimation and computational efficiency to empirical interpolation methods are discussed in detail for coercive problems. More advanced aspects associated with time-dependent problems, non-compliant and non-coercive problems and applications with geometric variation are also discussed as examples.

  10. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Ethan B.; Xiong, Yong; Wang, Jimin; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6Å crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for ho...

  11. First-order optimality condition of basis pursuit denoise problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玮; 舒适; 成礼智

    2014-01-01

    A new first-order optimality condition for the basis pursuit denoise (BPDN) problem is derived. This condition provides a new approach to choose the penalty param-eters adaptively for a fixed point iteration algorithm. Meanwhile, the result is extended to matrix completion which is a new field on the heel of the compressed sensing. The numerical experiments of sparse vector recovery and low-rank matrix completion show validity of the theoretic results.

  12. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  13. Technology of producing granular fertilizers on an organic basis

    OpenAIRE

    Острога, Руслан Алексеевич; Юхименко, Николай Петрович; Михайловский, Яков Эммануилович; Литвиненко, Андрей Владимирович

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of producing granular fertilizers on an organic basis due to disposal of organic waste of poultry farms is proved. It is shown that such waste has a form of very liquid suspensions. Therefore, to minimize power consumption for their processing, granulation in the fluidized bed apparatus is the optimum technology of producing a granular product. Temperature conditions and operating parameters of organic suspension granulation process are experimentally determined. The existence...

  14. Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Controlling Office is (insert controlling DoD office). NUREG /CR-6635 BNL- NUREG -52565 Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance...DC 20555-0001 AVAILABILITY NOTICE Availability of Reference Materials Cited in NRC Publications NRC publications in the NUREG series, NRC regu...Technical Information Service Springfield, VA 22161 -0002 <http://www.ntis.gov> 1 -800-553-6847 or locally 703-605-6000 The NUREG series

  15. Structural basis for substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    OpenAIRE

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M. H. G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna; Zeijl, Leonie van; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) or ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2 (ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemo-attractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling has roles in various pathologies including tumour progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis, and the mechanism of interaction with target cells, has been elusive. Here we present the crystal stru...

  16. Social parasitism and the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eCini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Contrasting phenotypes arise from similar genomes through a combination of losses, gains, co-option and modifications of inherited genomic material. Understanding the molecular basis of this phenotypic diversity is a fundamental challenge in modern evolutionary biology. Comparisons of the genes and their expression patterns underlying traits in pairs of closely related species offer an unrivalled opportunity to evaluate the extent to which genomic material is reorganised to produce novel traits. Advances in molecular methods now allow us to dissect the molecular machinery underlying phenotypic diversity in almost any organism, from single-celled organisms to the most complex vertebrates. Here we discuss how comparisons of social parasites and their free-living hosts may provide unique insights into the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution. Social parasites evolve from a social ancestor and are specialised to exploit the socially acquired resources of their closely-related, free-living social host. Molecular comparisons of such species pairs can reveal how genomic material is re-organised in the loss of ancestral traits (i.e. of free-living traits in the parasites and the gain of new ones (i.e. specialist traits required for a parasitic lifestyle. We define hypotheses on the molecular basis of phenotypes in the evolution of social parasitism and discuss their wider application in understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity within the theoretical framework of phenotypic plasticity and shifting reaction norms. Currently there are no data available to test these hypotheses, and so we also provide some proof of concept data for our conceptual model using the paper wasp social parasite-host system (Polistes sulcifer - Polistes dominula. This conceptual framework and first empirical data provide a spring-board for directing future genomic analyses on exploiting social parasites as a route to understanding the evolution of phenotypic

  17. Border Basis for Polynomial System Solving and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Trébuchet, Philippe; Mourrain, Bernard; Abril Bucero, Marta

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We describe the software package borderbasix dedicated to the computation of border bases and the solutions of polynomial equations. We present the main ingredients of the border basis algorithm and the other methods implemented in this package: numerical solutions from multiplication matrices, real radical computation, polynomial optimization. The implementation parameterized by the coefficient type and the choice function provides a versatile family of tools for poly...

  18. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  19. A Reduced Basis Method for the Simulation of American Options

    CERN Document Server

    Haasdonk, Bernard; Wohlmuth, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    We present a reduced basis method for the simulation of American option pricing. To tackle this model numerically, we formulate the problem in terms of a time dependent variational inequality. Characteristic ingredients are a POD-greedy and an angle-greedy procedure for the construction of the primal and dual reduced spaces. Numerical examples are provided, illustrating the approximation quality and convergence of our approach.

  20. Combining regression trees and radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, M; Hallam, J; Takezawa, K; Murra, A; Ninomiya, S; Oide, M; Leonard, T

    2000-12-01

    We describe a method for non-parametric regression which combines regression trees with radial basis function networks. The method is similar to that of Kubat, who was first to suggest such a combination, but has some significant improvements. We demonstrate the features of the new method, compare its performance with other methods on DELVE data sets and apply it to a real world problem involving the classification of soybean plants from digital images.

  1. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Radial Basis Function Network Compensators for Uncertainties of Robotic Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ziauddin, S.M.; Zalzala, A.M.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a decentralised compensation scheme for uncertainties and modelling errors of robotic manipulators. The scheme employs a central decoupler and independent joint neural network controllers. Recursive Newton Euler formulas are used to decouple robot dynamics to obtain a set of equations in terms of each joint's input and output. To identify and suppress the effects of uncertainties associated with the model, each joint is controlled separately by Gaussian radial basis funct...

  3. Conventional modeling of the multilayer perceptron using polynomial basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Song; Manry, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for modeling the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, in which input and hidden units are represented by polynomial basis functions (PBFs), is presented. The MLP output is expressed as a linear combination of the PBFs and can therefore be expressed as a polynomial function of its inputs. Thus, the MLP is isomorphic to conventional polynomial discriminant classifiers or Volterra filters. The modeling technique was successfully applied to several trained MLP networks.

  4. Organisms modeling: The question of radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists usually a gap between bio-inspired computational techniques and what biologists can do with these techniques in their current researches. Although biology is the root of system-theory and artifical neural networks, computer scientists are tempted to build their own systems independently of biological issues. This publication is a first-step re-evalution of an usual machine learning technique (radial basis funtion(RBF networks in the context of systems and biological reactive organisms.

  5. Basis properties of eigenfunctions of nonlinear Sturm-Liouville problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Zhidkov

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider three nonlinear eigenvalue problems that consist of $$-y''+f(y^2y=lambda y$$ with one of the following boundary conditions: $$displaylines{ y(0=y(1=0 quad y'(0=p ,,cr y'(0=y(1=0 quad y(0=p,, cr y'(0=y'(1=0 quad y(0=p,, }$$ where $p$ is a positive constant. Under smoothness and monotonicity conditions on $f$, we show the existence and uniqueness of a sequence of eigenvalues ${lambda _n}$ and corresponding eigenfunctions ${y_n}$ such that $y_n(x$ has precisely $n$ roots in the interval $(0,1$, where $n=0,1,2,dots$. For the first boundary condition, we show that ${y_n}$ is a basis and that ${y_n/|y_n|}$ is a Riesz basis in the space $L_2(0,1$. For the second and third boundary conditions, we show that ${y_n}$ is a Riesz basis.

  6. Neural basis of interpersonal traits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2009-11-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas.

  7. Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey with Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A marine electromagnetic survey is an engineering endeavour to discover the location and dimension of a hydrocarbon layer under an ocean floor. In this kind of survey, an array of electric and magnetic receivers are located on the sea floor and record the scattered, refracted and reflected electromagnetic wave, which has been transmitted by an electric dipole antenna towed by a vessel. The data recorded in receivers must be processed and further analysed to estimate the hydrocarbon location and dimension. To conduct those analyses successfuly, a radial basis function (RBF network could be employed to become a forward model of the input-output relationship of the data from a marine electromagnetic survey. This type of neural networks is working based on distances between its inputs and predetermined centres of some basis functions. A previous research had been conducted to model the same marine electromagnetic survey using another type of neural networks, which is a multi layer perceptron (MLP network. By comparing their validation and training performances (mean-squared errors and correlation coefficients, it is concluded that, in this case, the MLP network is comparatively better than the RBF network[1].[1] This manuscript is an extended version of our previous paper, entitled Radial Basis Function Networks for Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey, which had been presented on 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 17-19 July 2011, Bandung, Indonesia.

  8. Development of a low-temperature refrigerant on the basis of carbon dioxide; Entwicklung eines Tieftemperaturkaeltemittels auf Basis von Kohlendioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goepfert, Tobias; Hesse, Ullrich [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Bitzer-Stiftungsprofessur fuer Kaelte-, Kryo- und Kompressorentechnik

    2014-07-01

    With the help of known substance properties and derived calculation correlations the mixtures were identified on the basis of R744, which are suitable as a cryogenic refrigerant in the range -50 to -100 degrees Celsius. A prediction and assessment of the suitability of the mixtures is made and the still unknown material properties are shown, which are required for detailed evaluation. [German] Mit Hilfe von bekannten Stoffeigenschaften und abgeleiteten Berechnungskorrelationen wurden Gemische auf der Basis von R744 identifiziert, welche sich als Tieftemperaturkaeltemittel im Bereich von -50 bis -100 Grad Celsius eigenen. Es wird eine Prognose und Abschaetzung der Eignung der Stoffgemische vorgenommen und es werden die noch unbekannten Stoffeigenschaften dargestellt, die zur genauen Bewertung benoetigt werden.

  9. Complete CRM documentation as a basis for successfull Churn Management; Wie aus Rueckholung Vorbeugung wird. Vollstaendige Kundenkontakthistorie als Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannssen, T. [ConTakt GmbH, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2002-09-09

    The contribution explains modern customer relationship management strategies for electric utilities. The role of a complete and detailed documentation of the CRM history is explained as a basis for establishing reliable customer loyalty, winning back lost customers, or preventing customers from changing their power service. (orig./CB) [German] Erkenntnisse aus der Kundenrueckgewinnung sind eine wertvolle Grundlage fuer Kuendigungspraevention. Bei durchdachtem Vorgehen koennen sie mit den gesammelten Erfahrungen sogar schon im Vorfeld Kuendigungen verhindern. (orig./CB)

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-08-17

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage.

  11. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  12. Photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J; Murphy, C J; Neitz, M; Hoeve, J N; Neitz, J

    2001-01-01

    Horses, like other ungulates, are active in the day, at dusk, dawn, and night; and, they have eyes designed to have both high sensitivity for vision in dim light and good visual acuity under higher light levels (Walls, 1942). Typically, daytime activity is associated with the presence of multiple cone classes and color-vision capacity (Jacobs, 1993). Previous studies in other ungulates, such as pigs, goats, cows, sheep and deer, have shown that they have two spectrally different cone types, and hence, at least the photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision (Neitz & Jacobs, 1989; Jacobs, Deegan II, Neitz, Murphy, Miller, & Marchinton, 1994; Jacobs, Deegan II, & Neitz, 1998). Here, electroretinogram flicker photometry was used to measure the spectral sensitivities of the cones in the domestic horse (Equus caballus). Two distinct spectral mechanisms were identified and are consistent with the presence of a short-wavelength-sensitive (S) and a middle-to-long-wavelength-sensitive (M/L) cone. The spectral sensitivity of the S cone was estimated to have a peak of 428 nm, while the M/L cone had a peak of 539 nm. These two cone types would provide the basis for dichromatic color vision consistent with recent results from behavioral testing of horses (Macuda & Timney, 1999; Macuda & Timney, 2000; Timney & Macuda, 2001). The spectral peak of the M/L cone photopigment measured here, in vivo, is similar to that obtained when the gene was sequenced, cloned, and expressed in vitro (Yokoyama & Radlwimmer, 1999). Of the ungulates that have been studied to date, all have the photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision; however, they differ considerably from one another in the spectral tuning of their cone pigments. These differences may represent adaptations to the different visual requirements of different species.

  13. Just in Time DSA the Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JACKSON, M.W.

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for 30 hazard category 2 and 3 nuclear facilities that are operated by its prime contractors, Fluor Hanford, Incorporated (FHI), Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The publication of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830, Subpart B, Safely Basis Requirements (the Rule) in January 2001 requires that the Documented Safety Analyses (DSA) for these facilities be reviewed against the requirements of the Rule. Those DSAs that do not meet the requirements must either be upgraded to satisfy the Rule, or an exemption must be obtained. RL and its prime contractors have developed a Nuclear Safety Strategy that provides a comprehensive approach for supporting RL's efforts to meet its long-term objectives for hazard category 2 and 3 facilities while also meeting the requirements of the Rule. This approach will result in a reduction of the total number of safety basis documents that must be developed and maintained to support the remaining mission and closure of the Hanford Site and ensure that the documentation that must be developed will support: Compliance with the Rule; A ''Just-In-Time'' approach to development of Rule-compliant safety bases supported by temporary exemptions; and Consolidation of safety basis documents that support multiple facilities with a common mission (e.g. decontamination, decommissioning and demolition [DD&D], waste management, surveillance and maintenance). This strategy provides a clear path to transition the safety bases for the various Hanford facilities from support of operation and stabilization missions through DD&D to accelerate closure. This ''Just-In-Time'' Strategy can also be tailored for other DOE Sites, creating the potential for large cost savings and schedule reductions throughout the DOE complex.

  14. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  15. The Gaussian radial basis function method for plasma kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvijoki, E.; Candy, J.; Belli, E.; Embréus, O.

    2015-10-01

    Description of a magnetized plasma involves the Vlasov equation supplemented with the non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator. For non-Maxwellian distributions, the collision operator, however, is difficult to compute. In this Letter, we introduce Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) to discretize the velocity space of the entire kinetic system, and give the corresponding analytical expressions for the Vlasov and collision operator. Outlining the general theory, we also highlight the connection to plasma fluid theories, and give 2D and 3D numerical solutions of the non-linear Fokker-Planck equation. Applications are anticipated in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  16. Technical Basis for Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulatory Guidance Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this report is to serve as the technical basis document for the next, planned revision of this RG that highlights and provides the rationale for the recommended changes. The structure of this document follows and summarizes the several assessment activities undertaken during the course of this project to evaluate new and updated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards, testing methods and limits, and relevant technology developments being incorporated into plant activities that may have EMI/RFI implications, as well as other specific issues, including impacts of electrostatic discharge (ESD) on safety equipment and impacts on increased usage of wireless devices in nuclear power plants.

  17. Nonlinear Time Series Forecast Using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGXin; CHENTian-Lun

    2003-01-01

    In the research of using Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF NN) forecasting nonlinear time series, we investigate how the different clusterings affect the process of learning and forecasting. We find that k-means clustering is very suitable. In order to increase the precision we introduce a nonlinear feedback term to escape from the local minima of energy, then we use the model to forecast the nonlinear time series which are produced by Mackey-Glass equation and stocks. By selecting the k-means clustering and the suitable feedback term, much better forecasting results are obtained.

  18. Nonlinear Time Series Forecast Using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xin; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2003-01-01

    In the research of using Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF NN) forecasting nonlinear timeseries, we investigate how the different clusterings affect the process of learning and forecasting. We find that k-meansclustering is very suitable. In order to increase the precision we introduce a nonlinear feedback term to escape from thelocal minima of energy, then we use the model to forecast the nonlinear time series which are produced by Mackey-Glassequation and stocks. By selecting the k-means clustering and the suitable feedback term, much better forecasting resultsare obtained.

  19. The biofield hypothesis: its biophysical basis and role in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubik, Beverly

    2002-12-01

    This paper provides a scientific foundation for the biofield: the complex, extremely weak electromagnetic field of the organism hypothesized to involve electromagnetic bioinformation for regulating homeodynamics. The biofield is a useful construct consistent with bioelectromagnetics and the physics of nonlinear, dynamical, nonequilibrium living systems. It offers a unifying hypothesis to explain the interaction of objects or fields with the organism, and is especially useful toward understanding the scientific basis of energy medicine, including acupuncture, biofield therapies, bioelectromagnetic therapies, and homeopathy. The rapid signal propagation of electromagnetic fields comprising the biofield as well as its holistic properties may account for the rapid, holistic effects of certain alternative and complementary medical interventions.

  20. Speculation on a theory of creativity: a physiological basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtold, L M

    1980-06-01

    A physiological basis for creative behavior is presented in the hypothesis that creativity is a problem-solving response by intelligent, very active, highly emotional, and extremely introverted persons. Introverts, habitually in a state of high cortical arousal, have low sensory thresholds and stronger than average reactions to sensory stimulation. Highly emotional people have autonomic nervous systems which react quickly and long to stimuli. Subjected to a vast array of disorganized perceptual data and strongly feeling the inconsistencies the active and intelligent individual forms new perceptual relationships to develop feelings of consistency and harmony.

  1. A theoretical basis for the Harmonic Balance Method

    CERN Document Server

    García-Saldaña, Johanna D

    2012-01-01

    The Harmonic Balance method provides a heuristic approach for finding truncated Fourier series as an approximation to the periodic solutions of ordinary differential equations. Another natural way for obtaining these type of approximations consists in applying numerical methods. In this paper we recover the pioneering results of Stokes and Urabe that provide a theoretical basis for proving that near these truncated series, whatever is the way they have been obtained, there are actual periodic solutions of the equation. We will restrict our attention to one-dimensional non-autonomous ordinary differential equations and we apply the results obtained to a couple of concrete examples coming from planar autonomous systems.

  2. EXPORT BASIS AND FORMATION OF AZERBAIJAN ENERGY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Iousoubov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a current situation in national economy and export  of Azerbaijan, budget policy in oil production countries and reveals that nowadays an increase of export potential and diversification of export basis must be one of the main purposes of foreign economy strategy of any state.The paper also shows the necessity to form a State system for encouraging export and national economy in Azerbaijan and prospects of its development and considers an influence of world financial crisis on energy policy of the country.

  3. The physical basis of electronics an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, D J; Hammond, P

    1975-01-01

    The Physical Basis of Electronics: An Introductory Course, Second Edition is an 11-chapter text that discusses the physical concepts of electronic devices. This edition deals with the considerable advances in electronic techniques, from the introduction of field effect transistors to the development of integrated circuits. The opening chapters discuss the fundamentals of vacuum electronics and solid-state electronics. The subsequent chapters deal with the other components of electronic devices and their functions, including semiconductor diode and transistor as an amplifier and a switch. The d

  4. Localized atomic basis set in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Vanin, Marco; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    representation. The possibility to switch seamlessly between the two representations implies that simulations employing the local basis can be fine tuned at the end of the calculation by switching to the grid, thereby combining the strength of the two representations for optimal performance. The implementation...... is tested by calculating atomization energies and equilibrium bulk properties of a variety of molecules and solids, comparing to the grid results. Finally, it is demonstrated how a grid-quality structure optimization can be performed with significantly reduced computational effort by switching between...

  5. Die molekulare Basis der Heterogenität der Phenylketonurie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, K.

    1980-10-01

    The heterogeneity of phenylketonuria can be explained on the molecular basis. Because the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system consists of more than one enzyme, each enzyme can be mutated. Different mutations of the phenylalanine hydroxylase molecule resulting in a lack or reduction of enzyme activity can be anticipated. Enzyme activity lower than 1 % compared to normals is correlated to the severe form; enzyme activity higher than 5% is correlated to the mild form of the disease. Phenylketonuria can also be caused by a defective synthesis or defective reduction of the cofactor. Patients suffer severe neurological symptoms, because of an impaired synthesis of dopamine and serotonin.

  6. The Theoretical Basis of Task Based Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雯

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of TBLT(Task Based Language Teaching) is not incidental since PPP(Presentation-PracticeProduction) cannot sufficiently prepare language learners for attaining communication abilities.TBLT,centering on tasks,takes different route to achieve communicative outcome,which is an extension of CLT(Communicative Language Teaching),whose goal is the realization of communicative competence.Hence,to discuss definitions of a task and TBLT will be presented.This paper will further aim to explain the theoretical basis of TBLT highlighting its relationship with CLT.

  7. Molecular Basis and Current Treatment for Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Armendariz-Borunda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders and alcohol dependency affect millions of individuals worldwide. The impact of these facts lies in the elevated social and economic costs. Alcoholic liver disease is caused by acute and chronic exposure to ethanol which promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Chronic consumption of ethanol implies liver steatosis, which is the first morphological change in the liver, followed by liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. This review comprises a broad approach of alcohol use disorders, and a more specific assessment of the pathophysiologic molecular basis, and genetics, as well as clinical presentation and current modalities of treatment for alcoholic liver disease.

  8. Snow cover thickness estimation by using radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guidali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates learning and generalisation capabilities of radial basis function networks (RBFN used to solve snow cover thickness estimation model as regression and classification. The model is based on a minimal set of climatic and topographic data collected from a limited number of stations located in the Italian Central Alps. Several experiments have been conceived and conducted adopting different evaluation indexes in both regression and classification tasks. The snow cover thickness estimation by RBFN has been proved a valuable tool able to deal with several critical aspects arising from the specific experimental context.

  9. Basis Light-Front Quantization: Recent Progress and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, James P.; Adhikari, Lekha; Chen, Guangyao; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Zhao, Xingbo

    2016-08-01

    Light-front Hamiltonian field theory has advanced to the stage of becoming a viable non-perturbative method for solving forefront problems in strong interaction physics. Physics drivers include hadron mass spectroscopy, generalized parton distribution functions, spin structures of the hadrons, inelastic structure functions, hadronization, particle production by strong external time-dependent fields in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and many more. We review selected recent results and future prospects with basis light-front quantization that include fermion-antifermion bound states in QCD, fermion motion in a strong time-dependent external field and a novel non-perturbative renormalization scheme.

  10. The Theoretical Basis of Task Based Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雯

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of TBLT(Task Based Language Teaching) is not incidental since PPP (Presentation-Practice-Production) cannot sufficiently prepare language learners for attaining communication abilities.TBLT,centering on tasks,takes different route to achieve communicative outcome,which is an extension of CLT (Communicative Language Teaching),whose goal is the realization of communicativecompetence.Hence,to discuss definitions of a task and TBLT will be presented.This paper will further aim to explain the theoretical basis of TBLT highlighting its relationship with CLT.

  11. Heat Explosion In Porous Media Using Radial Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allali Karam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the numerical investigation of the interaction between natural convection and heat explosion in a fluid-saturated porous media in a rectangular domain. The model consists of Darcy equations for an incompressible fluid in a porous medium coupled with the nonlinear heat equation. Numerical simulations are performed using the radial basis functions method (RBFs. We study the bifurcation of the periodic oscillation of the response born by Hopf bifurcation. First, a symmetry-breaking bifurcations observed; then is followed by successive period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos.

  12. Effective field theory in the harmonic-oscillator basis

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, S; Hagen, G; Papenbrock, T; Wendt, K A

    2015-01-01

    We develop interactions from chiral effective field theory (EFT) that are tailored to the harmonic oscillator basis. As a consequence, ultraviolet convergence with respect to the model space is implemented by construction and infrared convergence can be achieved by enlarging the model space for the kinetic energy. We derive useful analytical expressions for an exact and efficient calculation of matrix elements. By fitting to realistic phase shifts and deuteron data we construct an effective interaction from chiral EFT at next-to-leading order. Many-body coupled-cluster calculations of nuclei up to 132Sn exhibit a fast convergence of ground-state energies and radii in feasible model spaces.

  13. Using Radial-basis Function Network for CLV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯青; 郑建国

    2002-01-01

    Analysis and comparing with three existing and popularly used forcasting customer lifetime value (CLV) methods, which are the Dwyer method, customer event-method and fitting method, and using performances of the existent artificial neural network, we apply the Radial-basis Function(RBF) network to forecast the CLV, the RBF network can approach the objective function partially. To every input/output pairs, it only needs adjust the weight a little and learn quickly which is very important to the forecast precision. Simulation and experimental results on the customers' data of a company in Shaanxi Province reveal the effectiveness and feasibility of the RBF network.

  14. F[x]-lattice basis reduction algorithm and multisequence synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍; 祝跃飞

    2001-01-01

    By means of F[x]-lattice basis reduction algorithm, a new algorithm is presented for synthesizing minimum length linear feedback shift registers (or minimal polynomials) for the given multiple sequences over a field F. Its computational complexity is O( N 2) operations in F where N is the length of each sequence. A necessary and sufficient condition for the uniqueness of minimal polynomials is given. The set and exact number of all minimal polynomials are also described when F is a finite field.

  15. Design Basis for Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Søren; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    -crack opening relationship can beused to descibe the properties of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) intension and how the stress-crack opening relationship can beapplied in a simple design scheme for pavements. The projectincludes development of design tools, experiments to determine thestress-crack opening......The paper summarises a Ph.D. project on development of a new design basis for fibre reinforced concrete ground slabs. The stress-crack openingrelationship is a well know basic material property of theso-called fictitious crack model for concrete. In the presentstudy it is shown how the stress...

  16. Analysis of Theoretical Basis of Direct Subsidies for Grain Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengping; SHI; Xiaorong; LUO; Hongjing; LI

    2014-01-01

    Financial distribution to compensate grain production reflects governmental macro-control on grain production and supply. With the reference of agricultural basic theory,agricultural multi-function theory,economic externality theory,public finance and other theories,this article points out that direct subsidies for grain production is reasonable and necessary with six main theoretical basis,namely fundamentality,multi-function,positive externality of grain production,particularity of grain supply and demand,grain safety being closely linked with national security and basic function of service-oriented government.

  17. Synchronization of chaos using radial basis functions neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Haipeng; Liu Ding

    2007-01-01

    The Radial Basis Functions Neural Network (RBFNN) is used to establish the model of a response system through the input and output data of the system. The synchronization between a drive system and the response system can be implemented by employing the RBFNN model and state feedback control. In this case, the exact mathematical model, which is the precondition for the conventional method, is unnecessary for implementing synchronization. The effect of the model error is investigated and a corresponding theorem is developed. The effect of the parameter perturbations and the measurement noise is investigated through simulations. The simulation results under different conditions show the effectiveness of the method.

  18. A Reduced Basis Approach for Some Weakly Stochastic Multiscale Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude LE BRIS; Florian THOMINES

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a multiscale problem arising in material science is considered.The problem involves a random coefficient which is assumed to be a perturbation of a deterministic coefficient,in a sense made precisely in the body of the text.The homogenized limit is then computed by using a perturbation approach.This computation requires repeatedly solving a corrector-like equation for various configurations of the material.For this purpose,the reduced basis approach is employed and adapted to the specific context.The authors perform numerical tests that demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.

  19. Algebraic evaluation of matrix elements in the Laguerre function basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, A. E.; Caprio, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Laguerre functions constitute one of the fundamental basis sets for calculations in atomic and molecular electron-structure theory, with applications in hadronic and nuclear theory as well. While similar in form to the Coulomb bound-state eigenfunctions (from the Schrödinger eigenproblem) or the Coulomb-Sturmian functions (from a related Sturm-Liouville problem), the Laguerre functions, unlike these former functions, constitute a complete, discrete, orthonormal set for square-integrable functions in three dimensions. We construct the SU(1, 1) × SO(3) dynamical algebra for the Laguerre functions and apply the ideas of factorization (or supersymmetric quantum mechanics) to derive shift operators for these functions. We use the resulting algebraic framework to derive analytic expressions for matrix elements of several basic radial operators (involving powers of the radial coordinate and radial derivative) in the Laguerre function basis. We illustrate how matrix elements for more general spherical tensor operators in three dimensional space, such as the gradient, may then be constructed from these radial matrix elements.

  20. Polarization-Basis Tracking Scheme in Satellite Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morio Toyoshima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite quantum key distribution is a promising technique that overcomes the limited transmission distance in optical-fiber-based systems. The polarization tracking technique is one of the key techniques in the satellite quantum key distribution. With free-space quantum key distribution between an optical ground station and a satellite, the photon polarization state will be changed according to the satellite movement. To enable polarization based quantum key distribution between mobile terminals, we developed a polarization-basis tracking scheme allowing a common frame of reference to be shared. It is possible to orient two platforms along a common axis by detecting the reference optical signal only on the receiver side with no prior information about the transmitter's orientation. We developed a prototype system for free-space quantum key distribution with the polarization-basis tracking scheme. Polarization tracking performance was 0.092° by conducting quantum key distribution experiments over a 1 km free space between two buildings in a Tokyo suburb.

  1. Mitisiteit as basis vir vergelykende literatuurstudie, met verwysing na waterslangsimboliek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lombard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Mythicity as basis for comparative literature, with reference to water snake symbolism Mythicity can be defined as the deliberate intention of probing the numinous dimensions of human existence by means of literature, i.e. mainly narrative forms. In this article the water snake is chosen as prominent archetypal symbol in order to investigate the functioning of mythicity. The water snake is an important symbol in the Southern African context, with its origins in Khoesan ritual and mythology. Recently several stories about water snakes and related mythological creatures have been published in Afrikaans novels and short stories. The water snake has also assimilated influences, inter alia from European, Asian and other African cultures. In this article the potential of mythicity is specifically investigated insofar as it can be utilised as basis for comparative literature. For this purpose the numinous dimensions of a mythic story are treated as equally important as the narrative dimensions. This dialectical balance is therefore used as the main criterion for the comparison of mythic texts. Other related aspects are discussed, namely the importance of the historical context, Jung’s theory of archetypes and the unconscious, and the role of interpretational devices such as metaphor, metonymy, symbolism and allegory. If the balance between numinosity and narrativity is not maintained, the mythic potential of a text is usually reduced. When writers succeed in utilising mythicity as an “open”, dynamic interpretational process, mythic relevance can still be guaranteed within a present-day, postmodern context.

  2. Silicon carbide as a basis for spaceflight optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Michael E.

    1994-09-01

    New advances in the areas of microelectronics and micro-mechanical devices have created a momentum in the development of lightweight, miniaturized, electro-optical space subsystems. The performance improvements achieved and new observational techniques developed as a result, have provided a basis for a new range of Small Explorer, Discovery-class and other low-cost mission concepts for space exploration. However, the ultimate objective of low-mass, inexpensive space science missions will only be achieved with a companion development in the areas of flight optical systems and sensor instrument benches. Silicon carbide (SiC) is currently emerging as an attractive technology to fill this need. As a material basis for reflective, flight telescopes and optical benches, SiC offers: the lightweight and stiffness characteristics of beryllium; glass-like inherent stability consistent with performance to levels of diffraction-limited visible resolution; superior thermal properties down to cryogenic temperatures; and an existing, commercially-based material and processing infrastructure like aluminum. This paper will describe the current status and results of on-going technology developments to utilize these material properties in the creation of lightweight, high- performing, thermally robust, flight optical assemblies. System concepts to be discussed range from an 18 cm aperture, 4-mirror, off-axis system weighing less than 2 kg to a 0.5 m, 15 kg reimager. In addition, results in the development of a thermally-stable, `GOES-like' scan mirror will be presented.

  3. The genetic basis of severe combined immunodeficiency and its variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasher, Diana; Dalal, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes are characterized by a block in T lymphocyte differentiation that is variably associated with abnormal development of other lymphocyte lineages (B and/or natural killer [NK] cells), leading to death early in life unless treated urgently by hematopoietic stem cell transplant. SCID comprises genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions, of which the genetic basis for approximately 85% of the underlying immunologic defects have been recently elucidated. A major obstacle in deciphering the pathogenesis of SCID syndromes is that different mutations in a single gene may give rise to distinct clinical conditions and that a similar clinical phenotype can result from mutations in different genes. Mutation analysis is now an important component of the complete evaluation of a patient with SCID since it has a dramatic impact on many aspects of this potentially life-threatening disease such as genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, modalities of treatment, and, eventually, prognosis. Dr Robert Good, one of the founders of modern immunology, described the SCID syndrome as “experiments of nature.” By understanding the cellular and genetic basis of these immunodeficiency diseases and, eventually, normal immunity, we optimize the “bedside to research laboratory and back again” approach to medicine. PMID:23776382

  4. The genetic basis of severe combined immunodeficiency and its variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasher D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diana Tasher,1,2 Ilan Dalal1,21The Pediatric Infectious and Immunology Unit, E Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel; 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID syndromes are characterized by a block in T lymphocyte differentiation that is variably associated with abnormal development of other lymphocyte lineages (B and/or natural killer [NK] cells, leading to death early in life unless treated urgently by hematopoietic stem cell transplant. SCID comprises genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions, of which the genetic basis for approximately 85% of the underlying immunologic defects have been recently elucidated. A major obstacle in deciphering the pathogenesis of SCID syndromes is that different mutations in a single gene may give rise to distinct clinical conditions and that a similar clinical phenotype can result from mutations in different genes. Mutation analysis is now an important component of the complete evaluation of a patient with SCID since it has a dramatic impact on many aspects of this potentially life-threatening disease such as genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, modalities of treatment, and, eventually, prognosis. Dr Robert Good, one of the founders of modern immunology, described the SCID syndrome as "experiments of nature." By understanding the cellular and genetic basis of these immunodeficiency diseases and, eventually, normal immunity, we optimize the "bedside to research laboratory and back again" approach to medicine.Keywords: severe combined immune deficiency, molecular defects, lymphocytes

  5. The functional basis of adaptive evolution in chemostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, David; Hong, Jungeui

    2015-01-01

    Two of the central problems in biology are determining the molecular basis of adaptive evolution and understanding how cells regulate their growth. The chemostat is a device for culturing cells that provides great utility in tackling both of these problems: it enables precise control of the selective pressure under which organisms evolve and it facilitates experimental control of cell growth rate. The aim of this review is to synthesize results from studies of the functional basis of adaptive evolution in long-term chemostat selections using Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe the principle of the chemostat, provide a summary of studies of experimental evolution in chemostats, and use these studies to assess our current understanding of selection in the chemostat. Functional studies of adaptive evolution in chemostats provide a unique means of interrogating the genetic networks that control cell growth, which complements functional genomic approaches and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in natural populations. An integrated approach to the study of adaptive evolution that accounts for both molecular function and evolutionary processes is critical to advancing our understanding of evolution. By renewing efforts to integrate these two research programs, experimental evolution in chemostats is ideally suited to extending the functional synthesis to the study of genetic networks.

  6. Coupled-cluster based basis sets for valence correlation calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Daniel; Gargano, Ricardo; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    Novel basis sets are generated that target the description of valence correlation in atoms H through Ar. The new contraction coefficients are obtained according to the Atomic Natural Orbital (ANO) procedure from CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction) density matrices starting from the primitive functions of Dunning et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 1007 (1989); ibid. 98, 1358 (1993); ibid. 100, 2975 (1993)] (correlation consistent polarized valence X-tuple zeta, cc-pVXZ). The exponents of the primitive Gaussian functions are subject to uniform scaling in order to ensure satisfaction of the virial theorem for the corresponding atoms. These new sets, named ANO-VT-XZ (Atomic Natural Orbital Virial Theorem X-tuple Zeta), have the same number of contracted functions as their cc-pVXZ counterparts in each subshell. The performance of these basis sets is assessed by the evaluation of the contraction errors in four distinct computations: correlation energies in atoms, probing the density in different regions of space via (-3 ≤ n ≤ 3) in atoms, correlation energies in diatomic molecules, and the quality of fitting potential energy curves as measured by spectroscopic constants. All energy calculations with ANO-VT-QZ have contraction errors within "chemical accuracy" of 1 kcal/mol, which is not true for cc-pVQZ, suggesting some improvement compared to the correlation consistent series of Dunning and co-workers.

  7. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  8. Territory and development: Conceptual basis for local governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Nelson Beltrán Mora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Territories are a human construction, which appears as people inhabit them. In other words, they are generated by the existence of societies, when they transform geographies into their own habitats. Thus, both public and private actors have a chance to organize their communications, interactions and conflicts with the purpose of fulfilling their own needs and desires. As such, they concur with general concepts of social science and governance as a scenario for making public decisions, as well as for productivity and competitiveness as fundamental variables of private actions and deliberate public actions, which usually develop into development policies, consensus by agents, as well as public and private agencies in pursuit of a common goal. On this basis, this paper seeks to formulate an academic space that intends to contribute to an integrated and sustainable human development in a perspective that assumes social change, respect for the fragile ecosystem balance, and the basis of sustainability of social and economic processes from the perspective of the government and the social responsibilities of companies and citizens.

  9. Dynamics of learning near singularities in radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Haikun; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2008-09-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) networks are one of the most widely used models for function approximation in the regression problem. In the learning paradigm, the best approximation is recursively or iteratively searched for based on observed data (teacher signals). One encounters difficulties in such a process when two component basis functions become identical, or when the magnitude of one component becomes null. In this case, the number of the components reduces by one, and then the reduced component recovers as the learning process proceeds further, provided such a component is necessary for the best approximation. Strange behaviors, especially the plateau phenomena, have been observed in dynamics of learning when such reduction occurs. There exist singularities in the space of parameters, and the above reduction takes place at the singular regions. This paper focuses on a detailed analysis of the dynamical behaviors of learning near the overlap and elimination singularities in RBF networks, based on the averaged learning equation that is applicable to both on-line and batch mode learning. We analyze the stability on the overlap singularity by solving the eigenvalues of the Hessian explicitly. Based on the stability analysis, we plot the analytical dynamic vector fields near the singularity, which are then compared to those real trajectories obtained by a numeric method. We also confirm the existence of the plateaus in both batch and on-line learning by simulation.

  10. Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey with Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A marine electromagnetic survey is an engineering endeavour to discover the location and dimension of a hydrocarbon layer under an ocean floor. In this kind of survey, an array of electric and magnetic receivers are located on the sea floor and record the scattered, refracted and reflected electromagnetic wave, which has been transmitted by an electric dipole antenna towed by a vessel. The data recorded in receivers must be processed and further analysed to estimate the hydrocarbon location and dimension. To conduct those analyses successfuly, a radial basis function (RBF network could be employed to become a forward model of the input-output relationship of the data from a marine electromagnetic survey. This type of neural networks is working based on distances between its inputs and predetermined centres of some basis functions. A previous research had been conducted to model the same marine electromagnetic survey using another type of neural networks, which is a multi layer perceptron (MLP network. By comparing their validation and training performances (mean-squared errors and correlation coefficients, it is concluded that, in this case, the MLP network is comparatively better than the RBF network

  11. Basis, evidences and consequences of the inherent stellar encocooning

    CERN Document Server

    Celis, L

    2002-01-01

    Based on 7093 observations with photoelectrical photometrical measurements of 191 Mira stars, the following equations (from the papers [1] to [18]) give the basis to establish the Inherent Stellar Encocooning with the spectro-photometric characteristics of the red giant variable stars, especially the Miras, which have large amplitudes (approx 50% of giant variables). The specific basis that justifies a progressive covering with ionized molecules, cold gases, dust and grains are: The relation of the visual amplitudes A sub v =A sub r +E sub A whose real luminosity separate the intrinsic pulsation and amplitude excess effects due to the presence of molecules [145] and an opaque envelope of cool gases; The relation of the visual absolute magnitudes M sub v =M sub v sub r (P)+M sub a (delta sub T sub i sub O V) which is affected by an inherent absorption and/or occultation, and; The relation that defines the probable absolute luminosity and depends on the period and the (Sa) spectral type at maximum M sub v =-2.2...

  12. Localized Basis for Effective Lattice Hamiltonians Lattice Wannier Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rabe, K M

    1994-01-01

    A systematic method is presented for constructing effective Hamiltonians for general phonon-related structural transitions. The key feature is the application of group theoretical methods to identify the subspace in which the effective Hamiltonian acts and construct for it localized basis vectors, which are the analogue of electronic Wannier functions. The results of the symmetry analysis for the perovskite, rocksalt, fluorite and A15 structures and the forms of effective Hamiltonians for the ferroelectric transition in $PbTiO_3$ and $BaTiO_3$, the oxygen-octahedron rotation transition in $SrTiO_3$, the Jahn-Teller instability in $La_{1-x}(Ca,Sr,Ba)_xMnO_3$ and the antiferroelectric transition in $PbZrO_3$ are discussed. For the oxygen- octahedron rotation transition in $SrTiO_3$, this method provides an alternative to the rotational variable approach which is well behaved throughout the Brillouin zone. The parameters appearing in the Wannier basis vectors and in the effective Hamiltonian, given by the corres...

  13. Prohibition as ontological basis of the Russian legal reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify characteristics of the nature content and functioning of prohibition in the legal reality of Russia. nbsp Methods the methodological basis of research is the dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors as well as a postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutic discursive. Results the paper proposes a definition of prohibition as a state socio volitional constraining limiting means that under the threat of legal liability is intended to prevent the wrongful act of the subject physical or legal entity and ensure the maintenance of law and order. Prohibition is a necessary means of ensuring the discipline of public relations and the consolidation of legal values designed to assure the effectiveness of legal regulation. Scientific novelty for the first time the article shows that prohibition as a legal category is the ontological basis of legal reality and acts as a determining factor in the content and focus not only of lawmaking and law enforcement but legal behavior as well. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when considering questions about the nature content and functioning of prohibitions.

  14. Toward a scientifically rigorous basis for developing mapped ecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, G.; Wiken, E.B.; Gauthier, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the wide use of ecological regions in conservation and resource-management evaluations and assessments, a commonly accepted theoretical basis for ecological regionalization does not exist. This fact, along with the paucity of focus on ecological regionalization by professional associations, journals, and faculties, has inhibited the advancement of a broadly acceptable scientific basis for the development, use, and verification of ecological regions. The central contention of this article is that ecological regions should improve our understanding of geographic and ecological phenomena associated with biotic and abiotic processes occurring in individual regions and also of processes characteristic of interactions and dependencies among multiple regions. Research associated with any ecoregional framework should facilitate development of hypotheses about ecological phenomena and dominant landscape elements associated with these phenomena, how these phenomena are structured in space, and how they function in a hierarchy. Success in addressing the research recommendations outlined in this article cannot occur within an ad hoc, largely uncoordinated research environment. Successful implementation of this plan will require activities--coordination, funding, and education--that are both scientific and administrative in nature. Perhaps the most important element of an infrastructure to support the scientific work of ecoregionalization would be a national or international authority similar to the Water and Science Technology Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  16. Stability Estimation of ABWR on the Basis of Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Masahiro; Fukahori, Takanori; Mizokami, Shinya; Yokoya, Jun

    In order to investigate the stability of a nuclear reactor core with an oxide mixture of uranium and plutonium (MOX) fuel installed, channel stability and regional stability tests were conducted with the SIRIUS-F facility. The SIRIUS-F facility was designed and constructed to provide a highly accurate simulation of thermal-hydraulic (channel) instabilities and coupled thermalhydraulics-neutronics instabilities of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactors (ABWRs). A real-time simulation was performed by modal point kinetics of reactor neutronics and fuel-rod thermal conduction on the basis of a measured void fraction in a reactor core section of the facility. A time series analysis was performed to calculate decay ratio and resonance frequency from a dominant pole of a transfer function by applying auto regressive (AR) methods to the time-series of the core inlet flow rate. Experiments were conducted with the SIRIUS-F facility, which simulates ABWR with MOX fuel installed. The variations in the decay ratio and resonance frequency among the five common AR methods are within 0.03 and 0.01 Hz, respectively. In this system, the appropriate decay ratio and resonance frequency can be estimated on the basis of the Yule-Walker method with the model order of 30.

  17. Digital zoom algorithm with context derived basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, H. C.

    2011-06-01

    One of the goals of superresultion has been to achieve interpolation in excess of some externally imposed physical constraint. Initially it was the optical diffraction limit while the Nyquist Limit of sampled data systems has also become a more recent issue. Regardless of the setting, the limitations are the same; there generally is not enough available degrees of freedom to perform an interpolation without severe loss of information. While some success has been achieved in superresolution, magnification is generally limited to less than 2. In this paper we present a method where context based basis functions are developed for digital zoom where the magnifications were assumed to be greater that 2. The number of degrees of freedom are still less than the number formally required, because the basis functions are developed for scenes similar to scenes presented for interpolation, they are more efficient than those developed without regard to context. The technique is presented together with several still images and video examples of digital zoom for a magnification of 5 and 10. Results are compared with conventional B-Cubic Spline interpolation. Parallelization of the technique with graphic processors is discussed toward its real time implementation.

  18. The Dirac Equation in the algebraic approximation. VII. A comparison of molecular finite difference and finite basis set calculations using distributed Gaussian basis sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiney, H. M.; Glushkov, V. N.; Wilson, S.; Sabin,; Brandas, E

    2001-01-01

    A comparison is made of the accuracy achieved in finite difference and finite basis set approximations to the Dirac equation for the ground state of the hydrogen molecular ion. The finite basis set calculations are carried out using a distributed basis set of Gaussian functions the exponents and pos

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITION OF INFUSION MEDICATION ON BASIS OF MOXIFLOXACIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almakaeva L.G.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of fluoroquinolones covers by experience of treatment more than 800 million patients, and presently they are one of basic classes in the antimicrobial arsenal of practical medicine. Such achievements became possible after the clear understanding of intercommunication of structure and activity of molecules of this class of antibiotics. This knowledge became the basis for the synthesis of new derivatives with a wide range, powerful activity and improved pharmacokinetic profile for the best clinical outcome. Moxifloxacin is 8-methoxyfluoroquinolon of wide spectrum which interacts mainly with DNA gyrase of gram-negative and with topoisomerase of IV type of gram-positive bacteria. He has the extended activity against gram-positive cocci, however keeps activity against gram-negative bacteria. Moxifloxacin also has good activity against atypical respiratory pathogens (Legionella of pneumophila, Chlamydia of pneumoniae and Mycoplasma of pneumoniae. Another his feature is high anti-anaerobic activity. Therefore development of domestic medication with Moxifloxacin - a fluoroquinolone 4 generations - is actual. Materials and methods Research material was a substance of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride, produced by firm «Sansh Biotech Pvt. Ltd.», India, a dosage form on the basis of Moxifloxacin - solution for infusion. Qqualitative and quantitative control of samples of the drug were conducted on parameters which characterize stability: рН, content of active substance, transparency, colour, related impurities, mechanical inclusions on methods, which are described in SPhU. Results and Discussion Proposed the drug is antibiotic of wide spectrum of action of fluoroquinolone. Moxifloxacin hydrochloride is powder pale yellow with slightly hygroscopic nature. He moderately dissolve in water and methanol, poorly will dissolve in hydrochloric acid and ethanol, and practically will not dissolve in an acetone and toluene. рН 0,2 % solution is in a range

  20. Minimization of Basis Risk in Parametric Earthquake Cat Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G.

    2009-12-01

    A catastrophe -cat- bond is an instrument used by insurance and reinsurance companies, by governments or by groups of nations to cede catastrophic risk to the financial markets, which are capable of supplying cover for highly destructive events, surpassing the typical capacity of traditional reinsurance contracts. Parametric cat bonds, a specific type of cat bonds, use trigger mechanisms or indices that depend on physical event parameters published by respected third parties in order to determine whether a part or the entire bond principal is to be paid for a certain event. First generation cat bonds, or cat-in-a-box bonds, display a trigger mechanism that consists of a set of geographic zones in which certain conditions need to be met by an earthquake’s magnitude and depth in order to trigger payment of the bond principal. Second generation cat bonds use an index formulation that typically consists of a sum of products of a set of weights by a polynomial function of the ground motion variables reported by a geographically distributed seismic network. These instruments are especially appealing to developing countries with incipient insurance industries wishing to cede catastrophic losses to the financial markets because the payment trigger mechanism is transparent and does not involve the parties ceding or accepting the risk, significantly reducing moral hazard. In order to be successful in the market, however, parametric cat bonds have typically been required to specify relatively simple trigger conditions. The consequence of such simplifications is the increase of basis risk. This risk represents the possibility that the trigger mechanism fails to accurately capture the actual losses of a catastrophic event, namely that it does not trigger for a highly destructive event or vice versa, that a payment of the bond principal is caused by an event that produced insignificant losses. The first case disfavors the sponsor who was seeking cover for its losses while the

  1. On sets of vectors of a finite vector space in which every subset of basis size is a basis II

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a proof of the MDS conjecture for $k \\leq 2p-2$. That is, that if $S$ is a set of vectors of ${\\mathbb F}_q^k$ in which every subset of $S$ of size $k$ is a basis, where $q=p^h$, $p$ is prime and $q$ is not and $k \\leq 2p-2$, then $|S| \\leq q+1$. It also contains a short proof of the same fact for $k\\leq p$, for all $q$.

  2. Approaching the basis set limit for DFT calculations using an environment-adapted minimal basis with perturbation theory: Formulation, proof of concept, and a pilot implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuezhi; Horn, Paul R.; Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Recently developed density functionals have good accuracy for both thermochemistry (TC) and non-covalent interactions (NC) if very large atomic orbital basis sets are used. To approach the basis set limit with potentially lower computational cost, a new self-consistent field (SCF) scheme is presented that employs minimal adaptive basis (MAB) functions. The MAB functions are optimized on each atomic site by minimizing a surrogate function. High accuracy is obtained by applying a perturbative correction (PC) to the MAB calculation, similar to dual basis approaches. Compared to exact SCF results, using this MAB-SCF (PC) approach with the same large target basis set produces modern density functionals.

  3. 40 CFR 466.40 - Applicability; description of the copper basis material subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... into publicly owned treatment works from porcelain enameling of copper basis materials. ... copper basis material subcategory. 466.40 Section 466.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Copper Basis Material Subcategory § 466.40 Applicability; description of the copper basis...

  4. Approaching the basis set limit for DFT calculations using an environment-adapted minimal basis with perturbation theory: Formulation, proof of concept, and a pilot implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuezhi; Horn, Paul R; Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-07-28

    Recently developed density functionals have good accuracy for both thermochemistry (TC) and non-covalent interactions (NC) if very large atomic orbital basis sets are used. To approach the basis set limit with potentially lower computational cost, a new self-consistent field (SCF) scheme is presented that employs minimal adaptive basis (MAB) functions. The MAB functions are optimized on each atomic site by minimizing a surrogate function. High accuracy is obtained by applying a perturbative correction (PC) to the MAB calculation, similar to dual basis approaches. Compared to exact SCF results, using this MAB-SCF (PC) approach with the same large target basis set produces set limit can be even better reproduced. With further improvement to its implementation, MAB-SCF (PC) is a promising lower-cost substitute for conventional large-basis calculations as a method to approach the basis set limit of modern density functionals.

  5. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  6. Investigation of the physiological basis of the BOLD effect

    CERN Document Server

    Pears, J A

    2001-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is that undertaken by the carried out in the Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nottingham, between October 1997 and September 2001. This thesis describes work performed with the aim of yielding further understanding of the physiological basis behind the BOLD effect. Chapter 1 introduces techniques for monitoring brain function and describes the physiology behind the BOLD effect. Chapter 2 then describes NMR, imaging and the hardware used in the experiments performed in this thesis. A method of measuring cerebral blood volume changes during a visual activation paradigm with high temporal resolution is described in Chapter 3, and the timecourse compared to that of the BOLD response. The slow return to baseline of CBV is discussed. Chapter 4 shows a method of simultaneously measuring blood oxygenation measurements and blood volume changes. The results are shown to be in agreement with published data. The controversial phenomenon know...

  7. Narrow Band Imaging: Technology Basis and Research and Development History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gono, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    The first launch of narrow band imaging (NBI) was in 2005. Since then, in most countries where gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed, NBI is the most commonly used optical digital method of performing image-enhanced endoscopy. Thanks to the outstanding efforts of many endoscopists, many clinical studies have been performed and clinical evidence has been gathered. In Japan, since 2010, NBI has been reimbursed under the Japanese national health insurance system. This is owing to the establishment of clinical evidence by physicians. However, even though endoscope systems with NBI function have been widely used outside of Japan, dissemination of knowledge on how to use NBI is insufficient. In this review paper, the technology basis of NBI and its research and development history are described. I hope this information will be helpful for updating physicians' knowledge of NBI.

  8. Structural Basis for Recognition of S-adenosylhomocysteine by Riboswitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Edwards; F Reyes; A Heroux; R Batey

    2011-12-31

    S-adenosyl-(L)-homocysteine (SAH) riboswitches are regulatory elements found in bacterial mRNAs that up-regulate genes involved in the S-adenosyl-(L)-methionine (SAM) regeneration cycle. To understand the structural basis of SAH-dependent regulation by RNA, we have solved the structure of its metabolite-binding domain in complex with SAH. This structure reveals an unusual pseudoknot topology that creates a shallow groove on the surface of the RNA that binds SAH primarily through interactions with the adenine ring and methionine main chain atoms and discriminates against SAM through a steric mechanism. Chemical probing and calorimetric analysis indicate that the unliganded RNA can access bound-like conformations that are significantly stabilized by SAH to direct folding of the downstream regulatory switch. Strikingly, we find that metabolites bearing an adenine ring, including ATP, bind this aptamer with sufficiently high affinity such that normal intracellular concentrations of these compounds may influence regulation of the riboswitch.

  9. Structural basis for recognition of S-adenosylhomocysteine by riboswitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, A.L.; Heroux, A.; Reyes, F. E.; Batey, R. T.

    2010-11-01

    S-adenosyl-(L)-homocysteine (SAH) riboswitches are regulatory elements found in bacterial mRNAs that up-regulate genes involved in the S-adenosyl-(L)-methionine (SAM) regeneration cycle. To understand the structural basis of SAH-dependent regulation by RNA, we have solved the structure of its metabolite-binding domain in complex with SAH. This structure reveals an unusual pseudoknot topology that creates a shallow groove on the surface of the RNA that binds SAH primarily through interactions with the adenine ring and methionine main chain atoms and discriminates against SAM through a steric mechanism. Chemical probing and calorimetric analysis indicate that the unliganded RNA can access bound-like conformations that are significantly stabilized by SAH to direct folding of the downstream regulatory switch. Strikingly, we find that metabolites bearing an adenine ring, including ATP, bind this aptamer with sufficiently high affinity such that normal intracellular concentrations of these compounds may influence regulation of the riboswitch.

  10. Molecular Basis for Vitamin A Uptake and Storage in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelstowska, Sylwia; Widjaja-Adhi, Made Airanthi K.; Silvaroli, Josie A.; Golczak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to store and distribute vitamin A inside the body is the main evolutionary adaptation that allows vertebrates to maintain retinoid functions during nutritional deficiencies and to acquire new metabolic pathways enabling light-independent production of 11-cis retinoids. These processes greatly depend on enzymes that esterify vitamin A as well as associated retinoid binding proteins. Although the significance of retinyl esters for vitamin A homeostasis is well established, until recently, the molecular basis for the retinol esterification enzymatic activity was unknown. In this review, we will look at retinoid absorption through the prism of current biochemical and structural studies on vitamin A esterifying enzymes. We describe molecular adaptations that enable retinoid storage and delineate mechanisms in which mutations found in selective proteins might influence vitamin A homeostasis in affected patients. PMID:27792183

  11. Neutron Transfer Reactions for Deformed Nuclei Using Sturmian Basis

    CERN Document Server

    Gueorguiev, V G; Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2007-01-01

    We study the spin-parity distribution P(J$^{\\pi}$,E) of $^{156}$Gd excited states above the neutron separation energy that are expected to be populated via the neutron pickup reaction $^{157}$Gd($^{3}$He,$^{4}$He)$^{156}$Gd. In general, modeling of the spin-parity distribution is important for the applicability of the surrogate reaction technique as a method of deducing reaction cross sections. We model excited states in $^{156}$Gd as rotational states built on intrinsic states consisting of a hole in the core where the hole represents neutron removal form a deformed single particle state. The reaction cross section to each excited state is calculated using standard reaction code that uses spherical reaction form-factor input. The spectroscopic factor associated with each form-factor is the expansion coefficient of the deformed neutron state in a spherical Sturmian basis consisting of the spherical reaction form-factors.

  12. The theoretical basis of stigma as applied to genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2004-04-01

    This paper defines stigma and its characteristics, outlines strategies and consequences of stigma management, describes the theoretical basis of stigma, and offers methodological considerations for those applying stigma theory to the domain of genital herpes. Stigma is an interactional process, defined within societies, in which particular social identities are collectively devalued. The subjective experience of stigma may vary due to features associated with the stigmatizing condition (e.g. concealability, course, strain, aesthetic qualities, cause and peril). The interpersonal management of stigma may include secrecy, withdrawal, covering, informing or disclosing. Future research addressing herpes-associated stigma should benefit from theoretical frameworks including attribution theory, social-cognitive theory, preoccupation model of secrecy and the illness intrusiveness framework, although the difficulty in identifying and recruiting stigmatized individuals and the lack of domain-specific measures of herpes-related stigma remain barriers to progress.

  13. Reference Data as a Basis for National Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mildorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data are increasingly being used for a range of applications beyond their, traditional uses. Collection of such data and their update constitute a substantial part of the total costs for their maintenance. In order to ensure sustainable development in the area of geographic information systems, efficient data custody and coordination mechanisms for data sharing must be put in place. This paper shows the importance of reference data as a basis for national spatial data infrastructure that serves as a platform for decision making processes in society. There are several European initiatives supporting the wider use of spatial data. An example is the INSPIRE Directive. Its principles and the main world trends in data integration pave the way to successful SDI driven by stakeholders and coordinated by national mapping agencies.

  14. The Gaussian Radial Basis Function Method for Plasma Kinetic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hirvijoki, Eero; Belli, Emily; Embréus, Ola

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental macroscopic description of a magnetized plasma is the Vlasov equation supplemented by the nonlinear inverse-square force Fokker-Planck collision operator [Rosenbluth et al., Phys. Rev., 107, 1957]. The Vlasov part describes advection in a six-dimensional phase space whereas the collision operator involves friction and diffusion coefficients that are weighted velocity-space integrals of the particle distribution function. The Fokker-Planck collision operator is an integro-differential, bilinear operator, and numerical discretization of the operator is far from trivial. In this letter, we describe a new approach to discretize the entire kinetic system based on an expansion in Gaussian Radial Basis functions (RBFs). This approach is particularly well-suited to treat the collision operator because the friction and diffusion coefficients can be analytically calculated. Although the RBF method is known to be a powerful scheme for the interpolation of scattered multidimensional data, Gaussian RBFs also...

  15. Structural basis for simvastatin competitive antagonism of complement receptor 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Risager; Bajic, Goran; Zhang, Xianwei;

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the innate immune response to infection, but may also cause severe complications during inflammation. Small molecule antagonists to complement receptor (CR)3 have been widely sought, but a structural basis for their mode of action is not available. We...... report here on the structure of the human CR3 ligand-binding I domain in complex with simvastatin. Simvastatin targets the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of the open, ligand-binding conformation of the CR3 I domain by direct contact with the chelated Mg2+ ion. Simvastatin antagonizes I domain binding...... to the complement fragments iC3b and C3d, but not to intercellular adhesion molecule-1. By virtue of the I domain's wide distribution in binding kinetics to ligands, it was possible to identify ligand binding kinetics as discriminator for simvastatin antagonism. In static cellular experiments, 15-25 μM simvastatin...

  16. Recent advances in radial basis function collocation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wen; Chen, C S

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys the latest advances in radial basis function (RBF) meshless collocation methods which emphasis on recent novel kernel RBFs and new numerical schemes for solving partial differential equations. The RBF collocation methods are inherently free of integration and mesh, and avoid tedious mesh generation involved in standard finite element and boundary element methods. This book focuses primarily on the numerical algorithms, engineering applications, and highlights a large class of novel boundary-type RBF meshless collocation methods. These methods have shown a clear edge over the traditional numerical techniques especially for problems involving infinite domain, moving boundary, thin-walled structures, and inverse problems. Due to the rapid development in RBF meshless collocation methods, there is a need to summarize all these new materials so that they are available to scientists, engineers, and graduate students who are interest to apply these newly developed methods for solving real world’s ...

  17. Basis for selecting optimum antibiotic regimens for secondary peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Emilio; Gimenez, Maria-Jose; Gilsanz, Fernando; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Adequate management of severely ill patients with secondary peritonitis requires supportive therapy of organ dysfunction, source control of infection and antimicrobial therapy. Since secondary peritonitis is polymicrobial, appropriate empiric therapy requires combination therapy in order to achieve the needed coverage for both common and more unusual organisms. This article reviews etiological agents, resistance mechanisms and their prevalence, how and when to cover them and guidelines for treatment in the literature. Local surveillances are the basis for the selection of compounds in antibiotic regimens, which should be further adapted to the increasing number of patients with risk factors for resistance (clinical setting, comorbidities, previous antibiotic treatments, previous colonization, severity…). Inadequate antimicrobial regimens are strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Awareness of resistance epidemiology and of clinical consequences of inadequate therapy against resistant bacteria is crucial for clinicians treating secondary peritonitis, with delicate balance between optimization of empirical therapy (improving outcomes) and antimicrobial overuse (increasing resistance emergence).

  18. Product design on the basis of fuzzy quality function deployment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the implementation of quality function deployment (QFD), the determination of the target values of engineering characteristics is a complex decision process with multiple variables and multiple objectives that should trade off, and optimize all kinds of conflicts and constraints. A fuzzy linear programming model (FLP) is proposed. On the basis of the inherent fuzziness of QFD system, triangular fuzzy numbers are used to represent all the relationships and correlations, and then, the functional relationships between the customer needs and engineering characteristics and the functional correlations among the engineering characteristics are determined with the information in the house of quality (HoQ) fully used. The fuzzy linear programming (FLP) model aims to find the optimal target values of the engineering characteristics to maximize the customer satisfaction. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  19. Finite-basis-set expansion methods for scattering problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladanyi, K.; Levay, P.; Apagyi, B.

    1988-10-01

    A wide variety of finite-basis-set expansion methods is applied to electron--hydrogen-atom scattering in the static-exchange approximation. All these methods are based on the Lippmann-Schwinger formalism. A careful analysis of the numerical results is presented with the aim of selecting efficient approaches to the solution of realistic electron-atom (and electron-molecule) scattering problems. The results show that the efficiency of the expansion methods may depend sensitively on the characteristics of the interaction terms. Some difficulties of the simple method of moments are pointed out. A particular least-squares method is proposed to avoid the spurious singularities encountered in applications of the Schwinger variational method to singlet scattering processes.

  20. Effective field theory in the harmonic oscillator basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, S.; Ekström, A.; Hagen, G.; Papenbrock, T.; Wendt, K. A.

    2016-04-01

    We develop interactions from chiral effective field theory (EFT) that are tailored to the harmonic oscillator basis. As a consequence, ultraviolet convergence with respect to the model space is implemented by construction and infrared convergence can be achieved by enlarging the model space for the kinetic energy. In oscillator EFT, matrix elements of EFTs formulated for continuous momenta are evaluated at the discrete momenta that stem from the diagonalization of the kinetic energy in the finite oscillator space. By fitting to realistic phase shifts and deuteron data we construct an effective interaction from chiral EFT at next-to-leading order. Many-body coupled-cluster calculations of nuclei up to 132Sn converge fast for the ground-state energies and radii in feasible model spaces.

  1. Radial basis function networks and complexity regularization in function learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzak, A; Linder, T

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we apply the method of complexity regularization to derive estimation bounds for nonlinear function estimation using a single hidden layer radial basis function network. Our approach differs from previous complexity regularization neural-network function learning schemes in that we operate with random covering numbers and l(1) metric entropy, making it possible to consider much broader families of activation functions, namely functions of bounded variation. Some constraints previously imposed on the network parameters are also eliminated this way. The network is trained by means of complexity regularization involving empirical risk minimization. Bounds on the expected risk in terms of the sample size are obtained for a large class of loss functions. Rates of convergence to the optimal loss are also derived.

  2. Risk informed decision-making and its ethical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersdal, Gerhard [University of Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: gerhard.ersdal@ptil.no; Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle.

  3. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Molecular basis of infantile reversible cytochrome c oxidase deficiency myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Rita; Kemp, John P; Tuppen, Helen A L; Hudson, Gavin; Oldfors, Anders; Marie, Suely K N; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Servidei, Serenella; Holme, Elisabeth; Shanske, Sara; Kollberg, Gittan; Jayakar, Parul; Pyle, Angela; Marks, Harold M; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Scavina, Mena; Walter, Maggie C; Coku, Jorida; Günther-Scholz, Andrea; Smith, Paul M; McFarland, Robert; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A; Lightowlers, Robert N; Hirano, Michio; Lochmüller, Hanns; Taylor, Robert W; Chinnery, Patrick F; Tulinius, Mar; DiMauro, Salvatore

    2009-11-01

    Childhood-onset mitochondrial encephalomyopathies are usually severe, relentlessly progressive conditions that have a fatal outcome. However, a puzzling infantile disorder, long known as 'benign cytochrome c oxidase deficiency myopathy' is an exception because it shows spontaneous recovery if infants survive the first months of life. Current investigations cannot distinguish those with a good prognosis from those with terminal disease, making it very difficult to decide when to continue intensive supportive care. Here we define the principal molecular basis of the disorder by identifying a maternally inherited, homoplasmic m.14674T>C mt-tRNA(Glu) mutation in 17 patients from 12 families. Our results provide functional evidence for the pathogenicity of the mutation and show that tissue-specific mechanisms downstream of tRNA(Glu) may explain the spontaneous recovery. This study provides the rationale for a simple genetic test to identify infants with mitochondrial myopathy and good prognosis.

  5. Propagators and Matrix Basis on Noncommutative Minkowski Space

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Andre

    2011-01-01

    We describe an analytic continuation of the Euclidean Grosse-Wulkenhaar and LSZ models which defines a one-parameter family of duality covariant noncommutative field theories interpolating between Euclidean and Minkowski space versions of these models, and provides an alternative regularization to the usual Feynman prescription. This regularization allows for a matrix model representation of the field theories in terms of a complex generalization of the usual basis of Landau wavefunctions. The corresponding propagators are calculated and identified with the Feynman propagators of the field theories. The regulated quantum field theories are shown to be UV/IR-duality covariant. We study the asymptotics of the regularized propagators in position and matrix space representations, and confirm that they generically possess a comparably good decay behaviour as in the Euclidean case.

  6. Reduced basis methods for partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio; Negri, Federico

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a basic introduction to reduced basis (RB) methods for problems involving the repeated solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from engineering and applied sciences, such as PDEs depending on several parameters and PDE-constrained optimization.  The book presents a general mathematical formulation of RB methods, analyzes their fundamental theoretical properties, discusses the related algorithmic and implementation aspects, and highlights their built-in algebraic and geometric structures.  More specifically, the authors discuss alternative strategies for constructing accurate RB spaces using greedy algorithms and proper orthogonal decomposition techniques, investigate their approximation properties and analyze offline-online decomposition strategies aimed at the reduction of computational complexity. Furthermore, they carry out both a priori and a posteriori error analysis.  The whole mathematical presentation is made more stimulating by the use of representative examp...

  7. The Gaussian radial basis function method for plasma kinetic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvijoki, E., E-mail: eero.hirvijoki@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Candy, J.; Belli, E. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Embréus, O. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-10-30

    Description of a magnetized plasma involves the Vlasov equation supplemented with the non-linear Fokker–Planck collision operator. For non-Maxwellian distributions, the collision operator, however, is difficult to compute. In this Letter, we introduce Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) to discretize the velocity space of the entire kinetic system, and give the corresponding analytical expressions for the Vlasov and collision operator. Outlining the general theory, we also highlight the connection to plasma fluid theories, and give 2D and 3D numerical solutions of the non-linear Fokker–Planck equation. Applications are anticipated in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. - Highlights: • A radically new method to address the velocity space discretization of the non-linear kinetic equation of plasmas. • Elegant and physically intuitive, flexible and mesh-free. • Demonstration of numerical solution of both 2-D and 3-D non-linear Fokker–Planck relaxation problem.

  8. The genetic basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: recent breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eykens C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Eykens,1,2 Wim Robberecht1–31Research Group Experimental Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Neurobiology, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven, Belgium; 3Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Deciphering the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of the motor neuron system, is important to understand the etiology of this fatal disease as well as to develop customized ALS therapies based on the patient's genetic fingerprint. In this review, we discuss the genetic basis of ALS, and attempt to link the causal genes to three highly interrelated pathogenic mechanisms: dysproteostasis, RNA dysregulation, and axon dysfunction. In addition, we address the clinical and biological implications of these genetic findings. Furthermore, we explore to what extent genetic knowledge can be converted into targeted and personalized treatments.Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, genetics, disease modifiers, personalized medicine

  9. Genetic basis of triatomine behavior: lessons from available insect genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Latorre-Estivalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatomines have been important model organisms for behavioural research. Diverse reports about triatomine host search, pheromone communication in the sexual, shelter and alarm contexts, daily cycles of activity, refuge choice and behavioural plasticity have been published in the last two decades. In recent times, a variety of molecular genetics techniques has allowed researchers to investigate elaborate and complex questions about the genetic bases of the physiology of insects. This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era. In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology. This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.

  10. Biochemical and physiological basis of medical near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joebsis-vander Vliet, Frans F.; Joebsis, Paul

    1999-10-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor both the redox status of Cytochrome c oxidase located in the mitochondria within the cell and the oxygenation of the blood in the tissue being monitored. Since the enzyme catalyzes more than 90% of oxygen utilization, it is the sink for the oxygen while the hemoglobin in the capillaries is the oxygen source. In order to evaluate the oxidative metabolic status of a tissue the optical data obtained from both molecules are commonly interpreted in the basis of test tube experiments with purified preparations. We are concerned that the validity of this practice may not have been tested sufficiently and raise four basic questions that have not yet been answered. Citing some examples of in vitro versus in vivo differences we conclude that more effort should be expended on the in vivo testing of the range of the signals, their natural variability, and the physiological and pathological meaning of their deviations from norm.

  11. Learning Mixtures of Truncated Basis Functions from Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Pérez-Bernabé, Inmaculada;

    2014-01-01

    -likelihood), they are significantly faster, and therefore indicate that the MoTBF framework can be used for inference and learning in reasonably sized domains. Furthermore, we show how a particular sub- class of MoTBF potentials (learnable by the proposed methods) can be exploited to significantly reduce complexity during inference.......In this paper we investigate methods for learning hybrid Bayesian networks from data. First we utilize a kernel density estimate of the data in order to translate the data into a mixture of truncated basis functions (MoTBF) representation using a convex optimization technique. When utilizing...... propose an alternative learning method that relies on the cumulative distribution function of the data. Empirical results demonstrate the usefulness of the approaches: Even though the methods produce estimators that are slightly poorer than the state of the art (in terms of log...

  12. Best-basis analysis of broadband tremor signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Steffen

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Active volcanoes usually generate highly non-stationary broadband tremor signals. Short-time shock events with a frequency content of several decades are superimposed on a stationary narrow band continuous tremor. Tremor signals of this type can be observed in the near field of many active volcanoes. In this paper we will demonstrate the analysis of such signals using a specific tremor signal of Mt. Stromboli (Sicily. We used the Best-Basis Algorithm (BBA in order to compute a spectrogram which is adapted to signal properties on highly different scales. It turns out that the BBA can reveal better fitting properties of the tremor in the time-frequency plane compared to standard methods like Short-Time Fourier Transformation (STFT. Moreover, this very effective algorithm can be used for real time monitoring in the time-frequency plane, for data compression or for de-noising of the tremor signals.

  13. Physics Basis for a Spherical Torus Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel; J. Menard; S.C. Jardin; T.K. Mau; et al

    1999-11-01

    The spherical torus, or low-aspect-ratio tokamak, is considered as the basis for a fusion power plant. A special class of wall-stabilized high-beta high-bootstrap fraction low-aspect-ratio tokamak equilibrium are analyzed with respect to MHD stability, bootstrap current and external current drive, poloidal field system requirements, power and particle exhaust and plasma operating regime. Overall systems optimization leads to a choice of aspect ratio A = 1:6, plasma elongation kappa = 3:4, and triangularity delta = 0:64. The design value for the plasma toroidal beta is 50%, corresponding to beta N = 7:4, which is 10% below the ideal stability limit. The bootstrap fraction of 99% greatly alleviates the current drive requirements, which are met by tangential neutral beam injection. The design is such that 45% of the thermal power is radiated in the plasma by Bremsstrahlung and trace Krypton, with Neon in the scrapeoff layer radiating the remainder.

  14. Radial Basis Function Networks for Conversion of Sound Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Drioli

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In many advanced signal processing tasks, such as pitch shifting, voice conversion or sound synthesis, accurate spectral processing is required. Here, the use of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN is proposed for the modeling of the spectral changes (or conversions related to the control of important sound parameters, such as pitch or intensity. The identification of such conversion functions is based on a procedure which learns the shape of the conversion from few couples of target spectra from a data set. The generalization properties of RBFNs provides for interpolation with respect to the pitch range. In the construction of the training set, mel-cepstral encoding of the spectrum is used to catch the perceptually most relevant spectral changes. Moreover, a singular value decomposition (SVD approach is used to reduce the dimension of conversion functions. The RBFN conversion functions introduced are characterized by a perceptually-based fast training procedure, desirable interpolation properties and computational efficiency.

  15. A New Basis of Geoscience: Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    Neither plate tectonics nor Earth expansion theory is sufficient to provide a basis for understanding geoscience. Each theory is incomplete and possesses problematic elements, but both have served as stepping stones to a more fundamental and inclusive geoscience theory that I call Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics (WEDD). WEDD begins with and is the consequence of our planet's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant and permits deduction of:(1) Earth's internal composition, structure, and highly-reduced oxidation state; (2) Core formation without whole-planet melting; (3) Powerful new internal energy sources - proto-planetary energy of compression and georeactor nuclear fission energy; (4) Georeactor geomagnetic field generation; (5) Mechanism for heat emplacement at the base of the crust resulting in the crustal geothermal gradient; (6) Decompression driven geodynamics that accounts for the myriad of observations attributed to plate tectonics without requiring physically-impossible mantle convection, an...

  16. The genetic and molecular basis of congenital cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Santana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataracts are one of the most treatable causes of visual impairment and blindness during infancy, with an estimated prevalence of 1 to 6 cases per 10,000 live births. Approximately fifty percent of all congenital cataract cases may have a genetic cause. All three types of Mendelian inheritance have been reported for cataract; however, autosomal dominant transmission seems to be the most frequent. The transparency and high refractive index of the lens are achieved by the precise architecture of the fiber cells and the homeostasis of the lens proteins in terms of their concentration, stability, and supramolecular organization. Research on hereditary congenital cataract led to the identification of several classes of candidate genes that encode proteins such crystallins, lens specific connexins, aquaporine, cytoskeletal structural proteins, and developmental regulators. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the recent advances made in understanding the molecular genetic basis of congenital cataracts.

  17. The Genetic and Molecular Basis of Plant Resistance to Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; Thomas Lubberstedt; Mingliang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens have evolved numerous strategies to obtain nutritive materials from their host,and plants in turn have evolved the preformed physical and chemical barriers as well as sophisticated two-tiered immune system to combat pathogen attacks.Genetically,plant resistance to pathogens can be divided into qualitative and quantitative disease resistance,conditioned by major gene(s) and multiple genes with minor effects,respectively.Qualitative disease resistance has been mostly detected in plant defense against biotrophic pathogens,whereas quantitative disease resistance is involved in defense response to all plant pathogens,from biotrophs,hemibiotrophs to necrotrophs.Plant resistance is achieved through interception of pathogen-derived effectors and elicitation of defense response.In recent years,great progress has been made related to the molecular basis underlying host-pathogen interactions.In this review,we would like to provide an update on genetic and molecular aspects of plant resistance to pathogens.

  18. Snow cover thickness estimation using radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Binaghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental study designed for the in-depth investigation of how the radial basis function network (RBFN estimates snow cover thickness as a function of climate and topographic parameters. The estimation problem is modeled in terms of both function regression and classification, obtaining continuous and discrete thickness values, respectively. The model is based on a minimal set of climatic and topographic data collected from a limited number of stations located in the Italian Central Alps. Several experiments have been conceived and conducted adopting different evaluation indexes. A comparison analysis was also developed for a quantitative evaluation of the advantages of the RBFN method over to conventional widely used spatial interpolation techniques when dealing with critical situations originated by lack of data and limited n-homogeneously distributed instrumented sites. The RBFN model proved competitive behavior and a valuable tool in critical situations in which conventional techniques suffer from a lack of representative data.

  19. An incremental design of radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Reiner, Philip D; Xie, Tiantian; Bartczak, Tomasz; Wilamowski, Bogdan M

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes an offline algorithm for incrementally constructing and training radial basis function (RBF) networks. In each iteration of the error correction (ErrCor) algorithm, one RBF unit is added to fit and then eliminate the highest peak (or lowest valley) in the error surface. This process is repeated until a desired error level is reached. Experimental results on real world data sets show that the ErrCor algorithm designs very compact RBF networks compared with the other investigated algorithms. Several benchmark tests such as the duplicate patterns test and the two spiral problem were applied to show the robustness of the ErrCor algorithm. The proposed ErrCor algorithm generates very compact networks. This compactness leads to greatly reduced computation times of trained networks.

  20. Radial basis function networks for fast contingency ranking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, D.; Ramar, K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Yegnanarayana, B. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network-based approach for static-security assessment. The proposed approach uses radial basis function (RBF) networks to predict the system severity level following a given list of contingencies. The RBF networks are trained off-line to capture the nonlinear relationship between the pre-contingency line flows and the post-contingency severity index. A method based on mutual information is proposed for selecting the input features of the networks. Mutual information has the advantage of measuring the general relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables as against the linear relationship measured by the correlation-based methods. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through contingency ranking in IEEE 30-bus test system. (author)

  1. Efficient VLSI Architecture for Training Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jyi Hwang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel VLSI architecture for the training of radial basis function (RBF networks. The architecture contains the circuits for fuzzy C-means (FCM and the recursive Least Mean Square (LMS operations. The FCM circuit is designed for the training of centers in the hidden layer of the RBF network. The recursive LMS circuit is adopted for the training of connecting weights in the output layer. The architecture is implemented by the field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is used as a hardware accelerator in a system on programmable chip (SOPC for real-time training and classification. Experimental results reveal that the proposed RBF architecture is an effective alternative for applications where fast and efficient RBF training is desired.

  2. Learning without local minima in radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, M; Frasconi, P; Gori, M

    1995-01-01

    Learning from examples plays a central role in artificial neural networks. The success of many learning schemes is not guaranteed, however, since algorithms like backpropagation may get stuck in local minima, thus providing suboptimal solutions. For feedforward networks, optimal learning can be achieved provided that certain conditions on the network and the learning environment are met. This principle is investigated for the case of networks using radial basis functions (RBF). It is assumed that the patterns of the learning environment are separable by hyperspheres. In that case, we prove that the attached cost function is local minima free with respect to all the weights. This provides us with some theoretical foundations for a massive application of RBF in pattern recognition.

  3. The genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melissa E; Castro-Rojas, Cyd Marie; Teiling, Clotilde; Du, Lei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Walunas, Theresa L; Crosson, Sean

    2010-07-01

    The dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus has evolved marked phenotypic changes during its 50-year history of culture in the laboratory environment, providing an excellent system for the study of natural selection and phenotypic microevolution in prokaryotes. Combining whole-genome sequencing with classical molecular genetic tools, we have comprehensively mapped a set of polymorphisms underlying multiple derived phenotypes, several of which arose independently in separate strain lineages. The genetic basis of phenotypic differences in growth rate, mucoidy, adhesion, sedimentation, phage susceptibility, and stationary-phase survival between C. crescentus strain CB15 and its derivative NA1000 is determined by coding, regulatory, and insertion/deletion polymorphisms at five chromosomal loci. This study evidences multiple genetic mechanisms of bacterial evolution as driven by selection for growth and survival in a new selective environment and identifies a common polymorphic locus, zwf, between lab-adapted C. crescentus and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that have adapted to a human host during chronic infection.

  4. Developing effective tumor vaccines:basis,challenges and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qingwen; CHEN Weifeng

    2007-01-01

    A remarkable advance in tumor immunology during the last decade is the elucidation of the antigenic basis of tumor recognition and destruction.A variety of tumor antigens have been identified using several strategies including conventional experiments and newly developed bioinformatics.Among these antigens,cancer/testis antigen (CT antigen) is considered to be the most promising target for immunotherapy by vaccination.Successful immunotherapy of tumors requires understanding of the natural relationship between the immune system and tumor in the status of differentiation,invasion and maturation.Continued progress in development of effective cancer vaccines depends on the identification of appropriate target antigens,the establishment of optimal immunization strategies without harmful autoimmune responses and the ability of manipulating tumor microenvironment to circumvent immune suppression and to augment the anti-tumor immune response.

  5. Molecular Basis for Vitamin A Uptake and Storage in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelstowska, Sylwia; Widjaja-Adhi, Made Airanthi K; Silvaroli, Josie A; Golczak, Marcin

    2016-10-26

    The ability to store and distribute vitamin A inside the body is the main evolutionary adaptation that allows vertebrates to maintain retinoid functions during nutritional deficiencies and to acquire new metabolic pathways enabling light-independent production of 11-cis retinoids. These processes greatly depend on enzymes that esterify vitamin A as well as associated retinoid binding proteins. Although the significance of retinyl esters for vitamin A homeostasis is well established, until recently, the molecular basis for the retinol esterification enzymatic activity was unknown. In this review, we will look at retinoid absorption through the prism of current biochemical and structural studies on vitamin A esterifying enzymes. We describe molecular adaptations that enable retinoid storage and delineate mechanisms in which mutations found in selective proteins might influence vitamin A homeostasis in affected patients.

  6. FBIH financial market segmentation on the basis of image factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnela Bevanda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to recognize, single out and define market segments useful for future marketing strategies, using certain statistical techniques on the basis of influence of various image factors of financial institutions. The survey included a total of 500 interviewees: 250 bank clients and 250 clients of insurance companies. Starting from the problem area and research goal, the following hypothesis has been formulated: Basic preferences of clients in regard of image factors while selecting financial institutions are different enough to be used as such for differentiating significant market segments of clients. Two segments have been singled out by cluster analysis and named, respectively, traditionalists and visualists. Results of the research confirmed the established hypothesis and pointed to the fact that managers in the financial institutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH must undertake certain corrective actions, especially when planning and implementing communication strategies, if they wish to maintain their competitiveness in serving both selected segments.

  7. CONCEPT OF VISHA AND ITS PHARMACOLOGICAL BASIS IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhide Bhargav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visha dravyas (poisonous drugs are used in various Ayurvedic formulations, in spite of their reported side effects due to their quick effectiveness and in relatively smaller dose. Ayurveda describes many visha dravyas of herbomineral or animal origin. A vivid but scattered description of this can be traced in different texts of Ayurveda and particularly Agadatantra. Visha has been described in terms of its utpatti (origin, types, gunas (properties and pharmacological actions, its effects and management. Guna is the basis to understand the various actions of any dravya. Ten gunas attributed to Visha are just opposite to that of oja. Hence, visha dravya produces its effect by its action on oja. Various shodhana (purification procedures for the safe internal use of these poisonous drugs are also mentioned. In the present article, an attempt has been made to understand visha, its history, types and properties in Ayurvedic parlance by presenting them in a single place.

  8. Optimized Radial Basis Function Classifier for Multi Modal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems can be used for the identification or verification of humans based on their physiological or behavioral features. In these systems the biometric characteristics such as fingerprints, palm-print, iris or speech can be recorded and are compared with the samples for the identification or verification. Multimodal biometrics is more accurate and solves spoof attacks than the single modal bio metrics systems. In this study, a multimodal biometric system using fingerprint images and finger-vein patterns is proposed and also an optimized Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel classifier is proposed to identify the authorized users. The extracted features from these modalities are selected by PCA and kernel PCA and combined to classify by RBF classifier. The parameters of RBF classifier is optimized by using BAT algorithm with local search. The performance of the proposed classifier is compared with the KNN classifier, Naïve Bayesian classifier and non-optimized RBF classifier.

  9. [Genetic basis of head and neck cancers and gene therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Halil Erdem; Özkırış, Mahmut; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Saydam, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Surgery and combinations of traditional treatments are not successful enough particularly for advanced stage head and neck cancer. The major disadvantages of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the lack of specificity for the target tissue and toxicity to the patient. As a result, gene therapy may offer a more specific approach. The aim of gene therapy is to present therapeutic genes into cancer cells which selectively eliminate malignant cells with no systemic toxicity to the patient. This article reviews the genetic basis of head and neck cancers and important concepts in cancer gene therapy: (i) inhibition of oncogenes; (ii) tumor suppressor gene replacement; (iii) regulation of immune response against malignant cells; (iv) genetic prodrug activation; and (v) antiangiogenic gene therapy. Currently, gene therapy is not sufficient to replace the traditional treatments of head and neck cancers, however there is no doubt that it will have an important role in the near future.

  10. Identifying Emotions on the Basis of Neural Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S Kassam

    Full Text Available We attempt to determine the discriminability and organization of neural activation corresponding to the experience of specific emotions. Method actors were asked to self-induce nine emotional states (anger, disgust, envy, fear, happiness, lust, pride, sadness, and shame while in an fMRI scanner. Using a Gaussian Naïve Bayes pooled variance classifier, we demonstrate the ability to identify specific emotions experienced by an individual at well over chance accuracy on the basis of: 1 neural activation of the same individual in other trials, 2 neural activation of other individuals who experienced similar trials, and 3 neural activation of the same individual to a qualitatively different type of emotion induction. Factor analysis identified valence, arousal, sociality, and lust as dimensions underlying the activation patterns. These results suggest a structure for neural representations of emotion and inform theories of emotional processing.

  11. Climate Change: The Physical Basis and Latest Results

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes: "Warming in the climate system is unequivocal." Without the contribution of Physics to climate science over many decades, such a statement would not have been possible. Experimental physics enables us to read climate archives such as polar ice cores and so provides the context for the current changes. For example, today the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, the second most important greenhouse gas, is 28% higher than any time during the last 800,000 years. Classical fluid mechanics and numerical mathematics are the basis of climate models from which estimates of future climate change are obtained. But major instabilities and surprises in the Earth System are still unknown. These are also to be considered when the climatic consequences of proposals for geo-engineering are estimated. Only Physics will permit us to further improve our understanding in order to provide the foundation for policy decisions facing the...

  12. Relativistic Kinetic-Balance Condition for Explicitly Correlated Basis Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Simmen, Benjamin; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the derivation of a kinetic-balance condition for explicitly correlated basis functions employed in semi-classical relativistic calculations. Such a condition is important to ensure variational stability in algorithms based on the first-quantized Dirac theory of 1/2-fermions. We demonstrate that the kinetic-balance condition can be obtained from the row reduction process commonly applied to solve systems of linear equations. The resulting form of kinetic balance establishes a relation for the $4^N$ components of the spinor of an $N$-fermion system to the non-relativistic limit, which is in accordance with recent developments in the field of exact decoupling in relativistic orbital-based many-electron theory.

  13. Condensation within small compartments during design basis accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, D.; Cavlina, N. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); ANTOLOVIc, A. [NPP Krsko, Engineering Department, Vrbina 12, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    During design basis events (LOCA, MSLB) in containment exists possibility for additional condensation within compartments and enclosures with different electrical equipment that can result in submergence of its parts and possible malfunction. The condensation within limit switch compartments (valve actuators) and attached electrical conduits during limiting LOCA and MSLB accidents in containment was analyzed using Gothic computer code with the assumptions corresponding to the ones used to generate containment EQ profiles for thermalhydraulic EQ parameters. The outcome of the analysis is volume of the liquid within the compartment and corresponding liquid level before and after additions of bottom openings (T-drains) required to drain condensed liquid. Different compartment sizes were analyzed during different LOCA and MSLB scenarios. After addition of bottom openings maximum possible condensed liquid level can not cause actuator malfunction. (authors)

  14. Dynamics Model Abstraction Scheme Using Radial Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control model for object manipulation. Properties of objects and environmental conditions influence the motor control and learning. System dynamics depend on an unobserved external context, for example, work load of a robot manipulator. The dynamics of a robot arm change as it manipulates objects with different physical properties, for example, the mass, shape, or mass distribution. We address active sensing strategies to acquire object dynamical models with a radial basis function neural network (RBF. Experiments are done using a real robot’s arm, and trajectory data are gathered during various trials manipulating different objects. Biped robots do not have high force joint servos and the control system hardly compensates all the inertia variation of the adjacent joints and disturbance torque on dynamic gait control. In order to achieve smoother control and lead to more reliable sensorimotor complexes, we evaluate and compare a sparse velocity-driven versus a dense position-driven control scheme.

  15. Ionexchanged film materials on basis of oligoepichlorohydrined epoxide and piperazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantyn E. Varlan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The film materials with ion-exchanged properties on the basis of the polymer, obtained by condensation of oligoepichlorohydrined epoxide and piperazine with the subsequent chemical modification have been synthesized. Compounds which have different thermodynamic affinity with the polymer and each other have been used as modifiers. It has been shown that the possibility of overcoming the lack of compatibility of the components by selection of the order of their combination. The result of the combination can be predicted by the Hildebrand parameter values of the ingredients, intermediate products and prepolymers based on them. The properties of synthesized materials can be adjusted by selection of combinations of chemical modifiers: toluilenediisocyanate, epoxyed soybean oil and tetraethoxysilane.

  16. Meta-Data Objects as the Basis for System Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Estrella, Florida; Tóth, N; Kovács, Z; Le Goff, J M; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Toth, Norbert; Kovacs, Zsolt; Goff, Jean-Marie Le

    2001-01-01

    One of the main factors driving object-oriented software development in the Web- age is the need for systems to evolve as user requirements change. A crucial factor in the creation of adaptable systems dealing with changing requirements is the suitability of the underlying technology in allowing the evolution of the system. A reflective system utilizes an open architecture where implicit system aspects are reified to become explicit first-class (meta-data) objects. These implicit system aspects are often fundamental structures which are inaccessible and immutable, and their reification as meta-data objects can serve as the basis for changes and extensions to the system, making it self- describing. To address the evolvability issue, this paper proposes a reflective architecture based on two orthogonal abstractions - model abstraction and information abstraction. In this architecture the modeling abstractions allow for the separation of the description meta-data from the system aspects they represent so that th...

  17. Spices form the basis of food pairing in Indian cuisine

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Anupam; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Culinary practices are influenced by climate, culture, history and geography. Molecular composition of recipes in a cuisine reveals patterns in food preferences. Indian cuisine encompasses a number of diverse sub-cuisines separated by geographies, climates and cultures. Its culinary system has a long history of health-centric dietary practices focused on disease prevention and promotion of health. We study food pairing in recipes of Indian cuisine to show that, in contrast to positive food pairing reported in some Western cuisines, Indian cuisine has a strong signature of negative food pairing; more the extent of flavor sharing between any two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence. This feature is independent of recipe size and is not explained by ingredient category-based recipe constitution alone. Ingredient frequency emerged as the dominant factor specifying the characteristic flavor sharing pattern of the cuisine. Spices, individually and as a category, form the basis of ingredient composition in Indian...

  18. Efficient VLSI architecture for training radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhe-Cheng; Hwang, Wen-Jyi

    2013-03-19

    This paper presents a novel VLSI architecture for the training of radial basis function (RBF) networks. The architecture contains the circuits for fuzzy C-means (FCM) and the recursive Least Mean Square (LMS) operations. The FCM circuit is designed for the training of centers in the hidden layer of the RBF network. The recursive LMS circuit is adopted for the training of connecting weights in the output layer. The architecture is implemented by the field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is used as a hardware accelerator in a system on programmable chip (SOPC) for real-time training and classification. Experimental results reveal that the proposed RBF architecture is an effective alternative for applications where fast and efficient RBF training is desired.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  20. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L.; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D. (Florida)

    2016-11-11

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides that target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed via three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here we describe in detail the structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases MdnC and MdnB interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor-peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein–protein interactions that are key to the chemistry, suggest an origin for the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides, and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds.

  1. SCHEMA CONGRUITY – A BASIS FOR EVALUATING AMBIENT ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurca Maria Alina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical basis for evaluating ambient advertising in relation to the schema. Ambient advertising, a creative form of out-of-home advertising that conveys direct and contextual messages by using and often altering existing elements of the environment in a way that surprises the target audience, appears to be a solution to the increasing clutter from the media. This study draws on the schema congruity theory to offer a better understanding of how consumers are processing information received from advertisements. Schemas are organized structures of knowledge and expectations that consumers develop in order to categorize the incoming information, and that they access every time they are experiencing a new situation. The schema-based approach is important in understanding consumer behavior because consumers are facing an environment filled with similar brands and products promoted by ads that sound and look alike. According to schema congruity theory information perceived as schema congruent offers a confortable feeling of familiarity and generates limited cognitive processing, whereas schema incongruent information generates surprise and triggers extensive cognitive processing in order to help individual make sense of the unusual situation. Taking into consideration the combination of the different levels of expectancy and relevancy there have been identified three congruency situations: extreme congruity, moderate incongruity and extreme incongruity. Existing research shows that moderate incongruent information offers the best results in recall and recognition and also the highest affect levels compared to extreme congruity and extreme incongruity. Based on evidence from literature this study attempts to position ambient advertising in the moderate incongruity category, thus theoretically proving the assumed effectiveness of this promotional tool. Therefore, this paper is a starting point in bringing the

  2. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  3. Molecular basis of NDM-1, a new antibiotic resistance determinant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Liang

    Full Text Available The New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1 was first reported in 2009 in a Swedish patient. A recent study reported that Klebsiella pneumonia NDM-1 positive strain or Escherichia coli NDM-1 positive strain was highly resistant to all antibiotics tested except tigecycline and colistin. These can no longer be relied on to treat infections and therefore, NDM-1 now becomes potentially a major global health threat.In this study, we performed modeling studies to obtain its 3D structure and NDM-1/antibiotics complex. It revealed that the hydrolytic mechanisms are highly conserved. In addition, the detailed analysis indicates that the more flexible and hydrophobic loop1, together with the evolution of more positive-charged loop2 leads to NDM-1 positive strain more potent and extensive in antibiotics resistance compared with other MBLs. Furthermore, through biological experiments, we revealed the molecular basis for antibiotics catalysis of NDM-1 on the enzymatic level. We found that NDM-1 enzyme was highly potent to degrade carbapenem antibiotics, while mostly susceptible to tigecycline, which had the ability to slow down the hydrolysis velocity of meropenem by NDM-1. Meanwhile, the mutagenesis experiments, including D124A, C208A, K211A and K211E, which displayed down-regulation on meropenem catalysis, proved the accuracy of our model.At present, there are no effective antibiotics against NDM-1 positive pathogen. Our study will provide clues to investigate the molecular basis of extended antibiotics resistance of NDM-1 and then accelerate the search for new antibiotics against NDM-1 positive strain in clinical studies.

  4. Molecular basis of NDM-1, a new antibiotic resistance determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongjie; Li, Lianchun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Limin; Kong, Xiangqian; Hong, Yao; Lan, Lefu; Zheng, Mingyue; Guang-Yang, Cai; Liu, Hong; Shen, Xu; Luo, Cheng; Li, Keqin Kathy; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2011-01-01

    The New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) was first reported in 2009 in a Swedish patient. A recent study reported that Klebsiella pneumonia NDM-1 positive strain or Escherichia coli NDM-1 positive strain was highly resistant to all antibiotics tested except tigecycline and colistin. These can no longer be relied on to treat infections and therefore, NDM-1 now becomes potentially a major global health threat.In this study, we performed modeling studies to obtain its 3D structure and NDM-1/antibiotics complex. It revealed that the hydrolytic mechanisms are highly conserved. In addition, the detailed analysis indicates that the more flexible and hydrophobic loop1, together with the evolution of more positive-charged loop2 leads to NDM-1 positive strain more potent and extensive in antibiotics resistance compared with other MBLs. Furthermore, through biological experiments, we revealed the molecular basis for antibiotics catalysis of NDM-1 on the enzymatic level. We found that NDM-1 enzyme was highly potent to degrade carbapenem antibiotics, while mostly susceptible to tigecycline, which had the ability to slow down the hydrolysis velocity of meropenem by NDM-1. Meanwhile, the mutagenesis experiments, including D124A, C208A, K211A and K211E, which displayed down-regulation on meropenem catalysis, proved the accuracy of our model.At present, there are no effective antibiotics against NDM-1 positive pathogen. Our study will provide clues to investigate the molecular basis of extended antibiotics resistance of NDM-1 and then accelerate the search for new antibiotics against NDM-1 positive strain in clinical studies.

  5. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  6. Toward a physical basis of attention and self-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2009-06-01

    The concept of self-regulation is central to the understanding of human development. Self-regulation allows effective socialization and predicts both psychological pathologies and levels of achievement in schools. What has been missing are neural mechanisms to provide understanding of the cellular and molecular basis for self-regulation. We show that self-regulation can be measured during childhood by parental reports and by self-reports of adolescents and adults. These reports are summarized by a higher order factor called effortful control, which reflects perceptions about the ability of a given person to regulate their behavior in accord with cultural norms. Throughout childhood effortful control is related to children's performance in computerized conflict related tasks. Conflict tasks have been shown in neuroimaging studies to activate specific brain networks of executive attention. Several brain areas work together at rest and during cognitive tasks to regulate competing brain activity and thus control resulting behavior. The cellular structure of the anterior cingulate and insula contain cells, unique to humans and higher primates that provide strong links to remote brain areas. During conflict tasks, anterior cingulate activity is correlated with activity in remote sensory and emotional systems, depending upon the information selected for the task. During adolescence the structure and activity of the anterior cingulate has been found to be correlated with self-reports of effortful control. Studies have provided a perspective on how genes and environment act to shape the executive attention network, providing a physical basis for self-regulation. The anterior cingulate is regulated by dopamine. Genes that influence dopamine levels in the CNS have been shown to influence the efficiency of self-regulation. For example, alleles of the COMT gene that influence the efficiency of dopamine transmission are related to the ability to resolve conflict. Humans with

  7. Capital investment as a basis for innovative enterprises’ capacity development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Shekman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to study the matter of investment in fixed capital of Ukraines enterprises as a basis of country innovation development and to determine the role of fixed capital investments in innovative development providing.The results of the analysis. In the article the structure and the volume of foreign investments attracting to the national economy of Ukraine during 2003-2012 are analyzed. It is determined that in spite of annual positive foreign investments volume growth in compare to the previous year the dynamic shows the investment climate deterioration because of the investment runoff. The determined trends show the problem in providing a countrys sunstainable economic development in the innovative aspect. The basis of the countrys innovative development is the investment activation into the enterprises fixed capital. The economic activity of the subjects of economy and the level of their competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets are determined by the essential level of fixed capital funds. They are the basis of the enterprise productive process. According to the analysis Ukrainian enterprises have a high level of fixed capital consumption. The rate of investments aimed to renovate fixed capital is too small. The volumes of fixed capital funds renovation and reproduction financing at the domestic enterprises reduced according to the reduction production volume and joint profits. The main source of fixed capital funds reproduction at the industrial enterprises of Ukraine is the main financial assets of the enterprise. The catastrophic lack of internal and external funds was the reason why heads of enterprises refused to implement new innovative projects and carry out all required actions on calling in accumulated credit obligations to the counteragents.Investment increasing will make it possible to renew enterprises fixed capital funds, to reorganize the coproduction and to balance the

  8. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor

  9. Adaptive radial basis function mesh deformation using data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillebaart, T.; Blom, D. S.; van Zuijlen, A. H.; Bijl, H.

    2016-09-01

    Radial Basis Function (RBF) mesh deformation is one of the most robust mesh deformation methods available. Using the greedy (data reduction) method in combination with an explicit boundary correction, results in an efficient method as shown in literature. However, to ensure the method remains robust, two issues are addressed: 1) how to ensure that the set of control points remains an accurate representation of the geometry in time and 2) how to use/automate the explicit boundary correction, while ensuring a high mesh quality. In this paper, we propose an adaptive RBF mesh deformation method, which ensures the set of control points always represents the geometry/displacement up to a certain (user-specified) criteria, by keeping track of the boundary error throughout the simulation and re-selecting when needed. Opposed to the unit displacement and prescribed displacement selection methods, the adaptive method is more robust, user-independent and efficient, for the cases considered. Secondly, the analysis of a single high aspect ratio cell is used to formulate an equation for the correction radius needed, depending on the characteristics of the correction function used, maximum aspect ratio, minimum first cell height and boundary error. Based on the analysis two new radial basis correction functions are derived and proposed. This proposed automated procedure is verified while varying the correction function, Reynolds number (and thus first cell height and aspect ratio) and boundary error. Finally, the parallel efficiency is studied for the two adaptive methods, unit displacement and prescribed displacement for both the CPU as well as the memory formulation with a 2D oscillating and translating airfoil with oscillating flap, a 3D flexible locally deforming tube and deforming wind turbine blade. Generally, the memory formulation requires less work (due to the large amount of work required for evaluating RBF's), but the parallel efficiency reduces due to the limited

  10. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-04-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  11. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2011-04-04

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision

  12. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chan, Woan-Eng [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ko, Tzu-Ping [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jiann-Shiun [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Wang, Andrew H.-J., E-mail: ahjwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  13. Time efficient aeroelastic simulations based on radial basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Huang, ChengDe; Yang, Guowei

    2017-02-01

    Aeroelasticity studies the interaction between aerodynamic forces and structural responses, and is one of the fundamental problems to be considered in the design of modern aircraft. The fluid-structure interpolation (FSI) and mesh deformation are two key issues in the CFD-CSD coupling approach (the partitioned approach), which is the mainstream numerical strategy in aeroelastic simulations. In this paper, a time efficient coupling scheme is developed based on the radial basis function interpolations. During the FSI process, the positive definite system of linear equations is constructed with the introduction of pseudo structural forces. The acting forces on the structural nodes can be calculated more efficiently via the solution of the linear system, avoiding the costly computations of the aerodynamic/structural coupling matrix. The multi-layer sequential mesh motion algorithm (MSM) is proposed to improve the efficiency of the volume mesh deformations, which is adequate for large-scale time dependent applications with frequent mesh updates. Two-dimensional mesh motion cases show that the MSM algorithm can reduce the computing cost significantly compared to the standard RBF-based method. The computations of the AGARD 445.6 wing flutter and the static deflections of the three-dimensional high-aspect-ratio aircraft demonstrate that the developed coupling scheme is applicable to both dynamic and static aeroelastic problems.

  14. Structural Basis for the Thermostability of Sulfur Oxygenase Reductases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤晓颜; 孟珍; 陈栋炜; 郭旭; Josef Zeyer; 刘双江; 姜成英

    2012-01-01

    The thermostability of three sulfur oxygenase reductases (SORs) was investigated from thermoacidophilic achaea Acidianus tengchongensis (SORAT) and Sulfolobus tokodaii (SORsT) as well as the moderately thermophilic bacterium Acidithiobacillus sp. SM-1 (SORsB). The optimal temperatures for catalyzing sulfur oxidation were 80 ℃ (SORAT), 85 ℃ (SORsT), and 70 ℃ (SORsB), respectively. The half-lives of the three SORs at their optimal catalytic conditions were 100 min (SORAT), 58 min (SORsT), and 37 min (SORsB). In order to reveal the structural basis of the thermostability of these SORs, three-dimensional structural models of them were generated by homology modeling using the previously reported high-resolution X-ray structure of SORAA (from Acidianus ambivalens) as a template. The results suggest that thermostability was dependent on: (a) high number of the charged amino acid glutamic acid and the flexible amino acid proline, (b) low number of the therraolabile amino acid glutamine, (c) increased number of ion pairs, (d) decreased ratio of hydrophobie accessible solvent surface area (ASA) to charged ASA, and (e) increased volumes of the cavity. The number of cavities and the number of hydrogen bonds did not signifieantly affect the thermostability of SORs, whereas the cavity volumes increased as the thermal stability increased.

  15. New insights into the genetic basis of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thejaswini Venkatesh,1 Padmanaban S Suresh,2 Rie Tsutsumi3 1Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, 2Centre for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, India; 3University of Tokushima, Institute of Health Bioscience, Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Tokushima, Japan Abstract: Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system characterized by inability to achieve pregnancy after 12 or more months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. A variety of factors, including ovulation defects, spermatogenic failure, parental age, obesity, and infections have been linked with infertility, in addition to specific karyotypes and genotypes. The study of genes associated with infertility in rodent models has expanded the field of translational genetics in identifying the underlying cause of human infertility problems. Many intriguing aspects of the molecular basis of infertility in humans remain poorly understood; however, application of genetic knowledge in this field looks promising. The growing literature on the genetics of human infertility disorders deserves attention and a critical concise summary is required. This paper provides information obtained from a systematic analysis of the literature related to current research into the genetics of infertility affecting both sexes. Keywords: infertility, genetics, polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure, spermatogenic failure, cystic fibrosis

  16. Insecticide resistance and its molecular basis in urban insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqqash, Muhammad Nadir; Gökçe, Ayhan; Bakhsh, Allah; Salim, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Insecticide resistance is one of the most important evolutionary phenomena for researchers. Overuse of chemicals has induced resistance in insect pests that ultimately has led to the collapse of disease control programs in many countries. The erroneous and inappropriate management of insect vectors has resulted in dissemination of many vector-borne diseases like dengue, malaria, diarrhea, leishmaniasis, and many others. In most cases, the emergence of new diseases and the revival of old ones can be related with ecological changes that have favored rapid growth of vector densities. Understanding molecular mechanisms in resistant strains can assist in the development of management programs to control the development and spread of resistant insect populations. The dominant, recessive, and co-dominant forms of genes encoding resistance can be investigated, and furthermore, resistance development can be addressed either by the release of susceptible strains or timely insecticide rotation. The present review discusses the resistance level in all important insect vectors of human diseases; the molecular basis of evolvement of resistance has also been discussed.

  17. Hydraulic basis for the evolution of photosynthetic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffoni, Christine; Chatelet, David S; Pasquet-Kok, Jessica; Rawls, Michael; Donoghue, Michael J; Edwards, Erika J; Sack, Lawren

    2016-05-27

    Clarifying the evolution and mechanisms for photosynthetic productivity is a key to both improving crops and understanding plant evolution and habitat distributions. Current theory recognizes a role for the hydraulics of water transport as a potential determinant of photosynthetic productivity based on comparative data across disparate species. However, there has never been rigorous support for the maintenance of this relationship during an evolutionary radiation. We tested this theory for 30 species of Viburnum, diverse in leaf shape and photosynthetic anatomy, grown in a common garden. We found strong support for a fundamental requirement for leaf hydraulic capacity (Kleaf) in determining photosynthetic capacity (Amax), as these traits diversified across this lineage in tight coordination, with their proportionality modulated by the climate experienced in the species' range. Variation in Kleaf arose from differences in venation architecture that influenced xylem and especially outside-xylem flow pathways. These findings substantiate an evolutionary basis for the coordination of hydraulic and photosynthetic physiology across species, and their co-dependence on climate, establishing a fundamental role for water transport in the evolution of the photosynthetic rate.

  18. [Mental time travel - the neurocognitive basis of future thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Julia A; Daum, Irene

    2008-09-01

    The ability to travel in time mentally, i. e. the re-experiencing of personal past events as well as the ability to mentally simulate potential future events, forms part of the "episodic memory" concept. Evidence for the notion that episodic memory and episodic future thinking share a common neural basis stems from different lines of research, namely functional neuroimaging, assessment of clinical groups, behavioral investigations of the phenomenological characteristics of mental time travel, and developmental research. The present article summarises the evidence from these lines of research which indicate a common neural network underlying episodic memory and episodic future thinking, consisting of medial prefrontal, medial temporal, medial parietal, lateral parieto-occipital, as well as lateral temporal regions. Both abilities, episodic memory and future thinking, seem to develop around the age of four years, feature similar phenomenological characteristics, and are impaired to a similar extent by brain lesions and brain dysfunction. These findings yielded different hypotheses concerning the function and evolutional significance of the mental time travel network, which will also be addressed.

  19. Molecular basis of colorectal cancer: Towards an individualized management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Perea

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC has become a highly relevant condition nowadays. In this respect, advances in the understanding of its molecular basis are key for an adequate management. From the time when the adenoma-carcinoma sequence was formulated as a carcinogenesis model to this day, when, among other things, three major carcinogenic pathways have been identified, the CRC concept has evolved from that of a single disease to the notion that each CRC is a differentiated condition in itself. The suppressor or chromosome instability pathway, the mutator or microsatellite instability pathway, and the methylator or CpG island methylation pathway allow various phenotypes to be identified within CRC. Similarly, the presence of different changes in certain genes confers several behaviors on CRC from both the prognostic and responsive standpoints to specific therapies. However, this apparent complexity does help develop the clinical management of this disease through the identification of novel, more specific therapy targets, and also markers for various behaviors within the condition, which will most likely lead us to an individualized management for these patients.

  20. Molecular basis of colorrectal cancer: towards an individualized management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, J; Lomas, M; Hidalgo, M

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become a highly relevant condition nowadays. In this respect, advances in the understanding of its molecular basis are key for an adequate management. From the time when the adenoma-carcinoma sequence was formulated as a carcinogenesis model to this day, when -among other things- three major carcinogenic pathways have been identified, the CRC concept has evolved from that of a single disease to the notion that each CRC is a differentiated condition in itself. The suppressor or chromosome instability pathway, the mutator or microsatellite instability pathway, and the methylator or CpG island methylation pathway allow various phenotypes to be identified within CRC. Similarly, the presence of different changes in certain genes confers several behaviors on CRC from both the prognostic and responsive standpoints to specific therapies. However, this apparent complexity does help develop the clinical management of this disease through the identification of novel, more specific therapy targets, and also markers for various behaviors within the condition, which will most likely lead us to an individualized management for these patients.

  1. Assessment of the basis of mercury tolerance in Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    The specific growth rate of Dunaliella tertiolecta was unaffected by mercury II concentrations of at least 2.03 ..mu..g at/l. At 10 ..mu..g at/l, it was eventually reduced by 84 percent but growth continued, giving a final level of cell material only 13 percent below that in a mercury-free control. At this concentration, however, growth was largely uncoupled from division and giant cells were produced, probably due to the effect of mercury upon the production of methionine which is known to be implicated in the process of cell division. The basis of the mercury tolerance was investigated in terms of (1) mercury detoxication in the culture medium by complex or compound formation between the metal and metabolites produced by the cells, (2) the concentration of sulfhydryl groups both within the cells as possible sequestration sites and in the cell membrane where any molecular disruption and permeability changes produced by the metal first occur, (3) the absence of cellular potassium leakage and (4) the resistance of the cell membrane to the uptake of mercury II ions. Where possible, the results were compared with those from determinations of the same properties of the mercury-sensitive species Isochrysis galbana. The experiments indicated that the mercury tolerance of D. tertiolecta is partly related to the slower rate of mercury accumulation by this species, but is largely due to the detoxication of the mercury within the cell possibly by the precipitation of a highly insoluble mercury compound.

  2. The neural basis of event simulation: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihito Yomogida

    Full Text Available Event simulation (ES is the situational inference process in which perceived event features such as objects, agents, and actions are associated in the brain to represent the whole situation. ES provides a common basis for various cognitive processes, such as perceptual prediction, situational understanding/prediction, and social cognition (such as mentalizing/trait inference. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to elucidate the neural substrates underlying important subdivisions within ES. First, the study investigated whether ES depends on different neural substrates when it is conducted explicitly and implicitly. Second, the existence of neural substrates specific to the future-prediction component of ES was assessed. Subjects were shown contextually related object pictures implying a situation and performed several picture-word-matching tasks. By varying task goals, subjects were made to infer the implied situation implicitly/explicitly or predict the future consequence of that situation. The results indicate that, whereas implicit ES activated the lateral prefrontal cortex and medial/lateral parietal cortex, explicit ES activated the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial/lateral temporal cortex. Additionally, the left temporoparietal junction plays an important role in the future-prediction component of ES. These findings enrich our understanding of the neural substrates of the implicit/explicit/predictive aspects of ES-related cognitive processes.

  3. Chromosomal basis of viability differences in Tigriopus californicus interpopulation hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J S; Edmands, S

    2006-11-01

    Crosses between populations of Tigriopus californicus result in backcross and F2 hybrid breakdown for a variety of fitness related measures. The magnitude of this hybrid breakdown is correlated with evolutionary divergence. We assessed the chromosomal basis of viability differences in nonrecombinant backcross hybrids using markers mapped to individual chromosomes. To assess effects of evolutionary divergence we crossed one population to three different populations: two distantly related (approximately 18% mitochondrial COI sequence divergence) and one closely related (approximately 1% mitochondrial COI sequence divergence). We found that all three interpopulation crosses resulted in significant deviations from expected Mendelian ratios at a majority of the loci studied. In all but one case, deviations were due to a deficit of parental homozygotes. This pattern implies that populations of T. californicus carry a significant genetic load, and that a combination of beneficial dominance and deleterious homozygote-heterozygote interactions significantly affects hybrid viability. Pairwise tests of linkage disequilibrium detected relatively few significant interactions. For the two divergent crosses, effects of individual chromosomes were highly concordant. These two crosses also showed higher heterozygote excess in females than males across the vast majority of chromosomes.

  4. Technical basis of radiation therapy. Practical clinical applications. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Seymour H. [Karolinska Institutet Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncol-Pathol; Perez, Carlos A. [Washington Univ. Medical Center, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Purdy, James A. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Poortmans, Philip [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-07-01

    This well-received book, now in its fifth edition, is unique in providing a detailed description of the technological basis of radiation therapy. Another novel feature is the collaborative writing of the chapters by North American and European authors. This considerably broadens the book's perspective and increases its applicability in daily practice throughout the world. The book is divided into two sections. The first covers basic concepts in treatment planning, including essential physics and biological principles related to time-dose-fractionation, and explains the various technological approaches to radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, tomotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and high and low dose rate brachytherapy. Issues relating to quality assurance, technology assessment, and cost-benefit analysis are also reviewed. The second part of the book discusses in depth the practical clinical applications of the different radiation therapy techniques in a wide range of cancer sites. All of the chapters have been written by leaders in the field. This book will serve to instruct and acquaint teachers, students, and practitioners in the various fields of oncology with the basic technological factors and approaches in radiation therapy. (orig.)

  5. Mechanistic basis of infertility of mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Gregorova, Sona; Mihola, Ondrej; Anger, Martin; Sebestova, Jaroslava; Denny, Paul; Simecek, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2013-02-01

    According to the Dobzhansky-Muller model, hybrid sterility is a consequence of the independent evolution of related taxa resulting in incompatible genomic interactions of their hybrids. The model implies that the incompatibilities evolve randomly, unless a particular gene or nongenic sequence diverges much faster than the rest of the genome. Here we propose that asynapsis of heterospecific chromosomes in meiotic prophase provides a recurrently evolving trigger for the meiotic arrest of interspecific F1 hybrids. We observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in >95% of pachynemas of Mus m. musculus × Mus m. domesticus sterile F1 males. Asynapsis was not preceded by a failure of double-strand break induction, and the rate of meiotic crossing over was not affected in synapsed chromosomes. DNA double-strand break repair was delayed or failed in unsynapsed autosomes, and misexpression of chromosome X and chromosome Y genes was detected in single pachynemas and by genome-wide expression profiling. Oocytes of F1 hybrid females showed the same kind of synaptic problems but with the incidence reduced to half. Most of the oocytes with pachytene asynapsis were eliminated before birth. We propose the heterospecific pairing of homologous chromosomes as a preexisting condition of asynapsis in interspecific hybrids. The asynapsis may represent a universal mechanistic basis of F1 hybrid sterility manifested by pachytene arrest. It is tempting to speculate that a fast-evolving subset of the noncoding genomic sequence important for chromosome pairing and synapsis may be the culprit.

  6. Logical Object as a Basis of Knowledge Based Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐殿祥; 郑国梁

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a framework called logical knowledge object (LKO),which is taken as a basis of the dependable development of knowledge based systems(KBSs).LKO combines logic programming and object-oriented programming paradigms,where objects are viewed as abstractions with states,constraints,behaviors and inheritance.The operational semantics defined in the style of natural semantics is simple and clear.A hybrid knowledge representation amalgamating rule,frame,semantic network and blackboard is available for both most structured and flat knowledge.The management of knowledge bases has been formally specified.Accordingly,LKO is well suited for the formal representation of knowledge and requirements of KBSs.Based on the framework,verification techniques are also explored to enhance the analysis of requirement specifications and the validation of KBSs.In addition,LKO provides a methodology for the development of KBSs,applying the concepts of rapid prototyping and top-down design to deal with changing and incomplete requirements,and to provide multiple abstract models of the domain,where formal methods might be used at each abstract level.

  7. PARP inhibitors – theoretical basis and clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Dębska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available  Poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARP are involved in a number of processes that are vital for every living cell. Once activated by the presence of DNA damage they trigger poly-ADP-ribosylation of various proteins which are crucial for DNA repair, preserving of genom integrity, regulation of transcription, proliferation and apoptosis. PARP1, which is the best known enzyme of PARP protein family, plays a role in single-strand breaks (SSB repair. Decrease of its activity results in accumulation of single strand DNA breaks (SSB which leads as a consequence to double- strand breaks (DSBs. This disorder is particularly harmful to cells with deficiency of BRCA1/2 protein which is involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks.This phenomenon is an example of “synthetic lethality” concept and contributes to research on application of PARP inhibitors in treatment of cancers associated with BRCA1/2 protein defect (breast or ovarian cancer.Noticed synergism between PARP inhibitors and genotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy determined another direction of research on application of these medicaments.After promising results of phase I and II trials with most commonly investigated PARP inhibitors – iniparib and olaparib- which recruited patients with triple negative breast cancer and ovarian cancer, further studies started.This paper presents theoretical basis of PARP inhibitors action as well as critical review of most important clinical trials of these medicaments.

  8. Android NDK Graphics: Open GL ES Air Hockey Basis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Patra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to beautiful visual rendering and games on the Android handsets that we use today, much of that credit has to be given to the various graphic libraries which come along with programming paradigms. Just like anything in programming and technology, there are good and bad ways to implement and get certain things done both at the front end and the backend. What the Android Native Development Kit (NDK does is that it works alongside the Software Development Kit (SDK and injects the native powers of any C/C++ application into your Android application which can be packaged as any normal application and run on an emulator/device of choice. The SDK, the NDK, the ADT and Eclipse are primarily what one requires to directly hit on towards Android Native Development. So now how does one enjoy the seamless graphics, multimedia, physics and games on an Android device? It is the Native API’s which come as a result of relying on performance critical native code which makes this possible. In this paper we develop a basis game of Air Hockey, which is more of a concept game made using the technological paradigm of the NDK in Android Programming. Right from defining the structure of the table up to defining and implementing the shaders and 3D rendering, almost every important aspect has been researched and put into working through this paper.

  9. Structural basis of substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M.H.G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna J.S.; van Zeijl, Leonie; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.; Kasiem, Mobien; Harlos, Karl; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Smyth, Susan S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bollen, Mathieu; Morris, Andrew J.; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Perrakis, Anastassis (Pfizer); (Leuven); (Oxford); (NCI-Netherlands); (Kentucky)

    2013-09-25

    Autotaxin (ATX, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2, ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemoattractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling is involved in various pathologies including tumor progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis by ATX and the mechanism by which it interacts with target cells are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of ATX, alone and in complex with a small-molecule inhibitor. We have identified a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and mapped key residues for catalysis and selection between nucleotide and phospholipid substrates. We have shown that ATX interacts with cell-surface integrins through its N-terminal somatomedin B-like domains, using an atypical mechanism. Our results define determinants of substrate discrimination by the ENPP family, suggest how ATX promotes localized LPA signaling and suggest new approaches for targeting ATX with small-molecule therapeutic agents.

  10. Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s. This test assessed the ability of four-year-olds to delay gratification and showed how this ability correlated with success later in life. The role of the serotonergic system in sleep and how this role changes with age are also discussed. The serotonergic system is involved in reward processing and interactions with the dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and the prefrontal cortex are thought to comprise the neural basis for behavioral patterns that are affected by the quantity, quality, and timing of sleep early in life.

  11. Pharmacogenomics: the inherited basis for interindividual differences in drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W E; Johnson, J A

    2001-01-01

    It is well recognized that most medications exhibit wide interpatient variability in their efficacy and toxicity. For many medications, these interindividual differences are due in part to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and/or drug targets (e.g., receptors, enzymes). Pharmacogenomics is a burgeoning field aimed at elucidating the genetic basis for differences in drug efficacy and toxicity, and it uses genome-wide approaches to identify the network of genes that govern an individual's response to drug therapy. For some genetic polymorphisms (e.g., thiopurine S-methyltransferase), monogenic traits have a marked effect on pharmacokinetics (e.g., drug metabolism), such that individuals who inherit an enzyme deficiency must be treated with markedly different doses of the affected medications (e.g., 5%-10% of the standard thiopurine dose). Likewise, polymorphisms in drug targets (e.g., beta adrenergic receptor) can alter the sensitivity of patients to treatment (e.g., beta-agonists), changing the pharmacodynamics of drug response. Recognizing that most drug effects are determined by the interplay of several gene products that govern the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medications, pharmacogenomics research aims to elucidate these polygenic determinants of drug effects. The ultimate goal is to provide new strategies for optimizing drug therapy based on each patient's genetic determinants of drug efficacy and toxicity. This chapter provides an overview of the current pharmacogenomics literature and offers insights for the potential impact of this field on the safe and effective use of medications.

  12. The physical basis of biochemistry the foundations of molecular biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bergethon, Peter R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a unifying approach to the study of biophysical chemistry for the advanced undergraduate who has had a year of physics, organic chem­ istry, calculus, and biology. This book began as a revised edition of Biophysical Chemistry: Molecules to Membranes, which Elizabeth Simons and I coauthored. That short volume was written in an attempt to provide a concise text for a one-semester course in biophysical chemistry at the graduate level. The experience of teaching biophysical chemistry to bi­ ologically oriented students over the last decade has made it clear that the subject requires a more fundamental text that unifies the many threads of modem science: physics, chem­ istry, biology, mathematics, and statistics. This book represents that effort. This volume is not a treatment of modem biophysical chemistry with its rich history and many contro­ versies, although a book on that topic is also needed. The Physical Basis of Biochemistry is an introduction to the philosophy...

  13. Structural basis for iron piracy by pathogenic Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Easley, Nicole C; Oke, Muse; Mizuno, Naoko; Gumbart, James; Boura, Evzen; Steere, Ashley N; Zak, Olga; Aisen, Philip; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Evans, Robert W; Gorringe, Andrew R; Mason, Anne B; Steven, Alasdair C; Buchanan, Susan K

    2012-02-12

    Neisseria are obligate human pathogens causing bacterial meningitis, septicaemia and gonorrhoea. Neisseria require iron for survival and can extract it directly from human transferrin for transport across the outer membrane. The transport system consists of TbpA, an integral outer membrane protein, and TbpB, a co-receptor attached to the cell surface; both proteins are potentially important vaccine and therapeutic targets. Two key questions driving Neisseria research are how human transferrin is specifically targeted, and how the bacteria liberate iron from transferrin at neutral pH. To address these questions, we solved crystal structures of the TbpA-transferrin complex and of the corresponding co-receptor TbpB. We characterized the TbpB-transferrin complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and the TbpA-TbpB-transferrin complex by electron microscopy. Our studies provide a rational basis for the specificity of TbpA for human transferrin, show how TbpA promotes iron release from transferrin, and elucidate how TbpB facilitates this process.

  14. The prevalence and molecular basis of hemoglobinopathies in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnley, Benedict P; Prior, John F; Gilbert, Anne; Lim, Erna; Devenish, Robyn; Sing, Heng; Sarin, Eng; Guhadasan, Rathi; Sullivan, Sheena G; Wise, Cheryl A; Bittles, Alan H; Chan, Kaimin; Wong, Man-Sim; Chan, Vivian; Erber, Wendy N

    2006-01-01

    Blood counts, hemoglobin (Hb) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and DNA analyses were performed on 260 children, aged 5 months to 16 years, at Siem Reap to assess the prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in regional Cambodia. Hemoglobinopathies were present in 134 children (51.5%) with 20 abnormal genotypes identified. alpha-Thalassemia (thal) (35.4%) was the most prevalent disorder and the -alpha3.7 gene deletion was the most common alpha-globin gene abnormality. The - -SEA deletion and nondeletional forms of alpha-thal, Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS, alpha142, Term-->Gln, TAA-->CAA (alpha2)], Hb Paksé [alpha142, Term-->Tyr, TAA-->TAT (alpha2)] and triplicated alpha genes, were also present but at low frequencies. Hb E [beta26(B8)Glu-->Lys, GAG-->AAG] (28.8%) was the most common beta-globin gene abnormality, whilst beta-thal was only detected in two children (0.8% of cases). Although hemoglobinopathies were common, the majority of abnormalities detected (heterozygous -alpha3.7 and Hb E) were not clinically significant. On the basis of these findings, and with the majority of abnormalities being mild, it seems improbable that thalassemia represents a major health burden in this region of Cambodia.

  15. The brain basis of musicophilia: evidence from frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip David Fletcher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Musicophilia, or abnormal craving for music, is a poorly understood phenomenon that has been associated in particular with focal degeneration of the temporal lobes. Here we addressed the brain basis of musicophilia using voxel-based morphometry (VBM on MR volumetric brain images in a retrospectively ascertained cohort of patients meeting clinical consensus criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration: of 37 cases ascertained, 12 had musicophilia and 25 did not exhibit the phenomenon. The syndrome of semantic dementia was relatively over-represented among the musicophilic subgroup. A VBM analysis revealed significantly increased regional grey matter volume in left posterior hippocampus in the musicophilic subgroup relative to the non-musicophilic group (p<0.05 corrected for regional comparisons; at a relaxed significance threshold (P<0.001 uncorrected across the brain volume musicophilia was associated with additional relative sparing of regional grey matter in other temporal lobe and prefrontal areas and atrophy of grey matter in posterior parietal and orbitofrontal areas. The present findings suggest a candidate brain substrate for musicophilia as a signature of distributed network damage that may reflect a shift of hedonic processing toward more abstract (non-social stimuli, with some specificity for particular neurodegenerative pathologies.

  16. Elastic-plastic deformation of sandwich rod on elastic basis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yu

    2008-01-01

    Sandwich composite material possesses advantages of both light weight and high strength.Although the mechanical behaviors of sandwich composite material with the influence of single external environment have been intensively studied,little work has been done in the study of mechanical property,in view of the nonlinear behavior of sandwich composites in the complicated external environments.In this paper,the problem about the bending of the three-layer elastic-plastic rod located on the elastic base,with a compressibly physical nonlinear core,has been studied.The mechanical response of the designed three-layer elements consisting of two bearing layers and a core has been examined.The complicated problem about curving of the three-layer rod located on the elastic base has been solved.The convergence of the proposed method of elastic solutions is examined to convince that the solution is acceptable.The calculated results indicate that the plasticity and physical nonlinearity of materials have a great influence on the deformation of the sandwich rod on the elastic basis.

  17. Structural basis for functional tetramerization of lentiviral integrase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that a tetramer of integrase (IN is the protagonist of the concerted strand transfer reaction, whereby both ends of retroviral DNA are inserted into a host cell chromosome. Herein we present two crystal structures containing the N-terminal and the catalytic core domains of maedi-visna virus IN in complex with the IN binding domain of the common lentiviral integration co-factor LEDGF. The structures reveal that the dimer-of-dimers architecture of the IN tetramer is stabilized by swapping N-terminal domains between the inner pair of monomers poised to execute catalytic function. Comparison of four independent IN tetramers in our crystal structures elucidate the basis for the closure of the highly flexible dimer-dimer interface, allowing us to model how a pair of active sites become situated for concerted integration. Using a range of complementary approaches, we demonstrate that the dimer-dimer interface is essential for HIV-1 IN tetramerization, concerted integration in vitro, and virus infectivity. Our structures moreover highlight adaptable changes at the interfaces of individual IN dimers that allow divergent lentiviruses to utilize a highly-conserved, common integration co-factor.

  18. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOWARD,BRYAN A.; CRAWFORD,M.B.; GALSON,D.A.; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-22

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal.

  19. [Molecular basis of stress-evoked psychiatric disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beszczyńska, Beata

    2007-11-20

    Stress, defined as coping with environmental challenges, involves the activation of the neuronal and neurohormonal systems. Central monoaminergic (noradrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic) neural networks, limbic structures, the sympathoadrenal system, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and the immune system are considered the most important stress pathways. Their activation determines stress reactivity and pathological consequences on exposure to situations of distress. Both trauma and long-term stress can cause alterations in the activities of neuroanatomical structures and neural networks within the central nervous system. These neurohormonal changes are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disturbance thought to be one of the most serious psychiatric illnesses. PTSD may develop in individuals after exposure to a traumatic event (war, violence, accident) and is manifested by various symptoms, such as re-experiencing, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, impaired memory of the event, sleep disorders, nightmares, panic attacks, and depression. In this review the neurohormonal changes associated with experiencing stress are presented to highlight the molecular and hormonal basis of PTSD.

  20. ESTIMATION OF INFLATION ON THE BASIS OF INDEPENDENT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the investigations of our research team built for independent collection and examination the information about prices, ie to study the real inflation. The approach to measuring the rise in prices is based on selecting and fixing tool of economists and managers - the consumer basket which does not change during the time. On the basis of physiological consumption norms of the Institute of Nutrition (Russian Academy of medical Sciences we made up the minimum consumer basket, ie we set annual consumption on food staples required to maintain normal functioning of the human body. In 1993-2015 we carried out an independent price collection. We obtained values of the consumer basket and inflation indices. We give the comparison with the data of official statistics. Our work is aimed at the elimination of Rosstat's monopoly in calculating the index of inflation, the minimum subsistence level and the real disposable income of the population. Using the same consumer basket makes it possible to compare the results of calculations for different time periods. That is why our works compare favorably to the approach of the official statistics. We have given a more detailed analysis of inflation in the XXI century. We have also briefly reviewed the use of inflation indices in the analysis of problems of households, organizations and production firms, as well as the country as a whole

  1. Ultrasonic flaw detection using radial basis function networks (RBFNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Pita, R; Vicen, R; Rosa, M; Jarabo, M P; Vera, P; Curpian, J

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection has been studied many times in the literature. Schemes based on thresholding after a previous matched filter use to be the best solution, but results obtained with this method are only satisfactory when scattering and attenuation are not considered. In this paper, we propose an alternative solution to thresholding detection method. We deal with the usage of different flaw detection methods comparing them with the proposed one. The experiment tries to determinate whether a given ultrasonic signal contains a flaw echo or not. Starting with a set of 24,000 patterns with 750 samples each one, two subsets are defined for the experiments. The first one, the training set, is used to obtain the detection parameters of the different methods, and the second one is used to test the performance of them. The proposed method is based on radial basis functions networks, one of the most powerful neural network techniques. This signal processing technique tries to find the optimal decision criterion. Comparing this method with thresholding based ones, an improvement over 25-30% is obtained, depending on the probability of false alarm. So our new method is a good alternative to flaw detection problem.

  2. A growing and pruning method for radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M; Aladjem, M

    2009-06-01

    A recently published generalized growing and pruning (GGAP) training algorithm for radial basis function (RBF) neural networks is studied and modified. GGAP is a resource-allocating network (RAN) algorithm, which means that a created network unit that consistently makes little contribution to the network's performance can be removed during the training. GGAP states a formula for computing the significance of the network units, which requires a d-fold numerical integration for arbitrary probability density function p(x) of the input data x (x in R(d)) . In this work, the GGAP formula is approximated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for p(x) and an analytical solution of the approximated unit significance is derived. This makes it possible to employ the modified GGAP for input data having complex and high-dimensional p(x), which was not possible in the original GGAP. The results of an extensive experimental study show that the modified algorithm outperforms the original GGAP achieving both a lower prediction error and reduced complexity of the trained network.

  3. Immune evasion in cancer: Mechanistic basis and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Dass S; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Pawelec, Graham; Talib, Wamidh H; Stagg, John; Elkord, Eyad; Lichtor, Terry; Decker, William K; Whelan, Richard L; Kumara, H M C Shantha; Signori, Emanuela; Honoki, Kanya; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amin, Amr; Helferich, William G; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Keith, W Nicol; Bilsland, Alan; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Fujii, Hiromasa; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan; Choi, Beom K; Kwon, Byoung S

    2015-12-01

    Cancer immune evasion is a major stumbling block in designing effective anticancer therapeutic strategies. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding how cancers evade destructive immunity, measures to counteract tumor escape have not kept pace. There are a number of factors that contribute to tumor persistence despite having a normal host immune system. Immune editing is one of the key aspects why tumors evade surveillance causing the tumors to lie dormant in patients for years through "equilibrium" and "senescence" before re-emerging. In addition, tumors exploit several immunological processes such as targeting the regulatory T cell function or their secretions, antigen presentation, modifying the production of immune suppressive mediators, tolerance and immune deviation. Besides these, tumor heterogeneity and metastasis also play a critical role in tumor growth. A number of potential targets like promoting Th1, NK cell, γδ T cell responses, inhibiting Treg functionality, induction of IL-12, use of drugs including phytochemicals have been designed to counter tumor progression with much success. Some natural agents and phytochemicals merit further study. For example, use of certain key polysaccharide components from mushrooms and plants have shown to possess therapeutic impact on tumor-imposed genetic instability, anti-growth signaling, replicative immortality, dysregulated metabolism etc. In this review, we will discuss the advances made toward understanding the basis of cancer immune evasion and summarize the efficacy of various therapeutic measures and targets that have been developed or are being investigated to enhance tumor rejection.

  4. Sensory, hormonal, and neural basis of maternal aggression in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Ferreira, Annabel; Agrati, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    We review existing knowledge of the neural, hormonal, and sensory basis of maternal aggression in the female rat. Although females may express different kinds of aggression, such as defense or dominance, the most frequent and conspicuous form of aggressive behavior among females is the one associated with motherhood. Maternal aggression occurs in various vertebrate and invertebrate species; however, our emphasis will be on maternal aggression in rats because most of the physiological investigations have been performed in this species. Firstly, we address those factors that predispose the female to attack, such as the endocrine profile, the maternal state, and the stimulation provided by the pups, as well as those that trigger the aggressive response, as the intruder's characteristics and the context. As the postpartum aggression is a fundamental component of the maternal repertoire, we emphasize its association with maternal motivation and the reduction of fear and anxiety in dams. Finally, we outline the neurocircuitry involved in the control of maternal aggression, stressing the role of the ventro-orbital region of prefrontal cortex and the serotoninergic system.

  5. The Neural Basis of Deception in Strategic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, the (precuneus (CUN, and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender’s veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  6. ECOLOGY AND INNOVATION THE BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Rozenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We discuss some aspects of innovation activity in ecology (ecological rationing, new methods of bioindication and biomonitoring, waste disposal, environmental audits of territories etc.. Methods. The study was performed using the SF-36 Survey in accordance with the requirements of the International Quality of Life Assessment Project. Results. The problems of innovation in environmental management were discussed. We assessed the quality of life of the population in Dakhadayevsky district of Dagestan. New methods of bioindication and biomonitoring have been analyzed. We suggest methodological basis of environmental management, spatial and temporal variability and sustainability of ecosystems, optimal territorial units of environmental management, information support of environmental protection activities, modeling and forecasting of the natural environment, basin-landscape concept nature management. Conclusions. Anthropogenic changes in the environment to a large extent depend on the basin-landscape organization of natural processes. Local air pollution, erosion materials from agriculture, soil erosion, pollution of surface and groundwater related to the structural features of the watershed, landscape differentiation, climate, vegetation and soil cover. These population-based studies of quality of life make possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of various medical and social and economic programs aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being. They can serve as indicators of the environmental pillar of sustainable development, significantly adding to the overall picture of environmental research.

  7. Structural Basis of Human CYP51 Inhibition by Antifungal Azoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strushkevich, Natallia; Usanov, Sergey A.; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto); (IBC-Belarus)

    2010-09-22

    The obligatory step in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes is demethylation of sterol precursors at the C14-position, which is catalyzed by CYP51 (sterol 14-alpha demethylase) in three sequential reactions. In mammals, the final product of the pathway is cholesterol, while important intermediates, meiosis-activating sterols, are produced by CYP51. Three crystal structures of human CYP51, ligand-free and complexed with antifungal drugs ketoconazole and econazole, were determined, allowing analysis of the molecular basis for functional conservation within the CYP51 family. Azole binding occurs mostly through hydrophobic interactions with conservative residues of the active site. The substantial conformational changes in the B{prime} helix and F-G loop regions are induced upon ligand binding, consistent with the membrane nature of the protein and its substrate. The access channel is typical for mammalian sterol-metabolizing P450 enzymes, but is different from that observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP51. Comparison of the azole-bound structures provides insight into the relative binding affinities of human and bacterial P450 enzymes to ketoconazole and fluconazole, which can be useful for the rational design of antifungal compounds and specific modulators of human CYP51.

  8. Biophysical basis for noninvasive skin cancer detection using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Markey, Mia K.; Fox, Matthew C.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be a valuable tool for real time noninvasive skin cancer detection via optical fiber probe. However, current methods utilizing RS for skin cancer diagnosis rely on statistically based algorithms to provide tissue classification and do not elucidate the underlying biophysical changes of skin tissue. Therefore, we aim to use RS to explore skin biochemical and structural characteristics and then correlate the Raman spectrum of skin tissue with its disease state. We have built a custom confocal micro-Raman spectrometer system with an 830nm laser light. The high resolution capability of the system allows us to measure spectroscopic features from individual tissue components in situ. Raman images were collected from human skin samples from Mohs surgical biopsy, which were then compared with confocal laser scanning, two-photon fluorescence and hematoxylin and eosin-stained images to develop a linear model of skin tissue Raman spectra. In this model, macroscopic tissue spectra obtained from RS fiber probe were fit into a linear combination of individual basis spectra of primary skin constituents. The fit coefficient of the model explains the biophysical changes spanning a range of normal and various disease states. The model allows for determining parameters similar to that a pathologist is familiar reading and will be a significant guidance in developing RS diagnostic decision schemes.

  9. The genetic basis of new treatment modalities in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, intracellular signal transduction via RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK has been successfully targeted in new treatment approaches for melanoma using small molecule inhibitors against activated BRAF (V600E mutation) and activated MEK1/2. Also mutated c-KIT has been identified as a promising target. Meanwhile, evidence has been provided that combinations between BRAF inhibitors and MEK1/2 inhibitors are more promising than single-agent treatments. Moreover, new treatment algorithms favor sequential treatment using BRAF inhibitors and newly developed immunotherapies targeting common T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) or programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). In depth molecular analyses have uncovered new mechanisms of treatment resistance and recurrence, which may impact on future treatment decisions. Moreover, next-generation sequencing data have shown that recurrent lesions harbor specific genetic aberrations. At the same time, high throughput sequencing studies of melanoma unraveled a series of new treatment candidates for future treatment approaches such as ERBB4, GRIN2A, GRM3, and RAC1. More recent bioinformatic technologies provided genetic evidence for extensive tumor heterogeneity and tumor clonality of solid tumors, which might also be of relevance for melanoma. However, these technologies have not yet been applied to this tumor. In this review, an overview on the genetic basis of current treatment of melanoma, treatment resistance and recurrences including new treatment perspectives based on recent high-throughput sequencing data is provided. Moreover, future aspects of individualized treatment based on each patient's individual mutational landscape are discussed.

  10. The Genomic Basis of Evolutionary Innovation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll-Riera, Macarena; San Millan, Alvaro; Wagner, Andreas; MacLean, R Craig

    2016-05-01

    Novel traits play a key role in evolution, but their origins remain poorly understood. Here we address this problem by using experimental evolution to study bacterial innovation in real time. We allowed 380 populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to adapt to 95 different carbon sources that challenged bacteria with either evolving novel metabolic traits or optimizing existing traits. Whole genome sequencing of more than 80 clones revealed profound differences in the genetic basis of innovation and optimization. Innovation was associated with the rapid acquisition of mutations in genes involved in transcription and metabolism. Mutations in pre-existing duplicate genes in the P. aeruginosa genome were common during innovation, but not optimization. These duplicate genes may have been acquired by P. aeruginosa due to either spontaneous gene amplification or horizontal gene transfer. High throughput phenotype assays revealed that novelty was associated with increased pleiotropic costs that are likely to constrain innovation. However, mutations in duplicate genes with close homologs in the P. aeruginosa genome were associated with low pleiotropic costs compared to mutations in duplicate genes with distant homologs in the P. aeruginosa genome, suggesting that functional redundancy between duplicates facilitates innovation by buffering pleiotropic costs.

  11. Piecewise nonlinear image registration using DCT basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lin; Agam, Gady

    2015-03-01

    The deformation field in nonlinear image registration is usually modeled by a global model. Such models are often faced with the problem that a locally complex deformation cannot be accurately modeled by simply increasing degrees of freedom (DOF). In addition, highly complex models require additional regularization which is usually ineffective when applied globally. Registering locally corresponding regions addresses this problem in a divide and conquer strategy. In this paper we propose a piecewise image registration approach using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) basis functions for a nonlinear model. The contributions of this paper are three-folds. First, we develop a multi-level piecewise registration framework that extends the concept of piecewise linear registration and works with any nonlinear deformation model. This framework is then applied to nonlinear DCT registration. Second, we show how adaptive model complexity and regularization could be applied for local piece registration, thus accounting for higher variability. Third, we show how the proposed piecewise DCT can overcome the fundamental problem of a large curvature matrix inversion in global DCT when using high degrees of freedoms. The proposed approach can be viewed as an extension of global DCT registration where the overall model complexity is increased while achieving effective local regularization. Experimental evaluation results provide comparison of the proposed approach to piecewise linear registration using an affine transformation model and a global nonlinear registration using DCT model. Preliminary results show that the proposed approach achieves improved performance.

  12. The neural basis of predicting the outcomes of planned actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eJahn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of human intelligence is the ability to predict the outcomes of one’s own actions prior to executing them. Action values are thought to be represented in part in the dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, yet current studies have focused on the value of executed actions rather than the anticipated value of a planned action. Thus, little is known about the neural basis of how individuals think (or fail to think about their actions and the potential consequences before they act. We scanned individuals with fMRI while they thought about performing actions that they knew would likely be correct or incorrect. Here we show that merely imagining an error, as opposed to imagining a correct outcome, increases activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, independently of subsequent actions. This activity overlaps with regions that respond to actual error commission. The findings show a distinct network that signals the prospective outcomes of one’s planned actions. A number of clinical disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse involve a failure to take the potential consequences of an action into account prior to acting. Our results thus suggest how dysfunctions of the medial prefrontal cortex may contribute to such failures.

  13. Microbial biotransformation of DON: molecular basis for reduced toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Alix; Mimoun, Sabria; Murate, Leticia S.; Loiseau, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Bracarense, Ana-Paula F. L.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; He, Jian Wei; Zhou, Ting; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria are able to de-epoxidize or epimerize deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, to deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (deepoxy-DON or DOM-1) or 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON), respectively. Using different approaches, the intestinal toxicity of 3 molecules was compared and the molecular basis for the reduced toxicity investigated. In human intestinal epithelial cells, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON were not cytotoxic, did not change the oxygen consumption or impair the barrier function. In intestinal explants, exposure for 4 hours to 10 μM DON induced intestinal lesions not seen in explants treated with deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON. A pan-genomic transcriptomic analysis was performed on intestinal explants. 747 probes, representing 323 genes, were differentially expressed, between DON-treated and control explants. By contrast, no differentially expressed genes were observed between control, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON treated explants. Both DON and its biotransformation products were able to fit into the pockets of the A-site of the ribosome peptidyl transferase center. DON forms three hydrogen bonds with the A site and activates MAPKinases (mitogen-activated protein kinases). By contrast deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON only form two hydrogen bonds and do not activate MAPKinases. Our data demonstrate that bacterial de-epoxidation or epimerization of DON altered their interaction with the ribosome, leading to an absence of MAPKinase activation and a reduced toxicity.

  14. Goal-oriented reduced basis approximation for linear elastodynamic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Khac Chi; Bordas, Stephane P A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study numerically the linear damped second-order hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) with affine parameter dependence using a goal-oriented approach by finite element (FE) and reduced basis (RB) methods. The main contribution of this paper is the "goal-oriented" proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-Greedy sampling procedure within the RB approximation context. This proposed procedure makes use of the information of the solution of the associated dual (or adjoint) problem and the primal residual similarly to the well-known dual-weighted residual (DWR) technique developed earlier. First, we introduce the RB recipe: Galerkin projection onto a space $Y_N$ spanned by solutions of the governing PDE at $N$ selected points in parameter space. This set of $N$ parameter points is constructed very optimally by the proposed goal-oriented POD-Greedy sampling procedure. Second, based on the affine parameter dependence, we make use of the offline-online computational procedures: in the offline ...

  15. Complete basis for power suppressed collinear-ultrasoft operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Stewart, Iain W.

    2003-05-01

    We construct operators that describe power corrections in mixed collinear-ultrasoft processes in QCD. We treat the ultrasoft-collinear Lagrangian to O(λ2) and heavy-to-light currents involving collinear quarks to O(λ), including new three body currents. A complete gauge invariant basis is derived which has a full reduction in Dirac structures and is valid for matching at any order in αs. The full set of reparametrization invariance (RPI) constraints is included, and is found to restrict the number of parameters appearing in Wilson coefficients and to rule out some classes of operators. The QCD ultrasoft-collinear Lagrangian has two O(λ2) operators in its gauge invariant form. For the O(λ) heavy-to-light currents there are (4,4,14,14,21) subleading (scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial-vector, tensor) currents, where (1,1,4,4,7) have coefficients that are not determined by RPI. In a frame where v⊥=0 and nṡv=1 the total number of currents reduces to (2,2,8,8,13), but the number of undetermined coefficients is the same. The role of these operators and universality of jet functions in the factorization theorem for heavy-to-light form factors is discussed.

  16. Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

  17. Neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice.

  18. Structural basis of transcobalamin recognition by human CD320 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Amer; Woo, Jae-Sung; Schmitz, Jennifer; Prinz, Bernadette; Root, Katharina; Chen, Fan; Bloch, Joël S.; Zenobi, Renato; Locher, Kaspar P.

    2016-07-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) requires capture of transcobalamin (TC) from the plasma by CD320, a ubiquitous cell surface receptor of the LDLR family. Here we present the crystal structure of human holo-TC in complex with the extracellular domain of CD320, visualizing the structural basis of the TC-CD320 interaction. The observed interaction chemistry can rationalize the high affinity of CD320 for TC and lack of haptocorrin binding. The in vitro affinity and complex stability of TC-CD320 were quantitated using a solid-phase binding assay and thermostability analysis. Stable complexes with TC were also observed for the disease-causing CD320ΔE88 mutant and for the isolated LDLR-A2 domain. We also determined the structure of the TC-CD320ΔE88 complex, which revealed only minor changes compared with the wild-type complex. Finally, we demonstrate significantly reduced in vitro affinity of TC for CD320 at low pH, recapitulating the proposed ligand release during the endocytic pathway.

  19. The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Golub, Victoria M

    2016-04-01

    Recently, cannabis has been suggested as a potential alternative therapy for refractory epilepsy, which affects 30% of epilepsy, both adults and children, who do not respond to current medications. There is a large unmet medical need for new antiepileptics that would not interfere with normal function in patients with refractory epilepsy and conditions associated with refractory seizures. The two chief cannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahyrdrocannabinol, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana. Claims of clinical efficacy in epilepsy of CBD-predominant cannabis or medical marijuana come mostly from limited studies, surveys, or case reports. However, the mechanisms underlying the antiepileptic efficacy of cannabis remain unclear. This article highlights the pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy, with an emphasis on the endocannabinoid mechanisms underlying the emerging neurotherapeutics of CBD in epilepsy. CBD is anticonvulsant, but it has a low affinity for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2; therefore the exact mechanism by which it affects seizures remains poorly understood. A rigorous clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical CBD products is needed to establish the safety and efficacy of their use in the treatment of epilepsy. Identification of mechanisms underlying the anticonvulsant efficacy of CBD is also critical for identifying other potential treatment options.

  20. Moral (or ethical education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds.

  1. Todd, Faraday, and the electrical basis of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward H

    2004-09-01

    Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60) was the UK's first eminent neurologist and neuroscientist. An anatomist, physiologist, and clinical scientist with an interest in the nervous system, he was the first to confirm the electrical basis of brain activity in the 1840s. He was influenced by his contemporary, Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution, and by two colleagues at King's College, John Daniell and Charles Wheatstone, who were also working at the cutting edge of electrical science. Todd conceived of nervous polarity (force) generated in nervous centres and compared this with the polar force of voltaic electricity developed in the galvanic battery. He brilliantly foresaw each nerve vesicle (cell) and its related fibres (ie, neuron) as a distinct apparatus for the development and transmission of nervous polarity. Epilepsy was the result of periodic unnatural development of nervous force leading to the "disruptive discharge" described by Faraday. Faraday, who studied animal electricity in the Gymnotus (electric eel), and Todd saw nervous polarity as a higher form of interchangeable energy.

  2. Structural basis for biosynthetic programming of fungal aromatic polyketide cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jason M; Korman, Tyler P; Labonte, Jason W; Vagstad, Anna L; Hill, Eric A; Kamari-Bidkorpeh, Oliver; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Townsend, Craig A

    2009-10-22

    Polyketides are a class of natural products with diverse structures and biological activities. The structural variability of aromatic products of fungal nonreducing, multidomain iterative polyketide synthases (NR-PKS group of IPKSs) results from regiospecific cyclizations of reactive poly-beta-keto intermediates. How poly-beta-keto species are synthesized and stabilized, how their chain lengths are determined, and, in particular, how specific cyclization patterns are controlled have been largely inaccessible and functionally unknown until recently. A product template (PT) domain is responsible for controlling specific aldol cyclization and aromatization of these mature polyketide precursors, but the mechanistic basis is unknown. Here we present the 1.8 A crystal structure and mutational studies of a dissected PT monodomain from PksA, the NR-PKS that initiates the biosynthesis of the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B(1) in Aspergillus parasiticus. Despite having minimal sequence similarity to known enzymes, the structure displays a distinct 'double hot dog' (DHD) fold. Co-crystal structures with palmitate or a bicyclic substrate mimic illustrate that PT can bind both linear and bicyclic polyketides. Docking and mutagenesis studies reveal residues important for substrate binding and catalysis, and identify a phosphopantetheine localization channel and a deep two-part interior binding pocket and reaction chamber. Sequence similarity and extensive conservation of active site residues in PT domains suggest that the mechanistic insights gleaned from these studies will prove general for this class of IPKSs, and lay a foundation for defining the molecular rules controlling NR-PKS cyclization specificity.

  3. Radial basis function networks GPU-based implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Andreas; Artusi, Alessandro

    2008-12-01

    Neural networks (NNs) have been used in several areas, showing their potential but also their limitations. One of the main limitations is the long time required for the training process; this is not useful in the case of a fast training process being required to respond to changes in the application domain. A possible way to accelerate the learning process of an NN is to implement it in hardware, but due to the high cost and the reduced flexibility of the original central processing unit (CPU) implementation, this solution is often not chosen. Recently, the power of the graphic processing unit (GPU), on the market, has increased and it has started to be used in many applications. In particular, a kind of NN named radial basis function network (RBFN) has been used extensively, proving its power. However, their limiting time performances reduce their application in many areas. In this brief paper, we describe a GPU implementation of the entire learning process of an RBFN showing the ability to reduce the computational cost by about two orders of magnitude with respect to its CPU implementation.

  4. Genetic Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Liquid Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Gro Rejkjær Sørensen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm-forming microorganisms switch between two forms: free-living planktonic and sessile multicellular. Sessile communities of yeast biofilms in liquid medium provide a primitive example of multicellularity and are clinically important because biofilms tend to have other growth characteristics...... than free-living cells. We investigated the genetic basis for yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biofilm on solid surfaces in liquid medium by screening a comprehensive deletion mutant collection in the S1278b background and found 71 genes that were essential for biofilm development. Quantitative...... northern blots further revealed that AIM1, ASG1, AVT1, DRN1, ELP4, FLO8, FMP10, HMT1, KAR5, MIT1, MRPL32, MSS11, NCP1, NPR1, PEP5, PEX25, RIM8, RIM101, RGT1, SNF8, SPC2, STB6, STP22, TEC1, VID24, VPS20, VTC3, YBL029W, YBL029C-A, YFL054C, YGR161W-C, YIL014C-A, YIR024C, YKL151C, YNL200C, YOR034C-A, and YOR...

  5. Basis Set Requirements for Sulfur Compounds in Density Functional Theory:  a Comparison between Correlation-Consistent, Polarized-Consistent, and Pople-Type Basis Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Pablo A

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the SX (X = first- or second-row atom), SO2, and SO3 molecules employing the correlation-consistent (cc), the recently developed polarization-consistent (pc), and three Pople-type basis sets, in conjunction with the B3LYP functional. The results confirmed that the aug-pc basis sets represent a great contribution in terms of cost-benefits. In the case of the B3LYP functional, when employing the aug-pc-3 and aug-pc-4 basis sets, it is possible to obtain results that are of aug-cc-pV(5+d)Z and aug-cc-pV(6+d)Z quality, respectively, at a much lower cost. The estimations obtained employing smaller members of the family are of nearly double-ζ quality and do not provide reliable results. There is no basis set of quadruple-ζ quality among the polarized-consistent basis sets, although in terms of composition, the aug-pc-3 basis set is a QZ basis set. A precise estimation of the Kohn-Sham complete basis set (CBS) limit with the aug-pc-X basis sets is too difficult for the B3LYP functional because the ∞(aug-pc-4, aug-pc-3, aug-pc-2) extrapolation gives the same results as those of the aug-pc-4 basis set. This is in contrast with the results observed for ab initio methodologies for which the largest basis sets provided the best estimation of the CBS limit. In our opinion, the closest results to the B3LYP/CBS limit are expected to be those obtained with a two-point extrapolation employing the aug-cc-pV(X+d)Z (X = 5, 6) basis sets. The results obtained with this extrapolation are very close to those predicted by the ∞(aug-pc-3, aug-pc-2, aug-pc-1) extrapolation, and that provides a cheaper but more inaccurate alternative to estimate the CBS limit. Minor problems were found for the aug-pc-X basis sets and the B3LYP functional for molecules in which sulfur is bound to a very electronegative element, such as SO, SF, SO2, and SO3. For these molecules, the cc basis sets were demonstrated to be more useful. The importance of tight d functions was observed

  6. Landslide stability analysis on basis of LIDAR data extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas M.; Dong, Mei; Azzam, Rafig

    2010-05-01

    Currently, existing contradictory between remediation and acquisition from natural resource induces a series of divergences. With regard to open pit mining, legal regulation requires human to fill back the open pit area with water or recreate new landscape by other materials; on the other hand, human can not help excavating the mining area due to the shortage of power resource. However, to engineering geologists, one coincident problem which takes place not only in filling but also in mining operation should be paid more attention to, i.e. the slope stability analysis within these areas. There are a number of construction activities during remediation or mining process which can directly or indirectly cause slope failure. Lives can be endangered since local failure either while or after remediation; for mining process, slope failure in a bench, which carries a main haul road or is adjacent to human activity area, would be significant catastrophe to the whole mining program. The stability of an individual bench or slope is controlled by several factors, which are geological condition, morphology, climate, excavation techniques and transportation approach. The task which takes the longest time is to collect the morphological data. Consequently, it is one of the most dangerous tasks due to the time consuming in mining field. LIDAR scanning for morphological data collecting can help to skip this obstacle since advantages of LIDAR techniques as follows: • Dynamic range available on the market: from 3 m to beyond 1 km, • Ruggedly designed for demanding field applications, • Compact, easily hand-carried and deployed by a single operator. In 2009, scanning campaigns for 2 open pit quarry have been carried out. The aim for these LIDAR detections is to construct a detailed 3D quarry model and analyze the bench stability to support the filling planning. The 3D quarry surface was built up by using PolyWorks 10.1 on basis of LIDAR data. LIDAR data refining takes an

  7. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the

  8. Structural basis of protein oxidation resistance: a lysozyme study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Girod

    Full Text Available Accumulation of oxidative damage in proteins correlates with aging since it can cause irreversible and progressive degeneration of almost all cellular functions. Apparently, native protein structures have evolved intrinsic resistance to oxidation since perfectly folded proteins are, by large most robust. Here we explore the structural basis of protein resistance to radiation-induced oxidation using chicken egg white lysozyme in the native and misfolded form. We study the differential resistance to oxidative damage of six different parts of native and misfolded lysozyme by a targeted tandem/mass spectrometry approach of its tryptic fragments. The decay of the amount of each lysozyme fragment with increasing radiation dose is found to be a two steps process, characterized by a double exponential evolution of their amounts: the first one can be largely attributed to oxidation of specific amino acids, while the second one corresponds to further degradation of the protein. By correlating these results to the structural parameters computed from molecular dynamics (MD simulations, we find the protein parts with increased root-mean-square deviation (RMSD to be more susceptible to modifications. In addition, involvement of amino acid side-chains in hydrogen bonds has a protective effect against oxidation Increased exposure to solvent of individual amino acid side chains correlates with high susceptibility to oxidative and other modifications like side chain fragmentation. Generally, while none of the structural parameters alone can account for the fate of peptides during radiation, together they provide an insight into the relationship between protein structure and susceptibility to oxidation.

  9. Cellular basis for the olfactory response to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Bruce; Xu, Jiang; Audige, Valery; Lischka, Fritz W; Rawson, Nancy E

    2010-03-17

    Smokers regulate their smoking behavior on the basis of sensory stimuli independently of the pharmacological effects of nicotine (Rose J. E., et al. (1993) Pharmacol., Biochem. Behav.44 (4), 891-900). A better understanding of sensory mechanisms underlying smoking behavior may help to develop more effective smoking alternatives. Olfactory stimulation by nicotine makes up a considerable part of the flavor of tobacco smoke, yet our understanding of the cellular mechanisms responsible for olfactory detection of nicotine remains incomplete. We used biophysical methods to characterize the nicotine sensitivity and response mechanisms of neurons from olfactory epithelium. In view of substantial differences in the olfactory receptor repertoire between rodent and human (Mombaerts P. (1999) Annu. Rev. Neurosci.22, 487-509), we studied biopsied human olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), cultured human olfactory cells (Gomez G., et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. Res.62 (5), 737-749), and rat olfactory neurons. Rat and human OSNs responded to S(-)-nicotine with a concentration dependent influx of calcium and activation of adenylate cyclase. Some rat OSNs displayed some stereoselectivity, with neurons responding to either enantiomer alone or to both. Freshly biopsied and primary cultured human olfactory neurons were less stereoselective. Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists had no effect on the responses of rat or human OSNs to nicotine. Patch clamp recording of rat OSNs revealed a nicotine-activated, calcium-sensitive nonspecific cation channel. These results indicate that nicotine activates a canonical olfactory receptor pathway rather than nicotinic cholinergic receptors on OSNs. Further, because the nicotine-sensitive mechanisms of rodents appear generally similar to those of humans, this animal model is an appropriate one for studies of nicotine sensation.

  10. Technical basis for staffing levels at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Morisseau, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to provide a technical basis for the establishment of criteria for minimum staffing levels of licensed and non-licensed NPP shift personnel. Minimum staffing levels for the purpose of this study, are defined as those necessary for successful accomplishment of all safety and additional functions that must be performed in order for the licensee to meet applicable regulatory requirements. This project involves a multi-faceted approach to the investigation of the issue. Relevant NRC documentation was identified and reviewed. Using the information obtained from this documentation review, a test plan was developed to aid in the collection of further information regarding the adequacy of current shift staffing levels. The test plan addresses three different activities to be conducted to provide information to the NRC for use in the assessment of current minimum staffing levels. The first activity is collection of data related to industry shift staffing practices through site visits to seven nuclear power plants. The second activity is a simulator study, which will use licensed operator crews responding to a simulated event, under two different staffing levels. Finally, workload models will be constructed for both licensed and non-licensed personnel, using a priori knowledge of the simulator scenarios with data resulting from one of the staffing levels studied in the simulator, and the data collected from the site visits. The model will then be validated against the data obtained from the second staffing level studied in the simulator. The validated model can then be used to study the impact of changing staffing-related variables on the plant shift crew`s ability to effectively mitigate an event.

  11. Klasifikasi Pertumbuhan, Sektor Basis dan Kompetitif Kota Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusral Yusral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the classification of economic growth in the city of Jambi, base and non-base sectors in the economy of the city of Jambi, Competitive sectors in the economy of the city of Jambi and to determine the leading sectors in Jambi city.The results showed that based on the analysis tipology Klassen, there are three (3 sectors forward and grow exponentially (quadrant I, namely manufacturing industry, trade sector, hotel and restaurant as well as transport and communication sectors.           During the period 2000-2012 the leading sectors in the city of Jambi based analysis of location Quetiont (LQ there are as many as seven sectors, namely Manufacturing (LQ = 1.37, sector Electricity, Gas and Water (LQ = 3.25, Construction sector (LQ = 1.61, the sector of Trade, Hotels and Restaurants (LQ = 1.38, transport and communications sector (LQ = 2.52, Financial sector, Leasing & Business Services (LQ = 1.76 Offices and Services sector (LQ = 1.44. Based Shift Share Analysis for the period 2000-2012, the sectors that possess proporsioal growth component value (P positive namely Mining and Quarrying sector, sectors Electricity Gas and Water, Building sector, the hotel and restaurant trade sector, as well as the financial sector, leasing and services company. Sectors which show the value of diffrential Shift (D is positive Manufacturing sector, trade sector, hotel and restaurant as well as transport and communications sectors. Based on a combined analysis of three tools of analysis shows that the sector is the dominant sector in the sector that belong criteria developed and grown by leaps and bounds, and competitive sector basis is the sector of Trade, Hotels and Restaurants.

  12. Klasifikasi Pertumbuhan, Sektor Basis dan Kompetitif Kota Jambi

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    Yusral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the classification of economic growth in the city of Jambi, base and non-base sectors in the economy of the city of Jambi, Competitive sectors in the economy of the city of Jambi and to determine the leading sectors in Jambi city.The results showed that based on the analysis tipology Klassen, there are three (3 sectors forward and grow exponentially (quadrant I, namely manufacturing industry, trade sector, hotel and restaurant as well as transport and communication sectors. During the period 2000-2012 the leading sectors in the city of Jambi based analysis of location Quetiont (LQ there are as many as seven sectors, namely Manufacturing (LQ = 1.37, sector Electricity, Gas and Water (LQ = 3.25, Construction sector (LQ = 1.61, the sector of Trade, Hotels and Restaurants (LQ = 1.38, transport and communications sector (LQ = 2.52, Financial sector, Leasing & Business Services (LQ = 1.76 Offices and Services sector (LQ = 1.44. Based Shift Share Analysis for the period 2000-2012, the sectors that possess proporsioal growth component value (P positive namely Mining and Quarrying sector, sectors Electricity Gas and Water, Building sector, the hotel and restaurant trade sector, as well as the financial sector, leasing and services company. Sectors which show the value of diffrential Shift (D is positive Manufacturing sector, trade sector, hotel and restaurant as well as transport and communications sectors. Based on a combined analysis of three tools of analysis shows that the sector is the dominant sector in the sector that belong criteria developed and grown by leaps and bounds, and competitive sector basis is the sector of Trade, Hotels and Restaurants.

  13. The Perceptual Basis of Some Rules of Thumb in Photography

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    Martin S. Banks

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We communicate increasingly with visual imagery such as realistic pictures (e.g., photographs, computer graphic images, perspective drawings and paintings. People are readily able to interpret pictures, but the means by which they do so is poorly understood. Photographers utilize many guidelines for creating natural-looking pictures. One guideline concerns the lens focal length required to produce pictures that are not spatially distorted. Photography texts recommend choosing a focal length of 50mm. There are two phenomena related to this guideline. One is perceived spatial distortions in wide-angle (short focal length pictures. I will argue that the perceived distortions are caused by the perceptual mechanisms people employ to take into account oblique viewing positions. The second phenomenon is perceived depth in pictures taken with different focal lengths. The textbooks argue that pictures taken with short focal lengths expand perceived depth and those taken with long focal lengths compress it. I will argue that these effects are due to a combination of the viewing geometry and peoples' viewing. Another guideline concerns the camera aperture and depth-of-field blur. Photography textbooks do not describe a quantitative rule and treat the magnitude of depth-of-field blur as arbitrary. I examine apertures, lenses, and image formation. From that examination, I argue that there is a natural relationship between depth-of-field blur and the 3D layout of the photographed scene. Human viewers are sensitive to this relationship. In particular, depicted scenes are perceived differently depending on the relationship between blur and 3D layout. Understanding the perceptual basis of these guidelines provides insight into how to construct photographs, perspective paintings, and computer graphic images for more effective visual communication.

  14. The molecular basis of hereditary enamel defects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J T; Carrion, I A; Morris, C

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel.

  15. Molecular Basis of Chemokine CXCL5-Glycosaminoglycan Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepuru, Krishna Mohan; Nagarajan, Balaji; Desai, Umesh R; Rajarathnam, Krishna

    2016-09-23

    Chemokines, a large family of highly versatile small soluble proteins, play crucial roles in defining innate and adaptive immune responses by regulating the trafficking of leukocytes, and also play a key role in various aspects of human physiology. Chemokines share the characteristic feature of reversibly existing as monomers and dimers, and their functional response is intimately coupled to interaction with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Currently, nothing is known regarding the structural basis or molecular mechanisms underlying CXCL5-GAG interactions. To address this missing knowledge, we characterized the interaction of a panel of heparin oligosaccharides to CXCL5 using solution NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry, and molecular dynamics simulations. NMR studies indicated that the dimer is the high-affinity GAG binding ligand and that lysine residues from the N-loop, 40s turn, β3 strand, and C-terminal helix mediate binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry indicated a stoichiometry of two oligosaccharides per CXCL5 dimer. NMR-based structural models reveal that these residues form a contiguous surface within a monomer and, interestingly, that the GAG-binding domain overlaps with the receptor-binding domain, indicating that a GAG-bound chemokine cannot activate the receptor. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the roles of the individual lysines are not equivalent and that helical lysines play a more prominent role in determining binding geometry and affinity. Further, binding interactions and GAG geometry in CXCL5 are novel and distinctly different compared with the related chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8. We conclude that a finely tuned balance between the GAG-bound dimer and free soluble monomer regulates CXCL5-mediated receptor signaling and function.

  16. Biophilosophical basis for identifying the death of a person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrew; Shemie, Sam D

    2014-08-01

    The capacity for consciousness and self-awareness is uniquely synonymous with human life and personhood, and its absence is necessary and sufficient to identify that death has occurred. The presence of these functions is uniquely synonymous with human life. Ongoing organ function, response to infection, growth, wound healing, or the ability to sustain an unborn fetus do not alone constitute the unique experience of life and personhood. Death occurs after the loss of the ability to use oxygen by the brain, which occurs because of either raised intracranial pressure preventing any cerebral blood flow or, more commonly, the absence of systemic blood flow following abrupt or hypoxic circulatory cessation. The abrupt cessation of circulation leads to loss of consciousness and brain electrical activity; and when it becomes truly permanent and then irreversible, this becomes an operational definition of death. One must infer and decide that sufficient ischemic hypoxic injury has rendered the potential for reinstating any consciousness and brain stem function irreversibly lost. Progressive hypoxia that is seen in many patients after withdrawal of advanced physiologic support leads to apnea and then circulatory arrest. The outward sign of apnea that is then followed by circulatory arrest is the basis for inferring that irreversible loss of capacity for consciousness and self-awareness has occurred and that death can be identified has having occurred. The capacity for consciousness and self-awareness is the only irreplaceable emergent phenomenon—arising from physiologic function of the brain—that is necessary and sufficient to define the life of a person.

  17. Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)] is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20–25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.

  18. The neural basis of testable and non-testable beliefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon R Howlett

    Full Text Available Beliefs about the state of the world are an important influence on both normal behavior and psychopathology. However, understanding of the neural basis of belief processing remains incomplete, and several aspects of belief processing have only recently been explored. Specifically, different types of beliefs may involve fundamentally different inferential processes and thus recruit distinct brain regions. Additionally, neural processing of truth and falsity may differ from processing of certainty and uncertainty. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural underpinnings of assessment of testable and non-testable propositions in terms of truth or falsity and the level of certainty in a belief. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to study 14 adults while they rated propositions as true or false and also rated the level of certainty in their judgments. Each proposition was classified as testable or non-testable. Testable propositions activated the DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex, while non-testable statements activated areas including inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and an anterior region of the superior frontal gyrus. No areas were more active when a proposition was accepted, while the dorsal anterior cingulate was activated when a proposition was rejected. Regardless of whether a proposition was testable or not, certainty that the proposition was true or false activated a common network of regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, posterior cingulate, and a region of middle temporal gyrus near the temporo-parietal junction. Certainty in the truth or falsity of a non-testable proposition (a strong belief without empirical evidence activated the insula. The results suggest that different brain regions contribute to the assessment of propositions based on the type of content, while a common network may mediate the influence of beliefs on motivation and behavior based on the level of

  19. Neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype.

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    Junlong Luo

    Full Text Available A number of major inventions in history have been based on bionic imitation. Heuristics, by applying biological systems to the creation of artificial devices and machines, might be one of the most critical processes in scientific innovation. In particular, prototype heuristics propositions that innovation may engage automatic activation of a prototype such as a biological system to form novel associations between a prototype's function and problem-solving. We speculated that the cortical dissociation between the automatic activation and forming novel associations in innovation is critical point to heuristic creativity. In the present study, novel and old scientific innovations (NSI and OSI were selected as experimental materials in using learning-testing paradigm to explore the neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype. College students were required to resolve NSI problems (to which they did not know the answers and OSI problems (to which they knew the answers. From two fMRI experiments, our results showed that the subjects could resolve NSI when provided with heuristic prototypes. In Experiment 1, it was found that the lingual gyrus (LG; BA18 might be related to prototype heuristics in college students resolving NSI after learning a relative prototype. In Experiment 2, the LG (BA18 and precuneus (BA31 were significantly activated for NSI compared to OSI when college students learned all prototypes one day before the test. In addition, the mean beta-values of these brain regions of NSI were all correlated with the behavior accuracy of NSI. As our hypothesis indicated, the findings suggested that the LG might be involved in forming novel associations using heuristic information, while the precuneus might be involved in the automatic activation of heuristic prototype during scientific innovation.

  20. Accounting for charity care on a systemwide basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, T

    1988-06-01

    The Daughters of Charity National Health System (DCNHS), St. Louis, has developed a systemwide model which formally sets a policy statement, goals, and procedures that enable the 42 DCNHS health-care ministries to effectively serve the poor in their communities on a daily basis, while addressing the long-term challenges of providing charity care for the sick poor. One of the first steps was forming a task force known as the Working Group on Care of the Poor. Its goal was to set the stage for the expansion and accountability of charity care at every level within the new national system. The group outlined these objectives: To identify and recommend several advocacy models. To recommend test models of healthcare delivery for the poor. To recommend strategies for involving the private sector. To develop a method of documenting charity care. To recommend linkage models to jointly provide charity care with related organizations. To gain a firm knowledge of charity care actually provided by the Daughters of Charity After hours of discussions and research, the task force developed a cohesive, workable set of goals and policies that today is helping individual health-care ministries nationwide meet local needs for care of the sick poor. By identifying specific programs and determining how to report charity care in terms of money and services, individual health-care institutions gain insights into their annual operational planning and reporting for the present and the future. This approach ensures that charity care remains in the forefront at every level of planning.

  1. The inflammatory basis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, John D; Turton, James A

    2010-12-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is common in individuals with asthma, and may be observed even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis of asthma. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be diagnosed via standardized exercise protocols, and anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is often warranted. Exercise-related symptoms are commonly reported in primary care; however, access to standardized exercise protocols to assess EIB are often restricted because of the need for specialized equipment, as well as time constraints. Symptoms and lung function remain the most accessible indicators of EIB, yet these are poor predictors of its presence and severity. Evidence suggests that exercise causes the airways to narrow as a result of the osmotic and thermal consequences of respiratory water loss. The increase in airway osmolarity leads to the release of bronchoconstricting mediators (eg, histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes) from inflammatory cells (eg, mast cells and eosinophils). The objective assessment of EIB suggests the presence of airway inflammation, which is sensitive to ICS in association with a responsive airway smooth muscle. Surrogate tests for EIB, such as eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea or the osmotic challenge tests, cause airway narrowing via a similar mechanism, and a response indicates likely benefit from ICS therapy. The complete inhibition of EIB with ICS therapy in individuals with asthma may be a useful marker of control of airway pathology. Furthermore, inhibition of EIB provides additional, useful information regarding the identification of clinical control based on symptoms and lung function. This article explores the inflammatory basis of EIB in asthma as well as the effect of ICS on the pathophysiology of EIB.

  2. Mechanistic basis for overcoming platinum resistance using copper chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zheng D; Long, Yan; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Fu, Siqing; Kurzrock, Razelle; Gagea-Iurascu, Mihai; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Helen H W; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Savaraj, Niramol; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2012-11-01

    Platinum-based antitumor agents are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle to the successful use of these agents because once drug resistance develops, other effective treatment options are limited. Recently, we conducted a clinical trial using a copper-lowering agent to overcome platinum drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients and the preliminary results are encouraging. In supporting this clinical study, using three pairs of cisplatin (cDDP)-resistant cell lines and two ovarian cancer cell lines derived from patients who had failed in platinum-based chemotherapy, we showed that cDDP resistance associated with reduced expression of the high-affinity copper transporter (hCtr1), which is also a cDDP transporter, can be preferentially resensitized by copper-lowering agents because of enhanced hCtr1 expression, as compared with their drug-sensitive counterparts. Such a preferential induction of hCtr1 expression in cDDP-resistant variants by copper chelation can be explained by the mammalian copper homeostasis regulatory mechanism. Enhanced cell-killing efficacy by a copper-lowering agent was also observed in animal xenografts bearing cDDP-resistant cells. Finally, by analyzing a public gene expression dataset, we found that ovarian cancer patients with elevated levels of hCtr1 in their tumors, but not ATP7A and ATP7B, had more favorable outcomes after platinum drug treatment than those expressing low hCtr1 levels. This study reveals the mechanistic basis for using copper chelation to overcome cDDP resistance in clinical investigations.

  3. Design of financial results on the basis of factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sidorov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Approaches are presented in the article, qualificatory the design of financial results on the basis of factor analysis. Connection marks between development of enterprises and scientific and technical progress. It is shown that potential of enterprises can be based on the design of financial results. Actuality of this direction of research marks on a background the entered approvals against Russia. A control role is indicated at the effective use of resources. It is well-proven that a key moment in forming of profit of enterprise is a design of financial results. A factor analysis is reasonable at the estimation of activity of organization, which exposed an application of this determined model domain. is sent to capital augmentation. The role of the financial system and separate elements is shown in to financially-economic activity. Connection is set between a design and structure of the investigated object. A design cannot come true without determination of structure of the investigated object, because a structure characterizes steady connections between elements. The components of elements are able in totality to counteract to external influences. For expansion of the system to distinguish the most meaningful factors. To distinguish integrating connections from appropriate. Distinguished, that factors due to co-operating with each other can create a synergistically or extinguishing effect or neutralize each other. Factors will organize or will disorganize work of organization. The design of objects is built on the certain terms, and separate parties of object are examined at abandonment from the less meaningful elements of the system. The role of empiric and theoretical level of research in the design of activity of organization is shown. An author suggested to use the determined model for determination of functional connections between a resulting index and factor signs. Exposed an application of this determined model domain.

  4. STRUCTURE FORMATION OF ALLOYS ON IRON BASIS AFTER LASER ALLOYING

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    О. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigations on influence of laser treatment regimes of gas-thermal and adhesive coatings from self-fluxing powders on iron basis and after melting with modifying plaster on their roughness and phase composition. One of mathematical planning methods that is a complete factor experiment method has been used for investigation of parameters’ influence on micro-geometry of coatings. The executed investigations have made it possible to observe a general regularity which does not depend on a type of alloying plaster: while increasing speed of laser beam relatively to treated part, beam diameter value of Ra parameter is becoming less. Decrease in height of surface irregularities in case of increasing laser beam speed is related with intensification of evaporation processes. An increase in beam diameter diminishes Ra parameter of the surface. This is due to the fact that decrease in power density occurs at high rate of beam defocusing. Overlapping coefficient does not exert a pronounced effect on Ra parameter of fused coatings. While increasing the speed of laser beam relatively to the part structure is transferred from dendrite into supersaturated one with carbide and boride precipitations. It has been established that technological parameters of laser treatment and particularly speed of laser beam influence on coating composition. While increasing the speed up to v5 = 5 × 10–3 m/s amount of chromium has become larger by 1.5-fold that resulted in increase of micro-hardness of the coating from 9.5–10.1 GPa up to 11.04–15.50 GPa.

  5. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin

  6. Estimation of spatiotemporal neural activity using radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W; Das, S; Keller, E L

    1998-12-01

    We report a method using radial basis function (RBF) networks to estimate the time evolution of population activity in topologically organized neural structures from single-neuron recordings. This is an important problem in neuroscience research, as such estimates may provide insights into systems-level function of these structures. Since single-unit neural data tends to be unevenly sampled and highly variable under similar behavioral conditions, obtaining such estimates is a difficult task. In particular, a class of cells in the superior colliculus called buildup neurons can have very narrow regions of saccade vectors for which they discharge at high rates but very large surround regions over which they discharge at low, but not zero, levels. Estimating the dynamic movement fields for these cells for two spatial dimensions at closely spaced timed intervals is a difficult problem, and no general method has been described that can be applied to all buildup cells. Estimation of individual collicular cells' spatiotemporal movement fields is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable two-dimensional estimates of the population activity on the collicular motor map during saccades. Therefore, we have developed several computational-geometry-based algorithms that regularize the data before computing a surface estimation using RBF networks. The method is then expanded to the problem of estimating simultaneous spatiotemporal activity occurring across the superior colliculus during a single movement (the inverse problem). In principle, this methodology could be applied to any neural structure with a regular, two-dimensional organization, provided a sufficient spatial distribution of sampled neurons is available.

  7. A Developmental Basis for Stochasticity in Floral Organ Numbers

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    Miho S Kitazawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stochasticity ubiquitously inevitably appears at all levels from molecular traits to multicellular, morphological traits. Intrinsic stochasticity in biochemical reactions underlies the typical intercellular distributions of chemical concentrations, e.g., morphogen gradients, which can give rise to stochastic morphogenesis. While the universal statistics and mechanisms underlying the stochasticity at the biochemical level have been widely analyzed, those at the morphological level have not. Such morphological stochasticity is found in foral organ numbers: Although the floral organ number is a hallmark of floral species, it can distribute stochastically even within an individual plant. The probability distribution of the floral organ number within a population is usually asymmetric, i.e., it is more likely to increase rather than decrease from the modal value, or vice versa. We combined field observations, statistical analysis, and mathematical modeling to study the developmental basis of the variation in floral organ numbers among 49 species mainly from Ranunculaceae and several other families from core eudicots. We compared six hypothetical mechanisms and found that a modified error function reproduced much of the asymmetric variation found in eudicot floral organ numbers. The error function is derived from mathematical modeling of floral organ positioning, and its parameters represent measurable distances in the floral bud morphologies. The model predicts two developmental sources of the organ-number distributions: stochastic shifts in the expression boundaries of homeotic genes and a semi-concentric (whorled-type organ arrangement. Other models species- or organ-specifically reproduced different types of distributions that reflect different developmental processes. The organ number variations could be an indicator of the inherent stochasticity in both the expression domain of homeotic genes and the organ positioning.

  8. The genetic basis of hair whorl, handedness, and other phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence is presented that RHO, RHCE, and other RH genes, may be interesting candidates to consider when searching for the genetic basis of hair whorl rotation (i.e., clockwise or counterclockwise), handedness (i.e., right handed, left handed or ambidextrous), speech laterality (i.e., right brained or left brained), speech dyslexia (e.g., stuttering), sexual orientation (i.e., heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or transsexual), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. Such evidence involves the need for a genetic model that includes maternal immunization to explain some of the empirical results reported in the literature. The complex polymorphisms present among the maternally immunizing RH genes can then be used to explain other empirical results. Easily tested hypotheses are suggested, based upon genotypic (but not phenotypic) frequencies of the RH genes. In particular, homozygous dominant individuals are expected to be less common or lacking entirely among the alternative phenotypes. If it is proven that RH genes are involved in brain architecture, it will have a profound effect upon our understanding of the development and organization of the asymmetrical vertebrate brain and may eventually lead to a better understanding of the developmental processes which occur to produce the various alternative phenotypes discussed here. In addition, if RH genes are shown to be involved in the production of these phenotypes, then the evolutionary studies can be performed to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the recessive alleles of RHO and RHCE, and why human evolution appears to be selecting for the recessive alleles even though an increase in the frequency of such alleles may imply lower average fecundity among some individuals possessing them.

  9. Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.

    2013-07-01

    A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)], 10.1063/1.1482156 is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20-25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.

  10. Stereotactic radiotherapy in the liver hilum. Basis for future studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, C.; Messmer, M.B.; Momm, F. [Univ. Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Becker, G. [Univ. Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

    2012-01-15

    A basis for future trials with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for tumors of the liver hilum should be established. Thus, dosage concepts, planning processes, and dose constraints as well as technical innovations are summarized in this contribution. Methods On the background of our own data, the current literature was reviewed. The use of SBRT in the most common tumors of the liver hilum (pancreatic cancer and Klatskin tumors) was investigated. Dose constraints were calculated in 2 Gy standard fractionation doses. Results A total of 8 pilot or phase I/II studies about SBRT in the liver hilum were identified. In recent years, the SBRT technique has developed very quickly from classical stereotactic body frame radiotherapy to IGRT techniques including gating and tracking systems. In the studies using classical body frame technique, patients experienced considerable toxicities (duodenal ulcer/perforation) as compared to tolerable side effects in IGRT studies (<10% grade 3 and 4 toxicities). Dose constraints for duodenum, liver, kidneys, colon, and spinal cord were derived from the investigated studies. Survival and local tumor control data are very heterogeneous: median survival in these patients with locally advanced pancreatic or Klatskin tumors ranges between 5 and 32 months. Excellent local tumor control rates of about 80% over 24 months were achieved using SBRT. Conclusion Despite a few negative results, SBRT seems to be a promising technique in the treatment of tumors of the liver hilum. Highest precision in diagnostics, positioning, and irradiation as well as strict dose constraints should be applied to keep target volumes as small as possible and side effects tolerable. (orig.)

  11. The Molecular Basis of Hereditary Enamel Defects in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, I.A.; Morris, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel. PMID:25389004

  12. 40 years of Porsche turbo engines. The basis for future innovations; 40 Jahre Porsche Turbomotoren. Basis fuer zukuenftige Innovationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Kerkau, Martin; Schwarzenthal, Dietmar; Hemmerlein, Norbert [Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Porsche has been developing turbocharged gasoline engines for road and race vehicles for more than 40 years. Many significant innovations in turbocharging technology have been realised in the development history of the 911 Turbo in particular. With its downsizing concept, this engine remains synonymous with high performance in combination with incomparable fuel efficiency among high performance cars. The basis for future engine concepts with reduced fuel consumption lies in a combination of turbocharging with a reduction in engine displacement and number of cylinders. All necessary and innovative technologies such as Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG), Direct Fuel Injection (DFI) and the variable valve timing system VarioCam Plus {sup registered} are already realised in Porsche production engines and impressively demonstrate the potential of modern turbo engines. The light TiAl turbine wheel that will be implemented in the Porsche Panamera represents the latest innovation for further improvement in the throttle response. This set of technologies makes it possible to solve the conflict of goals between high performance and low fuel consumption. (orig.)

  13. Speckle reduction of SAR images using ICA basis enhancement and separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutong Li; Yue zhou

    2007-01-01

    @@ An approach for synthetic aperture radax (SAR) image de-noising based on independent component analysis (ICA) basis images is proposed. Firstly, the basis images and the code matrix of the original image are obtained using ICA algorithm. Then, pointwise H(o)lder exponent of each basis is computed as a cost criterion for basis enhancement, and then the enhanced basis images are classified into two sets according to a separation rule which separates the clean basis from the original basis. After these key procedures for speckle reduction, the clean image is finally obtained by reconstruction on the clean basis and original code matrix. The reconstructed image shows better visual perception and image quality compared with those obtained by other traditional techniques.

  14. On the use of the Discrete Variable Representation Basis in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgac, Aurel

    2013-01-01

    The discrete variable representation (DVR) basis is nearly optimal for numerically representing wave functions in nuclear physics: Suitable problems enjoy exponential convergence, yet the Hamiltonian remains sparse. We show that one can often use smaller basis sets than with the traditional harmonic oscillator basis, and still benefit from the simple analytic properties of the DVR basis which requires no overlap integrals, simply permit using various Jacobi coordinates, and admit straightforward analyses of the UV and IR convergence properties.

  15. A pharmacological basis of herbal medicines for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, Nikolaus J; Carles, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease, affecting about 1% of the world's population during their lifetime. Most people with epilepsy can attain a seizure-free life upon treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Unfortunately, seizures in up to 30% do not respond to treatment. It is estimated that 90% of people with epilepsy live in developing countries, and most of them receive no drug treatment for the disease. This treatment gap has motivated investigations into the effects of plants that have been used by traditional healers all over the world to treat seizures. Extracts of hundreds of plants have been shown to exhibit anticonvulsant activity in phenotypic screens performed in experimental animals. Some of those extracts appear to exhibit anticonvulsant efficacy similar to that of synthetic AEDs. Dozens of plant-derived chemical compounds have similarly been shown to act as anticonvulsants in various in vivo and in vitro assays. To a significant degree, anticonvulsant effects of plant extracts can be attributed to widely distributed flavonoids, (furano)coumarins, phenylpropanoids, and terpenoids. Flavonoids and coumarins have been shown to interact with the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor and various voltage-gated ion channels, which are targets of synthetic AEDs. Modulation of the activity of ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels provides an explanatory basis of the anticonvulsant effects of plant secondary metabolites. Many complex extracts and single plant-derived compounds exhibit antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, and cognition-enhancing activities that may be beneficial in the treatment of epilepsy. Thus, botanicals provide a base for target-oriented antiepileptic drug discovery and development. In the future, preclinical work should focus on the characterization of the effects of plant extracts and plant-derived compounds on well-defined targets rather than on phenotypic screening using in vivo animal models of acute

  16. Technological Basis and Scientific Returns for Absolutely Accurate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2006 NRC Decadal Survey fostered a new appreciation for societal objectives as a driving motivation for Earth science. Many high-priority societal objectives are dependent on predictions of weather and climate. These predictions are based on numerical models, which derive from approximate representations of well-founded physics and chemistry on space and timescales appropriate to global and regional prediction. These laws of chemistry and physics in turn have a well-defined quantitative relationship with physical measurement units, provided these measurement units are linked to international measurement standards that are the foundation of contemporary measurement science and standards for engineering and commerce. Without this linkage, measurements have an ambiguous relationship to scientific principles that introduces avoidable uncertainty in analyses, predictions, and improved understanding of the Earth system. Since the improvement of climate and weather prediction is fundamentally dependent on the improvement of the representation of physical processes, measurement systems that reduce the ambiguity between physical truth and observations represent an essential component of a national strategy for understanding and living with the Earth system. This paper examines the technological basis and potential science returns of sensors that make measurements that are quantitatively tied on-orbit to international measurement standards, and thus testable to systematic errors. This measurement strategy provides several distinct benefits. First, because of the quantitative relationship between these international measurement standards and fundamental physical constants, measurements of this type accurately capture the true physical and chemical behavior of the climate system and are not subject to adjustment due to excluded measurement physics or instrumental artifacts. In addition, such measurements can be reproduced by scientists anywhere in the world, at any time

  17. Generalization of the possible algebraic basis of q-triplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2017-02-01

    The so called q-triplets were conjectured in 2004 [C. Tsallis, Physica A 340, 1 (2004)] and then found in nature in 2005 [L.F. Burlaga, A.F. Vinas, Physica A 356, 375 (2005)]. A relevant further step was achieved in 2005 [C. Tsallis, M. Gell-Mann, Y. Sato, PNAS 102, 15377 (2005)] when the possibility was advanced that they could reflect an entire infinite algebra based on combinations of the self-dual relations q → 2 - q (additive duality) and q → 1/q (multiplicative duality). The entire algebra collapses into the single fixed point q = 1, corresponding to the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics. For q ≠ 1, an infinite set of indices q appears, corresponding in principle to an infinite number of physical properties of a given complex system describable in terms of the so called q-statistics. The basic idea that is put forward is that, for a given universality class of systems, a small number (typically one or two) of independent q indices exist, the infinite others being obtained from these few ones by simply using the relations of the algebra. The q-triplets appear to constitute a few central elements of the algebra. During the last decade, an impressive amount of q-triplets have been exhibited in analytical, computational, experimental and observational results in natural, artificial and social systems. Some of them do satisfy the available algebra constructed solely with the additive and multiplicative dualities, but some others seem to violate it. In the present work we generalize those two dualities with the hope that a wider set of systems can be handled within. The basis of the generalization is given by the selfdual relation q → qa(q) ≡ ((a+2)-aq) / (a-(a-2)q) (a ∈ R). We verify that qa(1) = 1, and that q2(q) = 2 - q and q0(q) = 1/q. To physically motivate this generalization, we briefly review illustrative applications of q-statistics, in order to exhibit possible candidates where the present generalized algebras could be useful.

  18. Emerging insights into the genetic basis of canine hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginja M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mário Ginja,1 Ana Rita Gaspar,1 Catarina Ginja,2,3 1Department of Veterinary Sciences-CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal; 2Ce3C – Centro de Ecologia, Evolução e Alterações Ambientais, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal; 3CIBIO-InBIO – Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Vairão, Portugal Abstract: Canine hip dysplasia (CHD is the most common inherited polygenic orthopedic trait in dogs with the phenotype influenced also by environmental factors. This trait was described in the dog in 1935 and leads to a debilitating secondary hip osteoarthritis. The diagnosis is confirmed radiographically by evaluating signs of degenerative joint disease, incongruence, and/or passive hip joint laxity. There is no ideal medical or surgical treatment so prevention based on controlled breeding is the optimal approach. The definitive CHD diagnosis based on radiographic examination involves the exposure to ionizing radiation under general anesthesia or heavy sedation but the image does not reveal the underlying genetic quality of the dog. Phenotypic expression of CHD is modified by environmental factors and dogs with a normal phenotype can be carriers of some mutations and transmit these genes to their offspring. Programs based on selection of dogs with better individual phenotypes for breeding are effective when strictly applied but remain inferior to the selection of dogs based on estimation of breeding values. Molecular studies for dissecting the genetic basis of CHD are ongoing, but progress has been slow. In the future, the recommended method to improve hip quality in controlled breeding schemes, which will allow higher selection pressure, would be based on the estimation of the genomic breeding value. Since 2012, a commercial DNA test has been available for Labrador Retrievers using a blood sample and provides a probability for

  19. A new paradigm for the molecular basis of rubber elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, David E.; Barber, John L.

    2015-07-01

    The molecular basis for rubber elasticity is arguably the oldest and one of the most important questions in the field of polymer physics. The theoretical investigation of rubber elasticity began in earnest almost a century ago with the development of analytic thermodynamic models, based on simple, highly-symmetric configurations of so-called Gaussian chains, i.e. polymer chains that obey Markov statistics. Numerous theories have been proposed over the past 90 years based on the ansatz that the elastic force for individual network chains arises from the entropy change associated with the distribution of end-to-end distances of a free polymer chain. There are serious conceptual objections to this assumption and others, such as the assumption that all network nodes undergo a simple volume-preserving linear motion and that all of the network chains have the same length. Recently, a new paradigm for elasticity in rubber networks has been proposed that is based on mechanisms that originate at the molecular level. Using conventional statistical mechanics analyses, Quantum Chemistry, and Molecular Dynamics simulations, the fundamental entropic and enthalpic chain extension forces for polyisoprene (natural rubber) have been determined, along with estimates for the basic force constants. Concurrently, the complex morphology of natural rubber networks (the joint probability density distributions that relate the chain end-to-end distance to its contour length) has also been captured in a numerical model (EPnet). When molecular chain forces are merged with the network structure in this model, it is possible to study the mechanical response to tensile and compressive strains of a representative volume element of a polymer network. As strain is imposed on a network, pathways of connected taut chains, that completely span the network along strain axis, emerge. Although these chains represent only a few percent of the total, they account for nearly all of the elastic stress at high

  20. Levinas's ethics as a basis of healthcare - challenges and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtug, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use